NCERT CBSE Standard 12 Organic compounds containing Nitrogen Organic Chemistry Chapter 13 Amines

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Download the following FREE pdf e-Books ( Chapter wise / Topic wise solutions, Written by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore )

IIT-JEE, NCERT / CBSE, I.Sc., PU, Board exam, EAMCET, BITS Chemistry Books with lots of Examples ( Free pdf download of Chemistry Books, Chapter wise / Topic wise Questions and Solutions )

8 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide-Stoichiometry Titration by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Stoichiometry Titration ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide-Stoichiometry Titration by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE  IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Stoichiometry Titrations, Heating effects in several salts, colours or colors of the precipitates, Empirical formulae calculation, Limiting reagents, Titration examples, Equivalent weight, milli-equivalent weight, What mass or moles is reacting with how much ? How much is oxidised ? How much is Reduced ? Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Stoichiometry Titration by Prof. Subhashish

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7 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide-Redox Reactions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Redox Reactions ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide-Redox Reactions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers more than 60 examples of Redox Reactions, Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Redox Reactions by Prof. Subhashish

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6 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide-Electrochemistry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Electrochemistry ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide-Electrochemistry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Electrochemistry, Oxidation Potential, Reduction Potential, Electrode Potential, Reactivity Series, Battery, Nernst Equation, Variation of Voltage with concentration, Electrolyte, Electrolysis, Salt Bridge, Daniel Cell, Primary Cell, Secondary Cell, Galvanic Cell, Electrolytic Cell, Conductivity, Kohlrausch’s Law and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-ElectroChemistry by Prof. Subhashish

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5 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide-Reduction Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Reduction Methods ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide-Reduction Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE  COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Various kinds of Reduction Methods in Organic Chemistry. Covers Gilmann’s Reagent, Grignard Reagent, Trimethyl Silyl Iodide, Silyl Wittig Reaction, Hydrogen with Ni, Zn, Pd Palladium, Bakers Yeast, Wolf Kishner, Wilkinson’s Catalyst, Birch Reduction, Lindlar’s Catalyst, Benkeser Reduction, Reduction with HCO2H, Sodium Boro Hydride NaBH4, Veils Meier Reaction, Luche’s Reagent, Super Hydride, Sodium Cyno boro hydride, Dibal H, Adams Catalyst, Rosen Mund Reduction, Various Lithium Aluminium Hydrides, NaNH2,  and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chem Survival Guide-Reduction methods by Prof. Subhashish

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4 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide-Oxidation Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Oxidation Methods ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide-Oxidation Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE  COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Various kinds of Oxidation Methods in Organic Chemistry. Covers Sarett’s Reagent, PCC, Chromium Oxide, Osmium Oxide, Manganese Oxide, Silver oxides, Ruthenuim Oxide, Hydrogen Peroxide, Selenium dioxide, KMnO4, Jones, Julia Colonna, DCC, Corey’s, Moffats, Ley Oxidation, MPV, Fetizon, Frmy’s Salt, Elbs Persulphate Oxidation, Sodiumperiodate, Palladium Chloride, Copper Chloride, Sharpless epoxidation, and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chem Survival Guide-Oxidation methods by Prof. Subhashish

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3 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Bonds & Structure by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Bonds & Structures ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Bonds & Structures by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Various kinds of Bonds and Structures in Chemistry. Covers Sigma, Pi, Delta, Back Bonding, Coordinate or Dative Bond, Eta Bond, Hydrogen Bond, London forces, and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Bonds & Structure by Prof. Subhashish

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2 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Elements & Properties by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Elements & Properties ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Elements & Properties by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Elements & Their Properties in Chemistry. Covers the discoveries by spectral Analysis, Named after smell, places, people etc. Various compounds, tests, properties, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Elements & Properties by Prof. Subhashish

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1 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Empirical Formulae by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Empirical Formulae ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Empirical Formulae by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers various kinds of Empirical Equations in Chemistry. These equations are formed by experiments, and graph plotting. In some rare cases the Theory was developed later. Covers Slater’s rule, Shielding, Finding Electronegativity values by Allred and Rochow’s empirical formula, Moseley’s Law, Trouton’s law, Einstein-Debey equation (Dulong & Petit), Reynolds number, Raoult’s law, Variation of viscosity with temperature, Arrhenius model, Williams-Landel-Ferry model, Masuko and Magill model, Walther formula, Wright model, Seeton model, Variation of surface tension with temperature, Eotvos equation, Guggenheim-Katayama equation, Debye-Huckel-Onsager theory of conductivity of ions in dilute solutions, Liquid drop model of Nucleus, Nuclear Shell Model, Ionic character percentage of a diatomic molecule, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Empirical Formulae by Prof. Subhashish

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IIT-JEE, NCERT / CBSE, I.Sc., PU, Board exam, EAMCET, BITS Math Books with lots of Questions and Solutions, Examples ( Free pdf download of Math Books, Chapter wise / Topic wise Solutions )

17 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Trigonometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Trigonometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Trigonometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Trigonometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Trigonometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Trigonometry by Prof. Subhashish

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16 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-3D Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding 3D Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-3D Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers 3D Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of 3D Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-3D Geometry by Prof. Subhashish

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15 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola by Prof. Subhashish

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14 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Ellipse Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Ellipse Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Ellipse Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Ellipse Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Ellipse Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Ellipse by Prof. Subhashish

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13 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Parabola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Parabola Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Parabola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Parabola Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Parabola Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Parabola by Prof. Subhashish

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12 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Pair of Straight Lines by Prof. Subhashish

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11 ] CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Circles Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Circles Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Circles Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Circles Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Circles Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Circles by Prof. Subhashish

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10 ] CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Lines Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Straight Lines by Prof. Subhashish

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9  ] CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Complex Number by Prof. Subhashish

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8 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Quadratic Equations by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Quadratic Equations” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Quadratic Equation by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Quadratic Equations with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Quadratic Equations, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Quadratic Equation by Prof. Subhashish

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7 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Continuity and Differentiability by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Continuity & Differentiability” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Continuity and Differentiability by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Continuity and Differentiability with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Continuity and Differentiability, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Continuity & Differentiability by Prof. Subhashish

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6 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Relations and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Relations & Functions” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Relations and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Relations and Functions with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Relations and Functions, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Relations & Functions by Prof. Subhashish

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5 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Graphs and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Graphs & Functions” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Graphs and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Graphs and Functions with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Graphs and Functions, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Functions & Graphs by Prof. Subhashish

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4 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Indefinite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Indefinite Integrals & Calculus” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Indefinite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

 

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This e-Book covers Indefinite Integrals with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Indefinite Integrals, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Indefinite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish

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3 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Area & Volume by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Area and Volume ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Area and Volume by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers various kinds of graphs, such as graph of Ln x, ( ln x )/x, x Ln x, floor x [ x ] , Shifting of graphs, roots of Quadratic, cubic, and other higher powers of x ( polynomials ), asymptotes, ( How to find Asymptotes ) etc. Volume by revolution and hundreds of Area problems of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Area & Volume by Prof. Subhashish

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2 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Definite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Definite Integrals ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Definite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Definite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish

This e-Book covers Definite Integrals with [ x ] greatest integer functions, { x } fraction function, Max and Min functions. Gamma function, Beta function, Integration after converting to Complex number, Leibnitz forms of Differentiating Integrals, L Hospital’s rule applied to limits with Integrals, Inequalities of Integrals, Rules / Tricks / Properties of Definite Integrals, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

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1 ]  CBSE 12 Math Survival Guide-Differential Equations by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Differential Equations ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Differential Equations by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Differential Equations by Prof. Subhashish

This e-Book covers all kinds of Differential equations, and methods to solve them. There is a priority checklist for the approach to be taken for solving the problems. Covers ISc, CBSE, COMED-K IIT-JEE problems, Linear, Homogeneous, Variable separable by substitution, Exact, Reducible to exact, Bernoulli, Integrating Factors or Multiplying Factors, even Clairaut’s Differential Equations ( IIT-JEE 1999, Bihar CEE 1999 ). Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

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Various States have different names for the Engineering Entrance Exams.

CET – Common Engineering Entrance Test or Common Entrance Test is for Karnataka, Maharastra, Gujrat, Himachal Pradesh, J&K

GUJCET Exam – Gujarat Entrance Common Entrance Test – Engineering

HPCET – Himachal Pradesh Common Entrance Test

CEE – Commissionerate of Entrance Examinations Kerala. Some people say Common Entrance Exam. The exam in Kerala actually is known as KEAM – Kerala

Engineering Agriculture Medical Degree.

ASSAM CEE – Assam Combined Entrance Exam

EAMCET – Engineering and Medical Common Entrance Test

MP PET – Madhya Pradesh Pre Engineering Test. Randomly I liked lots of Physics Questions of MP-PET, as these were of very high quality / interesting.

RPET or R-PET – Rajasthan Pre Engineering Test

WBJEE or WB-JEE – West Bengal Joint Entrance Exam. The questions of these are very good / high quality.

UPSEE – Utter Pradesh State Entrance Exam

BCECEB – Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination Board. The exam name is BCECE. Some call it as Bihar Combined Engineering Entrance Exam BCEEE or

BCECE (Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination)

OJEE – Orissa Joint Entrance Exam

Tamilnadu does not have any state ( common ) entrance test. The admissions in colleges / universities are through standard 12 marks.

TNEA is a State Engineering Entrance Examination, which is conducted by Anna University. Tamil Nadu Engineering Admission.

COMEDK PGET – Consortium of Medical, Engineering and Dental Colleges of Karnataka for PG Post Graduate

NATA – National Aptitude Test in Architecture. National Institute of Advanced Studies in Architecture (NIASA) conducts this.

ISAT by IISAT – Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IISAT) Admission Test (ISAT) is a National Level Entrance Examination.

NAT – National Aptitude Test by Society for Research & Development in Education (SRDE), New Delhi

ENAT – EPSI National Admission Test. by Manipal Institute of Technology. Manipal Online Entrance Test Manipal-OET

VITEEE – VIT Engineering Entrance Exam, Vellore Institute of Technology. Conducted by VIT university

BITSAT – Birla Institute of Technology and Science Admission Test.

Punjab PET – Punjab Engineering Admission, Pre Engineering Test

ASSAM CEE – Assam Combined Entrance Exam

Tripura JEE – Tripura Joint Entrance Exam

NEE – NERIST Entrance Examination. Conducted by the North Eastern Regional Institute of Science & Technology (NERIST), Nirjuli, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh

1 ] CET CEE EAMCET JEE Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, CET, CEE, PET, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CET CEE PET EAMCET JEE Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola by Prof. Subhashish

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1 ] A Guide Book to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry by Peter Sykes

A_GUIDE_BOOK_TO_MECHANISM_IN_ORGANIC_CHEMISTRY

2 ] Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry – IUPAC Recommendations 2005

Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry – IUPAC Recommendations 2005

3 ] Linear Algebra For Dummies

Linear Algebra For Dummies

4 ] Calculus Workbook For Dummies

Calculus Workbook For Dummies

5 ] Differential Equations For Dummies

Differential_Equations_For_Dummies

6 ] Linear Algebra by Jim Hefferon

Linear Algebra

7 ] Mathematics – Puzzles from around the world

Mathematics—Puzzles-from-around-the-world

8 ] Graph Theory by Reinhard Diestel

Graph Theory

9 ] Electronics for Dummies

Electronics for Dummies

10 ] Electronics Projects for Dummies

Electronics Projects For Dummies

11 ] Physics For Dummies

Physics For Dummies

12 ] Physics Workbook For Dummies

Physics Workbook For Dummies

13 ] Inorganic Chemistry James E. House

Inorganic Chemistry James E. House

14 ] Inorganic Chemistry by Cox

Inorganic Chemistry by Cox

15 ] Inorganic Chemistry 5th Edition Miessler

Inorganic Chemistry 5th Edition Miessler

16 ] Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry Solomon

Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry Solomon

17 ] Illustrated Guide to Home Chemistry Experiments

Illustrated Guide to Home Chemistry Experiments

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e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book–e-Book

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Chapter 13 :

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Various Preparation methods of Amines ( Reduction of nitro compounds )

1a Reduction of nitro compounds

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13.1 Write IUPAC names of the following compounds and classify them into primary,
secondary and tertiary amines.

13.1-1 Nitrogen in Organic

Ans :  1-methylethanamine

13.1-2 Nitrogen in Organic

Ans :  Propan-1-amine

13.1-3 Nitrogen in Organic

Ans : N-methyl-2-methylethanamine

13.1-4 Nitrogen in Organic

Ans : 2-methylpropan-2-amine

13.1-5 Nitrogen in Organic

Ans :   N-methylbenzamine   or   N-methylaniline

13.1-6 Nitrogen in Organic

Ans :      N-Ethyl-N-methylethanamine

13.1-7 Nitrogen in Organic

Ans :     3-Bromoaniline     or    3-Bromobenzenamine

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Preparation of Amines by reacting halides with ammonia

1b reaction of halides with ammonia

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Preparation of Amines by Hofmann degradation of amides

1c Hofmann degradation of amides

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Preparation of Amines by reduction of nitriles and amides

1d reduction of nitriles and amides
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Untitled

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Physical Properties of Amines

1e Amines are polar compounds except tertiary amines

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1 Periodic trend in Electrode potential-4

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Basic nature of Amines

1f Basic nature of Amines

1g Solvation effect on basicity of amines

1h Effect of substituents on basicity of aromatic compounds

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13.2 Give one chemical test to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds.
(i) Methylamine and dimethylamine

13.2-1 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds

(ii) Secondary and tertiary amines

13.2-2 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds
(iii) Ethylamine and aniline

13.2-3 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds

(iv) Aniline and benzylamine

13.2-4 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds
(v) Aniline and N-methylaniline

13.2-5 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds

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Alkylation of Amines

1i Alkylation of amines

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13.3 Account for the following:
(i) pKb of aniline is more than that of methylamine.

13.3-1 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds
(ii) Ethylamine is soluble in water whereas aniline is not

13.3-2 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds
(iii) Methylamine in water reacts with ferric chloride to precipitate hydrated
ferric oxide.

13.3-3 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds
(iv) Although amino group is o– and p– directing in aromatic electrophilic
substitution reactions, aniline on nitration gives a substantial amount of
m-nitroaniline

13.3-4 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds
(v) Aniline does not undergo Friedel-Crafts reaction.

13.3-5 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds
(vi) Diazonium salts of aromatic amines are more stable than those of aliphatic
amines

13.3-6 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds
(vii) Gabriel phthalimide synthesis is preferred for synthesising primary amines

13.3-6 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds

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Conversion of Amines into Substituted Amides

1j Conversion of Amines into substituted Amides

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13.4 Arrange the following:
(i) In decreasing order of the pKb values:
C2H5NH2, C6H5NHCH3, (C2H5)2NH and C6H5NH2

13.4-1 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds
(ii) In increasing order of basic strength:
C6H5NH2, C6H5N(CH3)2, (C2H5)2NH and CH3NH2

13.4-2 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds

(iii) In increasing order of basic strength:
(a) Aniline, p-nitroaniline and p-toluidine

13.4-3 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds

(b) C6H5NH2, C6H5NHCH3, C6H5CH2NH2.

13.4-4 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds
(iv) In decreasing order of basic strength in gas phase:
C2H5NH2, (C2H5)2NH, (C2H5)3N and NH3

13.4-4- Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds
(v) In increasing order of boiling point:
C2H5OH, (CH3)2NH, C2H5NH2

13.4-5 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds
(vi) In increasing order of solubility in water:
C6H5NH2, (C2H5)2NH, C2H5NH2

13.4-6 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds

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Ring Substitution in Aromatic Amines

1k Ring substitution in Aromatic Amines

1l Ring substitution in Aromatic Amines

1m Ring substitution in Aromatic Amines

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13.5 How will you convert:
(i) Ethanoic acid into methanamine

13.5-1 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds
(ii) Hexanenitrile into 1-aminopentane

13.5-2 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds
(iii) Methanol to ethanoic acid

13.5-3 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds
(iv) Ethanamine into methanamine

13.5-4 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds
(v) Ethanoic acid into propanoic acid

13.5-5 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds
(vi) Methanamine into ethanamine

13.5-6 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds
(vii) Nitromethane into dimethylamine

13.5-7 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds
(viii) Propanoic acid into ethanoic acid?

13.5-8 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds

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Reactions of Amine with Nitrous Acid

1n Reactions of Amine with Nitrous Acid

1o diazoic acid and diazonium cation

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Various replacement reactions in Amines

1p replacement reactions in amines

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5 Ghoda pa tule

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Hofmann Elimination

1a Hofmann Elimination

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5 Hath hand with Mundu

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Separation of mixture of amines

1b Separation of a mixture of Amines

1c Separation of a mixture of Amines

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5 janla theke poreche

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Test for Primary and Secondary Amines

Carbylamine reaction

1d Test for Primary and Secondary Amine

Libermann Reaction

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5 Man ar Bachcha naki

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Gyan Question

1a Chlorobenzene can be prepared by hydrochloric acid

Ans :   a ) HCl

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5 mundu thekiye

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Gyan Question

1b Which is basic ( acetanalide )

Ans :  C ) Acetanilide is Basic

1c acetanilide molecule structure

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5 Rabbit with gas mask

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52a Aromatic Amines resonance stabilization

Canonical structure

1d canonical structure

Ans : d ) The 2nd one in right is the acceptable canonical structure

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53a Relative Basic strength of Amines

Increasing order of Basicity

1e increasing order of basicity

Ans : a )

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54a Relative Basic strength of Amines

5 Spiral er bhai

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54b Relative Basic strength of Amines

Decreasing order of Basicity

1f Decreasing order of basicity

Ans :  b )

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54d Relative Basic strength of Amines

5 Toron Naki

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57a Carbylamine reaction to convert primary amine to isocyanide

Decreasing order of Basicity

1g decreasing order of Basicity

Ans :  a )

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58a Reaction to make enamine

13.6 Describe a method for the identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Also write chemical equations of the reactions involved.

13.6-1 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds

13.6-2 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds

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Decreasing order of Basicity

1a Decreasing order of basicity

Ans :  a )

4a aniline less basic than para substituted

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13.7 Write short notes on the following:
(i) Carbylamine reaction (ii) Diazotisation
(iii) Hofmann’s bromamide reaction (iv) Coupling reaction
(v) Ammonolysis (vi) Acetylation
(vii) Gabriel phthalimide synthesis.

13.7-1 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds

Hoffmann Bromamide Reaction

coupling Reaction

Ammonolysis

Acetylation Chapter 13 Nitrogen in Organic Chem

Gabriel Phthalimide Synthesis

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13.8 Accomplish the following conversions:
(i) Nitrobenzene to benzoic acid
(ii) Benzene to m-bromophenol
(iii) Benzoic acid to aniline
(iv) Aniline to 2,4,6-tribromofluorobenzene
(v) Benzyl chloride to 2-phenylethanamine
(vi) Chlorobenzene to p-chloroaniline
(vii) Aniline to p-bromoaniline
(viii) Benzamide to toluene
(ix) Aniline to benzyl alcohol.

Nitrobenzene to Benzoic Acid

Benzene to m-bromophenol

Benzoic acid to aniline

Aniline to 2,4,6-tribromofluorobenzene

Benzyl chloride to 2-phenylethanamine

Chlorobenzene to p-chloroaniline-1

Chlorobenzene to p-chloroaniline-2

Aniline to p-Bromoaniline

Benzamide to toluene

Aniline to Benzyl alcohol

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13.9 Nitrogen in Organic

13.9-1 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds

13.9-2 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds

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13.10 An aromatic compound ‘A’ on treatment with aqueous ammonia and heating
forms compound ‘B’ which on heating with Br2 and KOH forms a compound ‘C’
of molecular formula C6H7N. Write the structures and IUPAC names of compounds
A, B and C.

13.10 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds

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13.11 Nitrogen in Organic

13.11-1 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds

13.11-2 Ans Nitrogen in Organic Compounds

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2e Emotions gaze pattern

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13.12 Why cannot aromatic primary amines be prepared by Gabriel phthalimide
synthesis?

13.12 -1 Ans Nitrogen in Organic

13.12 -2 Ans Nitrogen in Organic

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13.13 Write the reactions of (i) aromatic and (ii) aliphatic primary amines with nitrous
acid.

13.13 -1 Ans Nitrogen in Organic

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13.14 Give plausible explanation for each of the following:
(i) Why are amines less acidic than alcohols of comparable molecular masses?
(ii) Why do primary amines have higher boiling point than tertiary amines?
(iii) Why are aliphatic amines stronger bases than aromatic amines?

13.14 -1 Ans Nitrogen in Organic

13.14 -2 Ans Nitrogen in Organic

13.14 -3 Ans Nitrogen in Organic

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“The chief commercial use of amines is as intermediates in the synthesis of medicines and fibres” .

Amines constitute an important class of organic compounds derived by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms of ammonia molecule by alkyl/aryl group(s). In nature, they occur among proteins, vitamins, alkaloids and hormones. Synthetic examples include polymers, dyestuffs and drugs. Two biologically active compounds, namely adrenaline and ephedrine, both containing secondary amino group, are used to increase blood pressure. Novocain, a synthetic amino compound, is used as an anaesthetic in dentistry. Benadryl, a well known antihistaminic drug also contains tertiary amino group. Quaternary ammonium salts are used as surfactants. Diazonium salts are intermediates in the preparation of a variety of aromatic compounds including dyes. In this Unit, you will learn about amines and diazonium salts.

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I. AMINES
Amines can be considered as derivatives of ammonia, obtained by replacement of one, two or all the three hydrogen atoms by alkyl and/or aryl groups. For example:

2g saturn

13.1 Structure of Amines

Like ammonia, nitrogen atom of amines is trivalent and carries an unshared pair of electrons. Nitrogen orbitals in amines are therefore, sp3 hybridised and the geometry of amines is pyramidal. Each of the three sp3 hybridised orbitals of nitrogen overlap with orbitals of hydrogen or carbon depending upon the composition of the amines. The fourth orbital of nitrogen in all amines contains an unshared pair of electrons. Due to the presence of unshared pair of electrons, the angle C–N–E, (where E is C or H) is less than 109.5°; for instance, it is 108° in case of trimethylamine as shown in Fig. 13.1.

2l Solar eclipse

13.2 Classification

Amines are classified as primary (1°), secondary (2°) and tertiary (3°) depending upon the number of hydrogen atoms replaced by alkyl or aryl groups in ammonia molecule. If one hydrogen atom of ammonia is replaced by R or Ar , we get RNH2 or ArNH2, a primary amine (1°). If two hydrogen atoms of ammonia or one hydrogen atom of R-NH2 are replaced by another alkyl/aryl(R’) group, what would you get? You get R-NHR’, secondary amine. The second alkyl/aryl group may be same or different. Replacement of another hydrogen atom by alkyl/aryl group leads to the formation of tertiary amine. Amines are said to be ‘simple’ when all the alkyl or aryl groups are the same, and ‘mixed’ when they are different.

2y Ikebana

13.3 Nomenclature

In common system, an aliphatic amine is named by prefixing alkyl group to amine, i.e., alkylamine as one word (e.g., methylamine). In secondary and tertiary amines, when two or more groups are the same, the prefix di or tri is appended before the name of alkyl group. In IUPAC system, amines are named as alkanamines, derived by replacement of ‘e’ of alkane by the word amine. For example, CH3NH2 is named as methanamine. In case, more than one amino group is present at different positions in the parent chain, their positions are specified by giving numbers to the carbon atoms bearing –NH2 groups and suitable prefix such as di, tri, etc. is attached to the amine. The letter ‘e’ of the suffix of the hydrocarbon part is retained. For example, H2N–CH2–CH2–NH2 is named as ethane-1, 2-diamine.
In arylamines, –NH2 group is directly attached to the benzene ring. C6H5NH2 is the simplest example of arylamine. In common system, it is known as aniline. It is also an accepted IUPAC name. While naming arylamines according to IUPAC system, suffix ‘e’ of arene is replaced by ‘amine’. Thus in IUPAC system, C6H5–NH2 is named as benzenamine. Common and IUPAC names of some alkylamines and arylamines are given in Table 13.1.

Intext Questions
13.1 Classify the following amines as primary, secondary or tertiary:

13.2 (i) Write structures of different isomeric amines corresponding to the molecular formula, C4H11N.
(ii) Write IUPAC names of all the isomers.
(iii) What type of isomerism is exhibited by different pairs of amines?

13.4 Preparation of Amines
Amines are prepared by the following methods:

2s Ikebana

1. Reduction of nitro compounds

Nitro compounds are reduced to amines by passing hydrogen gas in the presence of finely divided nickel, palladium or platinum and also by reduction with metals in acidic medium. Nitroalkanes can also be similarly reduced to the corresponding alkanamines.

Reduction with iron scrap and hydrochloric acid is preferred because FeCl2 formed gets hydrolysed to release hydrochloric acid during the reaction. Thus, only a small amount of hydrochloric acid is required to initiate the reaction.

2. Ammonolysis of alkyl halides

You have read (Unit 10, Class XII) that the carbon – halogen bond in alkyl or benzyl halides can be easily cleaved by a nucleophile. Hence, an alkyl or benzyl halide on reaction with an ethanolic solution of ammonia undergoes nucleophilic substitution reaction in which the halogen atom is replaced by an amino (–NH2) group. This process of cleavage of the C–X bond by ammonia molecule is known as ammonolysis. The reaction is carried out in a sealed tube at 373 K. The primary amine thus obtained behaves as a nucleophile and can further react with alkyl halide to form secondary and tertiary amines, and finally quaternary ammonium salt.

The free amine can be obtained from the ammonium salt by treatment with a strong base:

Ammonolysis has the disadvantage of yielding a mixture of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and also a quaternary ammonium salt. However, primary amine is obtained as a major product by taking large excess of ammonia.
The order of reactivity of halides with amines is RI > RBr >RCl.

Example 13.1
Write chemical equations for the following reactions:
(i) Reaction of ethanolic NH3 with C2H5Cl.
(ii) Ammonolysis of benzyl chloride and reaction of amine so formed with two moles of CH3Cl.
Solution

2r Ikebana

3. Reduction of nitriles
Nitriles on reduction with lithium aluminium hydride (LiAlH4) or catalytic hydrogenation produce primary amines. This reaction is used for ascent of amine series, i.e., for preparation of amines containing one carbon atom more than the starting amine.

4. Reduction of amides
The amides on reduction with lithium aluminium hydride yield amines.

5. Gabriel phthalimide synthesis
Gabriel synthesis is used for the preparation of primary amines. Phthalimide on treatment with ethanolic potassium hydroxide forms potassium salt of phthalimide which on heating with alkyl halide followed by alkaline hydrolysis produces the corresponding primary amine. Aromatic primary amines cannot be prepared by this method because aryl halides do not undergo nucleophilic substitution with the anion formed by phthalimide.

2m Total solar eclipse

6. Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction
Hoffmann developed a method for preparation of primary amines by treating an amide with bromine in an aqueous or ethanolic solution of sodium hydroxide. In this degradation reaction, migration of an alkyl or aryl group takes place from carbonyl carbon of the amide to the nitrogen atom. The amine so formed contains one carbon less than that present in the amide.

Example 13.2 Write chemical equations for the following conversions:
(i) CH3–CH2–Cl into CH3–CH2–CH2–NH2
(ii) C6H5–CH2–Cl into C6H5–CH2–CH2–NH2
Solution

Example 13.3
Write structures and IUPAC names of
(i) the amide which gives propanamine by Hoffmann bromamide reaction.
(ii) the amine produced by the Hoffmann degradation of benzamide.
Solution
(i) Propanamine contains three carbons. Hence, the amide molecule must contain four carbon atoms. Structure and IUPAC name of the starting amide with four carbon atoms are given below:

(ii) Benzamide is an aromatic amide containing seven carbon atoms. Hence, the amine formed from benzamide is aromatic primary amine containing six carbon atoms.

Intext Question
13.3 How will you convert
(i) Benzene into aniline (ii) Benzene into N, N-dimethylaniline (iii) Cl–(CH2)4–Cl into hexan-1,6-diamine?

13.5 Physical Properties

The lower aliphatic amines are gases with fishy odour. Primary amines with three or more carbon atoms are liquid and still higher ones are solid. Aniline and other arylamines are usually colourless but get coloured on storage due to atmospheric oxidation.

Lower aliphatic amines are soluble in water because they can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules. However, solubility decreases with increase in molar mass of amines due to increase in size of the hydrophobic alkyl part. Higher amines are essentially insoluble in water. Considering the electronegativity of nitrogen of amine and oxygen of alcohol as 3.0 and 3.5 respectively, you can predict the pattern of solubility of amines and alcohols in water. Out of butan-1-ol and butan-1-amine, which will be more soluble in water and why? Amines are soluble in organic solvents like alcohol, ether and benzene. You may remember that alcohols are more polar than amines and form stronger intermolecular hydrogen bonds than amines.

Primary and secondary amines are engaged in intermolecular association due to hydrogen bonding between nitrogen of one and hydrogen of another molecule. This intermolecular association is more in primary amines than in secondary amines as there are two hydrogen atoms available for hydrogen bond formation in it. Tertiary amines do not have intermolecular association due to the absence of hydrogen atom available for hydrogen bond formation. Therefore, the order of boiling points of isomeric amines is as follows:
Primary > Secondary > Tertiary
Intermolecular hydrogen bonding in primary amines is shown in Fig. 13.2.

Boiling points of amines, alcohols and alkanes of almost the same molar mass are shown in Table 13.2.

Table 13.2: Comparison of Boiling Points of Amines, Alcohols and Alkanes of Similar Molecular Masses
Sl.no. Compound Molar mass b.p./K
1. n-C4H9NH2 73 350.8
2. (C2H5)2NH 73 329.3
3. C2H5N(CH3)2 73 310.2
4. C2H5CH(CH3)2 72 300.8
5. n-C4H9OH 74 390.3

13.6 Chemical Reaction

Difference in electronegativity between nitrogen and hydrogen atoms and the presence of unshared pair of electrons over the nitrogen atom makes amines reactive. The number of hydrogen atoms attached to nitrogen atom also decides the course of reaction of amines; that is why primary (–NH2), – and tertiary amines differ in many reactions. Moreover, amines behave as nucleophiles due to the presence of unshared electron pair. Some of the reactions of amines are described below:
1. Basic character of amines
Amines, being basic in nature, react with acids to form salts.

Amine salts on treatment with a base like NaOH, regenerate the parent amine.

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Gyan Question

12a AgNO3 white precipitate

Ans :  c ) Anilinium Hydrochloride will give white precipitate of AgCl with AgNO3

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Amine salts are soluble in water but insoluble in organic solvents like ether. This reaction is the basis for the separation of amines from the non basic organic compounds insoluble in water.

The reaction of amines with mineral acids to form ammonium salts shows that these are basic in nature. Amines have an unshared pair of electrons on nitrogen atom due to which they behave as Lewis base. Basic character of amines can be better understood in terms of their Kb and pKb values as explained below:

K = [R – N+H3][OH] / [R – NH2[H2O]

or K[H2O]= [R – N+H3][OH] / [R – NH2]
pKb = –log Kb

Larger the value of Kb or smaller the value of pKb, stronger is the base. The pKb values of few amines are given in Table 13.3.

Table 13.3: pKb Values of Amines in Aqueous Phase
Name of amine pKb
Methanamine 3.38
N-Methylmethanamine 3.27
N,N-Dimethylmethanamine 4.22
Ethanamine 3.29
N-Ethylmethylamine 3.00
N,N-Diethylethanamine 3.25
Benzenamine 9.38
Phenylmethanamine 4.70
N-Methylaniline 9.30
N,N-Dimethylaniline 8.92

pKb value of ammonia is 4.75. Aliphatic amines are stronger bases than ammonia due to +I effect of alkyl groups leading to high electron density on the nitrogen atom. Their pKb values lie in the range of 3 to 4.22. On the other hand, aromatic amines are weaker bases than ammonia due to the electron withdrawing nature of the aryl group.

You may find some discrepancies while trying to interpret the Kb values of amines on the basis of +I or –I effect of the substituents present in amines. Besides inductive effect, there are other effects like solvation effect, steric hinderance, etc., which affect the basic strength of amines. Just ponder over. You may get the answer in the following paragraphs.

Structure-basicity relationship of amines
Basicity of amines is related to their structure. Basic character of an amine depends upon the ease of formation of the cation by accepting a proton from the acid. The more stable the cation is relative to the amine, more basic is the amine.

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Gyan Question

11a primary amines give carbylamine test

Ans :  d ) p-methylbenzeneamine give positive carbyamine test ( Primary amine )

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(a) Alkanamines versus ammonia
Let us consider the reaction of an alkanamine and ammonia with a proton to compare their basicity.

Due to the electron releasing nature of alkyl group, it (R) pushes electrons towards nitrogen and thus makes the unshared electron pair more available for sharing with the proton of the acid. Moreover, the substituted ammonium ion formed from the amine gets stabilised due to dispersal of the positive charge by the +I effect of the alkyl group. Hence, alkylamines are stronger bases than ammonia. Thus, the basic nature of aliphatic amines should increase with increase in the number of alkyl groups. This trend is followed in the gaseous phase. The order of basicity of amines in the gaseous phase follows the expected order: tertiary amine > secondary amine > primary amine > NH3. The trend is not regular in the aqueous state as evident by their pKb values given in Table 13.3. In the aqueous phase, the substituted ammonium cations get stabilised not only by electron releasing effect of the alkyl group (+I) but also by solvation with water molecules. The greater the size of the ion, lesser will be the solvation and the less stabilised is the ion. The order of stability of ions are as follows:

Decreasing order of extent of H-bonding in water and order of stability of ions by solvation.

Greater is the stability of the substituted ammonium cation, stronger should be the corresponding amine as a base. Thus, the order of basicity of aliphatic amines should be: primary > secondary > tertiary, which is opposite to the inductive effect based order. Secondly, when the alkyl group is small, like –CH3 group, there is no steric hindrance to H-bonding. In case the alkyl group is bigger than CH3 group, there will be steric hinderance to H-bonding. Therefore, the change of nature of the alkyl group, e.g., from –CH3 to –C2H5 results in change of the order of basic strength. Thus, there is a subtle interplay of the inductive effect, solvation effect and steric hinderance of the alkyl group which decides the basic strength of alkyl amines in the aqueous state. The order of basic strength in case of methyl substituted amines and ethyl substituted amines in aqueous solution is as follows:
(C2H5)2NH > (C2H5)3N > C2H5NH2 > NH3
(CH3)2NH > CH3NH2 > (CH3)3N > NH3

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Gyan Question

10a alkali solution hinsberg reagent

Ans : c ) Primary amines are soluble in alkali solution as they undergo reaction with Hinsberg’s reagent

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(b) Arylamines versus ammonia
pKb value of aniline is quite high. Why is it so? It is because in aniline or other arylamines, the -NH2 group is attached directly to the benzene ring. It results in the unshared electron pair on nitrogen atom to be in conjugation with the benzene ring and thus making it less available for protonation. If you write different resonating structures of aniline, you will find that aniline is a resonance hybrid of the following five structures.

On the other hand, anilinium ion obtained by accepting a proton can have only two resonating structures (kekule).

We know that greater the number of resonating structures, greater is the stability. Thus you can infer that aniline (five resonating structures) is more stable than anilinium ion. Hence, the proton acceptability or the basic nature of aniline or other aromatic amines would be less than that of ammonia. In case of substituted aniline, it is observed that electron releasing groups like –OCH3, –CH3 increase basic strength whereas electron withdrawing groups like –NO2, –SO3H, –COOH, –X decrease it.

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Gyan Question

9a diethyl oxalate is used in hofmann's method

Ans : b )

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Example 13.4 Arrange the following in decreasing order of their basic strength:
C6H5NH2, C2H5NH2, (C2H5)2NH, NH3
Solution
The decreasing order of basic strength of the above amines and ammonia follows the following order:
(C2H5)2NH > C2H5NH2 > NH3 > C6H5NH2

2. Alkylation
Amines undergo alkylation on reaction with alkyl halides (refer Unit 10, Class XII).

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Gyan Question Hinsberg Reagent

8a Hinsberg's Reagent

Ans :  b ) Benzenesulphonyl Chloride

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3. Acylation
Aliphatic and aromatic primary and secondary amines react with acid chlorides, anhydrides and esters by nucleophilic substitution reaction. This reaction is known as acylation. You can consider this reaction as the replacement of hydrogen atom of –NH2 or >N–H group by the acyl group. The products obtained by acylation reaction are known as amides. The reaction is carried out in the presence of a base stronger than the amine, like pyridine, which removes HCl so formed and shifts the equilibrium to the right hand side.

Amines also react with benzoyl chloride (C6H5COCl). This reaction is known as benzoylation.
CH3NH2 +C6H5COCl → CH3NHCOC6H5 + HCl
Methanamine      Benzoyl chloride      N − Methylbenzamide
What do you think is the product of the reaction of amines with carboxylic acids ? They form salts with amines at room temperature.

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Gyan Question

7a heating gives

Ans :  c )

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4. Carbylamine reaction

Aliphatic and aromatic primary amines on heating with chloroform and ethanolic potassium hydroxide form isocyanides or carbylamines which are foul smelling substances. Secondary and tertiary amines do not show this reaction. This reaction is known as carbylamine reaction or isocyanide test and is used as a test for primary amines.

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Gyan Question on Correct order of Basicity

6a correct order of Basicity

Ans :  c )

Imidazole is stronger base than Pyridine and Pyrimidine.

More is the s character in hybrid orbital of N with lone pair of electrons, less basic is the molecule. S character has electron withdrawing effect.

The larger is the distance of Oxygen from N stronger is the base because of -I effect of Oxygen due to high electronegativity.

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5. Reaction with nitrous acid

Three classes of amines react differently with nitrous acid which is prepared in situ from a mineral acid and sodium nitrite.
(a) Primary aliphatic amines react with nitrous acid to form aliphatic diazonium salts which being unstable, liberate nitrogen gas quantitatively and alcohols. Quantitative evolution of nitrogen is used in estimation of amino acids and proteins.

(b) Aromatic amines react with nitrous acid at low temperatures (273-278 K) to form diazonium salts, a very important class of compounds used for synthesis of a variety of aromatic compounds discussed in Section 13.7.

Secondary and tertiary amines react with nitrous acid in a different manner.

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Gyan Question on Basicity

5a correct order of basicity

Ans :   d )

4 Amide is a weaker base than aliphatic amine

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6. Reaction with arylsulphonyl chloride
Benzenesulphonyl chloride (C6H5SO2Cl), which is also known as Hinsberg’s reagent, reacts with primary and secondary amines to form sulphonamides.

(a) The reaction of benzenesulphonyl chloride with primary amine yields N-ethylbenzenesulphonyl amide.

The hydrogen attached to nitrogen in sulphonamide is strongly acidic due to the presence of strong electron withdrawing sulphonyl group. Hence, it is soluble in alkali.

(b) In the reaction with secondary amine, N,N-diethyl- benzenesulphonamide is formed.

Since N, N-diethylbenzene sulphonamide does not contain any hydrogen atom attached to nitrogen atom, it is not acidic and hence insoluble in alkali.

(c) Tertiary amines do not react with benzenesulphonyl chloride. This property of amines reacting with benzenesulphonyl chloride in a different manner is used for the distinction of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and also for the separation of a mixture of amines. However, these days benzenesulphonyl chloride is replaced by p-toluenesulphonyl chloride.

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Gyan Question on correct order of Basicity

4a correct order of Basicity

Ans : c )

4b more number of Ph groups more delocalization lesser basic

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7. Electrophilic substitution

You have read earlier that aniline is a resonance hybrid of five structures. Where do you find the maximum electron density in these structures? Ortho- and para-positions to the –NH2 group become centres of high electron density. Thus –NH2 group is ortho and para directing and a powerful activating group.

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Gyan Question on order of Basicity

3a order of basicity

Ans :   b )

4a 2nd degree amines are more basic than first degree

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(a) Bromination: Aniline reacts with bromine water at room temperature to give a white precipitate of 2,4,6-tribromoaniline.

The main problem encountered during electrophilic substitution reactions of aromatic amines is that of their very high reactivity. Substitution tends to occur at ortho- and para-positions. If we have to prepare monosubstituted aniline derivative, how can the activating effect of –NH2 group be controlled ? This can be done by protecting the -NH2 group by acetylation with acetic anhydride, then carrying out the desired substitution followed by hydrolysis of the substituted amide to the substituted amine.

The lone pair of electrons on nitrogen of acetanilide interacts with oxygen atom due to resonance as shown below:

Hence, the lone pair of electrons on nitrogen is less available for donation to benzene ring by resonance. Therefore, activating effect of –NHCOCH3 group is less than that of amino group.

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Gyan Question on bipolar ion

2a Bipolar ion

Ans :  b )

2a electron releasing NH2 does not exists in bipolar

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1a Donkey girls

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(b) Nitration: Direct nitration of aniline yields tarry oxidation products in addition to the nitro derivatives. Moreover, in the strongly acidic medium, aniline is protonated to form the anilinium ion which is meta directing. That is why besides the ortho and para derivatives, significant amount of meta derivative is also formed.
However, by protecting the –NH2 group by acetylation reaction with acetic anhydride, the nitration reaction can be controlled and the p-nitro derivative can be obtained as the major product.

(c) Sulphonation: Aniline reacts with concentrated sulphuric acid to form anilinium hydrogensulphate which on heating with sulphuric acid at 453-473K produces p-aminobenzene sulphonic acid, commonly known as sulphanilic acid, as the major product.

Aniline does not undergo Friedel-Crafts reaction (alkylation and acetylation) due to salt formation with aluminium chloride, the Lewis acid, which is used as a catalyst. Due to this, nitrogen of aniline acquires positive charge and hence acts as a strong deactivating group for further reaction.

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Gyan Question on Basicity

1a correct sequence of Bacisity

Ans :  b )

3a adjacent CO weakens the basicity

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2a Get controlled by wife

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Intext Question
3.4 Arrange the following in increasing order of their basic strength:
(i) C2H5NH2, C6H5NH2, NH3, C6H5CH2NH2 and (C2H5)2NH
(ii) C2H5NH2, (C2H5)2NH, (C2H5)3N, C6H5NH2
(iii) CH3NH2, (CH3)2NH, (CH3)3N, C6H5NH2, C6H5CH2NH2.
13.5 Complete the following acid-base reactions and name the products:
(i) CH3CH2CH2NH2 + HCl →
(ii) (C2H5)3N + HCl →
13.6 Write reactions of the final alkylation product of aniline with excess of methyl iodide in the presence of sodium carbonate solution.
13.7 Write chemical reaction of aniline with benzoyl chloride and write the name of the product obtained.
13.8 Write structures of different isomers corresponding to the molecular formula, C3H9N. Write IUPAC names of the isomers which will liberate nitrogen gas on treatment with nitrous acid.

II. DIAZONIUM SALTS

The diazonium salts have the general formula RN+2X where R stands for an aryl group and X ion may be Cl Br, HSO4 , BF4 , etc. They are named by suffixing diazonium to the name of the parent hydrocarbon from which they are formed, followed by the name of anion such as chloride, hydrogensulphate, etc. The N+2 group is called diazonium group. For example, C6H5N2+Cl is named as benzenediazonium chloride and C6H5N2HSO4 is known as benzenediazonium hydrogensulphate.

Primary aliphatic amines form highly unstable alkyldiazonium salts (refer to Section 13.6). Primary aromatic amines form arenediazonium salts which are stable for a short time in solution at low temperatures (273-278 K). The stability of arenediazonium ion is explained on the basis of resonance.

13.7 Method of preparation of Diazonium Salts

Benzenediazonium chloride is prepared by the reaction of aniline with nitrous acid at 273-278K. Nitrous acid is produced in the reaction mixture by the reaction of sodium nitrite with hydrochloric acid. The conversion of primary aromatic amines into diazonium salts is known as diazotisation. Due to its instability, the diazonium salt is not generally stored and is used immediately after its preparation.

13.8 Physical Properties

Benzenediazonium chloride is a colourless crystalline solid. It is readily soluble in water and is stable in cold but reacts with water when warmed. It decomposes easily in the dry state. Benzenediazonium fluoroborate is water insoluble and stable at room temperature.

13.9 Chemical Reaction

The reactions of diazonium salts can be broadly divided into two categories, namely (A) reactions involving displacement of nitrogen and (B) reactions involving retention of diazo group.
A. Reactions involving displacement of nitrogen Diazonium group being a very good leaving group, is substituted by other groups such as Cl , Br , I , CN and OH which displace nitrogen from the aromatic ring. The nitrogen formed escapes from the reaction mixture as a gas.
1. Replacement by halide or cyanide ion: The Cl , Br and CN nucleophiles can easily be introduced in the benzene ring in the presence of Cu(I) ion. This reaction is called Sandmeyer reaction.

Alternatively, chlorine or bromine can also be introduced in the benzene ring by treating the diazonium salt solution with corresponding halogen acid in the presence of copper powder. This is referred as Gatterman reaction.

The yield in Sandmeyer reaction is found to be better than Gattermann reaction.

2. Replacement by iodide ion: Iodine is not easily introduced into the benzene ring directly, but, when the diazonium salt solution is treated with potassium iodide, iodobenzene is formed.

3. Replacement by fluoride ion: When arenediazonium chloride is treated with fluoroboric acid, arene diazonium fluoroborate is precipitated which on heating decomposes to yield aryl fluoride.

4. Replacement by H: Certain mild reducing agents like hypophosphorous acid (phosphinic acid) or ethanol reduce diazonium salts to arenes and themselves get oxidised to phosphorous acid and ethanal, respectively.

5. Replacement by hydroxyl group: If the temperature of the diazonium salt solution is allowed to rise upto 283 K, the salt gets hydrolysed to phenol.

6. Replacement by –NO2 group: When diazonium fluoroborate is heated with aqueous sodium nitrite solution in the presence of copper, the diazonium group is replaced by –NO2 group.

B. Reactions involving retention of diazo group coupling reactions
The azo products obtained have an extended conjugate system having both the aromatic rings joined through the –N=N– bond. These compounds are often coloured and are used as dyes. Benzene diazonium chloride reacts with phenol in which the phenol molecule at its para position is coupled with the diazonium salt to form p-hydroxyazobenzene. This type of reaction is known as coupling reaction. Similarly the reaction of diazonium salt with aniline yields p-aminoazobenzene. This is an example of electrophilic substitution reaction.

13.10 Importance of Diazonium Salts in Synthesis of Aromatic Compounds

From the above reactions, it is clear that the diazonium salts are very good intermediates for the introduction of –F, –Cl, –Br, –I, –CN, –OH, –NO2 groups into the aromatic ring.
Aryl fluorides and iodides cannot be prepared by direct halogenation. The cyano group cannot be introduced by nucleophilic substitution of chlorine in chlorobenzene but cyanobenzene can be easily obtained from diazonium salt.

Thus, the replacement of diazo group by other groups is helpful in preparing those substituted aromatic compounds which cannot be prepared by direct substitution in benzene or substituted benzene.

Example 13.5 How will you convert 4-nitrotoluene to 2-bromobenzoic acid ?
Solution

Intext Question
13.9 Convert
(i) 3-Methylaniline into 3-nitrotoluene.
(ii) Aniline into 1,3,5 – tribromobenzene.

Summary
Amines can be considered as derivatives of ammonia obtained by replacement of hydrogen atoms with alkyl or aryl groups. Replacement of one hydrogen atom of ammonia gives rise to structure of the type R-NH2, known as primary amine. Secondary amines are characterised by the structure R2NH or R-NHR’ and tertiary amines by R3N, RNR′R′′ or R2NR′. Secondary and tertiary amines are known as simple amines if the alkyl or aryl groups are the same and mixed amines if the groups are different. Like ammonia, all the three types of amines have one unshared electron pair on nitrogen atom due to which they behave as Lewis bases.
Amines are usually formed from nitro compounds, halides, amides, imides, etc. They exhibit hydrogen bonding which influence their physical properties. In alkylamines, a combination of electron releasing, steric and H-bonding factors influence the stability of the substituted ammonium cations in protic polar solvents and thus affect the basic nature of amines. Alkyl amines are found to be stronger bases than ammonia. In aromatic amines, electron releasing and withdrawing groups, respectively increase and decrease their basic character. Aniline is a weaker base than ammonia. Reactions of amines are governed by availability of the unshared pair of electrons on nitrogen. Influence of the number of hydrogen atoms at nitrogen atom on the type of reactions and nature of products is responsible for identification and distinction between primary, secondary and tertiary amines. p-Toluenesulphonyl chloride is used for the identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines. Presence of amino group in aromatic ring enhances reactivity of the aromatic amines. Reactivity of aromatic amines can be controlled by acylation process, i.e., by treating with acetyl chloride or acetic anhydride. Tertiary amines like trimethylamine are used as insect attractants.
Aryldiazonium salts, usually obtained from arylamines, undergo replacement of the diazonium group with a variety of nucleophiles to provide advantageous methods for producing aryl halides, cyanides, phenols and arenes by reductive removal of the diazo group. Coupling reaction of aryls

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3 which of the following statements are correct

Ans :

4 aryl halides have low reactivity towards nucleophilic substitution

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Exercises
13.1 Write IUPAC names of the following compounds and classify them into primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
(i) (CH3)2CHNH2
(ii) CH3(CH2)2NH2
(iii) CH3NHCH(CH3)2
(iv) (CH3)3CNH2
(v) C6H5NHCH3
(vi) (CH3CH2)2NCH3
(vii) m–BrC6H4NH2

13.2 Give one chemical test to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds.
(i) Methylamine and dimethylamine
(ii) Secondary and tertiary amines
(iii) Ethylamine and aniline
(iv) Aniline and benzylamine
(v) Aniline and N-methylaniline.

13.3 Account for the following:
(i) pKb of aniline is more than that of methylamine.
(ii) Ethylamine is soluble in water whereas aniline is not.
(iii) Methylamine in water reacts with ferric chloride to precipitate hydrated ferric oxide.
(iv) Although amino group is o– and p– directing in aromatic electrophilic substitution reactions, aniline on nitration gives a substantial amount of m-nitroaniline.
(v) Aniline does not undergo Friedel-Crafts reaction.
(vi) Diazonium salts of aromatic amines are more stable than those of aliphatic amines.
(vii) Gabriel phthalimide synthesis is preferred for synthesising primary amines.

13.4 Arrange the following:
(i) In decreasing order of the pKb values:
C2H5NH2, C6H5NHCH3, (C2H5)2NH and C6H5NH2
(ii) In increasing order of basic strength: C6H5NH2, C6H5N(CH3)2, (C2H5)2NH and CH3NH2
(iii) In increasing order of basic strength:
(a) Aniline, p-nitroaniline and p-toluidine
(b) C6H5NH2, C6H5NHCH3, C6H5CH2NH2.
(iv) In decreasing order of basic strength in gas phase:
C2H5NH2, (C2H5)2NH, (C2H5)3N and NH3
(v) In increasing order of boiling point:
C2H5OH, (CH3)2NH, C2H5NH2
(vi) In increasing order of solubility in water:
C6H5NH2, (C2H5)2NH, C2H5NH2.

13.5 How will you convert:
(i) Ethanoic acid into methanamine
(ii) Hexanenitrile into 1-aminopentane
(iii) Methanol to ethanoic acid
(iv) Ethanamine into methanamine
(v) Ethanoic acid into propanoic acid
(vi) Methanamine into ethanamine
(vii) Nitromethane into dimethylamine
(viii) Propanoic acid into ethanoic acid?

13.6 Describe a method for the identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines. Also write chemical equations of the reactions involved.

13.7 Write short notes on the following:
(i) Carbylamine reaction
(ii) Diazotisation
(iii) Hofmann’s bromamide reaction
(v) Ammonolysis
(iv) Coupling reaction
(vi) Acetylation
(vii) Gabriel phthalimide synthesis.

13.8 Accomplish the following conversions:
(i) Nitrobenzene to benzoic acid
(ii) Benzene to m-bromophenol
(iii) Benzoic acid to aniline
(iv) Aniline to 2,4,6-tribromofluorobenzene
(v) Benzyl chloride to 2-phenylethanamine
(vi) Chlorobenzene to p-chloroaniline
(vii) Aniline to p-bromoaniline
(viii) Benzamide to toluene
(ix) Aniline to benzyl alcohol.

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Reaction of RCONH2 with Bromine and KOH intermediates

3 reaction of RCONH2 with Bromine and KOH intermediates

Ans :  a )  and  c )

4 reaction of RCONH2 with Bromine and KOH intermediates

5 reaction of RCONH2 with Bromine and KOH intermediates

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2w Ikebana

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13.9 Give the structures of A, B and C in the following reactions:

13.10 An aromatic compound ‘A’ on treatment with aqueous ammonia and heating forms compound ‘B’ which on heating with Br2 and KOH forms a compound ‘C’ of molecular formula C6H7N. Write the structures and IUPAC names of compounds A, B and C.

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Identify the products formed

3 Identify the products formed

Ans :  a )  and b )

4 Identify the products formed

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2v Ikebana

13.11 Complete the following reactions:

13.12 Why cannot aromatic primary amines be prepared by Gabriel phthalimide synthesis?

13.13 Write the reactions of (i) aromatic and (ii) aliphatic primary amines with nitrous acid.

13.14 Give plausible explanation for each of the following:
(i) Why are amines less acidic than alcohols of comparable molecular masses?
(ii) Why do primary amines have higher boiling point than tertiary amines?
(iii) Why are aliphatic amines stronger bases than aromatic amines?

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Comment on Basicity, which are strong base

3 which are expected to be strong base basicity

Ans :

4 Guanidine is a strong base

2u Ikebana

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Answers to Some Intext Questions
13.4 (i) C6H5NH2 < NH3 < C6H5CH2NH2 < C2H5NH2 < (C2H5)2NH
(ii) C6H5NH2 < C2H5NH2 < (C2H5)3N < (C2H5)2NH
(iii) C6H5NH2 < C6H5CH2NH2 < (CH3)3N < CH3NH2 < (CH3)2NH

Some Useful Links

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I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)

1. Which of the following is a 3° amine?

(i) 1-methylcyclohexylamine
(ii) Triethylamine
(iii) tert-butylamine
(iv) N-methylaniline

2. The correct IUPAC name for CH2==CHCH2 NHCH3 is

(i) Allylmethylamine
(ii) 2-amino-4-pentene
(iii) 4-aminopent-1-ene
(iv) N-methylprop-2-en-1-amine

🙂

Identify TRUE and FALSE statements

5 which statements are not correct

Ans :

3 polar non polar and other considerations

2t Ikebana

🙂

3. Amongst the following, the strongest base in aqueous medium is ____________.

(i) CH3NH2
(ii) NCCH2NH2
(iii) (CH3)2 NH
(iv) C6H5NHCH3

4. Which of the following is the weakest Brönsted base?

5. Benzylamine may be alkylated as shown in the following equation :

Which of the following alkylhalides is best suited for this reaction through SN1 mechanism?

(i) CH3Br
(ii) C6H5Br
(iii) C6H5CH2Br
(iv) C2H5Br

6. Which of the following reagents would not be a good choice for reducing an aryl nitro compound to an amine?

(i) H2 (excess)/Pt
(ii) LiAlH4 in ether
(iii) Fe and HCl
(iv) Sn and HCl

7. In order to prepare a 1° amine from an alkyl halide with simultaneous addition of one CH2 group in the carbon chain, the reagent used as source of nitrogen is ___________.

(i) Sodium amide, NaNH2
(ii) Sodium azide, NaN3
(iii) Potassium cyanide, KCN
(iv) Potassium phthalimide, C6H4(CO)2NK+

8. The source of nitrogen in Gabriel synthesis of amines is _____________.

(i) Sodium azide, NaN3
(ii) Sodium nitrite, NaNO2
(iii) Potassium cyanide, KCN
(iv) Potassium phthalimide, C6H4(CO)2NK+

9. Amongst the given set of reactants, the most appropriate for preparing 2° amine is _____.

(i) 2° R—Br + NH3
(ii) 2° R—Br + NaCN followed by H2/Pt
(iii) 1° R—NH2 + RCHO followed by H2/Pt
(iv) 1° R—Br (2 mol) + potassium phthalimide followed by H3O+/heat

10. The best reagent for converting 2–phenylpropanamide into 2-phenylpropanamine is _____.

(i) excess H2
(ii) Br2 in aqueous NaOH
(iii) iodine in the presence of red phosphorus
(iv) LiAlH4 in ether

11. The best reagent for converting, 2-phenylpropanamide into 1- phenylethanamine is ____.

(i) excess H2/Pt
(ii) NaOH/Br2
(iii) NaBH4/methanol
(iv) LiAlH4/ether

12. Hoffmann Bromamide Degradation reaction is shown by __________.

(i) ArNH2
(ii) ArCONH2
(iii) ArNO2
(iv) ArCH2NH2

13. The correct increasing order of basic strength for the following compounds is _________.

(i) II < III < I
(ii) III < I < II
(iii) III < II < I
(iv) II < I < III

14. Methylamine reacts with HNO2 to form _________.

(i) CH3—O—N==O
(ii) CH3—O—CH3
(iii) CH3OH
(iv) CH3CHO

15. The gas evolved when methylamine reacts with nitrous acid is __________.

(i) NH3
(ii) N2
(iii) H2
(iv) C2H6

16. In the nitration of benzene using a mixture of conc. H2SO4 and conc. HNO3, the species which initiates the reaction is __________.

(i) NO2
(ii) NO+
(iii) NO2+
(iv) NO2

17. Reduction of aromatic nitro compounds using Fe and HCl gives __________.

(i) aromatic oxime
(ii) aromatic hydrocarbon
(iii) aromatic primary amine
(iv) aromatic amide

18. The most reactive amine towards dilute hydrochloric acid is ___________.

19. Acid anhydrides on reaction with primary amines give ____________.

(i) amide
(ii) imide
(iii) secondary amine
(iv) imine

20. The reaction – is named as _________.

(i) Sandmeyer reaction
(ii) Gatterman reaction
(iii) Claisen reaction
(iv) Carbylamine reaction

21. Best method for preparing primary amines from alkyl halides without changing the number of carbon atoms in the chain is

(i) Hoffmann Bromamide reaction
(ii) Gabriel phthalimide synthesis
(iii) Sandmeyer reaction
(iv) Reaction with NH3

22. Which of the following compound will not undergo azo coupling reaction with benzene diazonium chloride.

(i) Aniline
(ii) Phenol
(iii) Anisole
(iv) Nitrobenzene

23. Which of the following compounds is the weakest Brönsted base?

24. Among the following amines, the strongest Brönsted base is __________.

25. The correct decreasing order of basic strength of the following species is _______.
H2O, NH3, OH, NH2

(i) NH2 > OH > NH3 > H2O
(ii) OH > NH2 > H2O > NH3
(iii) NH3 > H2O > NH2 > OH
(iv) H2O > NH3 > OH > NH2

26. Which of the following should be most volatile?
(I) CH3CH2CH2NH2 (II) (CH3)3N (III) (IV) CH3CH2CH3

(i) II
(ii) IV
(iii) I
(iv) III

27. Which of the following methods of preparation of amines will give same number of carbon atoms in the chain of amines as in the reactant?

(i) Reaction of nitrite with LiAlH4.
(ii) Reaction of amide with LiAlH4 followed by treatment with water.
(iii) Heating alkylhalide with potassium salt of phthalimide followed by hydrolysis.
(iv) Treatment of amide with bromine in aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide.

II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)

Note : In the following questions two or more options may be correct.
28. Which of the following cannot be prepared by Sandmeyer’s reaction?

(i) Chlorobenzene
(ii) Bromobenzene
(iii) Iodobenzene
(iv) Fluorobenzene

29. Reduction of nitrobenzene by which of the following reagent gives aniline?

(i) Sn/HCl
(ii) Fe/HCl
(iii) H2-Pd
(iv) Sn/NH4OH

30. Which of the following species are involved in the carbylamine test?

(i) R—NC
(ii) CHCl3
(iii) COCl2
(iv) NaNO2 + HCl

31. The reagents that can be used to convert benzenediazonium chloride to benzene are __________.

(i) SnCl2/HCl
(ii) CH3CH2OH
(iii) H3PO2
(iv) LiAlH4

32. The product of the following reaction is __________.

33. Arenium ion involved in the bromination of aniline is __________.

34. Which of the following amines can be prepared by Gabriel synthesis.

(i) Isobutyl amine
(ii) 2-Phenylethylamine
(iii) N-methylbenzylamine
(iv) Aniline

35. Which of the following reactions are correct?

36. Under which of the following reaction conditions, aniline gives p-nitro derivative as the major product?

(i) Acetyl chloride/pyridine followed by reaction with conc. H2SO4 + conc. HNO3.
(ii) Acetic anyhdride/pyridine followed by conc. H2SO4 + conc. HNO3.
(iii) Dil. HCl followed by reaction with conc. H2SO4 + conc. HNO3.
(iv) Reaction with conc. HNO3 + conc.H2SO4.

37. Which of the following reactions belong to electrophilic aromatic substitution?

(i) Bromination of acetanilide
(ii) Coupling reaction of aryldiazonium salts
(iii) Diazotisation of aniline
(iv) Acylation of aniline

III. Short Answer Type

38. What is the role of HNO3 in the nitrating mixture used for nitration of benzene?
39. Why is NH2 group of aniline acetylated before carrying out nitration?
40. What is the product when C6H5CH2NH2 reacts with HNO2?
41. What is the best reagent to convert nitrile to primary amine?
42. Give the structure of ‘A’ in the following reaction.

43. What is Hinsberg reagent?
44. Why is benzene diazonium chloride not stored and is used immediately after its preparation?
45. Why does acetylation of —NH2 group of aniline reduce its activating effect?
46. Explain why MeNH2 is stronger base than MeOH?
47. What is the role of pyridine in the acylation reaction of amines?
48. Under what reaction conditions (acidic/basic), the coupling reaction of aryldiazonium chloride with aniline is carried out?
49. Predict the product of reaction of aniline with bromine in non-polar solvent such as CS2.
50. Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of dipole moment.
CH3CH2CH3, CH3CH2NH2, CH3CH2OH
51. What is the structure and IUPAC name of the compound, allyl amine?

52. Write down the IUPAC name of

53. A compound Z with molecular formula C3H9N reacts with C6H5SO2Cl to give a solid, insoluble in alkali. Identify Z.

54. A primary amine, RNH2 can be reacted with CH3—X to get secondary amine, R—NHCH3 but the only disadvantage is that 3° amine and quaternary ammonium salts are also obtained as side products. Can you suggest a method where RNH2 forms only 2° amine?

55. Complete the following reaction.

56. Why is aniline soluble in aqueous HCl?
57. Suggest a route by which the following conversion can be accomplished.

58. Identify A and B in the following reaction.

59. How will you carry out the following conversions?

(i) toluene → p-toluidine
(ii) p-toluidine diazonium chloride → p-toluic acid

60. Write following conversions:

(i) nitrobenzene → acetanilide (ii) acetanilide → p-nitroaniline

61. A solution contains 1 g mol. each of p-toluene diazonium chloride and pnitrophenyl diazonium chloride. To this 1 g mol. of alkaline solution of phenol is added. Predict the major product. Explain your answer.
62. How will you bring out the following conversion?

63. How will you carry out the following conversion?

64. How will you carry out the following conversion?

65. How will you carry out the following conversions?

IV. Matching Type

Note : Match the items of Column I and Column II in the following questions.

66. Match the reactions given in Column I with the statements given in Column II.

  Column I   Column II
(i) Ammonolysis (a) Amine with lesser number of carbon atoms
(ii) Gabriel phthalimide synthesis (b) Detection test for primary amines.
(iii) Hoffmann Bromamide reaction (c) Reaction of phthalimide with KOH and R—X
(iv) Carbylamine reaction (d) Reaction of alkylhalides with NH3

67. Match the compounds given in Column I with the items given in Column II.

  Column I   Column II
(i) Benzene sulphonyl chloride (a) Zwitter ion
(ii) Sulphanilic acid (b) Hinsberg reagent
(iii) Alkyl diazonium salts (c) Dyes
(iv) Aryl diazonium salts (d) Conversion to alcohols

V. Assertion and Reason Type

Note : In the following questions a statement of assertion followed by a statement of reason is given. Choose the correct answer out of the following choices.

(i) Both assertion and reason are wrong.
(ii) Both assertion and reason are correct statements but reason is not correct explanation of assertion.
(iii) Assertion is correct statement but reason is wrong statement.
(iv) Both assertion and reason are correct statements and reason is correct explanation of assertion.
(v) Assertion is wrong statement but reason is correct statement.

68. Assertion : Acylation of amines gives a monosubstituted product whereas alkylation of amines gives polysubstituted product.
Reason : Acyl group sterically hinders the approach of further acyl groups.

69. Assertion : Hoffmann’s bromamide reaction is given by primary amines.
Reason : Primary amines are more basic than secondary amines.

70. Assertion : N-Ethylbenzene sulphonamide is soluble in alkali.
Reason : Hydrogen attached to nitrogen in sulphonamide is strongly acidic.

71. Assertion : N, N-Diethylbenzene sulphonamide is insoluble in alkali.
Reason : Sulphonyl group attached to nitrogen atom is strong electron withdrawing group.

72. Assertion : Only a small amount of HCl is required in the reduction of nitro compounds with iron scrap and HCl in the presence of steam.
Reason : FeCl2 formed gets hydrolysed to release HCl during the reaction.

73. Assertion : Aromatic 1° amines can be prepared by Gabriel Phthalimide Synthesis.
Reason : Aryl halides undergo nucleophilic substitution with anion formed by phthalimide.

74. Assertion : Acetanilide is less basic than aniline.
Reason : Acetylation of aniline results in decrease of electron density on nitrogen.

VI. Long Answer Type

75. A hydrocarbon ‘A’, (C4H8) on reaction with HCl gives a compound ‘B’, (C4H9Cl), which on reaction with 1 mol of NH3 gives compound ‘C’, (C4H11N). On reacting with NaNO2 and HCl followed by treatment with water, compound ‘C’ yields
an optically active alcohol, ‘D’. Ozonolysis of ‘A’ gives 2 mols of acetaldehyde. Identify compounds ‘A’ to ‘D’. Explain the reactions involved.

76. A colourless substance ‘A’ (C6H7N) is sparingly soluble in water and gives a water soluble compound ‘B’ on treating with mineral acid. On reacting with CHCl3 and alcoholic potash ‘A’ produces an obnoxious smell due to the formation of compound ‘C’. Reaction of ‘A’ with benzenesulphonyl chloride gives compound ‘D’ which is soluble in alkali. With NaNO2 and HCl, ‘A’ forms compound ‘E’ which reacts with phenol in alkaline medium to give an orange dye ‘F’. Identify compounds ‘A’ to ‘F’.

77. Predict the reagent or the product in the following reaction sequence.

ANSWERS

I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)

1. (ii) 2. (iv) 3. (iii) 4. (i) 5. (iii) 6. (ii)
7. (iii) 8. (iv) 9. (iii) 10. (iv) 11. (ii) 12. (ii)
13. (iv) 14. (iii) 15. (ii) 16. (iii) 17. (iii) 18. (ii)
19. (i) 20. (ii) 21. (ii) 22. (iv) 23. (iii) 24. (iv)
25. (i) 26. (ii) 27. (iii)

II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)

28. (iii), (iv) 29. (i), (ii), (iii) 30. (i), (ii) 31. (ii), (iii)
32. (i), (ii) 33. (i), (ii), (iii) 34. (i), (ii) 35. (i), (iii)
36. (i), (ii) 37. (i), (ii)

III. Short Answer Type

38. HNO3 acts as a base in the nitrating mixture and provides the electrophile, NO2+ .
39. See NCERT textbook for Class XII.
40. C6H5CH2OH
41. Reduction of nitriles with sodium/alcohol or LiAlH4 gives primary amine.

42.

43. Benzene sulphonylchloride.
44. Benzene diazonium chloride is very unstable.
45. See NCERT textbook for Class XII.
46. Nitrogen is less electronegative than oxygen therefore lone pair of electrons on nitrogen is readily available for donation. Hence, MeNH2 is more basic than MeOH.
47. Pyridine and other bases are used to remove the side product i.e. HCl from the reaction mixture.
48. Reaction is done in mild basic conditions.
49. A mixture of 2-bromoaniline and 4-bromoaniline is formed.

50. CH3CH2CH3 < CH3CH2NH2 < CH3CH2OH
51. CH2== CH—CH2—NH2, prop-2-en-1-amine
52. N, N-Dimethylbenzenamine
53. Z is an aliphatic amine which gives a solid insoluble in base. This implies that reaction with C6H5SO2Cl must give a product without any replaceable hydrogen attached to nitrogen. In other words, the amine must be a secondary amine. i.e. Z is ethylmethylamine.

54.

Carbylamine reaction is shown by 1° amine only which results in the replacement of two hydrogen atoms attached to nitrogen atom of NH2 group by one carbon atom. On catalytic reduction the isocyanide will give a secondary amine with one methyl group.

55. The reaction exhibits azo-coupling of phenols. In mild alkaline conditions phenol moiety participates in the azo-coupling and para position of phenol is occupied.

56. Aniline forms the salt anilinium chloride which is water soluble.
57.

58.

59.

60.

61. This reaction is an example of electrophilic aromatic substitution. In alkaline medium, phenol generates phenoxide ion which is more electronrich than phenol and hence more reactive for electrophilic attack. The electrophile in this reaction is aryldiazonium cation. Stronger the electrophile faster is the reaction. p-Nitrophenyldiazonium cation is a
stronger electrophile than p-toluene diazonium cation. Therefore, it couples preferentially with phenol.

62.

63.

64.

65. (i)

(ii) Conversion (A) given below is same as in part (i) given above after that reaction (B) can be carried out.

IV. Matching Type

66. (i) → (d) (ii) → (c) (iii) → (a) (iv) → (b)
67. (i) → (b) (ii) → (a) (iii) → (d) (iv) → (c)

V. Assertion and Reason Type

68. (iii) 69. (iii) 70. (iv) 71. (ii) 72. (iv) 73. (i) 74. (iv)

VI. Long Answer Type

75.

Since products of ozonolysis of compound ‘A’ are CH3 — CH == O and O == CH—CH3. The compound ‘A’ is CH3—CH== CH—CH3
On the basis of structure of ‘A’ reactions can be explained as follows :

76.

77.

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Answers to -> Frequently Asked Questions ( FAQ ) [ commonly asked intelligent Questions 🙂 ]

1 ) How do I prepare for IIT ?

Ans : – See the videos made by me ( search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.weebly.com
Though we have many more which have not been uploaded ). While watching the videos, take notes and try to solve the problems yourself by pausing the video. Tell me if any calculation is wrong. See the videos with 1- first then 2- and so on. Write to IAPT Kothrud, Pune office to buy ( 150 Rs approx ) the book with previous papers of NSEP ( National Standard Exam in Physics – The 1st level ), INPhO ( Indian National Physics Olympiad – 2nd level ). Prepare with these and see how much you are scoring. You can guess your ALL INDIA rank easily from NSEP, and INPhO rank. Since 1998 the IIT JEE toppers have been mostly representing India in IPhO.

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Ans : Well there are lot of good things free in this world. Linux, My-SQL, Open-Office ….. Go to sourceforge and get thousands of high quality software free along with source code. Yes all officially free …. Why do you think Richard Stallman, Zimmerman, ….. etc are considered Guru philosophers ? In Punjab and Gurudwaras worldwide there are so many Langars where you get better food than Restaurants. ….. why ? Why do you have Dharmasalas and subsidized rest rooms near hospitals / Famous Temples / various places ? in Iftar party anyone can eat for free …. why ?

I am teaching since 1989 I have observed most students can do much better if they have the self motivation to solve and practice. Cheap books are available in second hand bookstalls, where you get thousands of Numericals to solve ….. but most students will like to blow their time going and coming for tuition, travel time …. TV for hours and hours watching cricket / Tennis games, playing computer games …. My free lectures are not going to make much difference in spending of unnecessary money for coaching ….. I know very well , how much people enjoy …. ! spending unnecessarily !!

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Ans :- There are lots of NGOs and others working for rural / poor children education at lower classes. While very less effort is on for std 9 till 12. Also see the answer in question number ( 3 ) above. In more than 2 decades of teaching I never met a Poor child who was seriously interested in ( higher ) studies. As I have a mind / thinking of a ” Physicist “, I go by ” Experimental Observation “.

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🙂

13 ) What is SCRA ?

Ans : – Special Class Railway Apprentice (SCRA) exam is conducted by Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) board, for about 10 seats.That translates into an astonishing ratio of 1 selection per 10,000 applicants. The SCRA scheme was started in 1927 by the British, to select a handful of most intelligent Indians to assist them in their Railway Operations, after training at their Railway’s largest workshop, i.e. Jamalpur Workshop, and for one year in United Kingdom. The selected candidates were required to appear in the Mechanical Engineering Degree Examination held by Engineering Council (London).

Thanks for your time. To become my friend in google+ ( search me as mokshya@gmail.com and send friend request )

Read http://edge.org/responses/what-scientific-concept-would-improve-everybodys-cognitive-toolkit
🙂
The following video is a must see for full CO2 cycle, plates of Earth, Geological activities, stability of weather
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oIuoNtRBG4w

🙂
Article in Nature says CO2 increase is good for the trees
http://thegwpf.org/science-news/6086-co2-is-greening-the-planet-savannahs-soon-to-be-covered-by-forests.html
🙂
http://climaterealists.com/index.php?id=9752

BBC documentary Crescent and Cross shows the 1000 years of fight between Christians and Muslims. Millions have been killed in the name of Religion. To decided whose GOD is better, and which GOD to follow. The fight continues.

Summary of Women
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yIpmML49hMU
🙂
The Virus of Faith
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scarHc8RA0g

🙂
The God delusion
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LVr9bJ8Sctk

🙂
cassiopeia facts about evolution
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K7tQIB4UdiY

Intermediate Fossil records shown and explained nicely Fossils, Genes, and Embryos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fdpMrE7BdHQ

The Rise Of Narcissism In Women
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wZHKCbHGlS0

🙂
13 type of women whom you should never court
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/relationships/man-woman/13-Women-you-should-never-court/articleshow/14637014.cms

🙂
Media teaching Misandry in India

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-M2txSbOPIo

Summary of problems with women
http://problemwithwomentoday.blogspot.in/2009/12/problem-with-women-today-what-in-hell.html

🙂
Eyeopener men ? women only exists
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ZAuqkqxk9A

🙂
Each of you is an Activist in some way or other. You are trying to propagate those thoughts, ideas that you feel concerned / excited about.

Did you analyze your effectiveness ?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=61qn7S9NCOs
Culturomics can help you

😀
see how biased women are. Experimental proof. Women are happy when they see another woman is beating a man ( see how women misbehave with men )

🙂
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LlFAd4YdQks

see detailed statistics at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5lHmCN3MBMI

An eye opener in Misandry
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YiTaDS_X6CU

My sincere advice would be to be EXTREMELY careful ( and preferably away ) of girls. As girls age; statistically certain behavior in them has been observed. Most Male can NOT manage those behaviors… Domestic violence, divorce etc are rising very fast. Almost in all cases boys / males are HUGE loosers. Be extremely choosy ( and think from several angles ) before even talking to a girl.
🙂
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/save-the-male/

🙂

How women manipulate men
http://www.angryharry.com/esWomenManipulateMen.htm

Gender Biased Laws in India
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/biased-laws/

🙂

Violence against Men
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MLS2E-rRynE

🙂

Only men are victimised
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4JA4EPRbWhQ

Men are BETTER than women
http://www.menarebetterthanwomen.com/
🙂

see
http://www.youtube.com/watch?&v=T0xoKiH8JJM#!
🙂

Male Psychology

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uwxgavf2xWE

Women are more violent than men
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/women-are-more-violent-says-study-622388.html

🙂

In the year 2010, 168 men ended their lives everyday ( on average ). More husbands committed suicide than wives.
🙂

http://www.rediff.com/news/report/ncrb-stats-show-more-married-men-committing-suicide/20111028.htm

It is EXTREMELY unfortunate that media projects men as fools, women as superiors, Husbands as servants, and replaceable morons. In ad after ad worldwide from so many companies, similar msg to disintegrate the world is being bombarded. It is highly unacceptable misandry

🙂
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oq14WHkFq30
It is NOT at all funny that media shows violence against MEN. Some advertisers are trying to create a new ” Socially acceptable culture ” of slapping Men ( by modern city women ). We ( all men ) take objection to these advertisements.
We oppose this Misandry bad culture. Please share to increase awareness against Men bashing

🙂
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D8ecN2rh0uU

Think what are you doing … why are you doing ?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qp0HIF3SfI4

Every Man must know this …
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cIFmQHJEG1M

🙂
Manginas, White Knights, & Other Chivalrous Dogs
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oXQDtBT70B8

!
!
: ****__********__***
…….. (””(`-“’´´-´)””)
……….)…..–…….–….(
………/…..(6…_…6)….\
………\……..(..0..)….;../
……__.`.-._..’=’…_.-.`.__
…./……’###.,.–.,.###.’…\
….\__))####’#’###(((__/
……##### u r #####
……..### SWEET. ###
……/….#########…\
..__\…..\..######/…../
(.(.(____)….`.#.´..(____).).)

🙂

45b Chemical properties of Amines

🙂

45a Nalir dhare fool

🙂

Women are more violent than men

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/women-are-more-violent-says-study-622388.html

Misandry in Media

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j7U0r7vIrgM

🙂

47b Aliphatic Amines

🙂

47a Ice cave

🙂

In the year 2010, 168 men ended their lives everyday ( on average ). More husbands committed suicide than wives.

http://www.rediff.com/news/report/ncrb-stats-show-more-married-men-committing-suicide/20111028.htm

 

It is EXTREMELY unfortunate that media projects men as fools, women as superiors, Husbands as servants, and replaceable morons. In ad after ad worldwide from so many companies, similar msg to disintegrate the world is being bombarded. It is highly unacceptable misandry

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oq14WHkFq30

It is NOT at all funny that media shows violence against MEN. Some advertisers are trying to create a new ” Socially acceptable culture ” of slapping Men ( by modern city women ). We ( all men ) take objection to these advertisements. We oppose this Misandry bad culture. Please share to increase awareness against Men bashing

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D8ecN2rh0uU

🙂

Think what are you doing … why are you doing ?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qp0HIF3SfI4

Every Man must know this …

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cIFmQHJEG1M
Manginas, White Knights, & Other Chivalrous Dogs

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oXQDtBT70B8

!

3a Ikebana
!
: ****__********__***
…….. (””(`-“’´´-´)””)
……….)…..–…….–….(
………/…..(6…_…6)….\
………\……..(..0..)….;../
……__.`.-._..’=’…_.-.`.__
…./……’###.,.–.,.###.’…\
….\__))####’#’###(((__/
……##### u r #####
……..### SWEET. ###
……/….#########…\
..__\…..\..######/…../
(.(.(____)….`.#.´..(____).).)

Think on these

5 methoxy group is electron donating by resonance

Secondary amines produce nitroso amines with aqueous nitrous acid, at low temperatures.

2c gaze pattern eye movement tracker

Amides react with base and bromine to give amines

6 Amides react with base and bromine to give amines

7 carbylamine test is performed in alcoholic KOH

Secondary amines form N-nitroso derivatives with Nitrous acid

7 Nitrile anion nitrosyl cation

Diazomethane synthesis

8 Diazomethane synthesis

On warming an aqueous solution of Benzenedizonium chloride Phenol is formed

3 Benzenediazonium salt converted to Phenol

Benzenediazoniumchloride reactions

9 Benzenediazoniumchloride reactions

10 Benzenediazoniumchloride reactions

Hypophosphorous acid is used to convert benzenediazonium chloride salt to benzene

4 Benzenediazonium chloride reactions

2z Ikebana

The Bromination of Aniline produces 2,4,6-tribromoaniline

3 Bromination of Aniline 2,4,6-tribromoanilne

5 Bromination of Benzene Electrophilic substitution

4 Bromination of Benzene Electrophilic substitution

Bromination of Anisole

6 Bromination of Anisole

Sandmeyer and Gattermann reaction

3 sandmeyer and Gattermann reaction

Benzenediazoniumchloride on reacting with phenol produces p-hydroxyazobenzene

7 benezene with Fluorine and NO2 reacting with DMF

DMF structure ( dimethylformamide )

8 DMF dimethylformamide

DMF reactions

9 DMF reactions

2x Ikebana

3 most acidic due to stability of conjugated alkene

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key words

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receptors reduction regioselectivity retro reaction rhodium ring closure ring contraction ring expansion ring opening ruthenium samarium scandium Schiff bases selenium self-assembly silicon sodium solid-phase synthesis solvent effects spectroscopy sphingolipids spiro compounds stereoselective synthesis stereoselectivity steric hindrance steroids Stille reaction substituent effects sulfates sulfonamides sulfones sulfoxides sulfur supported catalysis supramolecular tandem reaction tautomerism terpenoids thioacetals thiols tin titanium total synthesis transesterification transition metals transition states tungsten Umpolung vinylidene complexes vitamins Wacker reaction Wittig reaction ylides zeolites zinc BRST Quantization Effective field theories Field Theories Higher Dimensions Field Theories Lower Dimensions Large Extra Dimensions Lattice Quantum Field Theory Nonperturbative Effects Renormalization Group Renormalization Regularization skmclasses.weebly.com Renormalons Sigma Models 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delocalised electrons, bonded together strong metallic bonds greenhouse effect process IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com absorption subsequent emission infrared radiation atmospheric gases warms lower atmosphere planet’s surface group vertical column Periodic Table Elements group IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com similar chemical properties skmclasses.weebly.com atoms skmclasses.weebly.comnumber outer shell electrons Hess law reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one route skmclasses.weebly.com initial final conditions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com total enthalpy change skmclasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com route heterogeneous catalysis reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com catalyst IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com different physical state reactants; frequently, reactants IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com gases whilst catalyst solid heterolytic fission breaking covalent bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com both bonded electrons going IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one atoms, forming cation (+ ion) skmclasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com anion ion homogeneous catalysis reaction catalyst skmclasses.weebly.com reactants physical state, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com frequently aqueous gaseous state homologous series series organic compounds IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com functional group, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com successive member differing homolytic fission breaking covalent bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one bonded electrons going IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom, forming two radicals hydrated Crystalline skmclasses.weebly.com containing water molecules hydrocarbon compound hydrogen skmclasses.weebly.com carbon hydrogen bond strong dipole attraction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron deficient hydrogen atom (O H on different molecule hydrolysis reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com water aqueous hydroxide ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com breaks chemical compound skmclasses two compounds initiation first step radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com free radicals generated ultraviolet radiation intermolecular force attractive force IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com neighbouring molecules Intermolecular forces van der Waals’ forces induced dipole ces permanent dipole forces hydrogen bonds ion positively negatively charge atom covalently bonded group atoms molecular ion ionic bonding electrostatic attraction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oppositely charged ions first) ionisation energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com remove one electron IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole gaseous 2+ ions second) ionisation energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com remove one electron IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole gaseous 2+ ions successive ionisation measure energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com remove IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron Chemistry energy second ionisation energy energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one electron IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole gaseous 2+ ions isotopes Atoms skmclasses.weebly.com element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different numbers neutrons different masses le Chatelier’s principle system dynamic equilibrium subjected change position equilibrium will shift minimise change limiting reagent substance chemical reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com runs out first lone pair outer shell pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com involved chemical bonding mass nucleon number particles protons aneutrons) nucleus mechanism sequence steps showing path taken electrons reaction metallic bond electrostatic attraction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com positive metal ions adelocalised electrons molar mass substance units molar mass IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molar volume IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com mole gas. units molar volume IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com dm room temperature skmclasses.weebly.com pressure molar volume approximately 24.0 substance containing IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com many particles thereIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atoms exactly 12 g carbon isotope molecular formula number atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element molecule molecular ion M positive ion formed mass spectrometry IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecule loses electron molecule small group atoms held together covalent bonds monomer small molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com combines IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com monomers polymer nomenclature system naming compounds nucleophile atom group atoms attracted electron deficient centre atom donates pair electrons covalent bond nucleophilic substitution type substitution reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com nucleophile attracted electron deficient centre atom, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com donates pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com new covalent bond oxidation Loss electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com increase oxidation number oxidation number measure number electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom uses bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atoms another element. Oxidation numbers IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com derive d rules oxidising agent reagent IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oxidises (takes electrons from) another species percentage yield period horizontal row elements Periodic Table Elements show trends properties across period periodicity regular periodic variation properties elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atomic number position Periodic Table permanent dipole small charge difference across bond resulting IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com difference electronegativities bonded atoms permanent dipole dipole force attractive force IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com permanent dipoles neighbouring polar molecules pi bond (p bond reactive part double bond formed above skmclasses.weebly.com below plane bonded atoms sideways overlap p orbitalspolar covalent bond bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com permanent dipole polar molecule molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com overall dipole skmclasses account dipoles across bonds polymer long molecular chain built monomer units precipitation reaction formation solid solution during chemical reaction Precipitates IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two aqueous solutions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com mixed together principal quantum number n number representing relative overall energy orbital IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com increases distance nucleus sets orbitals IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com value IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com electron shells energy levels propagation two repeated radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com build up products chain reaction radical species unpaired electron rate reaction change concentration reactant product redox reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reduction skmclasses.weebly.com oxidation take IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reducing agent reagent IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reduces (adds electron to) species reduction Gain electrons decrease oxidation number yield actual amount mol product theoretical amount mol product Chemistry reflux continual boiling skmclasses.weebly.com condensing reaction mixture ensure IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com without contents flask boiling dry relative atomic mass weighted mean mass atom element compared one twelfth mass IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom carbon relative formula mass weighted mean mass formula unit compared IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one twelfth mass atom carbon relative isotopic mass mass atom isotope compared IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one twelfth mass atom carbon relative molecular mass weighted mean mass molecule compared twelfth mass atom carbon 12 repeat unit specific arrangement atom s IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com occurs structure over over again. Repeat units IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com included brackets outside IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com symbol n Salt chemical compound formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com acid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com H+ ion acid IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com been replaced metal ion another positive ion such IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com ammonium ion, NH saturated hydrocarbon IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com single bonds only shell group atomic orbitals IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com principal quantum number known main energy level simple molecular lattice three dimensional structure molecules, bonded together weak intermolecular forces skeletal formula simplified organic formula, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hydrogen atoms removed alkyl chains, leaving carbon skeleton skmclasses.weebly.com associated functional groups species particle IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com part chemical reaction specific heat capacity, c energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com raise temperature 1 g substance 1 C spectator ions Ions present part chemical reaction standard conditions pressure 100 kPa 1 atmosphere stated temperature usually 298 K (25 °C), skmclasses.weebly.com concentration 1 mol dm reactions aqueous solutions standard enthalpies enthalpystandard solution solution known concentration Standard solutions normally IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com titrations IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com determine unknown information another substance Chemistry standard state physical state substance under standard conditions 100 kPa 1 atmosphere) skmclasses.weebly.com 298 K 25 C stereoisomers Compounds skmclasses.weebly.com structural formula IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different arrangement atoms space stoichiometry molar relationship IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com relative quantities substances part reaction stratosphere second layer Earth’s atmosphere, containing ‘ozone layer’, about 10 km IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com 50 km above Earth’s surface structural formula formula showing minimal detail skmclasses.weebly.com arrangement atoms molecule structural isomers Molecules IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com molecular formula different structural arrangements atoms subshell group skmclasses.weebly.com type atomic orbitals s, p, d f within shell substitution reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom group atoms replaced different atom group atoms termination step end radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two radicals combine IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecule thermal decomposition breaking chemical substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com heat skmclasses least two chemical substances troposphere lowest layer Earth’s atmosphere extending Earth’s surface about 7 km (above poles) about 20 km above tropics unsaturated hydrocarbon hydrocarbon containing carbon carbon multiple bonds van der Waals’ forces Very weak attractive forces IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com induced dipoles neighbouring molecules volatility ease IITJEE 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actinium (89) skmclasses.weebly.com lawrencium (103 activated complex – structure IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com forms because collisionIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecules new bondsvIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com formed activation energy – minimum energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com must be inputIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com chemical system activity series actual yield addition reaction – within organic chemistry, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecules combineIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com larger aeration mixing air skmclasses liquid solid alkali metals metals Group 1 on periodic table alkaline earth metals – metals Group 2 on periodic table allomer substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comdifferent composition another skmclasses.weebly.comcrystalline structure allotropy elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different structures skmclasses.weebly.com therefore different forms IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com Carbon diamonds, graphite, skmclasses.weebly.com fullerene anion negatively charge ions anode – positive side dry cell battery cell aromaticity – chemical property conjugated rings IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com results unusual stability. See IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com benzene atom – chemical element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com smallest form, skmclasses.weebly.com made up neutrons skmclasses.weebly.comprotons within nucleus skmclasses.weebly.comelectrons circling nucleus atomic mass unit atomic number number representing IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com corresponds IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com number protons within nucleus atomic orbital region IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron atom may be found atomic radius average atomic mass Avogadro’s law Avogadro’s number number particles mole substance ( 6.02×10^23 ) barometer deviceIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com measure pressure atmosphere base substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com accepts proton skmclasses.weebly.com high pH; common example sodium hydroxide (NaOH biochemistry chemistry organisms boiling phase transition liquid vaporizing boiling point temperature IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com substance startsIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com boil boiling-point elevation process IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com boiling point elevated adding substance bond – attraction skmclasses.weebly.com repulsion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atoms skmclasses.weebly.com molecules IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com cornerstone Boyle’s law Brønsted-Lowrey acid chemical species IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com donates proton Brønsted–Lowry acid–base reaction Brønsted-Lowrey base – chemical species IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com accepts proton buffered solution – IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com aqueous solution consisting weak acid skmclasses.weebly.comits conjugate base weak base skmclasses.weebly.comits conjugate acid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com resists changes pH IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com strong acids basesIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com added burette (IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com buret glasswareIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com dispense specific amounts liquid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com precision necessary titration skmclasses.weebly.com resource dependent reactions example combustion catalyst chemical compoundIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com change rate IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com speed up slow down reaction,IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com regenerated at end reaction cation – positively charged ion centrifuge equipmentIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com separate substances based on density rotating tubes around centred axis cell potential force galvanic cell IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com pulls electron through reducing agentIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oxidizing agent chemical Law certain rules IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com pertain IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com laws nature skmclasses.weebly.comchemistry – examples chemical reaction – change one IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com substances skmclassesanother multiple substances colloid mixture evenly dispersed substances such IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comm milks combustion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com exothermic reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oxidant skmclasses.weebly.comfuel IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com heat skmclasses.weebly.comoften light compound – substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com made up two IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com chemically bonded elements condensation phase changeIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com gasIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com liquid conductor material IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com allows electric flow IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com freely covalent bond – chemical bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com involves sharing electrons crystal solid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com packed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ions, molecules atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com orderly fashion cuvette glasswareIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com spectroscopic experiments. usually made plastic glass quartz skmclasses.weebly.comshould be IITJEE possible deionization removal ions, skmclasses.weebly.com water’s case mineral ions such IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comsodium, iron skmclasses.weebly.comcalcium deliquescence substances IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com absorb water IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atmosphereIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com liquid solutions deposition – settling particles within solution mixture dipole electric magnetic separation charge dipole moment – polarity polar covalent bond dissolution solvation – spread ions monosacharide double bond sharing two pairs electradodes Microcentrifuge Eppendorf tube IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Coomassie Blue solution earth metal – see alkaline earth metal electrolyte solution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com conducts certain amount current skmclasses.weebly.com split categorically IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com weak skmclasses.weebly.comstrong electrolytes electrochemical cell using chemical reaction’s current electromotive force made electromagnetic radiation type wave IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com through vacuums IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comwell IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.commaterial skmclasses.weebly.comclassified IITJEE 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skmclasses.weebly.comH entropy – amount energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com available skmclasses.weebly.com work closed thermodynamic system usually symbolized IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com S enzyme – protein IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com speeds up catalyses reaction Empirical Formula – IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com called simplest formula gives simplest whole -number ratio atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element present compound eppendorf tube – generalized skmclasses.weebly.comtrademarked term skmclasses.weebly.com type tube; see microcentrifuge freezing – phase transitionIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com liquidIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com solid Faraday constant unit electrical charge widelyIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrochemistry skmclasses.weebly.comequalIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ~ 96,500 coulombs represents 1 mol electrons, Avogadro number electrons: 6.022 × 1023 electrons. F = 96 485.339 9(24) C/mol Faraday’s law electrolysis two part law IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Michael Faraday published about electrolysis mass substance altered at IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrode during electrolysis directly proportionalIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com quantity electricity transferred at IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrode mass IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com elemental material altered at IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrode directly proportionalIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element’s equivalent weight frequency number cyclesIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com unit time. Unit: 1 hertz = 1 cycleIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com 1 second galvanic cell battery made up electrochemical IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two different metals connected salt bridge gas particles container IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com no definite shape volume geochemistry – chemistry skmclasses.weebly.comchemical composition Earth Gibbs energy – value IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com indicates spontaneity reaction usually symbolized G Cavalier India, Kalyan Nagar halogens Group 7 Periodic Table skmclasses.weebly.comare non-metals heat energy transferredIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one systemIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com another thermal interaction jodium – Latin name halogen element iodine Joule SI I.M.S. Learning Resources Pvt. 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IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com called “visible light London dispersion forces weak intermolecular force Law Motion object motion stay motion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com object rest stays rest unless IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com unbalanced force acts molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one key components within chemistry Metal Chemical element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com good conductor both electricity skmclasses.weebly.comheat skmclasses.weebly.comforms cations skmclasses.weebly.comionic bonds IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com non-metals melting phase changeIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com solidIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com liquid metalloid substance possessing both properties metals skmclasses.weebly.comnon-metals methylene blue heterocyclic aromatic chemical compound IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecular formula C16H18N3SCl microcentrifuge plastic container IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com store small amounts liquid mole – abbreviated mol measurement IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com amount substance single mole contains approximately 6.022×1023 units entities mole water contains 6.022×1023 H2O molecules molecule chemically I Beacons Academy, Jaya Nagar 4th Block bonded number atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrically neutral molecular orbital region mIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron found molecule opposed atom neat Alchemy India Services Pvt. 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33, Sector IV HSR Layout, Bangalore hydrolysis hydrosilylation hydrostannation hyperconjugation imides imines indium indoles induction inhibitors insertion iodine ionic liquids iridium iron isomerization The Brigade International School , Brigade Millenium JP Nagar Brigade Millenium, JP Nagar Bangalore ketones kinetic resolution lactams lactones lanthanides Lewis acids ligands lipids lithiation lithium macrocycles magnesium manganese Mannich bases medicinal chemistry metalation metallacycles metallocenes metathesis Michael addition Mitsunobu reaction molecular recognition molybdenum multicomponent reaction nanostructures natural products neighboring-group effects nickel nitriles nitrogen nucleobases nucleophiles nucleophilic addition nucleophilic National Centre For Excellence 154/1, “Victorian Enclave”, 5th Main, Malleshpalya, Bangalore aromatic substitution nucleosides nucleotides olefination oligomerization oligonucleotides oligosaccharides organometallic reagents osmium oxidation oxygen oxygenations ozonolysis palladacycles palladium peptides pericyclic reaction peroxides phase-transfer catalysis phenols pheromones phosphates phosphorus phosphorylation Adugodi Aga Abbas Ali Road Agaram Agrahara Dasara Halli Agrahara Dasarahalli Airport Exit Road Airport Main Road Airport Road Akkipet Ali Askar Road Alur Venkatarao Road Amarjyothi Layout Amruth Nagar Amrutha Halli Ananda Nagar Anandrao Circle Anche Palya Ane Palya Anekal Anjana Nagar Anubhava Nagar APMC Yard Arabic College Arakere Arcot Sreenivasachar Street Ashok Nagar Ashwath Nagar Attibele Attiguppe Austin Town Avala Halli Avenue Road B. Narayanapura Babusahib Palya Bagalagunte Bagalur Balaji Nagar Balepet Banashankari Banashankari 1st Stage Banashankari 2nd Stage Banashankari 3rd Stage Banaswadi Banaswadi Ring Road Bangalore G.P.O Bannerghatta Bannerghatta Road Bapuji Nagar Basappa Circle Basava Nagar Basavanagudi Basaveshwara Nagar Basaveshwara Nagar 2nd Stage Basaveshwara Nagar 3rd Block Basaveshwara Nagar 3rd Stage Basaveshwara Road Bazaar Street Begur BEL Road Bellandur Bellandur Outer Ring Road Bellary Road BEML Layout Benagana Halli Bendre Nagar Benson Town Bharati Nagar Bhattara Halli Bhoopasandra Bhuvaneshwari Nagar Bidadi Bileka Halli Bilekahalli Binny Mill Road Bismillah Nagar Bommana Halli Bommanahalli Kendriya Vidyalaya Malleswaram 18th Cross Malleswaram Bangalore Bommasandra Bommasandra Industrial Area Brigade Road Brindavan Nagar Brookefield Brunton Road BTM 1st Stage BTM 2nd Stage Bull Temple Road Palace Orchards/Sadashivnagar area located north city centre IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com property prices higher brackets possibly IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com up-market residential area in Bangalore M.G. Road/Brigade Road M.G. Road skmclasses.weebly.comBrigade Road main commercial areas Bangalore. Residential areas nearbyIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Brunton Road Rest House Road, St. Mark’s Road skmclasses.weebly.comLavelle Road Airport Road/Indiranagar eastern suburb, Indiranagar is easily accessible IITJEE city centre skmclasses.weebly.com Airport Koramangala Located south Indiranagar, Koramangala quite favourite IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IT professionals Despite 7 kmsIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com city centre, property values Ulsoor scenic man-made lake Ulsoor seen a spurt building activity last few years.IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com proximityIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com M.G Road jacked up property prices here Jayanagar/J.P. Nagar/Banashankari proximity areas Electronic City main reason skmclasses.weebly.comtheir growth recent past Jayanagar largest colonies Asia skmclasses.weebly.comthese areas popular areas Bangalore. Jayanagara originally namedIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Sri Jayachamarajendra wodeyar last king Mysore. 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Malleswaram PSBB Learning Leadership Academy
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Hardinge Road old name Pampa Mahakavi Road. sometime, Cunningham Road crowded bazaar being called Sampangi Ramaswamy Temple Road Race Course Road became Devraj Urs Road National Public School, Rajajinagar 1036-A, Purandarapura, V Block, Rajajinagar, Bangalore skmclasses.weebly.comGrant Road became Vittal Mallya Road IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two Vittal Mallya Roads skmclasses bund Sampangi Tank Kanteerava Stadium Gear Innovative International School GEAR Road, Doddakannelli, Off Sarjapur Road & Outer Ring Road, Bangalore IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com built MacIver Town Shantala Nagar Assayee Road Meanee Road those names commemoration wars fought Madras New Horizon Gurukul Ring Road Marathalli, Behind New Horizon College of Engineering, Bangalore , Bangalore IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com Sappers, BGS National Public School Ramalingeshwara Cave Temple Hulimavu, Bangalore IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Presidency School (Bangalore – East) CA Site 7P1A, 2nd A Main, 3rd A cross, East of NGEF Layout, Kasturinagar, Bangalore British Army against Marathas first decade 19th century Basavanagudi, meaning temple Basava skmclasses.weebly.com big bull situated area reason behind naming area Basavanagudi extension skmclassesformed around 1900. 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Innovation Mall, JP Nagar 3rd Phase Chandapura Chandra Layout Global Academy For Learning Sri Chowdeshwari Farm, Near Global Village IT Park, National Public School, HSR Layout P2/32, Sector 4, HSR Layout Bangalore Pattanagere Main Road, Rajarajeshwarinagar, Bangalore Chickpet Chikkabanavara Chikkadugodi Chikkallasandra Chikkamavalli Cholara Palya Chowdeshwari Temple Street Chunchagatta Church Street Clevelskmclasses.weebly.com Town CMH Road Coles Park Commercial Street Commissariat Road Cooke Town Corporation Circle Cottonpet Cox Town Crescent Road Cubbon Park Cubbon Road Cubbonpet Cunningham Road Dairy Circle Dasara Halli Dasarahalli Devaiah Park Devana Halli Devanahalli Devara Chikkana Halli Devara Jeevana Halli Devasandra Dharmaram College Dickenson Road Dispensary Road Dodda Banaswadi Dodda Bommasandra Dodda Kallasandra Dodda Kanna Hally Dodda Mavalli Doddaballapur Road Doddaballapura Doddana Kundi Dollars Colony Domlur Domlur 2nd Stage Domlur Ring Road Dooravani Nagar Dr. Ambedkar Veedhi Dr. DVG Road Delhi Public School, South 11 K.M., kanakapura Road Konanakunte Post, Bangalore Dr. Raj Kumar Road Dr. TCM Royan Road Ejipura Electronic City Field Marshal Cariappa Road Frazer Town Ganapathi Nagar Gandhi Bazaar Gandhi Nagar Ganga Nagar Gangadhar Chetty Road Ganigarpet Garvebhavi Palya Gavipuram Extension Gayathri Nagar Geddala Halli Geddalahalli Giri Nagar Giri Nagar 1st Phase Giri Nagar 2nd Phase GM Palya Gokula Golf Course Road Gorgunte Palya Govindaraj Nagar Green Park Extension, Guddada Halli Gundopanth Street National Public School, Indiranagar 12 A Main HAL II Stage, Bangalore H.Siddaiah Road Haines Road HAL HAL 2nd Stage HAL 3rd Stage HAL Airport Road Hampi Nagar Hanumantha Nagar Hayes Road HBR Layout Hebbal Kempapura Hebbal Ring Road Hegde Nagar Heggana Halli Hennur Hesaraghatta HKP Road HMT Layout Hongasandra Hoody Horamavu Hosakere Halli photochemistry photooxidation piperidines polyanions polycations polycycles polymers Porphyrins prostaglandins 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Training iPhone Development Training Mobile Application Testing Training Mobile Gaming Training Mobile Application Development Training Oakridge International School Oakridge International School, Sarjapur Road, , Bangalore School of India, Bannerghatta, Bangalore Delhi Public School DPS North Campus, Yelahanka, Bangalore Jain International Residential School (JIRS), Jakkasandra Post, Bangalore Delhi Public School (DPS East), Sarjapur, Bangalore TREAMIS World School, Electronics City, Bangalore South Delhi Public School (South), Kanakapura Road, Bangalore The Deen’s Academy, Whitefield, Bangalore National Public School (NPS), Koramangala, Bangalore Royale Concorde International School, Kalyan Nagar, Bangalore Freedom International School, HSR Layout, Bangalore Air Force School Army Public School Bangalore Military School BGS International School Cambridge Public School Delhi Public School Deva Matha Central School Jain International Residential School Kendriya Vidyalaya A M C School 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for Excellence Capitol Public School CMR National Public School Delhi Public School East, South, North Edify School EuroSchool Freedom International School Geethanjali Montessori Geethanjali Vidhyalaya Gitanjali International School GISB Greengrove International School Gomathy Global School Harvest International School JSS Public School Kendriya Vidyalaya KV Manipal Tattva School Mirambika School for New Age NITTE International School National Centre for Excellence NCFE National Public School New Horizon Gurukul NHG Oakridge International School Presidency School PSBB LLA Padma Seshadri Bal Bhavan Radcliffe School Ravindra Bharathi Global School Sadhguru Sainath International School SSI Sri Kumaran Childrens Home Sunrise International Residential School Sujaya School The Samhita Academy Vagdevi Vilas School Venkat International Public School VIPS Vyasa International School Zee School IGCSE Syllabus Asia Pacific World School Krupanidhi Cambridge International School Candor International School Ekya School Gitanjali International GISB Greengrove International School Gomathy Global School Gopalan International School Harvest International School India International School (IIS) Oakridge International School Primus School Shibumi Trio World School International Baccalaureate IB Candor International School Oakridge International School (IB-PYP) State Board Amaatra Academy Lawrence School-State Board Paradise Residential School Primus School St. Francis De Sales (SFS) High School Sri Kumaran Childrens Home St Francis School Vagdevi Vilas School Special Schools Sri Rakum School for the blind Mirambika School for New Age Sri Aurobindo Shibumi (J. Krishnamurthi Aurinko Academy Chetana Kini Institute Samarthanam Residential School XSeed Schools Mirambika School New Age Sri Aurobindo Mother Teresa Public School curriculum Chrysalis High List of Schools Achievers International Academy ACTS Secondary School Amaatra Academy Amar Jyothi School Amrita Vidyalayam Army Public School Asia Pacific World School Aurinko Academy B Mona High School Baldwin Boys High School Baldwin Girls High School Bangalore International School Bangalore School Bethany High Bethany Junior School BGS-NPS School Bishop Cotton Boys School Bishop Cotton Girls School Brigade School British International School BRS Global Centre for Excellence BVM Global Cambridge Public School Candor International School Capitol Public School Cathedral High School Chinmaya Vidyalaya Christ Academy Chrysalis High CMR National Public School Delhi Public School Deva Matha Central School Edify School Ekya School EuroSchool Freedom International School Gear School Geethanjali Montessori Geethanjali Vidhyalaya Gitanjali International (GISB) Global Indian International School Gnan Srishti School Gomathy Global School Gopalan School Green County Public School Greengrove International School Greenwood High Harvest International School India International School Innisfree House School JSS Public School Kendriya Vidyalaya (KV) Lawrence School ICSE Lawrence School-State Magnolia Maaruti Public School Manipal Tattva School Mirambika School for New Age Mother Teresa Public School National Centre for Excellence National Hill View Public School National Public School New Horizon Gurukul New Horizon Public School Nitte International School Notre Dame Academy Oakridge International School Oxford Public School Parachute Regiment School Paradise Residential School Patel Public School Podar International School Prakriya Green Wisdom School Presidency School Primus School PSBB LLA Radcliffe School Ravindra Bharathi Global School Ryan International School Sadhguru Sainath International School Samarthanam Residential School SFS High School Sherwood High Shibumi Silver Oaks Sishu Griha Sri Chaitanya Techno School Sri Kumaran Childrens Home Sri Rakum School for the blind St Francis School St Johns High School St Mira School St Thomas Public School St. Patrick’s Academy St. Peters School Sujaya School Sunrise International Residential School The Samhita Academy Trio World School Vagdevi Vilas School Venkat International Public School Vibgyor High Vidyaniketan School Vyasa International School Whitefield Global School Xseed Pre-School Zee School
Primary Years Programme Colegio Anglo Mexicano MEXICO Milgate Primary School, AUSTRALIA Diploma Programme Australian International School Indonesia Pejaten Campus INDONESIA Instituto Educativa Fiscomisional Celina Vivar Espinosa, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Juan de Salinas, ECUADOR Primary Years Programme Academia Moderna Charter, UNITED STATES Beacon School BRAZIL Dr. Orlando Edreira Academy, School 26, UNITED STATES Westhill Institute Carpatos Elementary Campus, MEXICO Westhill Institute, S.C. MEXICO Middle Years Programme Cooper Academy, UNITED STATES European International School VIETNAM Mark Bills Middle School UNITED STATES Mount Washington School UNITED STATES UCSI International School MALAYSIA Diploma Programme Cass Technical High School, UNITED STATES Colegio Experimental Juan Montalvo, ECUADOR Colegio Miguel Moreno Ordoñez de Cuenca ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Ibarra ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Mariano Benítez ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Velasco Ibarra, ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Veracruz, ECUADOR Colegio Pedro Vicente Maldonado ECUADOR Colegio Técnico 12 de Febrero, ECUADOR Colegio Técnico Fiscomisional Ecuador Amazónico, ECUADOR Colegio de Bachillerato Limón ECUADOR King Fahd Academy Bonn GERMANY Saudi Schools Moscow RUSSIAN FEDERATION Unidad Educativa 17 de Julio ECUADOR Unidad Educativa 12 de Febrero ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Bernardo Valdivieso ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Dayuma ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Federico González Suárez ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Fiscomisional Fray Bartolomé de las Casas ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Fiscomisional Juan Pablo II ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Fiscomisional San José de Calasanz ECUADOR Unidad Educativa León Ruales ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Nacional Napo ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Temporal Camilo Gallegos Dominguez ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Temporal Manuel Córdova Galarza ECUADOR Primary Years Programme Campus International School, UNITED STATES Carl Hankey K-8 School UNITED STATES Christa McAuliffe Elementary School UNITED STATES Goethe International Charter School , UNITED STATES Hammond Eastside Elementary Magnet School, UNITED STATES Hawthorne Elementary School UNITED STATES Idlewild Elementary School, UNITED STATES J. Colin English Elementary UNITED STATES Jose de Escandon Elementary, UNITED STATES Lincoln Elementary School, UNITED STATES Qingdao Amerasia International School CHINA Roland Park K-8 Magnet School for International Studies, UNITED STATES Theodore Roosevelt Elementary School, UNITED STATES Woodrow Wilson Elementary UNITED STATES Middle Years Programme Cache La Poudre Middle School, UNITED STATES Carl Hankey K-8 School, UNITED STATES Cedar Shoals High School UNITED STATES Concord High School, UNITED STATES Harry Stone Montessori Academy, UNITED STATES International School of Monterey, UNITED STATES Johnnie R. Carr Middle School, UNITED STATES Prairie Seeds Academy, UNITED STATES Roland Park K-8 Magnet School, UNITED STATES Sterling Middle School UNITED STATES The Aga Khan Academy, Hyderabad, INDIA Diploma Programme Ausangate Bilingual School PERU Author’s School Istochnik RUSSIAN FEDERATION Colegio Fiscal Técnico El Chaco ECUADOR Colegio Juan Bautista Montini ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Ciudad de Cuenca ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Experimental Salcedo, ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Machachi, ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Mixto El Playon, ECUADOR Colegio Técnico Cascales, ECUADOR Dar al Marefa Private School, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Escola Internacional del Camp SPAIN Gymnasium Jovan Jovanovic Zmaj SERBIA ISTEK Private Acibadem Schools TURKEY Instituto Superior Tecnológico Carlos Cisneros ECUADOR Instituto Superior Tecnológico Daniel Alvarez Burneo ECUADOR Instituto Técnico Superior Isabel de Godin ECUADOR King Abdulaziz Saudi School Rome ITALY Riga State Gymnasium Nr. 2 LATVIA Saudi School Vienna AUSTRIA State IS Seeheim Jugenheim/Schuldorf Bergstrasse GERMANY Unidad Educativa Bolívar, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Abelardo Moncayo, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Fiscomisional Verbo Divino, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Mayor ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Nueva Semilla, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Temporal Juan Bautista Vásquez, ECUADOR Primary Years Programme Ajman Academy UNITED ARAB EMIRATES British International School Kiev UKRAINE Cache La Poudre Elementary School, UNITED STATES Dr. Thomas S. O Connell Elementary School UNITED STATES Gems World Academy Abu Dhabi UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Hebron-Harman Elementary School, UNITED STATES International School of Solothurn, SWITZERLAND Lisa-Junior Primary School AUSTRIA Madison Richard Simis Elementary School, UNITED STATES Miina Härma Gümnaasium, ESTONIA Riffenburgh Elementary School UNITED STATES Roscoe Wilson Elementary School, UNITED STATES Singapore International School INDIA William H. Wharton K-8 Dual Language Academy UNITED STATES World Academy of Tirana, ALBANIA École Centrale, CANADA École Micheline-Brodeur CANADA École Saint-Édouard, CANADA École élémentaire catholique Jean-Paul II CANADA Özel Istanbul Coskun Koleji Anaokulu & Ilkokulu TURKEY Middle Years Programme Abraham Lincoln Middle School UNITED STATES Beijing Huijia Private School CHINA Cakir Middle School TURKEY Durango High School UNITED STATES Emirates IS Meadows, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Madison International School, MEXICO Meadow Park Middle School, UNITED STATES North Central High School, UNITED STATES Phuket International Academy Day School THAILAND Ray Wiltsey Middle School UNITED STATES Rockridge Secondary School CANADA School Lane Charter School UNITED STATES Strothoff International School Rhein-Main Campus Dreieich GERMANY Tsukuba International School JAPAN École Père-Marquette, CANADA École secondaire Saint-Luc, CANADA Diploma Programme Anania Shirakatsy Armenian National Lyceum Ed’l Complex-CJSC, ARMENIA COLEGIO ALAUDA SPAIN Colegio Británico, MEXICO Colegio Nacional Camilo Gallegos Toledo ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Experimental Amazonas, ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Experimental María Angélica Idrobo, ECUADOR Colegio Nacional San José, ECUADOR Eastern Mediterranean International School, ISRAEL Emirates National School UNITED ARAB EMIRATES GEMS American Academy Abu Dhabi, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES German International School Sharjah UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Instituto Tecnológico Superior Angel Polibio Chaves, ECUADOR International School Moshi Arusha Campus TANZANIA, UNITED REPUBLIC OF International School of Bydgoszcz POLAND Ludoteca Elementary & High School, Padre Víctor Grados, ECUADOR Léman International School Chengdu CHINA Metropolitan School of Panama, PANAMA Munic. Atms. Educ. Institution Kogalym Secondary School ?8, RUSSIAN FEDERATION Phorms Bilingual Gymnasium, GERMANY Royal High School, UNITED STATES SIS Swiss International School Stuttgart-Fellbach, GERMANY Seedling Public School INDIA The British School of Beijing CHINA Unidad Educativa Fiscal Experimental del Milenio, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Juan de Velasco ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Tumbaco, ECUADOR École secondaire Gaétan Gervais, CANADA École secondaire Hanmer CANADA Stonehill International School American School of Bombay Mumbai Day school offering PYP MYP DP Dhirubhai Ambani International School Mumbai Day school offering DP Ecole Mondiale World School, Mumbai Day school offering DP Jamnabai Narsee School Mumbai Day school offering DP Ahmedabad International School Ahmedabad Day School offering PYP Mahatma Gandhi International School Ahmedabad Day school offering MYP Mahindra United World College of India Pune Boarding school offering DP Mercedes-Benz International School Pune American Embassy School Delhi Day school offering DP The British School, Delhi Day school offering DP Pathways World School, Gurgaon Boarding school offering PYP DP SelaQui World School, Dehra Dun Boarding school offering DP Canadian International School, Bangalore Mixed Boarding Day school offering DP International School of Bangalore, Bangalore Mixed Boarding Day school offering DP Oakridge International School Hyderabad Day school offering PYP Chinmaya International Residential School Coimbatore Boarding school offering DP Good Shepherd International School Ooty Boarding school offering DP Kodaikanal International School, Kodaikanal Boarding school offering DP Home Tuition Group teachers available small groupsstudents IB International Baccalaureate Programme, IGCSE, ISc, ICSE, CBSE Schools offering IB ( International Baccalaureate ) Programme Bangalore International School Geddalahalli Hennur Bagalur Road Kothanur Post Bengaluru India 560 077 Stonehill International School, 1st Floor, Embassy Point #150, Infantry Road Bengaluru 560 001 Stonehill International School 259/333/334/335 Tarahunise Post Jala Hobli, Bengaluru North 562157 Candor International School Begur Koppa Road, Hullahalli Off Bannerghatta Road, Near Electronic City Bangalore 560105 Greenwood High International School Bengaluru, No.8-14, Chickkawadayarapura, Near Heggondahalli Gunjur Post, Varthur Sarjapur Road, Bangalore 560087 Sarla Birla Academy, Bannerghatta, Bangalore, Canadian International School, Yelahanka, Bangalore Indus International School Billapura Cross Sarjapur Bangalore

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