NCERT CBSE Standard 12 Chemistry in Everyday Life Chapter 16 Dyes Witts Theory Drugs

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Solution to NCERT CBSE Standard 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 :

Chemistry in Everyday Life

Must see https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/some-points-which-i-wish-all-my-new-prospective-students-know/

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16.1 Why do we need to classify drugs in different ways ?

16.1 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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16.2 Explain the term, target molecules or drug targets as used in medicinal
chemistry.

16.2 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

🙂

Must see https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/some-points-which-i-wish-all-my-new-prospective-students-know/

🙂

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!
The first Chapter Solution is at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/ncert-cbse-standard-12-solid-state-chapter-1-physical-chemistry/
!
The previous chapter Solution is at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/ncert-cbse-standard-12-polymers-chapter-15/
!
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Untitled

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1 Periodic trend in Electrode potential-4

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16.3 Name the macromolecules that are chosen as drug targets.

16.3 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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63a Dyes Notes points to remember

63b Dyes Notes points to remember

8 Skeleton riksha chalachche

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63c Dyes Notes points to remember

63d Dyes Notes points to remember

63e Dyes Notes points to remember

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8 Ei loktar ki hoyeche

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63f Dyes Notes points to remember

63g Dyes Notes points to remember

63h Dyes Notes points to remember

8 eta ki keo jane ki

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63i Dyes Notes points to remember

63j Dyes Notes points to remember

8 Eta ki

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63k Dyes Notes points to remember

63l Dyes Notes points to remember

8 Futo futo Hemisphere

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63m Dyes Notes points to remember

63n Dyes Notes points to remember

8 Gadhir Tukdo

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63o Dyes Notes points to remember

63p Dyes Notes points to remember

8 Ghoda kemon jano

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63q Dyes Notes points to remember

63r Dyes Notes points to remember

8 Hati cycle chalachche

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63s Dyes Notes points to remember

63t Dyes Notes points to remember

8 Motherchod Meyera Saper passe

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63u Dyes Notes points to remember

63v Dyes Notes points to remember

8 sculpture

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16.4 Why should not medicines be taken without consulting doctors ?

16.4 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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16.5 Define the term chemotherapy.

16.5 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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16.6 Which forces are involved in holding the drugs to the active site of enzymes ?

16.6 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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16.7 While antacids and antiallergic drugs interfere with the function of
histamines, why do these not interfere with the function of each other ?

16.7 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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16.8 Low level of noradrenaline is the cause of depression. What type of drugs
are needed to cure this problem ? Name two drugs.

16.8 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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16.9 What is meant by the term ‘broad spectrum antibiotics’ ? Explain.

16.9 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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16.10 How do antiseptics differ from disinfectants ? Give one example of each.

16.10 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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16.11 Why are cimetidine and ranitidine better antacids than sodium
hydrogencarbonate or magnesium or aluminium hydroxide ?

16.11 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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16.12 Name a substance which can be used as an antiseptic as well as
disinfectant.

16.12 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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16.13 What are the main constituents of dettol ?

16.13 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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16.14 What is tincture of iodine ? What is its use ?

16.14 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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16.15 What are food preservatives ?

16.15 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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16.16 Why is use of aspartame limited to cold foods and drinks ?

16.16 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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16.17 What are artificial sweetening agents ? Give two examples.

16.17 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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16.18 Name the sweetening agent used in the preparation of sweets for a diabetic
patient.

16.18 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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16.19 What problem arises in using alitame as artificial sweetener ?

16.19 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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16.20 How are synthetic detergents better than soaps ?

16.20 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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16.21 Explain the following terms with suitable examples
(i) cationic detergents
(ii) anionic detergents and
(iii) non-ionic detergents

16.21a Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

16.21b Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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16.22 What are biodegradable and non-biodegradable detergents ? Give one
example of each.

16.22 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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16.23 Why do soaps not work in hard water ?

16.23 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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!
The first Chapter Solution is at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/ncert-cbse-standard-12-solid-state-chapter-1-physical-chemistry/
!
The previous chapter Solution is at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/ncert-cbse-standard-12-polymers-chapter-15/
!
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16.24 Can you use soaps and synthetic detergents to check the hardness of
water ?

16.24 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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16.25 Explain the cleansing action of soaps.

16.25 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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16.26 If water contains dissolved calcium hydrogencarbonate, out of soaps and
synthetic detergents which one will you use for cleaning clothes ?

16.26 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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51a Mordants in Dye
16.27 Label the hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts in the following compounds.

16.27 Chemistry in Everyday life

16.27 Ans Chemistry in Everyday Life CBSE

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51b Mordants in Dye

51c Mordants in Dye

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Bhoot Statue Okinawa Island

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51d Mordants in Dye

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From living perception to abstract thought, and from this to practice.
V.I. Lenin.

By now, you have learnt the basic principles of chemistry and also realised that it influences every sphere of human life. The principles of chemistry have been used for the benefit of mankind. Think of cleanliness — the materials like soaps, detergents, household bleaches, tooth pastes, etc. will come to your mind. Look towards the beautiful clothes — immediately chemicals of the synthetic fibres used for making clothes and chemicals giving colours to them will come to your mind. Food materials — again a number of chemicals about which you have learnt in the previous Unit will appear in your mind. Of course, sickness and diseases remind us of medicines — again chemicals. Explosives, fuels, rocket propellents, building and electronic materials, etc., are all chemicals. Chemistry has influenced our life so much that we do not even realise that we come across chemicals at every moment; that we ourselves are beautiful chemical creations and all our activities are controlled by chemicals. In this Unit, we shall learn the application of Chemistry in three important and interesting areas, namely – medicines, food materials and cleansing agents.

51e Mordants in Dye

51f Mordants in Dye

16.1 Drugs and their Classification

Drugs are chemicals of low molecular masses (~100 – 500u). These interact with macromolecular targets and produce a biological response. When the biological response is therapeutic and useful, these chemicals are called medicines and are used in diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases. If taken in doses higher than those recommended, most of the drugs used as medicines are potential poisons. Use of chemicals for therapeutic effect is called chemotherapy,

51f Valence Bond Theory of Colour Chemical Constitution

51g Valence Bond Theory of Colour Chemical Constitution

16.1.1 Classification of Drugs
Drugs can be classified mainly on criteria outlined as follows:

(a) On the basis of pharmacological effect
This classification is based on pharmacological effect of the drugs. It is useful for doctors because it provides them the whole range of drugs available for the treatment of a particular type of problem. For example, analgesics have pain killing effect, antiseptics kill or arrest the growth of microorganisms.

(b) On the basis of drug action
It is based on the action of a drug on a particular biochemical process. For example, all antihistamines inhibit the action of the compound, histamine which causes inflammation in the body. There are various ways in which action of histamines can be blocked. You will learn about this in Section 16.3.2.

(c) On the basis of chemical structure
It is based on the chemical structure of the drug. Drugs classified in this way share common structural features and often have similar pharmacological activity. For example, sulphonamides have common structural feature, given below.

(d) On the basis of molecular targets
Drugs usually interact with biomolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids,proteins and nucleic acids. These are called target molecules or drug targets. Drugs possessing some common structural features may have the same mechanism of action on targets. The classification based on molecular targets is the most useful classification for medicinal chemists.

16.2 Drug – target Interaction

Macromolecules of biological origin perform various functions in the body. For example, proteins which perform the role of biological catalysts Itrcin in the body are called enzymes, those which are crucial to neato communication system in the body are called receptors. Carrier proteins carry polar molecules across the cell membrane. Nucleic acids have coded genetic information for the cell. Lipids and carbohydrates are structural parts of the cell membrane. We shall explain the drug-target interaction with the examples of enzymes and receptors.

16.2.1 Enzymes as Drug Targets

(a) Catalytic action of enzymes
For understanding the interaction between a drug and an enzyme, it is important to know how enzymes catalyse the reaction (Section 5.2.4). In their catalytic activity, enzymes perform two major functions:

(i) The first function of an enzyme is to hold the substrate for a chemical reaction. Active sites of enzymes hold the substrate molecule in a suitable position, so that it can be attacked by the reagent effectively.
Substrates bind to the active site of the enzyme through a variety of interactions such as ionic bonding, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals interaction or dipole-dipole interaction (Fig. 16.1).

(ii) The second function of an enzyme is to provide functional groups that will attack the substrate and carry out chemical reaction.

(b) Drug-enzyme interaction
Drugs inhibit any of the above mentioned activities of enzymes. These can block the binding site of the enzyme and prevent the binding of substrate, or can inhibit the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Such drugs are called enzyme inhibitors. Drugs inhibit the attachment of substrate on active site of enzymes in two different ways;

(i) Drugs compete with the natural substrate for their attachment on the active sites of enzymes. Such drugs are called competitive inhibitors (Fig. 16.2).

(ii) Some drugs do not bind to the enzyme’s active site. These bind to a different site of enzyme which is called allosteric site. This binding of inhibitor at allosteric site (Fig.16.3) changes the shape of the active site in such a way that substrate can-not recognise it.

If the bond formed between an enzyme and an inhibitor is a strong covalent bond and cannot be broken easily, then the enzyme is blocked permanently. The body then degrades the enzyme-inhibitor complex and synthesises the new enzyme.

16.2.2 Receptors as Drug Targets

Receptors are proteins that are crucial to body’s communication process. Majority of these are embedded in cell membranes (Fig. 16.4). Receptor proteins are embedded in the cell membrane in such a way that their small part possessing active site projects out of the surface of the membrane and opens on the outside region of the cell membrane (Fig. 16.4).

In the body, message between two neurons and that between neurons to muscles is communicated through certain chemicals. These chemicals,known as chemical messengers are received at the binding sites of receptor proteins. To accommodate a messenger, shape of the receptor site changes. This brings about the transfer of message into the cell. Thus, chemical messenger gives message to the cell without entering the cell (Fig. 16.5).

There are a large number of different receptors in the body that interact with different chemical messengers. These receptors show selectivity for one chemical messenger over the other because their binding sites have different shape, structure and amino acid composition.

Drugs that bind to the receptor site and inhibit its natural function are called antagonists. These are useful when blocking of message is required. There are other types of drugs that mimic the natural messenger by switching on the receptor, these are called agonists. These are useful when there is lack of natural chemical messenger.

16.3 Theraputic Action of Different Classes of drugs

In this Section, we shall discuss the therapeutic action of a few important classes of drugs.

16.3.1 Antacids

Over production of acid in the stomach causes irritation and pain. In severe cases, ulcers are developed in the stomach. Until 1970, only treatment for acidity was administration of antacids, such as sodium hydrogencarbonate or a mixture of aluminium and magnesium hydroxide. However, excessive hydrogencarbonate can make the stomach alkaline and trigger the production of even more acid. Metal hydroxides are better alternatives because of being insoluble, these do not increase the pH above neutrality. These treatments control only symptoms, and not the cause. Therefore, with these metal salts, the patients cannot be treated easily. In advanced stages, ulcers become life threatening and its only treatment is removal of the affected part of the stomach.

A major breakthrough in the treatment of hyperacidity came through the discovery according to which a chemical, histamine, stimulates the secretion of pepsin and hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The drug cimetidine (Tegamet), was designed to prevent the interaction of histamine with the receptors present in the stomach wall. This resulted in release of lesser amount of acid. The importance of the drug was so much that it remained the largest selling drug in the world until another drug, ranitidine (Zantac), was discovered.

16.3.2 Antihistamines

Histamine is a potent vasodilator. It has various functions. It contracts the smooth muscles in the bronchi and gut and relaxes other muscles, such as those in the walls of fine blood vessels. Histamine is also responsible for the nasal congestion associated with common cold and allergic response to pollen.

Synthetic drugs, brompheniramine (Dimetapp) and terfenadine (Seldane), act as antihistamines. They interfere with the natural action of histamine by competing with histamine for binding sites of receptor where histamine exerts its effect.

Now the question that arises is, “Why do above mentioned antihistamines not affect the secretion of acid in stomach?” The reason is that antiallergic and antacid drugs work on different receptors.

16.3.3 Neurologically Active Drugs

(a) Tranquilizers

Tranquilizers and analgesics are neurologically active drugs. These affect the message transfer mechanism from nerve to receptor. Tranquilizers are a class of chemical compounds used for the treatment of stress, and mild or even severe mental diseases. These relieve anxiety, stress, irritability or excitement by inducing a sense of well-being. They form an essential component of sleeping pills. There are various types of tranquilizers. They function by different mechanisms. For example, noradrenaline is one of the neurotransmitters that plays a role in mood changes. If the level of noradrenaline is low for some reason, then the signal-sending activity becomes low, and the person suffers from depression. In such situations, antidepressant drugs are required. These drugs inhibit the enzymes which catalyse the degradation of noradrenaline. If the enzyme is inhibited, this important neurotransmitter is slowly metabolised and can activate its receptor for longer periods of time, thus counteracting the effect of depression. Iproniazid and phenelzine are two such drugs.

Some tranquilizers namely, chlordiazepoxide and meprobamate, are relatively mild tranquilizers suitable for relieving tension. Equanil is used in controlling depression and hypertension.

Derivatives of barbituric acid viz., veronal, amytal, nembutal, luminal and seconal constitute an important class of tranquilizers. These derivatives are called barbiturates. Barbiturates are hypnotic, i.e., sleep producing agents. Some other substances used as tranquilizers are valium and serotonin.

(b) Analgesics

Analgesics reduce or abolish pain without causing impairment of consciousness, mental confusion, incoordination or paralysis or some other disturbances of nervous system. These are classified as follows:
(i) Non-narcotic (non-addictive) analgesics
(ii) Narcotic drugs

(i) Non-narcotic (non-addictive) analgesics: Aspirin and paracetamol belong to the class of non-narcotic analgesics. Aspirin is the most familiar example. Aspirin inhibits the synthesis of chemicals known as prostaglandins which stimulate inflammation in the tissue and cause pain. These drugs are effective
in relieving skeletal pain such as that due to arthritis. These drugs have many other effects such as reducing fever (antipyretic) and preventing platelet coagulation. Because of its anti blood clotting action, aspirin finds use in prevention of heart attacks.

(ii) Narcotic analgesics: Morphine and many of its homologues, when administered in medicinal doses, relieve pain and produce sleep. In poisonous doses, these produce stupor, coma, convulsions and ultimately death. Morphine narcotics are sometimes referred to as opiates, since they are obtained from the opium poppy. These analgesics are chiefly used for the relief of postoperative pain, cardiac pain and pains of terminal cancer, and in child birth.

16.3.4 Antimicrobials

Diseases in human beings and animals may be caused by a variety of microorganisms such as bacteria, virus, fungi and other pathogens. An antimicrobial tends to destroy/prevent development or inhibit the pathogenic action of microbes such as bacteria (antibacterial drugs), fungi (antifungal agents), virus (antiviral agents), or other parasites (antiparasitic drugs) selectively. Antibiotics, antiseptics and disinfectants are antimicrobial drugs.

(a) Antibiotics
Antibiotics are used as drugs to treat infections because of their low toxicity for humans and animals. Initially antibiotics were classified as chemical substances produced by microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and molds) that inhibit the growth or even destroy microorganisms. The development of synthetic methods has helped in synthesising some of the compounds that were originally discovered as products of microorganisms. Also, some purely synthetic compounds have antibacterial activity, and therefore, definition of antibiotic has been modified. An antibiotic now refers to a substance produced wholly or partly by chemical synthesis, which in low concentrations inhibits the growth or destroys microorganisms by intervening in their metabolic processes.

The search for chemicals that would adversely affect invading bacteria but not the host began in the nineteenth century. Paul Ehrlich, a German bacteriologist, conceived this idea. He investigated arsenic based structures in order to produce less toxic substances for the treatment of syphilis. He developed the medicine, arsphenamine, known as salvarsan. Paul Ehrlich got Nobel prize for Medicine in 1908 for this discovery. It was the first effective treatment discovered for syphilis. Although salvarsan is toxic to human beings, its effect on the bacteria, spirochete, which causes syphilis is much greater than on human beings. At the same time, Ehrlich was working on azodyes also. He noted that there is similarity in structures of salvarsan and azodyes. The –As = As– linkage present in arsphenamine resembles the –N = N – linkage present in azodyes in the sense that arsenic atom is present in place of nitrogen. He also noted tissues getting coloured by dyes selectively. Therefore, Ehrlich began to search for the compounds which resemble in structure to azodyes and selectively bind to bacteria. In 1932, he succeeded in preparing the first effective antibacterial agent, prontosil, which resembles in structure to the compound, salvarsan. Soon it was discovered that in the body prontosil is converted to a compound called sulphanilamide, which is the real active compound. Thus the sulpha drugs were discovered. A large range of sulphonamide analogues was synthesised. One of the most effective is sulphapyridine.

Despite the success of sulfonamides, the real revolution in antibacterial therapy began with the discovery of Alexander Fleming in 1929, of the antibacterial properties of a Penicillium fungus. Isolation and purification of active compound to accumulate sufficient material for clinical trials took thirteen years.

Antibiotics have either cidal (killing) effect or a static (inhibitory) effect on microbes. A few examples of the two types of antibiotics are as follows:

The range of bacteria or other microorganisms that are affected by a certain antibiotic is expressed as its spectrum of action. Antibiotics which kill or inhibit a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria are said to be broad spectrum antibiotics. Those effective mainly against Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria are narrow spectrum antibiotics. If effective against a single organism or disease, they are referred to as limited spectrum antibiotics. Penicillin G has a narrow spectrum. Ampicillin and Amoxycillin are synthetic modifications of penicillins. These have broad spectrum. It is absolutely essential to test the patients for sensitivity (allergy) to penicillin before it is administered. In India, penicillin is manufactured at the Hindustan Antibiotics in Pimpri and in private sector industry.

Chloramphenicol, isolated in 1947, is a broad spectrum antibiotic. It is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and hence can be given orally in case of typhoid, dysentery, acute fever, certain form of urinary infections, meningitis and pneumonia. Vancomycin and ofloxacin are the other important broad spectrum antibiotics. The antibiotic dysidazirine is supposed to be toxic towards certain strains of cancer cells.

(b) Antiseptics and disinfectants

Antiseptics and disinfectants are also the chemicals which either kill or prevent the growth of microorganisms. Antiseptics are applied to the living tissues such as wounds, cuts, ulcers and diseased skin surfaces. Examples are furacine, soframicine, etc. These are not ingested like antibiotics. Commonly used antiseptic, dettol is a mixture of chloroxylenol and terpineol. Bithionol (the compound is also called bithional) is added to soaps to impart antiseptic properties. Iodine is a powerful antiseptic. Its 2-3 per cent solution in alcohol- water mixture is known as tincture of iodine. It is applied on wounds. Iodoform is also used as an antiseptic for wounds. Boricacid in dilute aqueous solution is weak antiseptic for eyes.
Disinfectants are applied to inanimate objects such as floors, drainage system, instruments, etc. Same substances can act as an antiseptic as well as disinfectant by varying the concentration. For example, 0.2 per cent solution of phenol is an antiseptic while its one percent solution is disinfectant.
Chlorine in the concentration of 0.2 to 0.4 ppm in aqueous solution and sulphur dioxide in very low concentrations, are disinfectants.

16.3.5 Antifertility Drugs

Antibiotic revolution has provided long and healthy life to people. The life expectancy has almost doubled. The increased population has caused many social problems in terms of food resources, environmental issues, employment, etc. To control these problems, population is required to be controlled. This has lead to the concept of family planning. Antifertility drugs are of use in this direction. Birth control pills essentially contain a mixture of synthetic estrogen and progesterone derivatives. Both of these compounds are hormones. It is known that progesterone suppresses ovulation. Synthetic progesterone derivatives are more potent than progesterone. Norethindrone is an example of synthetic progesterone derivative most widely used as antifertility drug. The estrogen derivative which is used in combination with progesterone derivative is ethynylestradiol (novestrol).

Intext Question
16.1 Sleeping pills are recommended by doctors to the patients suffering from sleeplessness but it is not advisable to take its doses without consultation
with the doctor. Why ?

16.2 With reference to which classification has the statement, “ranitidine is an antacid” been given?

16.4 Chemicals in Food

Chemicals are added to food for (i) their preservation, (ii) enhancing their appeal, and (iii) adding nutritive value in them. Main categories of food additives are as follows:
(i) Food colours
(ii) Flavours and sweeteners
(iii) Fat emulsifiers and stabilising agents
(iv) Flour improvers – antistaling agents and bleaches
(v) Antioxidants
(vi) Preservatives
(vii) Nutritional supplements such as minerals, vitamins and amino acids.
Except for chemicals of category (vii), none of the above additives have nutritive value. These are added either to increase the shelf life of stored food or for cosmetic purposes. In this Section we will discuss only sweeteners and food preservatives.

16.4.1 Artificial Sweetening Agents

Natural sweeteners, e.g., sucrose add to calorie intake and therefore many people prefer to use artificial sweeteners. Ortho-sulphobenzimide, also called saccharin, is the first popular artificial sweetening agent. It has been used as a sweetening agent ever since it was discovered in 1879. It is about 550 times as sweet as cane sugar. It is excreted from the body in urine unchanged. It appears to be entirely inert and harmless when taken. Its use is of great value to diabetic persons and people who need to control intake of calories. Some other commonly marketed artificial sweeteners are given in Table 16.1.

Table Table 16.1: Artificial Sweeteners
Artificial Sweetener Structural formula Sweetness value in comparison to cane sugar
Aspartame 100
Saccharin 550
Sucrolose 600
Alitame 2000

Aspartame is the most successful and widely used artificial sweetener. It is roughly 100 times as sweet as cane sugar. It is methyl ester of dipeptide formed from aspartic acid and phenylalanine. Use of aspartame is limited to cold foods and soft drinks because it is unstable at cooking temperature.
Alitame is high potency sweetener, although it is more stable than aspartame, the control of sweetness of food is difficult while using it. Sucrolose is trichloro derivative of sucrose. Its appearance and taste are like sugar. It is stable at cooking temperature. It does not provide calories.

16.4.2 Food

Food preservatives prevent spoilage of food due to microbial growth. Preservatives The most commonly used preservatives include table salt, sugar, vegetable oils and sodium benzoate, C6H5COONa. Sodium benzoate is used in limited quantities and is metabolised in the body. Salts of sorbic acid and propanoic acid are also used as preservatives.

Intext Question
16.3 Why do we require artificial sweetening agents ?

16.5 Cleansing Agents

In this Section, we will learn about detergents. Two types of detergents are used as cleansing agents. These are soaps and synthetic detergents. These improve cleansing properties of water. These help in removal of fats which bind other materials to the fabric or skin.

16.5.1 Soaps

Soaps are the detergents used since long. Soaps used for cleaning purpose are sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids, e.g., stearic, oleic and palmitic acids. Soaps containing sodium salts are formed by heating fat (i.e., glyceryl ester of fatty acid) with aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. This reaction is known as saponification.

In this reaction, esters of fatty acids are hydrolysed and the soap obtained remains in colloidal form. It is precipitated from the solution by adding sodium chloride. The solution left after removing the soap contains glycerol, which can be recovered by fractional distillation.Only sodium and potassium soaps are soluble in water and are used for cleaning purposes. Generally potassium soaps are soft to the skin than sodium soaps. These can be prepared by using potassium hydroxide solution in place of sodium hydroxide.

Types of soaps

Basically all soaps are made by boiling fats or oils with suitable soluble hydroxide. Variations are made by using different raw materials.

Toilet soaps are prepared by using better grades of fats and oils and care is taken to remove excess alkali. Colour and perfumes are added to make these more attractive.

Soaps that float in water are made by beating tiny air bubbles before their hardening. Transparent soaps are made by dissolving the soap in ethanol and then evaporating the excess solvent.

In medicated soaps, substances of medicinal value are added. In some soaps, deodorants are added. Shaving soaps contain glycerol to prevent rapid drying. A gum called, rosin is added while making them. It forms sodium rosinate which lathers well. Laundry soaps contain fillers like sodium rosinate, sodium silicate, borax and sodium carbonate.

Soap chips are made by running a thin sheet of melted soap onto a cool cylinder and scraping off the soaps in small broken pieces. Soap granules are dried miniature soap bubbles. Soap powders and scouring soaps contain some soap, a scouring agent (abrasive) such as powdered pumice or finely divided sand, and builders like sodium carbonate and trisodium phosphate. Builders make the soaps act more rapidly. The cleansing action of soap has been discussed in Unit 5.

Why do soaps not work in hard water?

Hard water contains calcium and magnesium ions. These ions form insoluble calcium and magnesium soaps respectively when sodium or potassium soaps are dissolved in hard water.

These insoluble soaps separate as scum in water and are useless as cleansing agent. In fact these are hinderance to good washing, because the precipitate adheres onto the fibre of the cloth as gummy mass. Hair washed with hard water looks dull because of this sticky precipitate. Dye does not absorb evenly on cloth washed with soap using hard water, because of this gummy mass.

16.5.2 Synthetic Detergents

Synthetic detergents are cleansing agents which have all the properties of soaps, but which actually do not contain any soap. These can be used both in soft and hard water as they give foam even in hard water. Some of the detergents give foam even in ice cold water.

Synthetic detergents are mainly classified into three categories:
(i) Anionic detergents (ii) Cationic detergents and (iii) Non-ionic detergents

(i) Anionic Detergents: Anionic detergents are sodium salts of sulphonated long chain alcohols or hydrocarbons. Alkyl hydrogensulphates formed by treating long chain alcohols with concentrated sulphuric acid are neutralised with alkali to form anionic detergents. Similarly alkyl benzene sulphonates are obtained by neutralising alkyl benzene sulphonic acids with alkali.

In anionic detergents, the anionic part of the molecule is involved in the cleansing action. Sodium salts of alkylbenzenesulphonates are an important class of anionic detergents.

They are mostly used for household work. Anionic detergents are also used in toothpastes.

(ii) Cationic Detergents: Cationic detergents are quarternary ammonium salts of amines with acetates, chlorides or bromides as anions. Cationic part possess a long hydrocarbon chain and a positive charge on nitrogen atom. Hence, these are called cationic detergents. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide is a popular cationic Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide detergent and is used in hair conditioners. Cationic detergents have germicidal properties and are expensive, therefore, these are of limited use.

(iii) Non-ionic Detergents: Non-ionic detergents do not contain any ion in their constitution. One such detergent is formed when stearic acid reacts with polyethyleneglycol.

Liquid dishwashing detergents are non-ionic type. Mechanism of cleansing action of this type of detergents is the same as that of soaps. These also remove grease and oil by micelle formation.

Main problem that appears in the use of detergents is that if their hydrocarbon chain is highly branched, then bacteria cannot degrade this easily. Slow degradation of detergents leads to their accumulation. Effluents containing such detergents reach the rivers, ponds, etc. These persist in water even after sewage treatment and cause foaming in rivers, ponds and streams and their water gets polluted.

These days the branching of the hydrocarbon chain is controlled and kept to the minimum. Unbranched chains can be biodegraded more easily and hence pollution is prevented.

Intext Questions
16.4 Write the chemical equation for preparing sodium soap from glyceryl oleate and glyceryl palmitate. Structural formulae of these compounds are given below.
(i) (C15H31COO)3C3H5 – Glyceryl palmitate
(ii) (C17H32COO)3C3H5 – Glyceryl oleate
16.5 Following type of non-ionic detergents are present in liquid detergents, emulsifying agents and wetting agents. Label the hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts in the molecule. Identify the functional group(s) present in the molecule.

Summary

Chemistry is essentially the study of materials and the development of new materials for the betterment of humanity. A drug is a chemical agent, which affects human metabolism and provides cure from ailment. If taken in doses higher than recommended, these may have poisonous effect. Use of chemicals for therapeutic effect is called chemotherapy. Drugs usually interact with biological macromolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. These are called target molecules. Drugs are designed to interact with specific targets so that these have the least chance of affecting other targets. This minimises the side effects and localises the action of the drug. Drug chemistry centres around arresting microbes/destroying microbes, preventing the body from various infectious diseases, releasing mental stress, etc. Thus, drugs like analgesics, antibiotics, antiseptics, disinfectants, antacids and tranquilizers are used for specific purpose. To check the population explosion, antifertility drugs have also become prominent in our life.
Food additives such as preservatives, sweetening agents, flavours, antioxidants, edible colours and nutritional supplements are added to the food to make it attractive, palatable and add nutritive value. Preservatives are added to the food to prevent spoilage due to microbial growth. Artificial sweeteners are used by those who need to check the calorie intake or are diabetic and want to avoid taking sucrose.
These days, detergents are much in vogue and get preference over soaps because they work even in hard water. Synthetic detergents are classified into three main categories, namely: anionic, cationic and non-ionic, and each category has its specific uses. Detergents with straight chain of hydrocarbons are preferred over branched chain as the latter are non-biodegradable and consequently cause environmental pollution.

Exercises
16.1 Why do we need to classify drugs in different ways ?

16.2 Explain the term, target molecules or drug targets as used in medicinal chemistry.

16.3 Name the macromolecules that are chosen as drug targets.

16.4 Why should not medicines be taken without consulting doctors ?

16.5 Define the term chemotherapy.

16.6 Which forces are involved in holding the drugs to the active site of enzymes ?

16.7 While antacids and antiallergic drugs interfere with the function of histamines, why do these not interfere with the function of each other ?

16.8 Low level of noradrenaline is the cause of depression. What type of drugs are needed to cure this problem ? Name two drugs.

16.9 What is meant by the term ‘broad spectrum antibiotics’ ? Explain.

16.10 How do antiseptics differ from disinfectants ? Give one example of each.

16.11 Why are cimetidine and ranitidine better antacids than sodium hydrogencarbonate or magnesium or aluminium hydroxide ?

16.12 Name a substance which can be used as an antiseptic as well as disinfectant.

16.13 What are the main constituents of dettol ?

16.14 What is tincture of iodine ? What is its use ?

16.15 What are food preservatives ?

16.16 Why is use of aspartame limited to cold foods and drinks ?

16.17 What are artificial sweetening agents ? Give two examples.

16.18 Name the sweetening agent used in the preparation of sweets for a diabetic patient.

16.19 What problem arises in using alitame as artificial sweetener ?

16.20 How are synthetic detergents better than soaps ?

16.21 Explain the following terms with suitable examples
(i) cationic detergents
(ii) anionic detergents and
(iii) non-ionic detergents.

16.22 What are biodegradable and non-biodegradable detergents ? Give one example of each.

16.23 Why do soaps not work in hard water ?

16.24 Can you use soaps and synthetic detergents to check the hardness of water ?

16.25 Explain the cleansing action of soaps.

16.26 If water contains dissolved calcium hydrogencarbonate, out of soaps and synthetic detergents which one will you use for cleaning clothes ?

16.27 Label the hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts in the following compounds.

Answers to Some Intext Questions

16.1 Most of the drugs taken in doses higher than recommended may cause harmful effect and act as poison. Therefore, a doctor should always be consulted before taking medicine.

16.2 This statement refers to the classification according to pharmacological effect of the drug because any drug which will be used to counteract the effect of excess acid in the stomach will be called antacid.

16.5

I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)

1. Which of the following statements is not correct.

(i) Some antiseptics can be added to soaps.
(ii) Dilute solutions of some disinfectants can be used as antiseptic.
(iii) Disinfectants are antimicrobial drugs.
(iv) Antiseptic medicines can be ingested.

2. Which is the correct statement about birth control pills?

(i) Contain estrogen only.
(ii) Contain progesterone only.
(iii) Contain a mixture of estrogen and progesterone derivatives.
(iv) Progesterone enhances ovulation.

3. Which statement about aspirin is not true

(i) Aspirin belongs to narcotic analgesics.
(ii) It is effective in relieving pain.
(iii) It has antiblood clotting action.
(iv) It is a neurologically active drug.

4. The most useful classification of drugs for medicinal chemists is _________.

(i) on the basis of chemical structure.
(ii) on the basis of drug action.
(iii) on the basis of molecular targets.
(iv) on the basis of pharmacological effect.

5. Which of the following statements is correct?

(i) Some tranquilisers function by inhibiting the enzymes which catalyse the degradation of noradrenaline.
(ii) Tranquilisers are narcotic drugs.
(iii) Transquilisers are chemical compounds that do not affect the message transfer from nerve to receptor.
(iv) Tranquilisers are chemical compounds that can relieve pain and fever.

6. Salvarsan is arsenic containing drug which was first used for the treatment of ____________.

(i) syphilis
(ii) typhoid
(iii) meningitis
(iv) dysentry

7. A narrow spectrum antibiotic is active against _______________.

(i) gram positive or gram negative bacteria.
(ii) gram negative bacteria only.
(iii) single organism or one disease.
(iv) both gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

8. The compound that causes general antidepressant action on the central nervous system belongs to the class of _____________.

(i) analgesics
(ii) tranquilizers
(iii) narcotic analgesics
(iv) antihistamines

9. Compound which is added to soap to impart antiseptic properties is __________.

(i) sodium laurylsulphate
(ii) sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate
(iii) rosin
(iv) bithional

10. Equanil is __________.

(i) artificial sweetener
(ii) tranquilizer
(iii) antihistamine
(iv) antifertility drug

11. Which of the following enhances leathering property of soap?

(i) Sodium carbonate
(ii) Sodium rosinate
(iii) Sodium stearate
(iv) Trisodium phosphate

12. Glycerol is added to soap. It functions ______________.

(i) as a filler.
(ii) to increase leathering.
(iii) to prevent rapid drying.
(iv) to make soap granules.

13. Which of the following is an example of liquid dishwashing detergent?

(i) CH3(CH2)10—CH2OSO3Na+

14. Polyethyleneglycols are used in the preparation of which type of detergents?

(i) Cationic detergents
(ii) Anionic detergents
(iii) Non-ionic detergents
(iv) Soaps

15. Which of the following is not a target molecule for drug function in body?

(i) Carbohydrates
(ii) Lipids
(iii) Vitamins
(iv) Proteins

16. Which of the following statements is not true about enzyme inhibitors?

(i) Inhibit the catalytic activity of the enzyme.
(ii) Prevent the binding of substrate.
(iii) Generally a strong covalent bond is formed between an inhibitor and an enzyme.
(iv) Inhibitors can be competitive or non-competitive.

17. Which of the following chemicals can be added for sweetening of food items at cooking temperature and does not provide calories?

(i) Sucrose
(ii) Glucose
(iii) Aspartame
(iv) Sucrolose

18. Which of the following will not enhance nutritional value of food?

(i) Minerals
(ii) Artificial sweeteners
(iii) Vitamins
(iv) Aminoacids

II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)

Note : In the following questions two or more options may be correct.

19. Which of the following statements are incorrect about receptor proteins?

(i) Majority of receptor proteins are embedded in the cell membranes.
(ii) The active site of receptor proteins opens on the inside region of the cell.
(iii) Chemical messengers are received at the binding sites of receptor proteins.
(iv) Shape of receptor doesn’t change during attachment of messenger.

20. Which of the following are not used as food preservatives?

(i) Table salt
(ii) Sodium hydrogencarbonate
(iii) Cane sugar
(iv) Benzoic acid

21. Compounds with antiseptic properties are ______________.

(i) CHCl3
(ii) CHI3
(iii) Boric acid
(iv) 0.3 ppm aqueous solution of Cl2

22. Which of the following statements are correct about barbiturates?

(i) Hypnotics or sleep producing agents.
(ii) These are tranquilizers.
(iii) Non-narcotic analgesics.
(iv) Pain reducing without disturbing the nervous system.

23. Which of the following are sulpha drugs?

(i) Sulphapyridine
(ii) Prontosil
(iii) Salvarsan
(iv) Nardil

24. Which of the following are antidepressants?

(i) Iproniazid
(ii) Phenelzine
(iii) Equanil
(iv) Salvarsan

25. Which of the following statements are incorrect about penicillin?

(i) An antibacterial fungus.
(ii) Ampicillin is its synthetic modification.
(iii) It has bacteriostatic effect.
(iv) It is a broad spectrum antibiotic.

26. Which of the following compounds are administered as antacids?

(i) Sodium carbonate
(ii) Sodium hydrogencarbonate
(iii) Aluminium carbonate
(iv) Magnesium hydroxide

27. Amongst the following antihistamines, which are antacids?

(i) Ranitidine
(ii) Brompheniramine
(iii) Terfenadine
(iv) Cimetidine

28. Veronal and luminal are derivatives of barbituric acid which are __________.

(i) Tranquilizers
(ii) Non-narcotic analgesic
(iii) Antiallergic drugs
(iv) Neurologically active drugs

29. Which of the following are anionic detergents?

(i) Sodium salts of sulphonated long chain alcohol.
(ii) Ester of stearic acid and polyethylene glycol.
(iii) Quarternary ammonium salt of amine with acetate ion.
(iv) Sodium salts of sulphonated long chain hydrocarbons.

30. Which of the following statements are correct?

(i) Cationic detergents have germicidal properties
(ii) Bacteria can degrade the detergents containing highly branched chains.
(iii) Some synthetic detergents can give foam even in ice cold water.
(iv) Synthetic detergents are not soaps.

III. Short Answer Type

31. What is the average molecular mass of drugs?
32. Write the uses of medicines.
33. What are antiseptics?
34. Which type of drugs come under antimicrobial drugs?
35. Where are receptors located?
36. What is the harmful effect of hyperacidity?
37. Which site of an enzyme is called allosteric site?
38. What type of forces are involved in binding of substrate to the active site of enzyme?
39. What is the commonality between the antibiotic arsphenamine and azodye?

40. Which class of drugs is used in sleeping pills?
41. Aspirin is pain relieving antipyretic drug but can be used to prevent heart attack. Explain.
42. Both antacids and antiallergic drugs are antihistamines but they cannot replace each other. Explain why?
43. What is a soft soap?
44. If soap has high alkali content it irritates skin. How can the amount of excess alkali be determined? What can be the source of excess alkali?
45. Explain why some times foaming is seen in river water near the place where sewage water is poured after treatment?
46. Which category of the synthetic detergents is used in toothpaste?
47. Hair shampoos belong to which class of synthetic detergent?
48. Dishwashing soaps are synthetic detergents. What is their chemical nature?
49. Draw the diagram showing micelle formation by the following detergent.

50. How does the branching of hydrocarbon chain of synthetic detergents affect their biodegradability?
51. Why is it safer to use soap from the environmental point of view?
52. What are analgesics?
53. What is the scientific explanation for the feeling of depression?
54. What is the basic difference between antiseptics and disinfectants?
55. Between sodiumhydrogencarbonate and magnesium hydroxide which is a better antacid and why?
56. Which analgesics are called opiates?
57. What is the medicinal use of narcotic drugs?
58. What are antagonistic drugs?
59. What is the mode of action of antimicrobial drugs?
60. What is the side product of soap industry? Give reactions showing soap formation.
61. What is the difference between bathing soap and washing soaps?
62. How are transparent soaps manufactured?
63. What is the advantage of using antihistamines over antacids in the treatment of acidity?
64. What are the functions performed by histamine in the body?
65. With the help of an example explain how do tranquilizers control the feeling of depression?
66. Why are certain drugs called enzyme inhibitors?
67. What are fillers and what role these fillers play in soap?
68. Sugar is the main source of energy as it produces energy on metabolic decomposition. But these days low calorie drinks are more popular, why?
69. Pickles have a long shelf life and do not get spoiled for months, why?
70. What is the difference between saccharin and saccharic acid?
71. Name an artificial sweetener which is derivative of sucrose.
72. Name two α-amino acids which form a dipeptide which is 100 times more sweet than cane sugar?
73. Aspartame is unstable at cooking temperature, where would you suggest aspartame to be used for sweetening?
74. Sodium salts of some acids are very useful as food preservatives. Suggest a
few such acids.
75. Explain the role of allosteric site in enzyme inhibition?
76. How are receptor proteins located in the cell membrane?
77. What happens when the bond formed between an enzyme and an inhibitor is a strong covalent bond?

IV. Matching Type

Note : Match the items given in Column I with the items given in Column II.

78. Match the medicines given in Column I with their use given in Column II.

Column I Column II
(i) Ranitidine (a) Tranquilizer
(ii) Furacine (b) Antibiotic
(iii) Phenelzine (c) Antihistamine
(iv) Chloramphenicol (d) Antiseptic
(e) Antifertility drug

79. Match the soaps given in Column I with items given in Column II.

Column I Column II
(i) Soap chips (a) dried miniature soap bubbles
(ii) Soap granules (b) small broken pieces of soap formed from melted soaps
(iii) Soap powder (c) soap powder + abrasives + builders (Na2CO3, Na3PO4)
(iv) Scouring soap (d) soap powder + builders like Na2CO3 and Na3PO4

80. Match structures given in Column I with the type of detergents given in Column II.

Column I Column II
(i) CH3(CH2)16COO(CH2CH2O)nCH2CH2OH (a) Cationic detergent
(ii) C17H35COONa+ (b) Anionic detergent
(iii) CH3—(CH2)10CH2SO3Na+ (c) Nonionic detergent
(iv) (d) Soap

81. Match the detergents given in Column I with their uses given in Column II.

82. Match the class of compounds given in Column I with their functions given in Column II.

Column I Column II
(i) Antagonists (a) Communicate message between two neurons and that between neurons to muscles
(ii) Agonists (b) Bind to the receptor site and inhibit its natural function
(iii) Chemical messenger (c) Crucial to body’s communication process
(iv) Inhibitors (d) Mimic the natural messenger
(v) Receptors (e) Inhibit activities of enzymes.

83. Match the classes of drugs given in Column I with their action given in Column II.

Column I Column II
(i) Analgesics (a) Inhibit the growth of microorganisms can be given orally.
(ii) Antiseptics (b) Treatment of stress
(iii) Antihistamines (c) Applied to inanimate objects
(iv) Antacids (d) Prevents the interaction of histamine with its receptor
(v) Tranquilisers (e) Pain killing effect
(vi) Antibiotics (f) Applied to diseased skin surfaces
(vii) Disinfectants (g) Treatment of acidity

V. Assertion and Reason Type

Note : In the following questions a statement of assertion followed by a
statement of reason is given. Choose the correct answer out of the following
choices.

(i) Assertion and reason both are correct statement but reason does not explain assertion.
(ii) Assertion and reason both are correct and reason explains the assertion.
(iii) Both assertion and reason are wrong statement.
(iv) Assertion is correct statement reason is wrong statement.
(v) Assertion is wrong statement reason is correct statement.

84. Assertion : Penicillin (G) is an antihistamine
Reason : Penicillin (G) is effective against gram positive as well as gram negative bacteria.

85. Assertion : Sulpha drug contain sulphonamide group.
Reason : Salvarsan is a sulpha drug.

86. Assertion : Receptors are crucial to body’s communication process.
Reason : Receptors are proteins.

87. Assertion : Enzymes have active sites that hold substrate molecule for a chemical reaction.
Reason : Drugs compete with natural substrate by attaching covalently to the active site of enzyme.

88. Assertion : Chemical messengers are chemicals that enable communication of message between two neurons or between neurons and muscles.
Reason : Chemicals enter the cell through receptor.

89. Assertion : Transparent soaps are made by dissolving soaps in ethanol.
Reason : Ethanol makes things invisible.

90. Assertion : Sodium chloride is added to precipitate soap after saponification.
Reason : Hydrolysis of esters of long chain fatty acids by alkali produces soap in colloidal form.

91. Assertion : Competitive inhibitors compete with natural substrate for their attachment on the active sites of enzymes.
Reason : In competitive inhibition, inhibitor binds to the allosteric site of the enzyme.

92. Assertion : Non-competitive inhibitor inhibits the catalyic activity of enzyme by binding with its active site.
Reason : Non-competitive inhibitor changes the shape of the active site in such a way that substrate can’t recognise it.

93. Assertion : Chemical messenger gives message to the cell without entering the cell.
Reason : Chemical messenger is received at the binding site of receptor proteins.

94. Assertion : Receptor proteins show selectivity for one chemical messenger over the other.
Reason : Chemical messenger binds to the receptor site and inhibits its natural function.

95. Assertion : All chemicals added to food items are called food preservatives.
Reason : All these chemicals increase the nutritive value of the food.

96. Assertion : Preservative are added to food items.
Reason : Preservatives inhibit the growth of microorganisms.

97. Assertion : Artificial sweeteners are added to the food to control the intake of calories.
Reason : Most of the artificial sweeteners are inert and do not metabolise in the body.

VI. Long Answer Type

98. In what respect do prontosil and salvarsan resemble. Is there any resemblance between azo dye and prontsil? Explain.

99. How do enzymes catalyse a chemical reaction in the living system? Explain drug target interaction taking the example of enzyme as target.

100. Synthetic detergents have advantage over usual soaps as far as cleansing power is concerned. But use of synthetic detergents over a long time creates environmental pollution. How can the pollution caused by synthetic detergents
be minimised? Classify the detergents according to their chemical nature.

101. What are enzyme inhibitors? Classify them on the basis of their mode of attachments on the active site of enzymes. With the help of diagrams explain how do inhibitors inhibit the enzymatic activity.

ANSWERS

I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)

1. (iv) 2. (iii) 3. (i) 4. (iii) 5. (i) 6. (i) 7. (i) 8. (ii) 9. (iv) 10. (ii) 11. (ii) 12. (iii) 13. (ii) 14. (iii) 15. (iii) 16. (iii) 17. (iv) 18. (ii)

II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)

19. (ii), (iv) 20. (i), (iii) 21.(ii), (iii) 22. (i), (ii) 23. (i), (ii) 24. (i), (ii), (iii) 25. (iii), (iv) 26. (ii), (iv) 27. (i), (iv) 28. (i), (iv) 29. (i), (iv) 30. (i), (iii), (iv)

III. Short Answer Type

31. ~100–500u.
32. Medicines are used in diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases.
33. Antiseptics are chemicals which either kill or prevent the growth of microorganisms and are applied to living tissues.

34. Antiseptics, antibiotics and disinfectants.
35. Receptors are embedded in cell membrane.
36. Ulcer development in stomach.
37. Sites different from active site of enzyme where a molecule can bind and affect the active site is called allosteric site. Some drugs may also bind at this site.

38. Ionic bonding, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals interaction, dipole-dipole interaction.
39. Arsphenamine possesses —As=== As— linkage that resembles —N=== N—linkages in azodyes.
40. Tranquilizers

41. Aspirin prevents platelet coagulation and thus has antiblood clotting action therefore can prevent blood clogging in heart.
42. See page no. 444 of NCERT textbook for Class XII.
43. These are potassium salts of fatty acids.
44. Acid-base titration can be used to determine the excess amount of alkali in soap. The excess alkali left after hydrolysis of oil can be the source of alkalinity in soap.
45. Detergents persist in water even after sewage treatment and cause foaming in river water.

46. Anionic detergent.
47. Cationic detergent.
48. Non-ionic detergents

49.

50. Less branching leads to easy biodegradability.
51. Soaps are biodegradable while detergents are quite stable because of branching in hydrocarbon chain hence cause water pollution.
52. Analgesics are neurologically active pain killing drugs that reduce or abolish pain without causing impairment of consciousness, mental confusion, coordination or paralysis or some other disturbances of nervous system.

53. A person suffers from depression when he has low levels of noradrenaline. Noradrenaline is a neurotransmitter that plays a role in mood changes. Low levels of noradrenaline lower the signal-sending activity and make the person suffer from depression.

54. Antiseptics are applied to living tissues whereas disinfectants are applied to non living objects.
55. Magnesium hydroxide is a better antacid because being insoluble it does not allow the pH to increase above neutral. Hydrogencarbonate being soluble, its excess can make the stomach alkaline and trigger the production of even more acid.

56. Narcotic analgesics which are obtained from opium poppy are called opiates. Examples are morphine and its derivatives like heroin and codeine.

57. Since narcotic drugs relieve pain and produce sleep, these are chiefly used for the relief of postoperative pain, cardaic pain and pain of terminal cancer and in child birth.

58. Drugs that bind to the receptor site and inhibit its natural function are called antagonistic drugs.
59. Antimicrobial drugs can kill the microorganism such as bacteria, virus, fungi or other parasites. They can, alternatively, inhibit the pathogenic action of microbes.

60. [Hint : Glycerol.]
61. Bathing soaps are potassium salts of long chain fatty acids while washing soaps are sodium salts of long chain fatty acids.

62. Dissolving soap in ethanol followed by evaporating the excess solvent.
63. Antacids control only the symptoms and not the cause. They work by neutralising the acid produced in the stomach. They do not control the cause of production of more acid. Antihistamines are the drugs that suppress the action of histamine which is the chemical responsible for stimulation of secretion of pepsin and HCl in the stomach. Antihistamines influence and prevent the binding of histamine with the receptors present in the stomach wall resulting in lower acid production and therefore, better treatment.

64. Histamine is a potent vasodilator. It contracts muscles in the gut and bronchi. It relaxes some other muscles e.g. in the walls of blood vessels. Histamine is also responsible for congestion in the nose associated with
common cold and allergies. Also, histamine stimulates the release of pepsin and hydrochloric acid in the stomach.

65. See Class-XII NCERT, textbook page no. 444.
66. Enzymes have active sites that bind the substrate for effective and quick chemical reaction. The functional groups present at the active site of enzyme interact with functional groups of substrate via ionic bonding, hydrogen bonding, van der Waal interaction etc. Some drugs interfere with this interaction by blocking the binding site of enzyme and prevent the binding of actual substrate with enzyme. This inhibits the catalytic activity of the enzyme, therefore, these are called inhibitors.

67. Some substances are added to soap to affect the properties in order to make it useful for a particular application. Examples are sodium rosinate, sodium carbonate, etc. Sodium rosinate is added in laundry soaps, to increase lather and glycerol is added in shaving soaps, to prevent it from drying.

68. [Hint : In such drinks artificial sweetening agents are present which do not metabolise hence do not produce any energy.]
69. [Hint : Plenty of salt and cover of oil act as preservative. These do not allow bacteria to thrive on them.]

70.

71. Sucrolose
72. Aspartic acid and phenylalanine.
73. In cold foods and soft drinks.
74. Benzoic acid, sorbic acid, propanoic acid.
75. Hint : For answer see page no. 441 of NCERT textbook for Class XII.
76. Hint : For answer see page no. 442 of NCERT textbook for Class XII.
77. Hint : For answer see page no. 442 of NCERT textbook for Class XII.

IV. Matching Type

78. (i) → (c) (ii) → (d) (iii) → (a) (iv) → (b)
79. (i) → (b) (ii) → (a) (iii) → (d) (iv) → (c)
80. (i) → (c) (ii) → (d) (iii) → (b) (iv) → (a)
81. (i) → (c) (ii) → (d) (iii) → (b) (iv) → (a)
82. (i) → (b) (ii) → (d) (iii) → (a) (iv) → (e) (v) → (c)
83. (i) → (e) (ii) → (f) (iii) → (d) (iv) → (g) (v) → (b) (vi) → (a) (vii) → (c)

V. Assertion and Reason Type

84. (iii) 85. (iv) 86. (i) 87. (iv) 88. (iv) 89. (iv) 90. (ii) 91. (iv) 92. (v) 93. (ii) 94. (iv) 95. (iii) 96. (ii) 97. (ii)

VI. Long Answer Type

98. Hint: For answer see NCERT textbook for Class XII.
99. Hint: For answer see NCERT textbook for Class XII.
100. Hint: For answer see NCERT textbook for Class XII.
101. Hint: For answer see NCERT textbook for Class XII.

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Simplified Knowledge Management Classes

Must see https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/some-points-which-i-wish-all-my-new-prospective-students-know/
🙂
Do you want to make money working at home ?
see http://skmclasses.weebly.com/jobs.html

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you will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

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The following Videos are available for you ( As of Now ). These explain tricky Physics and Mathematics Numericals.

Eventually I will try to give Videos for full course here for you.

These covers PU ( Pre University courses, school / college ) courses, IIT JEE, AIEEE ( All India Engineering Entrance Examination ) , CET ( Combined Engineering Test ), AIPMT ( All India Pre Medical Test ), ISc ( Intermediate Science / Indian School Certificate Exam ), CBSE ( Central Board Secondary Exam ), Roorkey Joint Entrance Test Questions ( Discontinued since 2002 ), APhO ( Asian Physics Olympiad ), IPhO ( International Physics Olympiad ), IMO ( International Mathematics Olympiad ) , NSEP ( National Standard Exam in Physics ), RMO ( Regional Math Olympiad , India ), INMO ( Indian National Maths Olympiad ), Irodov Solutions, Prof. H C Verma ( Concepts of Physics ) Solutions etc.

( You can see the history of Indian Participation in various Olympiads at ->
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/indian-participation-in-ipho-icho-ibo-and-astronomy-olympiad/ )

[ In each of these videos there is at-least 1 or more errors. Please tell me about those ]

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.weebly.com
You should get to see all the Uploaded videos. Though we have many more study videos.

Thanks and Regards
Zookeeper ;-D Subhashish Chattopadhyay

[ I suggest you see the videos starting with 1- first then starting with 2- ….. in that sequence. ]

[ Tell your friends about this link if you liked the videos ]

In case of doubts or suggestions, Please send me email at mokshya@gmail.com

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.weebly.com

Answers to -> Frequently Asked Questions ( FAQ ) [ commonly asked intelligent Questions 🙂 ]

1 ) How do I prepare for IIT ?

Ans : – See the videos made by me ( search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.weebly.com
Though we have many more which have not been uploaded ). While watching the videos, take notes and try to solve the problems yourself by pausing the video. Tell me if any calculation is wrong. See the videos with 1- first then 2- and so on. Write to IAPT Kothrud, Pune office to buy ( 150 Rs approx ) the book with previous papers of NSEP ( National Standard Exam in Physics – The 1st level ), INPhO ( Indian National Physics Olympiad – 2nd level ). Prepare with these and see how much you are scoring. You can guess your ALL INDIA rank easily from NSEP, and INPhO rank. Since 1998 the IIT JEE toppers have been mostly representing India in IPhO.

2 ) Which codec and Player do I use to see the videos ?

Ans : – You can use GOM Player, or VLC Player. You have to have good speakers with filters or good earphones with filters. We have checked mostly it is OK with these. ( If you are depending only on your embedded speakers of computer /screen / keyboard then there may be extra distortions. As these speakers are often not of good Quality. Also install latest KL Codecs ) In any case reduce the volume see the board, imagine sitting in the last bench and solving the problems of your own. See if your solution differs anywhere with the scribbles on the board.

3 ) Why are you giving these ( high Quality ) lecture for free ?

Ans : Well there are lot of good things free in this world. Linux, My-SQL, Open-Office ….. Go to sourceforge and get thousands of high quality software free along with source code. Yes all officially free …. Why do you think Richard Stallman, Zimmerman, ….. etc are considered Guru philosophers ? In Punjab and Gurudwaras worldwide there are so many Langars where you get better food than Restaurants. ….. why ? Why do you have Dharmasalas and subsidized rest rooms near hospitals / Famous Temples / various places ? in Iftar party anyone can eat for free …. why ?

I am teaching since 1989 I have observed most students can do much better if they have the self motivation to solve and practice. Cheap books are available in second hand bookstalls, where you get thousands of Numericals to solve ….. but most students will like to blow their time going and coming for tuition, travel time …. TV for hours and hours watching cricket / Tennis games, playing computer games …. My free lectures are not going to make much difference in spending of unnecessary money for coaching ….. I know very well , how much people enjoy …. ! spending unnecessarily !!

Do you know that there are NO poor / needy students in Bangalore.

Sometime back I had tried to teach for IIT JEE FREE. Discussed with a few NGOs and social service guys. Arranged rooms but got only 1 student. We had informed many people in many ways to inform students …. We did not get students who are ready to learn for free. So I am sure these lectures are NOT FREE. If anyone learns from these, s/he changes and that’s the gain / benefit. This change ( due to learning ) is very costly …. Most do not want to learn ………..

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.weebly.com
You will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

🙂

4 ) How can I get all your lectures ?

Ans : – Apart from my lectures there are approx 700 GB of PCM ( Phy, Chem, Math ) lectures. It takes approx 3 years of continuous download from scattered sources. I have ( 20,000 )Thousands of these. You can take ALL of them from me in an external 1 TB hard disk, instead of spending so much money and time again for downloading. These cover ( by Various Professors ) everything of Chemistry, Physics, Maths… Lot of this is from outside India … as foreigners have much wider heart than Indians ( as most of GNU / open source software have been developed by Non-Indians ). I observed the gaps in these videos, and thus I am solving IIT, APhO, Roorkey, IPhO Numericals. Videos made by me along with these videos gives a complete preparation.

Send me a mail at mokshya@gmail.com to contact me.

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.weebly.com
You will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

🙂

5 ) How do you get benefited out of this ?

Ans :- If anyone learns we all will have better people in this world. I will have better “ YOU “.
🙂

6 ) Why do you call yourself a Zookeeper ?

Ans :- This is very nicely explained at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/z00keeper-why-do-i-call-myself-a-zoookeeper/

🙂

7 ) Where do you stay ?

Ans :- Presently I am in Bangalore.

🙂

8 ) If I need videos in a few topics can you make them for me ?

Ans :- We actively answers doubts at doubtpoint.
see http://skmclasses.weebly.com/doubtpoint.html
In case you appreciate our time and efforts involved in answering complicated Questions, then get Quality answers at doubtpoint.

🙂

9 ) Why did you write an article saying there are No Poor students ?

Ans :- There are lots of NGOs and others working for rural / poor children education at lower classes. While very less effort is on for std 9 till 12. Also see the answer in question number ( 3 ) above. In more than 2 decades of teaching I never met a Poor child who was seriously interested in ( higher ) studies. As I have a mind / thinking of a ” Physicist “, I go by ” Experimental Observation “.

It is not about what is being said about poor in media / TV etc, or ” what it should be ” ( ? ) …. It is about what I see happening. Also to add ( confuse ? you more )…. You must be knowing that in several states over many years now girl students have better ( by marks as well as by pass percentage ) result in std 10 / Board Exams….. well but NEVER a girl student came FIRST in IIT JEE … why ? [ The best rank by a Girl student is mostly in 2 digits, very rarely in single digit ] ????? So ????

🙂

10 ) How much do I have to study to make it to IIT ?

Ans :- My experience of Teaching for IIT JEE since 1989, tells me, Total 200 hours per subject ( PCM ) is sufficient. If you see my Maths and Physics videos, each subject is more than 200 hours. So if someone sees all the videos diligently, takes notes and remembers, …… Done.

🙂

11 ) What is EAMCET ?

Ans :- Engineering Agriculture and Medicine Common Entrance Test is conducted by JNT University Hyderabad on behalf of APSCHE. This examination is the gateway for entry into various professional courses offered in Government/Private Colleges in Andhra Pradesh.

12 ) In your videos are you covering other Exams apart from IIT ?

Ans : – Yes. See many videos made by solving problems of MPPET, Rajasthan / J&K CET, UPSEAT ( UPES Engineering Aptitude Test ), MHCET, BCECE ( Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination Board ), WB JEE etc

🙂

13 ) What is SCRA ?

Ans : – Special Class Railway Apprentice (SCRA) exam is conducted by Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) board, for about 10 seats.That translates into an astonishing ratio of 1 selection per 10,000 applicants. The SCRA scheme was started in 1927 by the British, to select a handful of most intelligent Indians to assist them in their Railway Operations, after training at their Railway’s largest workshop, i.e. Jamalpur Workshop, and for one year in United Kingdom. The selected candidates were required to appear in the Mechanical Engineering Degree Examination held by Engineering Council (London).

Thanks for your time. To become my friend in google+ ( search me as mokshya@gmail.com and send friend request )

Read http://edge.org/responses/what-scientific-concept-would-improve-everybodys-cognitive-toolkit
🙂
The following video is a must see for full CO2 cycle, plates of Earth, Geological activities, stability of weather

🙂
Article in Nature says CO2 increase is good for the trees
http://thegwpf.org/science-news/6086-co2-is-greening-the-planet-savannahs-soon-to-be-covered-by-forests.html
🙂
http://climaterealists.com/index.php?id=9752

BBC documentary Crescent and Cross shows the 1000 years of fight between Christians and Muslims. Millions have been killed in the name of Religion. To decided whose GOD is better, and which GOD to follow. The fight continues.

Summary of Women

🙂
The Virus of Faith

🙂
The God delusion

🙂
cassiopeia facts about evolution

Intermediate Fossil records shown and explained nicely Fossils, Genes, and Embryos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fdpMrE7BdHQ

The Rise Of Narcissism In Women

🙂
13 type of women whom you should never court
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/relationships/man-woman/13-Women-you-should-never-court/articleshow/14637014.cms

🙂
Media teaching Misandry in India

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-M2txSbOPIo

Summary of problems with women
http://problemwithwomentoday.blogspot.in/2009/12/problem-with-women-today-what-in-hell.html

🙂
Eyeopener men ? women only exists
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ZAuqkqxk9A

🙂
Each of you is an Activist in some way or other. You are trying to propagate those thoughts, ideas that you feel concerned / excited about.

Did you analyze your effectiveness ?

Culturomics can help you

😀
see how biased women are. Experimental proof. Women are happy when they see another woman is beating a man ( see how women misbehave with men )

🙂
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LlFAd4YdQks

see detailed statistics at

An eye opener in Misandry

My sincere advice would be to be EXTREMELY careful ( and preferably away ) of girls. As girls age; statistically certain behavior in them has been observed. Most Male can NOT manage those behaviors… Domestic violence, divorce etc are rising very fast. Almost in all cases boys / males are HUGE loosers. Be extremely choosy ( and think from several angles ) before even talking to a girl.
🙂
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/save-the-male/

🙂

How women manipulate men
http://www.angryharry.com/esWomenManipulateMen.htm

Gender Biased Laws in India
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/biased-laws/

🙂

Violence against Men

🙂

Only men are victimised

Men are BETTER than women
http://www.menarebetterthanwomen.com/
🙂

see

🙂

Male Psychology

Women are more violent than men
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/women-are-more-violent-says-study-622388.html

🙂

In the year 2010, 168 men ended their lives everyday ( on average ). More husbands committed suicide than wives.
🙂

http://www.rediff.com/news/report/ncrb-stats-show-more-married-men-committing-suicide/20111028.htm

It is EXTREMELY unfortunate that media projects men as fools, women as superiors, Husbands as servants, and replaceable morons. In ad after ad worldwide from so many companies, similar msg to disintegrate the world is being bombarded. It is highly unacceptable misandry

🙂

It is NOT at all funny that media shows violence against MEN. Some advertisers are trying to create a new ” Socially acceptable culture ” of slapping Men ( by modern city women ). We ( all men ) take objection to these advertisements.
We oppose this Misandry bad culture. Please share to increase awareness against Men bashing

🙂

Think what are you doing … why are you doing ?

Every Man must know this …

🙂
Manginas, White Knights, & Other Chivalrous Dogs

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donates pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com new covalent bond oxidation Loss electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com increase oxidation number oxidation number measure number electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom uses bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atoms another element. 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Repeat units IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com included brackets outside IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com symbol n Salt chemical compound formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com acid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com H+ ion acid IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com been replaced metal ion another positive ion such IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com ammonium ion, NH saturated hydrocarbon IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com single bonds only shell group atomic orbitals IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com principal quantum number known main energy level simple molecular lattice three dimensional structure molecules, bonded together weak intermolecular forces skeletal formula simplified organic formula, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hydrogen atoms removed alkyl chains, leaving carbon skeleton skmclasses.weebly.com associated functional groups species particle IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com part chemical reaction specific heat capacity, c energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com raise temperature 1 g substance 1 C spectator ions Ions present part chemical reaction standard conditions pressure 100 kPa 1 atmosphere stated temperature usually 298 K (25 °C), skmclasses.weebly.com concentration 1 mol dm reactions aqueous solutions standard enthalpies enthalpystandard solution solution known concentration Standard solutions normally IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com titrations IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com determine unknown information another substance Chemistry standard state physical state substance under standard conditions 100 kPa 1 atmosphere) skmclasses.weebly.com 298 K 25 C stereoisomers Compounds skmclasses.weebly.com structural formula IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different arrangement atoms space stoichiometry molar relationship IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com relative quantities substances part reaction stratosphere second layer Earth’s atmosphere, containing ‘ozone layer’, about 10 km IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com 50 km above Earth’s surface structural formula formula showing minimal detail skmclasses.weebly.com arrangement atoms molecule structural isomers Molecules IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com molecular formula different structural arrangements atoms subshell group skmclasses.weebly.com type atomic orbitals s, p, d f within shell substitution reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom group atoms replaced different atom group atoms termination step end radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two radicals combine IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecule thermal decomposition breaking chemical substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com heat skmclasses least two chemical substances troposphere lowest layer Earth’s atmosphere extending Earth’s surface about 7 km (above poles) about 20 km above tropics unsaturated hydrocarbon hydrocarbon containing carbon carbon multiple bonds van der Waals’ forces Very weak attractive forces IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com induced dipoles neighbouring molecules volatility ease IITJEE 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actinium (89) skmclasses.weebly.com lawrencium (103 activated complex – structure IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com forms because collisionIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecules new bondsvIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com formed activation energy – minimum energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com must be inputIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com chemical system activity series actual yield addition reaction – within organic chemistry, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecules combineIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com larger aeration mixing air skmclasses liquid solid alkali metals metals Group 1 on periodic table alkaline earth metals – metals Group 2 on periodic table allomer substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comdifferent composition another skmclasses.weebly.comcrystalline structure allotropy elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different structures skmclasses.weebly.com therefore different forms IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com Carbon diamonds, graphite, skmclasses.weebly.com fullerene anion negatively charge ions anode – positive side dry cell battery cell aromaticity – chemical property conjugated rings IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com results unusual stability. See IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com benzene atom – chemical element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com smallest form, skmclasses.weebly.com made up neutrons skmclasses.weebly.comprotons within nucleus skmclasses.weebly.comelectrons circling nucleus atomic mass unit atomic number number representing IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com corresponds IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com number protons within nucleus atomic orbital region IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron atom may be found atomic radius average atomic mass Avogadro’s law Avogadro’s number number particles mole substance ( 6.02×10^23 ) barometer deviceIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com measure pressure atmosphere base substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com accepts proton skmclasses.weebly.com high pH; common example sodium hydroxide (NaOH biochemistry chemistry organisms boiling phase transition liquid vaporizing boiling point temperature IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com substance 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F = 96 485.339 9(24) C/mol Faraday’s law electrolysis two part law IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Michael Faraday published about electrolysis mass substance altered at IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrode during electrolysis directly proportionalIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com quantity electricity transferred at IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrode mass IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com elemental material altered at IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrode directly proportionalIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element’s equivalent weight frequency number cyclesIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com unit time. 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Extn. 2nd Stage conduct heat (often noted IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com k thermochemistry study absorption release heat within chemical reaction thermodynamics study effects changing temperature, volume pressure work, heat, skmclasses.weebly.com energy on macroscopic scale I-Bas Consulting Pvt. 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33, Sector IV HSR Layout, Bangalore hydrolysis hydrosilylation hydrostannation hyperconjugation imides imines indium indoles induction inhibitors insertion iodine ionic liquids iridium iron isomerization The Brigade International School , Brigade Millenium JP Nagar Brigade Millenium, JP Nagar Bangalore ketones kinetic resolution lactams lactones lanthanides Lewis acids ligands lipids lithiation lithium macrocycles magnesium manganese Mannich bases medicinal chemistry metalation metallacycles metallocenes metathesis Michael addition Mitsunobu reaction molecular recognition molybdenum multicomponent reaction nanostructures natural products neighboring-group effects nickel nitriles nitrogen nucleobases nucleophiles nucleophilic addition nucleophilic National Centre For Excellence 154/1, “Victorian Enclave”, 5th Main, Malleshpalya, Bangalore aromatic substitution nucleosides nucleotides olefination oligomerization oligonucleotides oligosaccharides organometallic reagents osmium oxidation oxygen oxygenations ozonolysis palladacycles palladium peptides pericyclic reaction peroxides phase-transfer catalysis phenols pheromones phosphates phosphorus phosphorylation Adugodi Aga Abbas Ali Road Agaram Agrahara Dasara Halli Agrahara Dasarahalli Airport Exit Road Airport Main Road Airport Road Akkipet Ali Askar Road Alur Venkatarao Road Amarjyothi Layout Amruth Nagar Amrutha Halli Ananda Nagar Anandrao Circle Anche Palya Ane Palya Anekal Anjana Nagar Anubhava Nagar APMC Yard Arabic College Arakere Arcot Sreenivasachar Street Ashok Nagar Ashwath Nagar Attibele Attiguppe Austin Town Avala Halli Avenue Road B. Narayanapura Babusahib Palya Bagalagunte Bagalur Balaji Nagar Balepet Banashankari Banashankari 1st Stage Banashankari 2nd Stage Banashankari 3rd Stage Banaswadi Banaswadi Ring Road Bangalore G.P.O Bannerghatta Bannerghatta Road Bapuji Nagar Basappa Circle Basava Nagar Basavanagudi Basaveshwara Nagar Basaveshwara Nagar 2nd Stage Basaveshwara Nagar 3rd Block Basaveshwara Nagar 3rd Stage Basaveshwara Road Bazaar Street Begur BEL Road Bellandur Bellandur Outer Ring Road Bellary Road BEML Layout Benagana Halli Bendre Nagar Benson Town Bharati Nagar Bhattara Halli Bhoopasandra Bhuvaneshwari Nagar Bidadi Bileka Halli Bilekahalli Binny Mill Road Bismillah Nagar Bommana Halli Bommanahalli Kendriya Vidyalaya Malleswaram 18th Cross Malleswaram Bangalore Bommasandra Bommasandra Industrial Area Brigade Road Brindavan Nagar Brookefield Brunton Road BTM 1st Stage BTM 2nd Stage Bull Temple Road Palace Orchards/Sadashivnagar area located north city centre IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com property prices higher brackets possibly IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com up-market residential area in Bangalore M.G. Road/Brigade Road M.G. Road skmclasses.weebly.comBrigade Road main commercial areas Bangalore. Residential areas nearbyIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Brunton Road Rest House Road, St. Mark’s Road skmclasses.weebly.comLavelle Road Airport Road/Indiranagar eastern suburb, Indiranagar is easily accessible IITJEE city centre skmclasses.weebly.com Airport Koramangala Located south Indiranagar, Koramangala quite favourite IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IT professionals Despite 7 kmsIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com city centre, property values Ulsoor scenic man-made lake Ulsoor seen a spurt building activity last few years.IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com proximityIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com M.G Road jacked up property prices here Jayanagar/J.P. Nagar/Banashankari proximity areas Electronic City main reason skmclasses.weebly.comtheir growth recent past Jayanagar largest colonies Asia skmclasses.weebly.comthese areas popular areas Bangalore. Jayanagara originally namedIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Sri Jayachamarajendra wodeyar last king Mysore. Later Sri Kumaran Children’s Home Survey No 44 – 50, Mallasandra Village Uttarahalli Hobli, Off Kanakapura Main Road, Bangalore skmclasseslocality namedIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com current DD kendra is situated known IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com JC Nagar or Jayachamarajendra Nagar Delhi Public School, North Campus Survey No. 35/A, Sathanur Village Jala Hobli, Bangalore Jayanagar IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com literally Victory City Jayanagar IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com traditionally regarded IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com southern end Bangalore South End Circle “, wherein six roadsIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different areas meet skmclasses.weebly.com historic Ashoka Pillar mark southern end city bear this fact. newer extensions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com taken away this distinctionIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Jayanagar still remains one IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com southern parts city Malleshwaram Basavanagudi Malleshwaram north Bangalore, Basavanagudi south IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com areas oldest Bangalore skmclasses.weebly.com residents IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com original inhabitants City. Malleswaram PSBB Learning Leadership Academy
# 52, Sahasra Deepika Road, Laxmipura Village, Off Bannerghatta Main Road Bangalore located actually north-west Bangalore derives IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com name IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com famous Kaadu Malleshwara temple 8th Cross in Malleshwaram, skmclasses.weebly.comGandhibazar/ DVG Road in Basavanagudi IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com popular areas in Bangalore skmclasses.weebly.comshopping during festival times. Malleswaram been homeIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com several important personalities skmclasses.weebly.cominstitutions. Bangalore’s own Nobel laureate, C.V. Raman, late Veena Doreswamy Iyengar skmclasses.weebly.com M.Chinnaswamy cricket stadium is named, academician M.P.L. Sastry, poet G.P. Rajaratnam skmclasses.weebly.com Dewan Seshadri Iyer institutions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Canara Union club Konkani-speaking people in 1930 IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com this day hosts a variety cultural activities Malleswaram Association, hub area’s sporting activity since 1929 skmclasses.weebly.com Chowdaiah Memorial hosting great names music skmclasses.weebly.comtheatre. AccordingIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com recent figures available IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Bangalore Development Authority BDA Malleswaram’s net population density is 521 personsIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hectare, Bangalore City Corporation standard is 352IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hectare Sadhashivnagar Sadashivanagar arguably IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com elite skmclasses.weebly.comexpensive neighborhood in Bangalore India fashionable among politicians, movie starsIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com millionaires afford homes “Beverly Hills Bangalore,” having IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com address in Sadashivanagar connotes high level prestige success fame Vijayanagar derivesIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com nameIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Vijayanagara empire IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com flourished in south India during 15th skmclasses.weebly.com16th centuries.Vijayanag ar East is popularly known IITJEE base skmclasses.weebly.com RPC Layout (Railway Parallel Colony Layout), since this layout is along railway track. IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com recently renamed Hampi Nagar Hampi capital Vijayanagar Empire Vijayanagar houses a large Public Library, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com is one largest in Karnataka Halasuru Halasuru formerly known IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com Ulsoor oldest neighbourhoods Indian city Bangalore predominant Tamil speaking population renowned skmclasses.weebly.com numerous temples skmclasses.weebly.comrather narrow streets skmclassesprominant areas CityIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Sanjay Nagar skmclasses.weebly.com RT Nagar, Hebbal, Vyalikaval, Yeshwanthpur, Sriramapura, Rajajinagar, Rajarajeshwarinagar, Chickpet, Chamarajpet, V V Puram, Mavalli, Hanumanthanagar, Padmanabhanagar Hosakerehalli Sarakki, BTM Layout, Domlur, Gandhinagar, Vasanthanagar, Vivek Nagar, Cox Town, Frazer Town Benson Town Bangalore Roads Many roads Bangalore had European names South Parade Road, Albert Victor Road, Hardinge Road, Grant Road several roads Bangalore derived Delhi Public School Sarjapur, Bangalore East Survey No.43/1B & 45, Sulikunte Village, Dommasandra Post, Bangalore IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com military nomenclature Mahatma Gandhi Road MG Raod called IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com South Parade Roadskmclasses.weebly.com nomenclature Independence Edify School Electronic City
105, 34th Main, 23rd Cross, Sector-A, Surya Nagar Phase-2, Anekal-Chandapura Main Road, Electronic City Chamarajpet First Main Road named Albert Victor Road 1889 future King Edward VII Englskmclasses.weebly.com renamed Alur Venkatarao Road,IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com well-known Kannada writer skmclasses.weebly.comprotagonist unification National Public School, Koramangala National Games Village Koramangala, Bangalore Kannada-speaking areas andlater shortened IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com A.V. Road. Avenue road earlier known Doddapete Infantry Road became Bhagavan Mahaveer Road 2004 Chamarajendra Park Jyothi Kendriya Vidyalaya Yelachenahalli, Kanakapura Road Bangalore IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com Cubbon Park IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Sir Mark Cubbon British Commissioner Mysore mid-19th century. Fraser Town, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com named Sir Stuart Fraser scholar tutor Maharaja Krishnaraja Wadiyar IV Pulakeshinagar. Hardinge Road old name Pampa Mahakavi Road. sometime, Cunningham Road crowded bazaar being called Sampangi Ramaswamy Temple Road Race Course Road became Devraj Urs Road National Public School, Rajajinagar 1036-A, Purandarapura, V Block, Rajajinagar, Bangalore skmclasses.weebly.comGrant Road became Vittal Mallya Road IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two Vittal Mallya Roads skmclasses bund Sampangi Tank Kanteerava Stadium Gear Innovative International School GEAR Road, Doddakannelli, Off Sarjapur Road & Outer Ring Road, Bangalore IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com built MacIver Town Shantala Nagar Assayee Road Meanee Road those names commemoration wars fought Madras New Horizon Gurukul Ring Road Marathalli, Behind New Horizon College of Engineering, Bangalore , Bangalore IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com Sappers, BGS National Public School Ramalingeshwara Cave Temple Hulimavu, Bangalore IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Presidency School (Bangalore – East) CA Site 7P1A, 2nd A Main, 3rd A cross, East of NGEF Layout, Kasturinagar, Bangalore British Army against Marathas first decade 19th century Basavanagudi, meaning temple Basava skmclasses.weebly.com big bull situated area reason behind naming area Basavanagudi extension skmclassesformed around 1900. Gandhi Bazar, earlier known merely Angadi Beedhi School Of India Anekal Road, Bannerghatta, Bangalore skmclasses formed Kumarapark came skmclasses existence 1947, year Indian Independence, whereas Jayanagar skmclasses.weebly.comRajajinagarIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com thought year later 1948 skmclasses.weebly.com orchards Bangalore Palace skmclasses developed housing colony skmclasses.weebly.comnamed Sadashivanagar 1960,IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Orchids The International School Jalahalli, Nagarbavi, Mysore Road, Sarjapur Road, BTM, Bangalore well-known freedom fighter Dakshina Kannada Karnad Sadashiva Rao BVK Iyengar Road Byappana Halli Byatarayanapura Byrasandra C.V Raman Nagar Cambridge Layout Cambridge Road Cantonment Carmelaram Castle Street Central Street Chamarajapet Shanthi Theatre South End Circle INOX Shree Garuda Swagath Mall, 4th Floor, Tilak Nagar Main Road INOX Bangalore Central-2, 5th Floor, 45th Cross Maheshwari Theater Bannerghatta Main Road Gopalan Cinemas Gopalan Innovation Mall, JP Nagar 3rd Phase Chandapura Chandra Layout Global Academy For Learning Sri Chowdeshwari Farm, Near Global Village IT Park, National Public School, HSR Layout P2/32, Sector 4, HSR Layout Bangalore Pattanagere Main Road, Rajarajeshwarinagar, Bangalore Chickpet Chikkabanavara Chikkadugodi Chikkallasandra Chikkamavalli Cholara Palya Chowdeshwari Temple Street Chunchagatta Church Street Clevelskmclasses.weebly.com Town CMH Road Coles Park Commercial Street Commissariat Road Cooke Town Corporation Circle Cottonpet Cox Town Crescent Road Cubbon Park Cubbon Road Cubbonpet Cunningham Road Dairy Circle Dasara Halli Dasarahalli Devaiah Park Devana Halli Devanahalli Devara Chikkana Halli Devara Jeevana Halli Devasandra Dharmaram College Dickenson Road Dispensary Road Dodda Banaswadi Dodda Bommasandra Dodda Kallasandra Dodda Kanna Hally Dodda Mavalli Doddaballapur Road Doddaballapura Doddana Kundi Dollars Colony Domlur Domlur 2nd Stage Domlur Ring Road Dooravani Nagar Dr. Ambedkar Veedhi Dr. DVG Road Delhi Public School, South 11 K.M., kanakapura Road Konanakunte Post, Bangalore Dr. Raj Kumar Road Dr. TCM Royan Road Ejipura Electronic City Field Marshal Cariappa Road Frazer Town Ganapathi Nagar Gandhi Bazaar Gandhi Nagar Ganga Nagar Gangadhar Chetty Road Ganigarpet Garvebhavi Palya Gavipuram Extension Gayathri Nagar Geddala Halli Geddalahalli Giri Nagar Giri Nagar 1st Phase Giri Nagar 2nd Phase GM Palya Gokula Golf Course Road Gorgunte Palya Govindaraj Nagar Green Park Extension, Guddada Halli Gundopanth Street National Public School, Indiranagar 12 A Main HAL II Stage, Bangalore H.Siddaiah Road Haines Road HAL HAL 2nd Stage HAL 3rd Stage HAL Airport Road Hampi Nagar Hanumantha Nagar Hayes Road HBR Layout Hebbal Kempapura Hebbal Ring Road Hegde Nagar Heggana Halli Hennur Hesaraghatta HKP Road HMT Layout Hongasandra Hoody Horamavu Hosakere Halli photochemistry photooxidation piperidines polyanions polycations polycycles polymers Porphyrins prostaglandins protecting groups Entrance Coaching IIT Entrance Coaching CLAT Entrance Coaching AICEE Coaching TANCET Entrance Coaching PMT Entrance Coaching Language Classes Spoken English Classes Spoken Hindi Classes Foreign Languages Coaching Spoken Kannada Classes Spoken Gujarati Classes Competitive Exams Coaching KMAT Coaching Online CAT Coaching GATE Coaching IBPS Coaching RRB Coaching Civil Services Coaching UGC Net Coaching SSB & NDA Coaching UPSC Coaching IAS Coaching TNPSC Coaching Accounts & Finance CA Training PHP & MySQL Training Spring Training Web Designing Training Administration Training VMWare Training ITIL Training SharePoint Training SAN Training Linux Administration Training Database Training Data Warehousing Training Database Testing Training HADOOP Training Oracle DBA Training SQL Server Training Programming Languages Java & J2EE Training C C++ Training Perl Programming Training Python Programming Training Shell Scripting Training Mobile Development Training Android Development Training iPhone Development Training Mobile Application Testing Training Mobile Gaming Training Mobile Application Development Training Oakridge International School Oakridge International School, Sarjapur Road, , Bangalore School of India, Bannerghatta, Bangalore Delhi Public School DPS North Campus, Yelahanka, Bangalore Jain International Residential School (JIRS), Jakkasandra Post, Bangalore Delhi Public School (DPS East), Sarjapur, Bangalore TREAMIS World School, Electronics City, Bangalore South Delhi Public School (South), Kanakapura Road, Bangalore The Deen’s Academy, Whitefield, Bangalore National Public School (NPS), Koramangala, Bangalore Royale Concorde International School, Kalyan Nagar, Bangalore Freedom International School, HSR Layout, Bangalore Air Force School Army Public School Bangalore Military School BGS International School Cambridge Public School Delhi Public School Deva Matha Central School Jain International Residential School Kendriya Vidyalaya A M C School A.S.C Public School Amara Jyothi Public School Anand Shiksha Kendra ICSE Syllabus ACTS Secondary School B Mona High School Baldwin Boys High School Baldwin Girls High School Bishop Cotton Boys School Bishop Cotton Girls School Brigade School Candor International School Cambridge Public School Cathedral High School Chinmaya Vidyalay Christ Academy Ekya School Gnan Srishti School of Excellence Gopalan National School India International School IIS Lawrence School-ICSE New Horizon Public School Notre Dame Academy Paradise Residential School Patel Public School Podar International School Prakriya Green Wisdom School Primus School Ryan International School Sishu Griha St. Francis De Sales (SFS) High School Sherwood High Sri Kumaran Childrens Home St Francis School St Johns High School St Thomas Public School St. Patricks Academy St. Peters School Vibgyor High CBSE Syllabus AECS Magnolia Maaruti Public School Amaatra Academy Amrita Vidyalayam BGS-NPS School Brigade School BRS Global Centre for Excellence Capitol Public School CMR National Public School Delhi Public School East, South, North Edify School EuroSchool Freedom International School Geethanjali Montessori Geethanjali Vidhyalaya Gitanjali International School GISB Greengrove International School Gomathy Global School Harvest International School JSS Public School Kendriya Vidyalaya KV Manipal Tattva School Mirambika School for New Age NITTE International School National Centre for Excellence NCFE National Public School New Horizon Gurukul NHG Oakridge International School Presidency School PSBB LLA Padma Seshadri Bal Bhavan Radcliffe School Ravindra Bharathi Global School Sadhguru Sainath International School SSI Sri Kumaran Childrens Home Sunrise International Residential School Sujaya School The Samhita Academy Vagdevi Vilas School Venkat International Public School VIPS Vyasa International School Zee School IGCSE Syllabus Asia Pacific World School Krupanidhi Cambridge International School Candor International 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Primary Years Programme Colegio Anglo Mexicano MEXICO Milgate Primary School, AUSTRALIA Diploma Programme Australian International School Indonesia Pejaten Campus INDONESIA Instituto Educativa Fiscomisional Celina Vivar Espinosa, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Juan de Salinas, ECUADOR Primary Years Programme Academia Moderna Charter, UNITED STATES Beacon School BRAZIL Dr. Orlando Edreira Academy, School 26, UNITED STATES Westhill Institute Carpatos Elementary Campus, MEXICO Westhill Institute, S.C. 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Atms. Educ. Institution Kogalym Secondary School ?8, RUSSIAN FEDERATION Phorms Bilingual Gymnasium, GERMANY Royal High School, UNITED STATES SIS Swiss International School Stuttgart-Fellbach, GERMANY Seedling Public School INDIA The British School of Beijing CHINA Unidad Educativa Fiscal Experimental del Milenio, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Juan de Velasco ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Tumbaco, ECUADOR École secondaire Gaétan Gervais, CANADA École secondaire Hanmer CANADA Stonehill International School American School of Bombay Mumbai Day school offering PYP MYP DP Dhirubhai Ambani International School Mumbai Day school offering DP Ecole Mondiale World School, Mumbai Day school offering DP Jamnabai Narsee School Mumbai Day school offering DP Ahmedabad International School Ahmedabad Day School offering PYP Mahatma Gandhi International School Ahmedabad Day school offering MYP Mahindra United World College of India Pune Boarding school offering DP Mercedes-Benz International School Pune American Embassy School Delhi Day school offering DP The British School, Delhi Day school offering DP Pathways World School, Gurgaon Boarding school offering PYP DP SelaQui World School, Dehra Dun Boarding school offering DP Canadian International School, Bangalore Mixed Boarding Day school offering DP International School of Bangalore, Bangalore Mixed Boarding Day school offering DP Oakridge International School Hyderabad Day school offering PYP Chinmaya International Residential School Coimbatore Boarding school offering DP Good Shepherd International School Ooty Boarding school offering DP Kodaikanal International School, Kodaikanal Boarding school offering DP Home Tuition Group teachers available small groupsstudents IB International Baccalaureate Programme, IGCSE, ISc, ICSE, CBSE Schools offering IB ( International Baccalaureate ) Programme Bangalore International School Geddalahalli Hennur Bagalur Road Kothanur Post Bengaluru India 560 077 Stonehill International School, 1st Floor, Embassy Point #150, Infantry Road Bengaluru 560 001 Stonehill International School 259/333/334/335 Tarahunise Post Jala Hobli, Bengaluru North 562157 Candor International School Begur Koppa Road, Hullahalli Off Bannerghatta Road, Near Electronic City Bangalore 560105 Greenwood High International School Bengaluru, No.8-14, Chickkawadayarapura, Near Heggondahalli Gunjur Post, Varthur Sarjapur Road, Bangalore 560087 Sarla Birla Academy, Bannerghatta, Bangalore, Canadian International School, Yelahanka, Bangalore Indus International School Billapura Cross Sarjapur Bangalore

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