NCERT CBSE Standard 11 Chemistry Chapter 4 Chemical Bonding And Molecular Structure

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Chemistry Physics Mathematics personal tuitions ( also Home Tuitions / Coaching by Home Tutor with personal Attention ) are available in the Bannerghatta Road IIM ( south Bangalore ) region.

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Students staying in J P Nagar, Bommanahalli, Nayak Layout, Poornima Nagar, Aradhana Layout, Shreyas Colony, Devarachikkahalli, Rukmaiah Layout, Viswapriya Nagar, Akshayanagar, Omkar Nagar, BTM, Shanthiniketan Layout, Madivala, Teacher’s Colony, Hogasandra, MICO Layout, Fortis Hospital, Anjanadri Layout, Apollo Hospital, Royal Lake Front, Royal Residency, Jayanagar, Vijaya Enclave, Sundaram Shetty Nagar, Duo Heights, Arekere, Begur Road, L&T South city, Dollar colony, Brigade Millennium, Kumaraswami Layout, Jarganahalli, Bendre Nagar, Srinidhi Layout, Mysore Bank Colony, Ramaiah Garden, Nobo Nagar, Adigas Restaurant Bannerghatta Road, Shankranthi Layout, Sarvabhouma Nagar, BTS Layout, Ayyappa Temple Shoba Apartments, Anugraha Layout, Neo Layout, Mahaveer Rhyolities, Akshaya Nagar, DLF Extention, new Dollar Colony,   etc can easily access this.

The schools and Institutions near by are Mitra Academy, St Pauls – Presidency School and College, Clarence High School, PSBB, Ryan International School, Sarala Birla Academy, BGS NPS,Brigade school, Shantiniketan, MG Infant, Deeksha Hosur Road, Nightingles English Highschool, Sri Venkateshwara Education Society, Oxford Engineering College, Lorven International Institute, Hill Top School, Karnataka Govt. High School, Christ Academy Hulahalli Koppa Road, Salonee School, Royal Convent School, St Francis School, Teresa Public School, Maaruthi Magnolia etc.

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Download the following FREE pdf e-Books ( Chapter wise / Topic wise solutions, Written by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore )

Everything can be searched in the net. Someone can know and find; if he wants to. Yet information at a single place helps. In fact organized information communicates much better. For IIT results analysis, performance of Girls, perceptions and priorities of various people in various regions of India see

IIT JEE Results and the situation in Bangalore by Prof. Subhashish    ( Download )

( Click on the links to open the PDF in a new tab, then Save / Download )

IIT-JEE, NCERT / CBSE, I.Sc., PU, Board exam, EAMCET, BITS Physics Books with lots of Examples ( Free pdf download of Physics Books, Chapter wise / Topic wise Questions and Solutions )

43 ] Formulae of Force ( or Formulas of Force; as Americans Like to call it )

There are around 70 formulae ( or formulas; as Americans call it ) for Force. This book covers these with many examples.
1 ) Force = mass X acceleration
2 ) Gravitational Attraction Force = G M1 M2 by Distance Square

3 ) Rate of change of Momentum is Force. So Momentum will be conserved ( this means momentum will remain same ) if no external force is acting.
or
Vf is final velocity and Vi is initial velocity and Δt is the time elapsed.
4 ) Gravitational attraction ( force ) on Earth is F = m X g where g is acceleration due to gravity
5 ) Centrifugal Force
6 ) Tension as Centripetal Force
7 ) Friction as Centripetal Force
8 ) Friction Forces in various situations
9 ) Force due to Magnetic field on a moving charge ( as Centripetal force )
10 ) Force of Electrostatic Attraction and Electrostatic repulsion
11 ) Force = Charge x Electric field
12 ) Force of Attraction between to Permanent Magnets
13 ) Viscous drag of air
14 ) Buoyant Force
15 ) Pressure = Force / Area
16 ) Young’s Modulus = Stress / Strain
17 ) Moment = distance x Force
18 ) Force of Magnetic field in a Current Carrying wire of length L = i L x B
19 ) Coriolis Force
20 ) Force on a Fan rotating
21 ) Force of attraction in between two wires carrying current in same direction
22 ) Spring pulled by distance x needs Force = k x where k is spring constant
23 ) speed of wave = √( Tension in string / µ ) where µ = mass per unit length
24 ) Surface Tension x length = Force
25 ) Casimir Force
26 ) Shear force
27 ) Hoop stress in ring made of n bids rotating at ω
28 ) Hoop stress in ring made of mass m rotating at ω
29 ) Hoop stress in plastic ring with charge Q radius R and charge q at center
30 ) Hoop stress in pipe carrying liquid at speed v of density ρ
31 ) Stress in a rod when rotated at angular speed ω
32 ) Tension in Catenaries
33 ) Force of Attraction at a height
34 ) Force of Attraction at a depth
35 ) Tension force in Static Problems
36 ) Compression force related to Bulk Modulus
37 ) Force in the middle of a pressurized Ball
38 ) Excess Pressure in bubble with two surfaces
39 ) Excess Pressure in Bubble with single surface
40 ) Force on a wall due to multiple balls being thrown
41 ) Force on a wall due to water Jet
42 ) Force and Pressure due to light
43 ) Force of attraction between two charged plates
44 ) Force and Electric field due to charged cylinder
45 ) Approximate restoring force in a pendulum
46 ) Force by which a dielectric is pulled in; between charged plates
47 ) Force by which dielectric liquid rises to some height in between charged plates kept horizontally
48 ) Force by which dielectric liquid rises to some height in between charged plates kept vertically
49 ) Force due to rise of dielectric liquid in concentric charged cylinder
50 ) Force on moving charge due to another moving charge
51 ) Force on a moving rocket losing mass by ejecting gases
52 ) Calculating force when viscous drag is proportional to v to the power p
53 ) Strong Force between Quarks
54 ) Weak Force causing Radioactivity
55 ) Van der Waal Forces
56 ) Keesom Force
57 ) Debye Force
58 ) London Forces
59 ) Dispersion Forces
60 ) Dipole – Dipole Forces

See https://archive.org/search.php?query=professor+Subhashish&sort=-date

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42 ]  CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Dispersion of Light in Prisms and lenses, Correction of Spherical, Chromatic Aberrations etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide –  Dispersion of Light in Prisms and lenses, Correction of Spherical, Chromatic Aberrations etc Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide –  Dispersion of Light in Prisms and lenses, Correction of Spherical, Chromatic Aberrations etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of  Dispersion of Light in Prisms and lenses, Correction of Spherical, Chromatic Aberrations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

Dispersion of Light – Achromatic combination of Prisms & Lenses by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

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41 ]  CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Collision, Momentum, Elastic & Inelastic Collision etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Collision, Momentum, Elastic & Inelastic Collision Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Collision, Momentum, Elastic & Inelastic Collision Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Collision, Momentum, Elastic & Inelastic Collision Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-collision-momentum-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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40 ]  CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – X Ray, Rontgen, Moseley Proton Discovery etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – X Ray, Rontgen, Moseley Proton Discovery Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – X Ray, Rontgen, Moseley Proton Discovery Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of X Ray, Rontgen, Moseley Proton Discovery Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-x-ray-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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39 ]  CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Thermionic Emission of Electrons, Edison Effect, Richardson’s law, Schottky emission, Thomson Effect, Joule Thomson Kelvin Effect, etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Thermionic Emission of Electrons, Edison Effect, Richardson’s law, Schottky emission, Thomson Effect, Joule Thomson Kelvin Effect, Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Thermionic Emission of Electrons, Edison Effect, Richardson’s law, Schottky emission, Thomson Effect, Joule Thomson Kelvin Effect, Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Thermionic Emission of Electrons, Edison Effect, Richardson’s law, Schottky emission, Thomson Effect, Joule Thomson Kelvin Effect Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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38 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Heat & Thermodynamics, Latent Teat, Thermodynamics, PV Diagram, P-V Diagram, Polytropic Process, Isobaric Process, Isochoric Process, PT Diagram, P-T Diagram, Entropy, Enthalpy, VT Diagram, V-T Diagram, Engine, Carnot, Efficiency, Refrigerator, Refrigeration Constant, Refrigeration Ratio, Sink, Source, Heat Source, Heat Sink, Free expansion, PV=nRT, Ideal, Ideal gas, Adiabatic  etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Heat & Thermodynamics, Latent Teat, Thermodynamics, PV Diagram, P-V Diagram, Polytropic Process, Isobaric Process, Isochoric Process, PT Diagram, P-T Diagram, Entropy, Enthalpy, VT Diagram, V-T Diagram, Engine, Carnot, Efficiency, Refrigerator, Refrigeration Constant, Refrigeration Ratio, Sink, Source, Heat Source, Heat Sink, Free expansion, PV=nRT, Ideal, Ideal gas, Adiabatic Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Heat & Thermodynamics, Latent Teat, Thermodynamics, PV Diagram, P-V Diagram, Polytropic Process, Isobaric Process, Isochoric Process, PT Diagram, P-T Diagram, Entropy, Enthalpy, VT Diagram, V-T Diagram, Engine, Carnot, Efficiency, Refrigerator, Refrigeration Constant, Refrigeration Ratio, Sink, Source, Heat Source, Heat Sink, Free expansion, PV=nRT, Ideal, Ideal gas, Adiabatic Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Heat & Thermodynamics, Latent Teat, Thermodynamics, PV Diagram, P-V Diagram, Polytropic Process, Isobaric Process, Isochoric Process, PT Diagram, P-T Diagram, Entropy, Enthalpy, VT Diagram, V-T Diagram, Engine, Carnot, Efficiency, Refrigerator, Refrigeration Constant, Refrigeration Ratio, Sink, Source, Heat Source, Heat Sink, Free expansion, PV=nRT, Ideal, Ideal gas, Adiabatic Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-heat-thermodynamics-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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37 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Peltier Effect  etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Peltier Effect Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Peltier Effect Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Peltier Effect Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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36 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Seebeck Effect  etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Seebeck Effect Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Seebeck Effect Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Seebeck Effect Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-seebeck-effect-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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35 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Thermal Radiation, Stefan Boltzmann Law, Wien ‘s Law  etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Thermal Radiation, Stefan Boltzmann Law, Wien ‘s Law Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Thermal Radiation, Stefan Boltzmann Law, Wien ‘s Law Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Thermal Radiation, Stefan Boltzmann Law, Wien ‘s Law Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-thermal-radiation-wien-s-law-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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34 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Thermometry History, Methods, Numericals, Tricks & Techniques  etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Thermometry History, Methods, Numericals, Tricks & Techniques Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Thermometry History, Methods, Numericals, Tricks & Techniques Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Thermometry History, Methods, Numericals, Tricks & Techniques Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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33 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Modelling Techniques, Application of Integral Calculus in Physics Problems and Modelling, Advance Concept of Edge Correction etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Modelling Techniques, Application of Integral Calculus in Physics Problems and Modelling, Advance Concept of Edge Correction Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Modelling Techniques, Application of Integral Calculus in Physics Problems and Modelling, Advance Concept of Edge Correction Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Modelling Techniques, Application of Integral Calculus in Physics Problems and Modelling, Advance Concept of Edge Correction Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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32 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Newton ‘s Law of Cooling etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Newton ‘s Law of Cooling Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Newton ‘s Law of Cooling Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Newton ‘s Law of Cooling Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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31 ]  CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Thermal Expansion etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Thermal Expansion Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Thermal Expansion Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Thermal Expansion Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-thermal-expansion-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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30 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Surface Tension  etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Surface Tension Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Surface Tension Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Surface Tension Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-surface-tension-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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29 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Mechanics & Laws of Motion  etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Mechanics & Laws of Motion Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Mechanics & Laws of Motion Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Mechanics & Laws of Motion Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-mechanics-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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28 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Viscosity & Viscous Drag  etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Viscosity & Viscous Drag Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Viscosity & Viscous Drag Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Viscosity & Viscous Drag Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-viscosity-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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27 ]  CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Thermal Properties of Solids, or Thermal Properties of Material, Thermal Conductivity  etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Thermal Properties of Solids, or Thermal Properties of Material, Thermal Conductivity Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Thermal Properties of Solids, or Thermal Properties of Material, Thermal Conductivity Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Thermal Properties of Solids, or Thermal Properties of Material, Thermal Conductivity Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-thermal-properties-of-solids-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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26 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Buoyant Force, Buoyancy, Discussions on Layer of Liquid below the Object  etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Buoyant Force, Buoyancy, Discussions on Layer of Liquid below the Object Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Buoyant Force, Buoyancy, Discussions on Layer of Liquid below the Object Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Buoyant Force, Buoyancy, Discussions on Layer of Liquid below the Object Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-buoyant-force-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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25 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Mechanical Properties of Material, Mechanical Properties of Solids, Young ‘s Modulus, Bulk Modulus, Poisson ‘s Ratio, Shear Stress, Strain, Energy Stored in elongated wire  etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Mechanical Properties of Material, Mechanical Properties of Solids, Young ‘s Modulus, Bulk Modulus, Poisson ‘s Ratio, Shear Stress, Strain, Energy Stored in elongated wire Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Mechanical Properties of Material, Mechanical Properties of Solids, Young ‘s Modulus, Bulk Modulus, Poisson ‘s Ratio, Shear Stress, Strain, Energy Stored in elongated wire Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Mechanical Properties of Material, Mechanical Properties of Solids, Young ‘s Modulus, Bulk Modulus, Poisson ‘s Ratio, Shear Stress, Strain, Energy Stored in elongated wire Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-mechanical-properties-of-solids-by-prof-subhashish

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24 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Kinetic Theory of Gases etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Kinetic Theory of Gases Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Kinetic Theory of Gases Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Kinetic Theory of Gases Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-kinetic-theory-of-gasess-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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23 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Vectors & Scalars etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Vectors & Scalars Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Vectors & Scalars Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Vectors & Scalars Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-vectors-scalars-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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22 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Units, Dimensions, Measurements & Errors etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide –  Units, Dimensions, Measurements & Errors Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Units, Dimensions, Measurements & Errors Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Units, Dimensions, Measurements & Errors Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-units-dimensions-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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21 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Kinematics, Dynamics or Kinetics, Circular Motion & Projectile Motion etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide –  Kinematics, Dynamics or Kinetics, Circular Motion & Projectile Motion Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Kinematics, Dynamics or Kinetics, Circular Motion & Projectile Motion Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Kinematics, Dynamics or Kinetics, Circular Motion & Projectile Motion, Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-kinematics-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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20 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Measuring Speed of Light, Various Methods etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Measuring Speed of Light, Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Measuring Speed of Light, Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Measuring Speed of Light, Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-speed-of-light-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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19 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Maxwell ‘s Equations, Electromagnetic Waves etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Maxwell ‘s Equations, Electromagnetic Waves by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Maxwell ‘s Equations, Electromagnetic Waves etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Maxwell ‘s Equations & Electromagnetic Waves etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-maxwells-equations-electromagnetic-waves-by-prof-subhashish

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18 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetism History etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetism History by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetism History etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Magnetism History etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-magnetism-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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17 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetic Induction, Voltage Produced etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetic Induction, Voltage Produced by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetic Induction, Voltage Produced by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Magnetic Induction, Voltage Produced etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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16 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetic Effects of Current etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetic Effects of Current by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetic Effects of Current by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Magnetic Effects of Current, Various Derivations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-magnetic-effect-of-current-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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15 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Capacitance Dielectrics & Circuits etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Capacitance Dielectrics & Circuits by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Capacitance Dielectrics & Circuits by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Capacitance, Trick Circuits, Combinations of Dielectrics, Various Derivations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-capacitance-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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14 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Electrostatics & Gauss Theorem etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Electrostatics & Gauss Theorem by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Electrostatics & Gauss Theorem by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Electrostatics, Gauss Theorem, Various Derivations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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13 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Center of Mass etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Center of Mass by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Center of Mass by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Center of Mass, Various Derivations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-center-of-mass-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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12 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Work Power Energy Variable Force Leaking Bucket etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Work Power Energy Variable Force Leaking Bucket by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Work Power Energy Variable Force Leaking Bucket by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Work Power Energy Variable Force Leaking Bucket, Various Derivations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-work-power-energy-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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11 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Moment of Inertia, Solid Bodies Angular Momentum etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Moment of Inertia of Solid Bodies by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Moment of Inertia of Solid Bodies by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Moment of Inertia, Solid Bodies Angular Momentum, Rotational Energy, Derivations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-moment-of-inertia-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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10 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Circular Motion, Conical Pendulum etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Circular Motion, Conical Pendulum etc and many complicated Problems by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Circular Motion by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Circular Motion. Conical Pendulum etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-circular-motion-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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9 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Solutions to Irodov Problems, by Subhashish Sir, and Other Professors.

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8 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Electrical Circuits, Delta to Star Conversion, Current Source, Trick Circuits, Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge, Steps and Techniques of Solving Electrical Circuits etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Electrical Circuits, Delta to Star Conversion, Current Source, Trick Circuits, Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge, Steps and Techniques of Solving Electrical Circuits etc and many complicated Problems by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Gravitation by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Electrical Circuits, including Inductance & Capacitance, internal Resistance etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-electrical-circuits-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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7 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Gravitation, Contrasting Comparisons of Gravitational Potential and Electrostatic Potential, Contrasting Comparisons of Gravitational Field and Electrostatic Field, Escape Velocity, Height attended by a mass thrown at various speeds etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Gravitation, Contrasting Comparisons of Gravitational Potential and Electrostatic Potential, Contrasting Comparisons of Gravitational Field and Electrostatic Field, Escape Velocity, Height attended by a mass thrown at various speeds etc and many complicated Problems by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Gravitation by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Gravitation, Field, Potential, escape velocity etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ’s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-gravitation-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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6 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – SHM Periodic Motion, Harmonic Oscillations with Solid Objects, Approximate Simple Harmonic Motions –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – SHM ( Simple Harmonic Motion ) and many complicated Problems by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – SHM by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of SHM Approximate Oscillations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma’s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-shm-harmonic-oscillations-or-periodic-motion-by-prof-subhashish

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5 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Sound Waves, Doppler Effect, Standing waves in Open Tube, Closed Tube, Rods or Bars by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Sound Waves, Doppler Effect, Standing waves in Open Tube, Closed Tube, Rods or Bars by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Sound Waves, Oscillations in Wires by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Sound Waves, Doppler effect, Standing waves and Propagating Waves, Oscillations in Wires, Bars, Tubes ( both Open Tube and Closed Tube ) etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ’s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. Regarding the latest developments I wrote … “ GUT [ General Unified Theory ] is being modified to introduce a 5th fundamental force, because some heavy particles have been observed at CERN and various other experiments and Producing Gravitational waves at will, without mass, Madala Bosons to explain Dark Matter ”

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4 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Radio activity and Modern Physics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Radio activity and Modern Physics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Radio activity and Modern Physics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Radioactivity and Modern Physics. LASERS, Dirac Equation, Particle Physics, Diode, Triode, Transistor, Quantum Mechanics etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ’s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide-Radio activity and Modern Physics by Prof. Subhashish

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3 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Mirrors Lenses Slabs Prisms Ray Diagram Problems – Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Mirrors Lenses Slabs Prisms Ray Diagram Problems Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Mirrors Lenses Slabs Prisms Ray Diagram Problems  Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Mirror Slab Prism Lenses Ray Diagram Problems & Solutions Optics. Silvered Slab, Silvered Lenses, Silvered prisms are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma’s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

In this eBook I wrote about my Personal Choice of, ” List of Best Experiments ” …

Michelson–Morley experiment proving there was no Aether, Moseley ‘s experiment with X-Rays to discover Protons, Jagadish chandra Bose demonstrating controlled emission / transmission and receiving of Radio waves, Casimir experiments to show Casimir forces of virtual particles, Eddington measuring bending of light, Flying atomic clocks in planes and confirming slowing down of time at high speeds, Victor Hess measured Radiation level variation at ground and high up in the atmosphere, Soviet physicist Sergey Vernov was the first to use radiosondes to perform cosmic ray readings with an instrument carried to high altitude by a balloon at heights up to 13.6 km, The proof of time dilation by Muon decay, Measurement of Space-time curvature near Earth and thereby the stress–energy tensor (which is related to the distribution and the motion of matter in space) in and near Earth , Detecting Gravitational Waves.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide-Mirrors Prisms Lens Slabs Optics by Prof. Subhashish

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2 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Wave Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Wave Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide- Wave Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Wave Optics. Slabs, Silvered Slab, Lenses, Silvered Lenses, Prisms, Silvered prisms are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma’s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide-Wave Optics by Prof. Subhashish

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1 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Ray or Geometrical Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Ray or Geometrical Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide-Ray or Geometrical Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Ray or Geometrical Optics. Slabs, Silvered Slab, Lenses, Silvered Lenses, Prisms, Silvered prisms are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma’s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide-Ray or Geometrical Optics by Prof. Subhashish

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Nima Arkani-Hamed has written a beautiful paper on ” The Future of Fundamental Physics “
We are too used to see ‘daily news ‘ which changes everyday. Often many of us start thinking or imagining Progress in Science and / or technology will also happen at that speed. Searching the net for future trends, every hour, actually wastes time, rather than teaching us anything. Slow long term prediction is difficult to do. These predictions does not change much. It needs very deep understanding of the present trends, to write about future.

nima AH

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IIT-JEE, NCERT / CBSE, I.Sc., PU, Board exam, EAMCET, BITS Chemistry Books with lots of Examples ( Free pdf download of Chemistry Books, Chapter wise / Topic wise Questions and Solutions )

8 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide – Stoichiometry Titration by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Stoichiometry Titration ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide – Stoichiometry Titration by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Stoichiometry Titrations, Heating effects in several salts, colours or colors of the precipitates, Empirical formulae calculation, Limiting reagents, Titration examples, Equivalent weight, milli-equivalent weight, What mass or moles is reacting with how much ? How much is oxidised ? How much is Reduced ? Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Stoichiometry Titration by Prof. Subhashish

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7 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide – Redox Reactions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Redox Reactions ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide-Redox Reactions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers more than 60 examples of Redox Reactions, Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, CEE, COMED-K IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Redox Reactions by Prof. Subhashish

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6 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide – Electrochemistry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Electrochemistry ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide-Electrochemistry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Electrochemistry, Oxidation Potential, Reduction Potential, Electrode Potential, Reactivity Series, Battery, Nernst Equation, Variation of Voltage with concentration, Electrolyte, Electrolysis, Salt Bridge, Daniel Cell, Primary Cell, Secondary Cell, Galvanic Cell, Electrolytic Cell, Conductivity, Kohlrausch’s Law and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-ElectroChemistry by Prof. Subhashish

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5 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide-Reduction Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Reduction Methods ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide-Reduction Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Various kinds of Reduction Methods in Organic Chemistry. Covers Gilmann’s Reagent, Grignard Reagent, Trimethyl Silyl Iodide, Silyl Wittig Reaction, Hydrogen with Ni, Zn, Pd Palladium, Bakers Yeast, Wolf Kishner, Wilkinson’s Catalyst, Birch Reduction, Lindlar’s Catalyst, Benkeser Reduction, Reduction with HCO2H, Sodium Boro Hydride NaBH4, Veils Meier Reaction, Luche’s Reagent, Super Hydride, Sodium Cyno boro hydride, Dibal H, Adams Catalyst, Rosen Mund Reduction, Various Lithium Aluminium Hydrides, NaNH2,  and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chem Survival Guide-Reduction methods by Prof. Subhashish

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4 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide-Oxidation Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Oxidation Methods ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide-Oxidation Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Various kinds of Oxidation Methods in Organic Chemistry. Covers Sarett ’s Reagent, PCC, Chromium Oxide, Osmium Oxide, Manganese Oxide, Silver oxides, Ruthenium Oxide, Hydrogen Peroxide, Selenium dioxide, KMnO4, Jones, Julia Colonna, DCC, Corey ’s, Moffats, Ley Oxidation, MPV, Fetizon, Fremy ’s Salt, Elbs Persulphate Oxidation, Sodiumperiodate, Palladium Chloride, Copper Chloride, Sharpless epoxidation, and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, AIEEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chem Survival Guide-Oxidation methods by Prof. Subhashish

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3 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide – Bonds & Structure by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Bonds & Structures ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Bonds & Structures by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Various kinds of Bonds and Structures in Chemistry. Covers Sigma, Pi, Delta, Back Bonding, Coordinate or Dative Bond, Eta Bond, Hydrogen Bond, London forces, and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, CEE, COMED-K IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Bonds & Structure by Prof. Subhashish

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2 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide – Elements & Properties by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Elements & Properties ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Elements & Properties by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Elements & Their Properties in Chemistry. Covers the discoveries by spectral Analysis, Named after smell, places, people etc. Various compounds, tests, properties, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, CEE, COMED-K IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Elements & Properties by Prof. Subhashish

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1 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide – Empirical Formulae by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Empirical Formulae ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Empirical Formulae by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers various kinds of Empirical Equations in Chemistry. These equations are formed by experiments, and graph plotting. In some rare cases the Theory was developed later. Covers Slater’s rule, Shielding, Finding Electronegativity values by Allred and Rochow ’s empirical formula, Moseley’s Law, Trouton’s law, Einstein-Debey equation (Dulong & Petit), Reynolds number, Raoult ’s law, Variation of viscosity with temperature, Arrhenius model, Williams-Landel-Ferry model, Masuko and Magill model, Walther formula, Wright model, Seeton model, Variation of surface tension with temperature, Eotvos equation, Guggenheim-Katayama equation, Debye-Huckel-Onsager theory of conductivity of ions in dilute solutions, Liquid drop model of Nucleus, Nuclear Shell Model, Ionic character percentage of a diatomic molecule, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Empirical Formulae by Prof. Subhashish

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IIT-JEE, NCERT / CBSE, I.Sc., PU, Board exam, EAMCET, BITS Math Books with lots of Questions and Solutions, Examples ( Free pdf download of Math Books, Chapter wise / Topic wise Solutions )

19 ] Divisibility Test by 7, 11, 13, 17 and 19 – for IIT – JEE, I.Sc, CBSE, Board Exams –  KVPY, AMTI exams, NTSE, CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Divisibility Test by 7, 11, 13, 17 and 19 – Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay for KVPY, AMTI exams, NTSE, IIT – JEE, I.Sc, CBSE, Board Exams” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide –  Divisibility Test by 7, 11, 13, 17 and 19 for IIT – JEE, I.Sc, CBSE, Board Exams by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers  Divisibility Test by 7, 11, 13, 17 and 19 – Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay for KVPY, AMTI exams, NTSE, IIT – JEE, I.Sc, CBSE, Board Exams with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Application of Determinants for IIT – JEE, I.Sc, CBSE, Board Exams, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

Divisibility Test by 7, 11, 13, 17 and 19 – Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

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18 ] Application of Determinants for IIT – JEE, I.Sc, CBSE, Board Exams –   CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Application of Determinants for IIT – JEE, I.Sc, CBSE, Board Exams” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide –  Application of Determinants for IIT – JEE, I.Sc, CBSE, Board Exams by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers  Application of Determinants for IIT – JEE, I.Sc, CBSE, Board Exams with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Application of Determinants for IIT – JEE, I.Sc, CBSE, Board Exams, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

Determinants and its uses 3D Vectors Coordinate Geometry etc by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

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17 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Trigonometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Trigonometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Trigonometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Trigonometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Trigonometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Trigonometry by Prof. Subhashish

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16 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – 3D Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding 3D Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-3D Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers 3D Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of 3D Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-3D Geometry by Prof. Subhashish

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15 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola by Prof. Subhashish

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14 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Ellipse Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Ellipse Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Ellipse Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Ellipse Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Ellipse Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal ’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Ellipse by Prof. Subhashish

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13 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Parabola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Parabola Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Parabola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Parabola Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Parabola Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal ’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Parabola by Prof. Subhashish

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12 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Pair of Straight Lines by Prof. Subhashish

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11 ] CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Circles Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Circles Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Circles Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Circles Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Circles Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Circles by Prof. Subhashish

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10 ] CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Lines Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Straight Lines by Prof. Subhashish

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9  ] CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Complex Number by Prof. Subhashish

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8 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Quadratic Equations by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Quadratic Equations” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Quadratic Equation by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Quadratic Equations with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Quadratic Equations, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Quadratic Equation by Prof. Subhashish

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7 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Continuity and Differentiability by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Continuity & Differentiability” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Continuity and Differentiability by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Continuity and Differentiability with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Continuity and Differentiability, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Continuity & Differentiability by Prof. Subhashish

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6 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Relations and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Relations & Functions” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Relations and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Relations and Functions with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Relations and Functions, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Relations & Functions by Prof. Subhashish

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5 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Graphs and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Graphs & Functions” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Graphs and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Graphs and Functions with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Graphs and Functions, with CBSE, CET, CEE, COMED-K IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Functions & Graphs by Prof. Subhashish

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4 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Indefinite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Indefinite Integrals & Calculus” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Indefinite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

1

This e-Book covers Indefinite Integrals with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Indefinite Integrals, with CBSE, CEE, COMED-K IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Indefinite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish

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3 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Area & Volume by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Area and Volume ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Area and Volume by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers various kinds of graphs, such as graph of Ln x, ( ln x )/x, x Ln x, floor x [ x ] , Shifting of graphs, roots of Quadratic, cubic, and other higher powers of x ( polynomials ), asymptotes, ( How to find Asymptotes ) etc. Volume by revolution and hundreds of Area problems of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, CEE, COMED-K IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal ’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Area & Volume by Prof. Subhashish

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2 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Definite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Definite Integrals ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Definite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Definite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish

This e-Book covers Definite Integrals with [ x ] greatest integer functions, { x } fraction function, Max and Min functions. Gamma function, Beta function, Integration after converting to Complex number, Leibnitz forms of Differentiating Integrals, L Hospital’s rule applied to limits with Integrals, Inequalities of Integrals, Rules / Tricks / Properties of Definite Integrals, with CBSE, CET CEE COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal ’s Solutions.

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1 ]  CBSE 12 Math Survival Guide – Differential Equations by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Differential Equations ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Differential Equations by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Differential Equations by Prof. Subhashish

This e-Book covers all kinds of Differential equations, and methods to solve them. There is a priority checklist for the approach to be taken for solving the problems. Covers ISc, CBSE. CET CEE COMED-K, IIT-JEE problems, Linear, Homogeneous, Variable separable by substitution, Exact, Reducible to exact, Bernoulli, Integrating Factors or Multiplying Factors, even Clairaut’s Differential Equations ( IIT-JEE 1999, Bihar CEE 1999 ). Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

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Various States have different names for the Engineering Entrance Exams.

CET – Common Engineering Entrance Test or Common Entrance Test is for Karnataka, Maharastra, Gujrat, Himachal Pradesh, J&K

GUJCET Exam – Gujarat Entrance Common Entrance Test – Engineering

HPCET – Himachal Pradesh Common Entrance Test

CEE – Commissionerate of Entrance Examinations Kerala. Some people say Common Entrance Exam. The exam in Kerala actually is known as KEAM – Kerala

Engineering Agriculture Medical Degree.

ASSAM CEE – Assam Combined Entrance Exam

EAMCET – Engineering and Medical Common Entrance Test

MP PET – Madhya Pradesh Pre Engineering Test. Randomly I liked lots of Physics Questions of MP-PET, as these were of very high quality / interesting.

RPET or R-PET – Rajasthan Pre Engineering Test

WBJEE or WB-JEE – West Bengal Joint Entrance Exam. The questions of these are very good / high quality.

UPSEE – Utter Pradesh State Entrance Exam

BCECEB – Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination Board. The exam name is BCECE. Some call it as Bihar Combined Engineering Entrance Exam BCEEE or

BCECE (Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination)

OJEE – Orissa Joint Entrance Exam

Tamilnadu does not have any state ( common ) entrance test. The admissions in colleges / universities are through standard 12 marks.

TNEA is a State Engineering Entrance Examination, which is conducted by Anna University. Tamil Nadu Engineering Admission.

COMEDK PGET – Consortium of Medical, Engineering and Dental Colleges of Karnataka for PG Post Graduate

NATA – National Aptitude Test in Architecture. National Institute of Advanced Studies in Architecture (NIASA) conducts this.

ISAT by IISAT – Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IISAT) Admission Test (ISAT) is a National Level Entrance Examination.

NAT – National Aptitude Test by Society for Research & Development in Education (SRDE), New Delhi

ENAT – EPSI National Admission Test. by Manipal Institute of Technology. Manipal Online Entrance Test Manipal-OET

VITEEE – VIT Engineering Entrance Exam, Vellore Institute of Technology. Conducted by VIT university

BITSAT – Birla Institute of Technology and Science Admission Test.

Punjab PET – Punjab Engineering Admission, Pre Engineering Test

ASSAM CEE – Assam Combined Entrance Exam

Tripura JEE – Tripura Joint Entrance Exam

NEE – NERIST Entrance Examination. Conducted by the North Eastern Regional Institute of Science & Technology (NERIST), Nirjuli, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh

1 ] CET CEE EAMCET JEE Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, CET, CEE, PET, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CET CEE PET EAMCET JEE Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola by Prof. Subhashish

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https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/some-points-which-i-wish-all-my-new-prospective-students-know/

SKM Logo 550 X 300

Vegetarian Physics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay

vegetarian-physics-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

 

Some books which are must read. I tell all my friends and students to read these

http://bioinformaticsinstitute.ru/sites/default/files/genome_the_autobiography_of_a_species_in_23_chapters_-_matt_ridley.pdf

You should read the books by Daniel Kahneman,
https://vk.com/doc23267904_175119602

 
Dan Arley.
http://www.e-reading.club/bookreader.php/138702/Ariely_-_Predictably_Irrational__The_Hidden_Forces_That_Shape_Our_Decisions.pdf

The Black Swan – by Nassim Taleb
http://shifter-magazine.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Taleb_The-Black-Swan.pdf

also
see http://stavochka.com/files/Nate_Silver_The_Signal_and_the_Noise.pdf

Nudge by Thaler and Sunstein
https://ethicslab.georgetown.edu/studio/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Richard_H._Thaler_Cass_R._Sunstein_Nudge_Impro_BookFi.org_.pdf

book which explains pricing is ” The undercover Economist “

https%3A%2F%2Fwww.u-cursos.cl%2Fingenieria%2F2008%2F2%2FIN2C1%2F2%2Fmaterial_docente%2Fbajar%3Fid_material%3D192590&usg=AFQjCNENE73B20lg0yTs8z2nAwbeRVXqHw&bvm=bv.113370389,d.c2E

or

http://ebook.stepor.com/book/the-undercover-economist-76396-pdf.html

Looking for Partners to form Cooperative Societies.

High Level Vision Document for Potable Water by Desalination, Using Solar and Wind Energy, Electric Cars, Buses, Trucks & Other Vehicles,  Biomethane, and Biomethane Cars, Buses, Trucks & Other Vehicles, Biodegradable Bags, Green Revolution etc …

potable-water-from-wind-solar-energy-biomethane-biodiesel-etc-high-level-vision-document  

( <- Click to open the PDF and then save it )

Many more free pdf e-Books are available at (such as H C Verma Concepts of Physics Solutions)

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/books-for-you-physics-maths-chemistry-free-download-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

1 ] A Guide Book to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry by Peter Sykes

A_GUIDE_BOOK_TO_MECHANISM_IN_ORGANIC_CHEMISTRY

2 ] Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry – IUPAC Recommendations 2005

Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry – IUPAC Recommendations 2005

3 ] Linear Algebra For Dummies

Linear Algebra For Dummies

4 ] Calculus Workbook For Dummies

Calculus Workbook For Dummies

5 ] Differential Equations For Dummies

Differential_Equations_For_Dummies

6 ] Linear Algebra by Jim Hefferon

Linear Algebra

7 ] Mathematics – Puzzles from around the world

Mathematics—Puzzles-from-around-the-world

8 ] Graph Theory by Reinhard Diestel

Graph Theory

9 ] Electronics for Dummies

Electronics for Dummies

10 ] Electronics Projects for Dummies

Electronics Projects For Dummies

11 ] Physics For Dummies

Physics For Dummies

12 ] Physics Workbook For Dummies

Physics Workbook For Dummies

13 ] Inorganic Chemistry Encyclopedia

https://archive.org/search.php?query=Inorganic%20Chemistry

https://archive.org/details/EncyclopediaOfInorganicChemistry

https://archive.org/search.php?query=organic%20Chemistry

14 ] Inorganic Chemistry by Cox

Inorganic Chemistry by Cox

15 ] Inorganic Chemistry 5th Edition Miessler

Inorganic Chemistry 5th Edition Miessler

16 ] Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry Solomon

Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry Solomon

17 ] Illustrated Guide to Home Chemistry Experiments

Illustrated Guide to Home Chemistry Experiments

18 ] L. A. Sena A Collection Of Questions And Problems In Physics Mir Publishers ( 1988) by L . A. Sena for IIT JEE CET AIEEE NEET Subhashish Sir’s SKM Classes PDF download free pdf

https://archive.org/details/L.A.SenaACollectionOfQuestionsAndProblemsInPhysicsMirPublishers1988

http://93.174.95.27/ads.php?md5=9CFA13564D157FDD468C8CF3C635D788

19 ] Krotov Problems In Physics S.S. Krotov for IIT JEE CET AIEEE NEET Subhashish Sir’s SKM Classes PDF download free pdf

https://archive.org/details/ProblemsInPhysicsSSKrotov

20 ] Pinsky Problems In Physics by A. A. Pinsky for IIT JEE CET AIEEE NEET Subhashish Sir’s SKM Classes PDF download free pdf 

https://archive.org/details/pinsky-problems-in-physics

:-{D

 

e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book–e-Book

If you want to sell your House, why do you have to pay 2% to a Broker or to a website ?

You can advertise for free to sell your House at free4u.info

Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay is providing a Social Service for all in Bangalore, to advertise for Free

If you want to sell your Car, why do you have to pay 2% to a Broker or to a website ?

You can advertise for free to sell your Car at free4u.info

Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay is providing a Social Service for all in Bangalore, to advertise for Free

If you are looking for Organ Donation, where do you ask ? Where do you want to put up your requirements ? Do you give costly ads ?

You can advertise or Post Classifieds for free at free4u.info

Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay is providing a Social Service for all in Bangalore, to advertise for Free. Post all kinds of Classified ads and Requirements for FREE.

If you are a Tutor, or a Shopkeeper, or a Teacher, or a Cook, or a Gardener, or a Dog Trainer ….. or something something something….. How can you afford costly ads ? Post your requirements for free at free4u.info     Advertise yourself free at free4u.info     Doing a garage sell …. Tell all for free at free4u.info

Looking for a Nanny ? You can get Nannys in free4u.info

Nannys looking for jobs ? Want children to take care ? You get the child and Parents in free4u.info

Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay is providing a Social Service for all in Bangalore, to advertise for Free. Post all kinds of Classified ads and Requirements for FREE. Following Categories and Subcategories will surely help you. This is not an exhaustive list. You can give general requirements as well. Post all your skills. Post all your needs. Looking for a job ? You can post your profile as well.

Some call this as ” Yellow Pages “. free4u.info

Some call this a FREE listing sites free4u.info

free4u.info Bike 17 free4u.info Bike 20

free4u.info Bike 9 free4u.info Bike 14

free4u.info Bike 7 free4u.info Bike 15

free4u.info Bike 16 free4u.info Bike 18

Bike        ( Want to sell your Bike ? Want a Buyer ? Advertise for free at free4u.info )

Books

Physical Chemistry

1 ) Physical Chemistry in Brief by Prof. Ing. Anatol Malijevsk´y for IIT JEE Standard 11 – 12 CBSE ISc

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!127&authkey=!AD5bjH_tNghTUmc&ithint=file%2cpdf

General Chemistry

1 ) The Basics of General, Organic and Biological Chemistry for IIT JEE Standard 11 – 12 CBSE

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!128&authkey=!APxe3jx3n0sXA-Y&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

2 ) General Chemistry Principles, Patterns and Applications for IIT JEE Standard 11 – 12 CBSE

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!129&authkey=!AHRN_tCwVTQI7Qs&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)
search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com
you will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/accolades-and-appreciations-received-from-students-and-parents/

3 ) The Golden Book of Chemistry Experiments

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!141&authkey=!AAm7njVkiJYADx4&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

Organic Chemistry

1 ) Introduction to Organic Chemistry by William Brown, Thomas Poon for IIT JEE Standard 11 – 12 CBSE

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!130&authkey=!AAYnaEs33stgacM&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/iit-jee-3d-geometry-solutions/

:-)

2 ) Organic Chemistry By Robert Hoffman for IIT JEE Standard 11 – 12 CBSE

org-chem-hoffman-2

:-)

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/differential-equation-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

3 ) Art of Problem Solving in Organic Chemistry, The, Second Edition – Alonso-Amelot, Miguel for IIT JEE Standard 11 – 12 CBSE

https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/iit-jee-algebra/

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!138&authkey=!AMlVb0DFPmYJOEQ&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

4 ) Wade Organic Chemistry

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!140&authkey=!AEx0scl1DhJMTgM&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

Wade Organic Chemistry Solutions

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!139&authkey=!AJYboYtZ8QLvAR8&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/differentiation-problems-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Inorganic Chemistry

1 ) Inorganic Chemistry by James E. House for IIT JEE Standard 11 – 12 CBSE

https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/iit-jee-optics/

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!131&authkey=!AMhnm5CvB8z7KSM&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/binomial-theorem-problems-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/iit-jee-calculus/

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/center-of-mass-problems-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

2 ) Inorganic Chemistry Miessler for IIT JEE Standard 11 – 12 CBSE

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!136&authkey=!AKWVPi3dF7Yc0lY&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/iit-jee-complex-number/

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/complex-number-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/iit-jee-determinant-and-matrices/

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/circular-motion-problems-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes/

https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/iit-jee-electromagnetics/

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/combinatorics-permutation-combination-for-iit-jee-cbse/

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Physics Books & Solutions

Prof. H C Verma Concepts of Physics Part 1 Solutions

Chapter 1 Solutions to Basic Concepts Introduction to Physics Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!142&authkey=!AJr-WDGc2ZqP4y8&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/circular-motion-problems-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes/

Chapter 2 Physics and Mathematics Vectors Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!143&authkey=!AJUz8RCe3WsCI3s&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/electromagnetic-induction-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 3 Rest and Motion Kinematics Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!146&authkey=!ALSq-Own29RH6mg&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/complex-number-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 4 The Forces Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!145&authkey=!ABjAoQ0FA-uY5uQ&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/complex-number-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 5 Newton’s Laws of Motion Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!147&authkey=!ACRHSj2u2bbi-OI&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/center-of-mass-problems-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 6 Friction Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!148&authkey=!ANMz41RbxQXVM20&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/differential-equation-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 7 Circular Motion Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!149&authkey=!AF6-2o5MlBZJf40&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/binomial-theorem-problems-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 8 Work and Energy Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!153&authkey=!AEQMmG-ld94zFFE&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/cbse-standard-12-chemistry-polymers-chapter-15-ncert/

Chapter 9 Center of Mass, Linear Momentum, Collision Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!150&authkey=!AIcASU-Cp4T6eQE&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/differentiation-problems-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 10 Rotational Mechanics Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!151&authkey=!ALV4MIEmISx_ldc&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/cbse-standard-11-chemistry-chapter-1-some-basic-concepts-of-chemistry-ncert/

Chapter 11 Gravitation Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!152&authkey=!ALT9D-uph04bMEg&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/differential-equation-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 12 Simple Harmonic Motion Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!157&authkey=!ALQxDCUxYOwSBQg&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/home-tuition-for-iit-jee-at-koromangala-hsr-layout-lt-south-city-brigade-south-bangalore/

Chapter 13 Fluid Mechanics Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!154&authkey=!AMVxtUyLQZmKZJw&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/books-for-you-physics-maths-chemistry-free-download-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 14 Some Mechanical Properties of Matter Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!155&authkey=!AIuMBepU2AxsFRE&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/accolades-and-appreciations-received-from-students-and-parents/

Chapter 15 Wave Motion and Waves on a String Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!156&authkey=!AOA-830PFYrmk8w&ithint=file%2cpdf

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com
you will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

Chapter 16 Sound Waves Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!159&authkey=!APnaynx0aptGCwE&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/combinatorics-permutation-combination-for-iit-jee-cbse/

Chapter 17 Light Waves Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!158&authkey=!AM66-M2Yx_UXX0s&ithint=file%2cpdf

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Chapter 18 Geometrical Optics Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 19 Optical Instruments Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 20 Dispersion and Spectra Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 21 Speed of Light Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 22 Photometry Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Prof. H C Verma Concepts of Physics Part 2 Solutions

Chapter 23 Heat and Temperature Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 24 Kinetic Theory of Gases Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 25 Calorimetry Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 26 Laws of Thermodynamics Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 27 Specific Heat Capacities of Gases Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 28 Heat Transfer Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 29 Electric Field and Potential Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 30 Gauss’s Law Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 31 Capacitors Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 32 Electric Current in Conductors Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 33 Thermal and Chemical Effects of Electric Current Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 34 Magnetic Field Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 35 Magnetic Field due to a Current Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 36 Permanent Magnets Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 37 Magnetic Properties of Matter Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 38 Electromagnetic Induction Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 39 Alternating Current Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 40 Electromagnetic Waves Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 41 Electric Current through Gases Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 42 Photo Electric Effect and Wave Particle Duality Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 43 Bohr’s Model and Physics of the Atom Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 44 X Rays Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 45 Semiconductors and Semi Conductor Devices Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 46 The Nucleus Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Chapter 47 Special Theory of Relativity Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

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Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma Solutions are above

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Physics Books

1 ) A Guide to Physics Problems Part 1 – Mechanics, Relativity, and Electrodynamics – Cahn S., Nadgorny B

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2 ) A Guide to Physics Problems. Part 2. Thermodynamics, Statistical Physics, and Quantum Mechanics -S.Cahn, B.Nadgorny

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3 ) Essential Physics by Frank Firk

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Solutions to Chapter 4 :

Chemical Bonding And Molecular Structure

1 orbital overlap diagram s-s s-p p-p d-d

Solution :

2 orbital overlap diagram s-s s-p p-p d-d

3 orbital overlap diagram s-s s-p p-p d-d

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Must see https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/some-points-which-i-wish-all-my-new-prospective-students-know/

🙂

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Untitled

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Gyan Question :

1 n-pentane and neo pentane hv same molecular mass

2 n-pentane and neo pentane hv same molecular mass

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Gyan Question

1 Hybrid state of B in BF3 and BF4-

2 Hybrid state of B in BF3 and BF4-

3 Hybrid state of B in BF3 and BF4-

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Gyan Question :

3 substances X, Y, Z gave observations

4 substances X, Y, Z gave observations

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Gyan Question :

1 simple ion, complex ion, polyatomic ion

2 simple ion, complex ion, polyatomic ion

3 simple ion, complex ion, polyatomic ion

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Green snake long

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Gyan Question :

4 SF6 or PF6 has 2 different bond lengths

5 SF6 or PF6 has 2 different bond lengths

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Gyan Question :

VSEPR Theory

1 VSEPR postulates of theory

2 VSEPR postulates of theory

3 VSEPR postulates of theory

4 VSEPR postulates of theory

5 VSEPR postulates of theory

6 VSEPR postulates of theory

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Gyan Question

6 PCl5 exists but NCl5 or BiCl5 does not exist

7 PCl5 exists but NCl5 or BiCl5 does not exist

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Gyan Question :

1 electron dot diagram of the ion isostructural with

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Gyan Question :

8 Explain the concept of resonance

9 Explain the concept of resonance

10 Explain the concept of resonance

11 Explain the concept of resonance

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Gyan Question :

Hybridization

7 hybridization shape

8 hybridization shape

9 hybridization shape

10 hybridization shape

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Gyan Question :

12 Draw resonance structures

13 Draw resonance structures

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Gyan Question :

1 difference between sigma and Pi bond

2 difference between sigma and Pi bond

3 difference between sigma and Pi bond

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Gyan Question :

14 resonating structures probable hybrid structure

15 resonating structures probable hybrid structure

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Gyan Question :

11 hybridization shape

12 hybridization shape

13 hybridization shape

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Gyan Question :

1 N-F bond is more polar than N-H bond

2 N-F bond is more polar than N-H bond

3 N-F bond is more polar than N-H bond

4 N-F bond is more polar than N-H bond

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Gyan Question :

1 differentiate bonding MO and Antibonding MO

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Gyan Question :

16 electronegativity varies in group

17 electronegativity varies in group

18 electronegativity varies in group

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Gyan Question :

2 differentiate valance bond theory MO theory

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Gyan Question :

5 Give examples of tetra-atomic molecule

6 Give examples of tetra-atomic molecule

7 Give examples of tetra-atomic molecule

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1 hybrid states of carbon

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Gyan Question :

4 ionic bond covalent character

5 ionic bond covalent character

6 ionic bond covalent character

7 ionic bond covalent character

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Tigon Liger 2

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Gyan Question :

2 give 1 example of a polyhalide ion shape

3 give 1 example of a polyhalide ion shape

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Gyan Question :

8 diatomic molecule XY has dipole moment

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Gyan Question :

4 molecular orbitals formed by combinations

5 molecular orbitals formed by combinations

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Gyan Question :

19 Calculate Electronegativity

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Gyan Question :

6 Define bond order bond energy bond length

7 Define bond order bond energy bond length

8 Define bond order bond energy bond length

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Gyan Question :

9 hybrid state of O in H2O

10 hybrid state of O in H2O

11 hybrid state of O in H2O

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Gyan Question :

9 electron configuration of N2, O2 F2

10 electron configuration of N2, O2 F2

11 electron configuration of N2, O2 F2

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Gyan Question :

6 ice floats on water

7 ice floats on water

8 ice floats on water

9 ice floats on water

10 ice floats on water

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Gyan Question :

12 bonding in metals basis of Band theory

13 bonding in metals basis of Band theory

14 bonding in metals basis of Band theory

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Gyan Question :

14 Predict the hybrid state of B

15 Predict the hybrid state of B

16 Predict the hybrid state of B

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Gyan Question :

12 decreasing bond angle

13 decreasing bond angle

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Gyan Question :

20 polar and no polar covalent bond

21 polar and no polar covalent bond

22 polar and no polar covalent bond

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Gyan Question :

2 electron dot formula VSEPR theory

3 electron dot formula VSEPR theory

4 electron dot formula VSEPR theory

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Gyan Question :

1 Draw the orbital picture of

2 Draw the orbital picture of

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Gyan Question

8 Heat od formation of MgF2 born Haber Cycle

9 Heat od formation of MgF2 born Haber Cycle

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dog friend as a pillow

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Gyan Question :

5 give examples of one ionic one molecular

6 give examples of one ionic one molecular

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Gyan Question :

10 Thermochemical data for formation of NaCl2

11 Thermochemical data for formation of NaCl2

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My swimming pool beside my outhouse

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Gyan Question :

1 atomic orbital molecular orbital

2 atomic orbital molecular orbital

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Gyan Question :

12 Draw Lewis dot formula CO, SOCl2 NH4+ HCN SO42-

13 Draw Lewis dot formula CO, SOCl2 NH4+ HCN SO42-

14 Draw Lewis dot formula CO, SOCl2 NH4+ HCN SO42-

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Gyan Question :

3 intermolecular intramolecular H bonds

4 intermolecular intramolecular H bonds

5 intermolecular intramolecular H bonds

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Scientists are constantly discovering new compounds, orderly arranging the facts about them, trying to explain with the existing knowledge, organising to modify the earlier views or evolve theories for explaining the newly observed facts.

Matter is made up of one or different type of elements. Under  normal conditions no other element exists as an independent atom in nature, except noble gases. However, a group of atoms is found to exist together as one species having characteristic properties. Such a group of atoms is called a molecule. Obviously there must be some force which holds these constituent atoms together in the molecules. The attractive force which holds various constituents (atoms, ions, etc.) together in different chemical species is called a chemical bond. Since the formation of chemical compounds takes place as a result of combination of atoms of various elements in different ways, it raises many questions. Why do atoms combine? Why are only certain combinations possible? Why do some atoms combine while certain others do not? Why do molecules possess definite shapes? To answer such questions different theories and concepts have been put forward from time to time. These are Kössel-Lewis approach, Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory, Valence Bond (VB) Theory and Molecular Orbital (MO) Theory. The evolution of various theories of valence and the interpretation of the nature of chemical bonds have closely been related to the developments in the understanding of the structure of atom, the electronic coniguration of elements and the periodic table. Every system tends to be more stable and bonding is  nature’s way of lowering the energy of the system to attain   stability.

4.1 KÖSSEL-LEWIS APPROACH TO CHEMICAL BONDING

In order to explain the formation of chemical bond in terms of  electrons, a number of attempts were made, but it was only in 1916 when Kössel and Lewis succeeded independently in giving a  satisfactory explanation. They were the first to provide some logical explanation of valence which was based on the inertness of noble gases.

Lewis pictured the atom in terms of a positively charged ‘Kernel’ (the nucleus plus the inner electrons) and the outer shell that could accommodate a maximum of eight electrons. He, further assumed that these eight electrons occupy the corners of a cube which surround the ‘Kernel’. Thus the single outer shell electron of sodium would occupy one corner of the cube, while in the case of a noble gas all the eight corners would be occupied. This octet of electrons, represents a particularly stable electronic arrangement. Lewis postulated that atoms achieve the stable octet when they are linked by chemical bonds. In the case of sodium and chlorine, this can happen by the transfer of an electron from sodium to chlorine  thereby giving the Na+ and Cl ions. In the case of other molecules like Cl2, H2, F2, etc., the bond is formed by the sharing of a pair of electrons between the atoms. In the process each atom attains a stable outer octet of electrons.

Lewis Symbols: In the formation of a molecule, only the outer shell electrons take part in chemical combination and they are known as valence electrons. The inner shell electrons are well protected and are generally not involved in the combination  process. G.N. Lewis, an American chemist introduced simple notations to represent valence electrons in an atom. These notations are called Lewis symbols. For example, the Lewis symbols for the elements of second period are as under:

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31a Li Be B C

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Significance of Lewis Symbols : The number of dots around the symbol represents the number of valence electrons. This number of valence electrons helps to calculate the common or group valence of the element. The group valence of the elements is generally either equal to the number of dots in Lewis symbols or 8 minus the number of dots or valence electrons.

Kössel, in relation to chemical bonding, drew attention to the  following facts:

• In the periodic table, the highly electronegative halogens and the highly electropositive alkali metals are separated by the noble  gases;

• The formation of a negative ion from a halogen atom and a positive ion from an alkali metal atom is associated with the gain and loss of an electron by the respective atoms;

• The negative and positive ions thus formed attain stable noble gas electronic configurations. The noble gases (with the exception of helium which has a duplet of electrons) have a particularly stable outer shell configuration of eight (octet) electrons, ns2np6.

• The negative and positive ions are stabilized by electrostatic attraction. For example, the formation of NaCl from sodium and chlorine, according to the above scheme, can be explained as:

Na → Na+ + e

[Ne] 3s1 [Ne]

Cl + e → Cl

[Ne] 3s2 3p5 [Ne] 3s2 3p6 or [Ar]

Na+ + Cl → NaCl or Na+Cl

Similarly the formation of CaF2 may be shown as:

Ca → Ca2+ + 2e

[Ar]4s2 [Ar]

F + e → F

[He] 2s2 2p5 [He] 2s2 2p6 or [Ne]

Ca2+ + 2F → CaF2 or Ca2+(F )2

The bond formed, as a result of the electrostatic attraction between the positive and negative ions was termed as the electrovalent bond. The electrovalence is thus equal to the number of unit charge(s) on the ion. Thus, calcium is assigned a positive  electrovalence of two, while chlorine a negative electrovalence of one.

Kössel’s postulations provide the basis for the modern concepts regarding ion-formation by electron transfer and the formation of ionic crystalline compounds. His views have proved to be of great value in the understanding and systematisation of the ionic  compounds. At the same time he did recognise the fact that a large number of compounds did not fit into these concepts.

4.1.1 Octet Rule

Kössel and Lewis in 1916 developed an important theory of  chemical combination between atoms known as electronic theory of chemical bonding. According to this, atoms can combine either by transfer of valence electrons from one atom to another (gaining or losing) or by sharing of valence electrons in order to have an octet in their valence shells. This is known as octet rule.

4.1.2 Covalent Bond

Langmuir (1919) refined the Lewis postulations by abandoning the idea of the stationary cubical arrangement of the octet, and by introducing the term covalent bond. The Lewis-Langmuir theory can be understood by considering the formation of the chlorine molecule,Cl2. The Cl atom with electronic configuration, [Ne]3s2 3p5, is one electron short of the argon configuration. The formation of the Cl2 molecule can be understood in terms of the sharing of a pair of electrons between the two chlorine atoms, each chlorine atom contributing one electron to the shared pair. In the process both chlorine atoms attain the outer shell octet of the nearest noble gas (i.e., argon).

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31b Cl Lewis structure

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The dots represent electrons. Such structures are referred to as Lewis dot structures.

The Lewis dot structures can be written for other molecules also, in which the combining atoms may be identical or different. The important conditions being that:

• Each bond is formed as a result of sharing of an electron pair between the atoms.

• Each combining atom contributes at least one electron to the shared pair.

• The combining atoms attain the outershell noble gas configurations as a result of the sharing of electrons.

• Thus in water and carbon tetrachloride molecules, formation of covalent bonds can be represented as:

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31c Lewis dot structures

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Thus, when two atoms share one electron pair they are said to be joined by a single covalent bond. In many compounds we have multiple bonds between atoms. The formation of multiple bonds envisages sharing of more than one electron pair between two atoms. If two atoms share two pairs of electrons, the covalent bond between them is called a double bond. For example, in the carbon dioxide molecule, we have two double bonds between the carbon and oxygen atoms. Similarly in ethene molecule the two carbon atoms are joined by a double bond.

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31d Double bonds

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When combining atoms share three electron pairs as in the case of two
nitrogen atoms in the N2 molecule and the two carbon atoms in the ethyne molecule, a triple bond is formed.

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31e C2H2 molecule

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4.1.3 Lewis Representation of Simple Molecules (the Lewis Structures)

The Lewis dot structures provide a picture of bonding in molecules and ions in terms of the shared pairs of electrons and the octet rule. While such a picture may not explain the bonding and behaviour of a molecule completely, it does help in understanding the formation and properties of a molecule to a large extent. Writing of Lewis dot structures of molecules is, therefore, very useful. The Lewis dot structures can be written by adopting the following steps:

• The total number of electrons required for writing the structures are obtained by adding the valence electrons of the combining atoms. For example, in the CH4 molecule there are eight valence electrons available for bonding (4 from carbon and 4 from the four hydrogen atoms).

• For anions, each negative charge would mean addition of one electron. For cations, each positive charge would result in subtraction of one electron from the total number of valence electrons. For example, for the CO32- ion, the two negative charges indicate that there are two additional electrons than those provided by the neutral atoms. For NH4+ ion, one positive charge indicates the loss of one electron from the group of neutral atoms.

• Knowing the chemical symbols of the combining atoms and having knowledge of the skeletal structure of the compound (known or guessed intelligently), it is easy to distribute the total number of electrons as bonding shared pairs between the atoms in proportion to the total bonds.

• In general the least electronegative atom occupies the central position in the molecule/ion. For example in the NF3 and CO32-, nitrogen and carbon are the central atoms whereas fluorine and oxygen occupy the terminal positions.

• After accounting for the shared pairs of electrons for single bonds, the remaining electron pairs are either utilized for multiple bonding or remain as the lone pairs. The basic requirement being that each bonded atom gets an octet of electrons.

Lewis representations of a few molecules/ions are given in Table 4.1.

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31f Table 4.1 Lewis

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Problem 4.1

Write the Lewis dot structure of CO molecule.

Solution

Step 1. Count the total number of valence electrons of carbon and oxygen atoms. The outer (valence) shell configurations of carbon and oxygen atoms are: 2s2 2p2 and 2 s2 2p4, respectively. The valence electrons available are 4 + 6 =10.

Step 2. The skeletal structure of CO is written as: C O

Step 3. Draw a single bond (one shared electron pair) between C and O and complete the octet on O, the remaining two electrons are the lone pair on C.

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31g Carbon monoxide

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This does not complete the octet on carbon and hence we have to resort to multiple bonding (in this case a triple bond) between C and O atoms. This satisfies the octet rule condition for both atoms.

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31h Carbon Monoxide

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Problem 4.2

Write the Lewis structure of the nitrite ion, NO2 .

Solution

Step 1. Count the total number of valence electrons of the nitrogen atom, the oxygen atoms and the additional one negative charge (equal to one electron).

N(2s2 2p3), O (2s2 2p4)
5 + (2 x 6) +1 = 18 electrons

Step 2. The skeletal structure of NO2 is written as : O N O

Step 3. Draw a single bond (one shared electron pair) between the nitrogen and each of the oxygen atoms completing the octets on oxygen atoms. This, however, does not complete the octet on nitrogen if the remaining two electrons constitute lone pair on it.

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31i NO2

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4.1.4 Formal Charge

Lewis dot structures, in general, do not represent the actual shapes of the molecules. In case of polyatomic ions, the net charge is possessed by the ion as a whole and not by a particular atom. It is, however, feasible to assign a formal charge on each atom. The formal charge of an atom in a polyatomic molecule or ion may be defined as the difference between the number of valence electrons of that atom in an isolated or free state and the number of electrons assigned to that atom in the Lewis structure. It is expressed as :

The counting is based on the assumption that the atom in the  molecule owns one electron of each shared pair and both the electrons of a lone pair.

Let us consider the ozone molecule (O3). The Lewis structure of O3 may be drawn as :

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31j O3

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We must understand that formal charges do not indicate real charge separation within the molecule. Indicating the charges on the atoms in the Lewis structure only helps in keeping track of the valence electrons in the molecule. Formal charges help in the selection of the lowest energy structure from a number of possible Lewis structures for a given species. Generally the lowest energy structure is the one with the smallest formal charges on the atoms. The formal charge is a factor based on a pure covalent view of bonding in which electron pairs are shared equally by neighbouring atoms.

4.1.5 Limitations of the Octet Rule

The octet rule, though useful, is not universal. It is quite useful for understanding the structures of most of the organic compounds and it applies mainly to the second period elements of the periodic table. There are three types of exceptions to the octet rule.

The incomplete octet of the central atom In some compounds, the number of electrons surrounding the central atom is less than eight. This is especially the case with elements having less than four valence electrons. Examples are LiCl, BeH2 and BCl3.

Li, Be and B have 1,2 and 3 valence electrons only. Some other such compounds are AlCl3 and BF3

Odd-electron molecules
In molecules with an odd number of electrons like nitric oxide, NO and nitrogen dioxide, NO and nitrogen dioxide, NO2, the octet rule is not satisfied for all the
atoms

The expanded octet

Elements in and beyond the third period of the periodic table have, apart from 3s and 3p orbitals, 3d orbitals also available for bonding. In a number of compounds of these elements there are more than eight valence electrons around the central atom. This is termed as the expanded octet. Obviously the octet rule does not apply in such cases.

Some of the examples of such compounds are: PF5, SF6, H2SO4 and a number of coordination compounds.

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31k octet

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Other drawbacks of the octet theory

• It is clear that octet rule is based upon the chemical inertness of noble gases.
However, some noble gases (for example xenon and krypton) also combine with oxygen and fluorine to form a number of compounds like XeF2, KrF2, XeOF2 etc.,

• This theory does not account for the shape of molecules.

• It does not explain the relative stability of the molecules being totally silent about the energy of a molecule.

4.2 IONIC OR ELECTROVALENT BOND

From the Kössel and Lewis treatment of the formation of an ionic bond, it follows that the formation of ionic compounds would primarily depend upon:

• The ease of formation of the positive and negative ions from the respective neutral atoms;

• The arrangement of the positive and negative ions in the solid, that is, the lattice of the crystalline compound.

The formation of a positive ion involves ionization, i.e., removal of electron(s) from the neutral atom and that of the negative ion involves the addition of electron(s) to the neutral atom.

M(g) → M+(g) + e ; Ionization enthalpy

X(g) + e → X (g) ; Electron gain enthalpy

M+(g) + X (g) → MX(s)

The electron gain enthalpy, ΔegH, is the enthalpy change (Unit 3), when a gas phase atom in its ground state gains an electron. The electron gain process may be exothermic or endothermic. The ionization, on the other hand, is always endothermic. Electron affinity, is the negative of the energy change accompanying electron gain.

Obviously ionic bonds will be formed more easily between elements with comparatively low ionization enthalpies and elements with comparatively high negative value of electron gain enthalpy.

Most ionic compounds have cations derived from metallic elements and anions from non-metallic elements. The ammonium ion, NH4+ (made up of two nonmetallic elements) is an exception. It forms the cation of a number of ionic compounds.

Ionic compounds in the crystalline state consist of orderly three-dimensional arrangements of cations and anions held together by coulombic interaction energies. These compounds crystallise in different crystal structures determined by the size of the ions, their packing arrangements and other factors. The crystal structure of sodium chloride, NaCl (rock salt), for example is shown below.

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31l Rock salt

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In ionic solids, the sum of the electron gain enthalpy and the ionization enthalpy may be positive but still the crystal structure gets stabilized due to the energy released in the formation of the crystal lattice. For example: the ionization enthalpy for Na+(g) formation from Na(g) is 495.8 kJ mol-1 ; while the electron gain enthalpy for the change Cl(g) + e→ Cl (g) is, – 348.7 kJ mol-1 only. The sum of the two, 147.1 kJ mol-1 is more than compensated for by the enthalpy of lattice formation of NaCl(s) (-788 kJ mol-1). Therefore, the energy released in the processes is more than the energy absorbed. Thus a qualitative measure of the stability of an ionic compound is provided by its enthalpy of lattice formation and not simply by achieving octet of electrons around the ionic species in gaseous state.

Since lattice enthalpy plays a key role in the formation of ionic compounds, it is important that we learn more about it.

4.2.1 Lattice Enthalpy

The Lattice Enthalpy of an ionic solid is defined as the energy required to completely separate one mole of a solid ionic compound into gaseous constituent ions. For example, the lattice enthalpy of NaCl is 788 kJ mol-1. This means that 788 kJ of energy is required to separate one mole of solid NaCl into one mole of Na+ (g) and one mole of Cl (g) to an infinite distance.

This process involves both the attractive forces between ions of opposite charges and the repulsive forces between ions of like charge. The solid crystal being threedimensional; it is not possible to calculate lattice enthalpy directly from the interaction of forces of attraction and repulsion only. Factors associated with the crystal geometry have to be included.

4.3 BOND PARAMETERS

4.3.1 Bond Length

Bond length is defined as the equilibrium distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms in a molecule. Bond lengths are measured by spectroscopic, X-ray diffraction and electron-diffraction techniques about which you will learn in higher classes. Each atom of the bonded pair contributes to the bond length (Fig. 4.1). In the case of a covalent bond, the contribution from each atom is called the covalent radius of that atom.

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31m Radius of atom

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The covalent radius is measured approximately as the radius of an atom’s core which is in contact with the core of an adjacent atom in a bonded situation. The covalent radius is half of the distance between two similar atoms joined by a covalent bond in the same molecule. The van der Waals radius represents the overall size of the atom which includes its valence shell in a nonbonded situation. Further, the van der Waals radius is half of the distance between two similar atoms in separate molecules in a solid. Covalent and van der Waals radii of chlorine are depicted in Fig.4.2

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31a Fig 4.2 covalent

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Some typical average bond lengths for single, double and triple bonds are shown in Table 4.2. Bond lengths for some common molecules are given in Table 4.3. The covalent radii of some common elements are listed in Table 4.4.

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31b Table 4.2 Average Bond length

31c Table 4.4

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4.3.2 Bond Angle

It is defined as the angle between the orbitals containing bonding electron pairs around the central atom in a molecule/complex ion. Bond angle is expressed in degree which can be experimentally determined by spectroscopic methods. It gives some idea regarding the distribution of orbitals around the central atom in a molecule/complex ion and hence it helps us in determining its shape. For example H-O-H bond angle in water can be represented as under :

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31d H2O 104.5

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4.3.3 Bond Enthalpy

It is defined as the amount of energy required to break one mole of bonds of a particular type between two atoms in a gaseous state. The unit of bond enthalpy is kJ mol-1. For example, the H – H bond enthalpy in hydrogen molecule is 435.8 kJ mol-1.

H2(g) → H(g) + H(g); ΔaHΘ = 435.8 kJ mol-1

Similarly the bond enthalpy for molecules containing multiple bonds, for example O2 and N2 will be as under :

O2 (O = O) (g) → O(g) + O(g); ΔaHΘ = 498 kJ mol-1
N2 (N ≡ N) (g) → N(g) + N(g); ΔaHΘ = 946.0 kJ mol-1

It is important that larger the bond dissociation enthalpy, stronger will be the bond in the molecule. For a heteronuclear diatomic molecules like HCl, we have

HCl (g) → H(g) + Cl (g); ΔaHΘ = 431.0 kJ mol-1

In case of polyatomic molecules, the measurement of bond strength is more complicated. For example in case of H2O molecule, the enthalpy needed to break the two O – H bonds is not the same.

H2O(g) → H(g) + OH(g); ΔaH1Θ = 502 kJ mol-1
OH(g) → H(g) + O(g); ΔaH2Θ = 427 kJ mol-1

The difference in the ΔaHΘ value shows that the second O – H bond undergoes some change because of changed chemical environment. This is the reason for some difference in energy of the same O – H bond in different molecules like C2H5OH (ethanol) and water. Therefore in polyatomic molecules the term mean or average bond enthalpy is used. It is obtained by dividing total bond dissociation enthalpy by the number of bonds broken as explained below in case of water molecule,

Average bond enthalpy = (502 + 427) / 2 = 464.5 kJ mol-1

4.3.4 Bond Order

In the Lewis description of covalent bond, the Bond Order is given by the number of bonds between the two atoms in a molecule. The bond order, for example in H2(with a single shared electron pair), in O2 (with two shared electron pairs) and in N2 (with three shared electron pairs) is 1,2,3 respectively. Similarly in CO (three shared electron pairs between C and O) the bond order is 3. For N2, bond order is 3 and its Δa HΘ is 946 kJ mol-1; being one of the highest for a diatomic molecule.

Isoelectronic molecules and ions have identical bond orders; for example, F2 and O2 2- have bond order 1. N2, CO and NO+ have bond order 3.

A general correlation useful for understanding the stablities of molecules is that: with increase in bond order, bond enthalpy increases and bond length decreases.

4.3.5 Resonance Structures

It is often observed that a single Lewis structure is inadequate for the epresentation of a molecule in conformity with its experimentally determined parameters. For example, the ozone, O3 molecule can be equally represented by the structures I and II shown below:

In both structures we have a O-O single bond and a O=O double bond. The normal O-O and O=O bond lengths are 148 pm and 121 pm respectively. Experimentally determined oxygen-oxygen bond lengths in the O3 molecule are same (128 pm). Thus the oxygen-oxygen bonds in the O3 molecule are intermediate between a double and a single bond. Obviously, this cannot be represented by either of the two Lewis structures shown above.

The concept of resonance was introduced to deal with the type of difficulty experienced in the depiction of accurate structures of molecules like O3. According to the concept of resonance, whenever a single Lewis structure cannot describe a molecule accurately, a number of structures with similar energy, positions of nuclei, bonding and non-bonding pairs of electrons are taken as the canonical structures of the hybrid which describes the molecule accurately. Thus for O3, the two structures shown above constitute the canonical structures or resonance structures and their hybrid i.e., the III structure represents the structure of O3more accurately. This is also called resonance hybrid. Resonance is represented by a double headed arrow.

Some of the other examples of resonance structures are provided by the carbonate ion and the carbon dioxide molecule.

Problem 4.3

Explain the structure of CO32- ion in terms of resonance.

Solution

The single Lewis structure based on the presence of two single bonds and one double bond between carbon and oxygen atoms is inadequate to represent the molecule accurately as it represents unequal bonds. According to the experimental findings, all carbon to oxygen bonds in CO32- are equivalent. Therefore the carbonate ion is best described as a resonance hybrid of the canonical forms I, II, and III shown below.

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31e Fig 4.4 resonance

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Problem 4.4

Explain the structure of CO2 molecule.

Solution

The experimentally determined carbon to oxygen bond length in CO2 is 115 pm. The lengths of a normal carbon to oxygen double bond (C=O) and carbon to oxygen triple bond (C≡O) are 121 pm and 110 pm respectively. The carbon-oxygen bond lengths in CO2 (115 pm) lie between the values for C=O and C≡O. Obviously, a single Lewis structure cannot depict this position and it becomes necessary to write more than one Lewis structures and to consider that the structure of CO2 is best described as a hybrid of the canonical or resonance forms I, II and III.

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31f Fig 4.5 Resonance

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In general, it may be stated that

• Resonance stabilizes the molecule as the energy of the resonance hybrid is less than the energy of any single cannonical structure; and,

• Resonance averages the bond characteristics as a whole. Thus the energy of the O3 resonance hybrid is lower than either of the two cannonical froms I and II (Fig 4.3).

Many misconceptions are associated with resonance and the same need to be dispelled. You should remember that :

• The cannonical forms have no real existence.

• The molecule does not exist for a certain fraction of time in one cannonical form and for other fractions of time in other cannonical forms.

• There is no such equilibrium between the cannonical forms as we have between tautomeric forms (keto and enol) in tautomerism.

• The molecule as such has a single structure which is the resonance hybrid of the cannonical forms and which cannot as such be depicted by a single Lewis structure.

4.3.6 Polarity of Bonds

The existence of a hundred percent ionic or covalent bond represents an ideal situation. In reality no bond or a compound is either completely covalent or ionic. Even in case of covalent bond between two hydrogen atoms, there is some ionic character.

When covalent bond is formed between two similar atoms, for example in H2, O2, Cl2, N2 or F2, the shared pair of electrons is equally attracted by the two atoms. As a result electron pair is situated exactly between the two identical nuclei. The bond so formed is called nonpolar covalent bond. Contrary to this in case of a heteronuclear molecule like HF, the shared electron pair between the two atoms gets displaced more towards fluorine since the electronegativity of fluorine (Unit 3) is far greater than that of hydrogen. The resultant covalent bond is a polar covalent bond.

As a result of polarisation, the molecule possesses the dipole moment (depicted below) which can be defined as the product of the magnitude of the charge and the distance between the centres of positive and negative charge. It is usually designated by a Greek letter ‘μ;’. Mathematically, it is expressed as follows :

Dipole moment (μ) = charge (Q) x distance of separation (r)

Dipole moment is usually expressed in Debye units (D).The conversion factor is

1 D = 3.33564 x 10–-30 C m

where C is coulomb and m is meter.

Further dipole moment is a vector quantity and is depicted by a small arrow with tail on the positive centre and head pointing towards the negative centre. For example the dipole moment of HF may be represented as :

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31g Coordinate bond

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The dipole moment in case of BeF2 is zero. This is because the two equal bond dipoles point in opposite directions and cancel the effect of each other.

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31h Bond dipoles

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Let us study an interesting case of NH3 and NF3 molecule. Both the molecules have pyramidal shape with a lone pair of electrons
on nitrogen atom. Although fluorine is more electronegative than nitrogen, the resultant dipole moment of NH3 ( 4.90 x 10–3 the orbital dipole due to lone pair is in the same direction as the resultant dipole moment of the N – H bonds, whereas in NF3 the orbital dipole is in the direction opposite to the resultant dipole moment of the three N – F bonds. The orbital dipole because of lone pair decreases the effect of the resultant N – F bond moments, which results in the low dipole moment of NF3 as represented below :

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31i Dipole moments

31j Table

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Just as all the covalent bonds have some partial ionic character, the ionic bonds also have partial covalent character. The partial covalent character of ionic bonds was discussed by Fajans in terms of the following rules:

• The smaller the size of the cation and the larger the size of the anion, the greater the covalent character of an ionic bond.

• The greater the charge on the cation, the greater the covalent character of the ionic bond.

• For cations of the same size and charge, the one, with electronic configuration (n-1)dnnso, typical of transition metals, is more polarising than the one with a noble gas configuration, ns2 np6, typical of alkali and alkaline earth metal cations. The cation polarises the anion, pulling the electronic charge toward itself and thereby increasing the electronic charge between the two. This is precisely what happens in a covalent bond, i.e., buildup of electron charge density between the nuclei. The polarising power of the cation, the polarisability of the anion and the extent of distortion (polarisation) of anion are the factors, which determine the per cent covalent character of the ionic bond.

4.4 The Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion ( VSEPR ) Theory

As already explained, Lewis concept is unable to explain the shapes of molecules. This theory provides a simple procedure to predict the shapes of covalent molecules. Sidgwick and Powell in 1940, proposed a simple theory based on the repulsive interactions of the electron pairs in the valence shell of the atoms. It was further developed and redefined by Nyholm and Gillespie (1957).

The main postulates of VSEPR theory are as follows:

• The shape of a molecule depends upon the number of valence shell electron pairs (bonded or nonbonded) around the central atom.

• Pairs of electrons in the valence shell repel one another since their electron clouds are negatively charged.

• These pairs of electrons tend to occupy such positions in space that minimise repulsion and thus maximise distance between them.

• The valence shell is taken as a sphere with the electron pairs localising on the spherical surface at maximum distance from one another.

• A multiple bond is treated as if it is a single electron pair and the two or three electron pairs of a multiple bond are treated as a single super pair.

• Where two or more resonance structures can represent a molecule, the VSEPR model is applicable to any such structure.

The repulsive interaction of electron pairs decrease in the order:

Lone pair (lp) – Lone pair (lp) > Lone pair (lp) – Bond pair (bp) > Bond pair (bp) – Bond pair (bp)

Nyholm and Gillespie (1957) refined the VSEPR model by explaining the important difference between the lone pairs and bonding pairs of electrons. While the lone pairs are localised on the central atom, each bonded pair is shared between two atoms. As a result, the lone pair electrons in a molecule occupy more space as compared to the bonding pairs of electrons. This results in greater repulsion between lone pairs of electrons as compared to the lone pair – bond pair and bond pair – bond pair repulsions. These repulsion effects result in deviations from idealised shapes and alterations in bond angles in molecules.

For the prediction of geometrical shapes of molecules with the help of VSEPR theory, it is convenient to divide molecules into two categories as (i) molecules in which the central atom has no lone pair and (ii) molecules in which the central atom has one or more lone pairs.

Table 4.6 (page110) shows the arrangement of electron pairs about a central atom A (without any lone pairs) and geometries of some molecules/ions of the type AB. Table 4.7 (page 111) shows shapes of some simple molecules and ions in which the central atom has one or more lone pairs. Table 4.8 (page 112) explains the reasons for the distortions in the geometry of the molecule.

As depicted in Table 4.6, in the compounds of AB2, AB3, AB4, AB5 and AB6, the arrangement of electron pairs and the B atoms around the central atom A are : linear, trigonal planar, tetrahedral, trigonalbipyramidal and octahedral, espectively. Such arrangement can be seen in the molecules like BF3 (AB3), CH4 (AB4) and PCl5 (AB5) as depicted below by their ball and stick models.

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31k Fig 4.6 the shapes

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The VSEPR Theory is able to predict geometry of a large number of molecules, especially the compounds of p-block elements  accurately. It is also quite successful in determining the geometry quite-accurately even when the energy difference between possible structures is very small. The theoretical basis of the VSEPR theory regarding the effects of electron pair repulsions on molecular shapes is not clear and continues to be a subject of doubt and discussion.

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31l Table 4.6 Geometry

31m Table 4.7

31n Table

31o Table 4.8

31p Table

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4.5 VALENCE BOND THEORY

As we know that Lewis approach helps in writing the structure of molecules but it fails to explain the formation of chemical bond. It also does not give any reason for the difference in bond dissociation enthalpies and bond lengths in molecules like H2 (435.8 kJ mol-1, 74 pm) and F2 (155 kJ mol-1, 144 pm), although in both the cases a single covalent bond is formed by the sharing of an electron pair between the respective atoms. It also gives no idea about the shapes of polyatomic molecules.

Similarly the VSEPR theory gives the geometry of simple molecules but theoretically, it does not explain them and also it has limited applications. To overcome these limitations the two important theories based on quantum mechanical principles are introduced. These are valence bond (VB) theory and molecular orbital (MO) theory.

Valence bond theory was introduced by Heitler and London (1927) and developed further by Pauling and others. A discussion of the valence bond theory is based on the knowledge of atomic orbitals, electronic configurations of elements (Units 2), the overlap criteria of atomic orbitals, the hybridization of atomic orbitals and the principles of variation and superposition. A rigorous treatment of the VB theory in terms of these aspects is beyond the scope of this book. Therefore, for the sake of convenience, valence bond theory has been discussed in terms of qualitative and non-mathematical treatment only. To start with, let us consider the formation of hydrogen molecule which is the simplest of all molecules.

Consider two hydrogen atoms A and B approaching each other having nuclei NA and NB and electrons present in them are represented by eA and eB. When the two atoms are at large distance from each other, there is no interaction between them. As these two atoms approach each other, new attractive and repulsive forces begin to operate.

Attractive forces arise between:

(i) nucleus of one atom and its own electron that is NA – eA and NB – eB.

(ii) nucleus of one atom and electron of other atom i.e., NA – eB, NB – eA.

Similarly repulsive forces arise between

(i) electrons of two atoms like eA – eB,

(ii) nuclei of two atoms NA – NA.

Attractive forces tend to bring the two atoms close to each other whereas repulsive forces tend to push them apart (Fig. 4.7).

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31a Attractive and Repulsive forces

Forces of Attraction and Repulsion during formation of H2 molecule

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Experimentally it has been found that the magnitude of new attractive force is more than the new repulsive forces. As a result, two atoms approach each other and potential energy decreases. Ultimately a stage is reached where the net force of attraction balances the force of repulsion and system acquires minimum energy. At this stage two hydrogen atoms are said to be bonded together to form a stable molecule having the bond length of 74 pm.

Since the energy gets released when the bond is formed between two hydrogen atoms, the hydrogen molecule is more stable than that of isolated hydrogen atoms. The energy so released is called as bond enthalpy, which is           corresponding to minimum in the curve depicted in Fig. 4.8. Conversely, 435.8 kJ of energy is required to dissociate one mole of H2 molecule.

H2(g) + 435.8 kJ mol-1 → H(g) + H(g)

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31b Fig 4.8 the PE curve

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4.5.1 Orbital Overlap Concept

In the formation of hydrogen molecule, there is a minimum energy state when two hydrogen atoms are so near that their atomic orbitals undergo partial interpenetration. This partial merging of atomic orbitals is called overlapping of atomic orbitals which results in the pairing of electrons. The extent of overlap decides the strength of a covalent bond. In general, greater the overlap the stronger is the bond formed between two atoms. Therefore, according to orbital overlap concept, the formation of a covalent bond between two atoms results by pairing of electrons present in the valence shell having opposite spins.

4.5.2 Directional Properties of Bonds

As we have already seen the formation of covalent bond depends on the overlapping of atomic orbitals. The molecule of hydrogen is formed due to the overlap of 1s-orbitals of two H atoms, when they combine with each other.

In case of polyatomic molecules like CH4, NH3 and H2O, the geometry of the molecules is also important in addition to the bond formation. For example why is it so that CH4 molecule has tetrahedral shape and HCH bond angles are 109.5°? Why is the shape of NH3 molecule pyramidal ?

The valence bond theory explains the formation and directional properties of bonds in polyatomic molecules like CH4, NH3 and H2O, etc. in terms of overlap and hybridisation of atomic orbitals.

4.5.3 Overlapping of Atomic Orbitals

When two atoms come close to each other, there is overlapping of atomic orbitals. This overlap may be positive, negative or zero depending upon the properties of overlapping of atomic orbitals. The various arrangements of s and p orbitals resulting in positive, negative and zero overlap are depicted in Fig. 4.9.

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31c Positive and Negative overlap

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The criterion of overlap, as the main factor for the formation of covalent bonds applies uniformly to the homonuclear/heteronuclear diatomic molecules and polyatomic molecules. In the case of polyatomic molecules like CH4, NH3 and H2O, the VB theory has to account for their characteristic shapes as well. We know that the shapes of CH4, NH3, and H2O molecules are tetrahedral, pyramidal and bent respectively. It would be therefore interesting to find out if these geometrical shapes can be explained in terms of the orbital overlaps.

Let us first consider the CH4 (methane) molecule. The electronic configuration of carbon in its ground state is [He]2s2 2p2 which in the excited state becomes [He] 2s1 2px1 2py1 2pz1. The energy required for this excitation is compensated by the release of energy due to overlap between the orbitals of carbon and the  hydrogen.The four atomic orbitals of carbon, each with an unpaired
electron can overlap with the 1s orbitals of the four H atoms which are also singly occupied. This will result in the formation of four C-H bonds. It will, however, be observed that while the three p orbitals of carbon are at 90° to one another, the HCH angle for these will also be 90°. That is three C-H bonds will be oriented at 90° to one another. The 2s orbital of carbon and the 1s orbital of H are spherically symmetrical and they can overlap in any direction. Therefore the direction of the fourth C-H bond cannot be ascertained. This description does not fit in with the tetrahedral HCH angles of 109.5°. Clearly, it follows that simple atomic orbital overlap does not account for the directional characteristics of bonds in CH4. Using similar procedure and arguments, it can be seen that in the case of NH3 and H2O molecules, the HNH and HOH angles should be 90°. This is in disagreement with the actual bond angles of 107° and 104.5° in the NH3 and H2O molecules respectively.

4.5.4 Types of Overlapping and Nature of Covalent Bonds

The covalent bond may be classified into two types depending upon the types of overlapping:

(i) Sigma(σ) bond, and (ii) pi(π) bond

(i) Sigma(σ) bond : This type of covalent bond is formed by the end to end (head-on) overlap of bonding orbitals along the internuclear axis. This is called as head on overlap or axial overlap. This can be formed by any one of the following types of combinations of atomic orbitals.

s-s overlapping : In this case, there is overlap of two half filled s-orbitals along the internuclear axis as shown below :

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31d s-s overlapping

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(ii) pi(π ) bond : In the formation of π bond the atomic orbitals overlap in such a way that their axes remain parallel to each other and perpendicular to the internuclear axis. The orbitals formed due to sidewise overlapping consists of two saucer type charged clouds above and below the plane of the participating atoms.

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31e Pi bonding

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4.5.5 Strength of Sigma and pi Bonds

Basically the strength of a bond depends upon the extent of overlapping. In case of sigma bond, the overlapping of orbitals takes place to a larger extent. Hence, it is stronger as compared to the pi bond where the extent of overlapping occurs to a smaller extent. Further, it is important to note that pi bond between two atoms is formed in addition to a sigma bond. It is always present in the molecules containing multiple bond (double or triple bonds)

4.6 Hybridization

In order to explain the characteristic geometrical shapes of polyatomic molecules like CH4, NH3 and H2O etc., Pauling introduced the concept of hybridisation. According to him the atomic orbitals combine to form new set of equivalent orbitals known as hybrid orbitals. Unlike pure orbitals, the hybrid orbitals are used in bond formation. The phenomenon is known as hybridisation which can be defined as the process of intermixing of the orbitals of slightly different energies so as to redistribute their energies, resulting in the formation of new set of orbitals of equivalent energies and shape. For example when one 2s and three 2p-orbitals of carbon hybridise, there is the formation of four new sp3 hybrid orbitals.

Salient features of hybridisation: The main features of hybridisation are as under :

1. The number of hybrid orbitals is equal to the number of the atomic orbitals that get hybridised.

2. The hybridised orbitals are always equivalent in energy and shape.

3. The hybrid orbitals are more effective in forming stable bonds than the pure atomic orbitals.

4. These hybrid orbitals are directed in space in some preferred direction to have minimum repulsion between electron pairs and thus a stable arrangement. Therefore, the type of hybridisation indicates the geometry of the molecules.

Important conditions for hybridisation

(i) The orbitals present in the valence shell of the atom are hybridised.

(ii) The orbitals undergoing hybridisation should have almost equal energy.

(iii) Promotion of electron is not essential condition prior to hybridisation.

(iv) It is not necessary that only half filled orbitals participate in hybridisation. In some cases, even filled orbitals of valence shell take part in hybridisation.

4.6.1 Types of Hybridisation

There are various types of hybridisation involving s, p and d orbitals. The different types of hybridisation are as under:

(I) sp hybridisation: This type of hybridisation involves the mixing of one s and one p orbital resulting in the formation of two equivalent sp hybrid orbitals. The suitable orbitals for sp hybridisation are s and pz, if the hybrid orbitals are to lie along the z-axis. Each sp hybrid orbitals has 50% s-character and 50% p-character. Such a molecule in which the central atom is sp-hybridised and linked directly to two other central atoms possesses linear geometry. This type of hybridisation is also known as diagonal hybridisation.

The two sp hybrids point in the opposite direction along the z-axis with projecting positive lobes and very small negative lobes, which provides more effective overlapping resulting in the formation of stronger bonds.

Example of molecule having sp hybridisation

BeCl2: The ground state electronic configuration of Be is 1s22s2. In the exited state one of the 2s-electrons is promoted to vacant 2p orbital to account for its divalency. One 2s and one 2p-orbitals get hybridised to form two sp hybridised orbitals. These two sp hybrid orbitals are oriented in opposite direction forming an angle of 180°. Each of the sp hybridised orbital overlaps with the 2p-orbital of chlorine axially and form two Be- Cl sigma bonds. This is shown in Fig. 4.10.

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31f Fig 4.10 formation of sp hybrids

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(II) sp2 hybridisation : In this hybridisation there is involvement of one s and two p-orbitals in order to form three equivalent sp2 hybridised orbitals. For example, in BCl3 molecule, the ground state electronic configuration of central boron atom is 1s22s22p1. In the excited state, one of the 2s electrons is promoted to vacant 2p orbital as a result boron has three unpaired electrons. These three orbitals (one 2s and two 2p) hybridise to form three sp2 hybrid orbitals. The three hybrid orbitals so formed are oriented in a trigonal planar arrangement and overlap with 2p orbitals of chlorine to form three B-Cl bonds. Therefore, in BCl3 (Fig. 4.11), the geometry is trigonal planar with ClBCl bond angle of 120°.

(III) sp3 hybridisation: This type of hybridisation can be explained by taking the example of CH4 molecule in which there is mixing of one s-orbital and three p-orbitals of the valence shell to form four sp3 hybrid orbital of equivalent energies and shape. There is 25% s-character and 75% pcharacter in each sp3 hybrid orbital. The four sp3 hybrid orbitals so formed are directed towards the four corners of the tetrahedron. The angle between sp3 hybrid orbital is 109.5° as shown in Fig. 4.12.

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31g Fig 4.12 sp3 hybrid

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The structure of NH3 and H2O molecules can also be explained with the help of sp3 hybridisation. In NH3, the valence shell (outer) electronic configuration of nitrogen in the ground state is 2s22 px1 2 py1 2 pz1 having three unpaired electrons in the sp3 hybrid orbitals and a lone pair of electrons is present in the fourth one. These three hybrid orbitals overlap with 1s orbitals of hydrogen atoms to form three N-H sigma bonds. We know that the force of repulsion between a lone pair and a bond pair is more than the force of repulsion between two bond pairs of electrons. The molecule thus gets distorted and the bond angle is reduced to 107° from 109.5°. The geometry of such a molecule will be pyramidal as shown in Fig. 4.13.

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31h Fig 4.13

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In case of H2O molecule, the four oxygen orbitals (one 2s and three 2p) undergo sp3 hybridisation forming four sp3 hybrid orbitals out of which two contain one electron each and the other two contain a pair of electrons. These four sp3 hybrid orbitals acquire a tetrahedral geometry, with two corners occupied by hydrogen atoms while the other two by the lone pairs. The bond angle in this case is reduced to 104.5° from 109.5° (Fig. 4.14) and the molecule thus acquires a V-shape or angular geometry.

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31i Fig 4.14

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4.6.2 Other Examples of sp3, sp2 and sp Hybridisation

sp3 Hybridisation in C2H6 molecule: In ethane molecule both the carbon atoms assume sp3 hybrid state. One of the four sp3 hybrid orbitals of carbon atom overlaps axially with similar orbitals of other atom to form sp3-sp3 sigma bond while the other three hybrid orbitals of each carbon atom are used in forming sp3-s sigma bonds with hydrogen atoms as discussed in section 4.6.1(iii). Therefore in ethane C-C bond length is 154 pm and each C-H bond length is 109 pm.

sp2 Hybridisation in C2H4: In the formation of ethene molecule, one of the sp 2 hybrid orbitals of carbon atom overlaps axially with sp2 hybridised orbital of another carbon atom to form C-C sigma bond. While the other two sp2 hybrid orbitals of each carbon atom are used for making sp2-s sigma bond with two hydrogen atoms. The unhybridised orbital (2px or 2py) of one carbon atom overlaps sidewise with the similar orbital of the other carbon atom to form weak π bond, which consists of two equal electron clouds distributed above and below the plane of carbon and hydrogen atoms.

Thus, in ethene molecule, the carboncarbon bond consists of one sp2-sp2 sigma bond and one pi (π ) bond between p orbitals which are not used in the hybridisation and are perpendicular to the plane of molecule; the bond length 134 pm. The C-H bond is sp2-s sigma with bond length 108 pm. The H-C-H bond angle is 117.6° while the H-C-C angle is 121°. The formation of sigma and pi bonds in ethene is shown in Fig. 4.15.

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31j Fig 4.15

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sp Hybridisation in C2H2 : In the formation of ethyne molecule, both the carbon atoms undergo sp-hybridisation having two unhybridised orbital i.e., 2py and 2px. One sp hybrid orbital of one carbon atom overlaps axially with sp hybrid orbital of the other carbon atom to form C-C sigma bond, while the other hybridised orbital of each carbon atom overlaps axially with the half filled s orbital of hydrogen atoms forming σ bonds. Each of the two unhybridised p orbitals of both the carbon atoms overlaps sidewise to form two π bonds between the carbon atoms. So the triple bond between the two carbon atoms is made up of one sigma and two pi bonds as shown in Fig. 4.16.

4.6.3 Hybridisation of Elements involving d Orbitals

The elements present in the third period contain d orbitals in addition to s and p orbitals. The energy of the 3d orbitals are comparable to the energy of the 3s and 3p orbitals. The energy of 3d orbitals are also comparable to those of 4s and 4p orbitals. As a consequence the hybridisation involving either 3s, 3p and 3d or 3d, 4s and 4p is possible. However, since the difference in energies of 3p and 4s orbitals is significant, no hybridisation involving 3p, 3d and 4s orbitals is possible. The important hybridisation schemes involving s, p and d orbitals are summarised below:

Shapes of molecules/ions Hybridisation type Atomic orbitals Examples
Square planar dsp2 d+s+p(2) [Ni(CN)]2-.
[Pt(Cl)4]
2-
Trigonal bipyramidal sp3d s+p(3)+d PF5.PCl5
Square pyramidal sp3d2 s+p(3)+d(2) BrF5
Octahedral sp2d2
d2sp3
s+p(3)+d(2)
d(2)+s+p(3)
SF6.[CrF6]3-[Co(NH3)6]3+

(i) Formation of PCl5 (sp3d hybridisation):

The ground state and the excited state outer electronic configurations of phosphorus (Z=15) are represented below.

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31k Sp3d hybrid

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Now the five orbitals (i.e., one s, three p and one d orbitals) are available for hybridisation to yield a set of five sp3d hybrid orbitals which are directed towards the five corners of a trigonal bipyramidal as depicted in the Fig. 4.17.

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31l Fig 4.17 Trigonal bipyramidal

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It should be noted that all the bond angles in trigonal bipyramidal geometry are not equivalent. In PCl5 the five sp3d orbitals of phosphorus overlap with the singly occupied p orbitals of chlorine atoms to form five P-Cl sigma bonds. Three P-Cl bond lie in one plane and make an angle of 120° with each other; these bonds are termed as equatorial bonds. The remaining two P-Cl bonds-one lying above and the other lying below the equatorial plane, make an angle of 90° with the plane. These bonds are called axial bonds. As the axial bond pairs suffer more repulsive interaction from the equatorial bond pairs, therefore axial bonds have been found to be slightly longer and hence slightly weaker than the equatorial bonds; which makes PCl5 molecule more reactive.

(ii) Formation of SF2 (sp3d2 hybridisation): In SF6 the central sulphur atom has the ground state outer electronic configuration 3s23p4. In the exited state the available six orbitals i.e., one s, three p and two d are singly occupied by electrons. These orbitals hybridise to form six new sp3d2 hybrid orbitals, which are projected towards the six corners of a regular octahedron in SF6. These six sp3d2 hybrid orbitals overlap with singly occupied orbitals of fluorine atoms to form six S-F sigma bonds. Thus SF2 molecule has a regular octahedral geometry as shown in Fig. 4.18.

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31m Fig 4.18

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4.7 MOLECULAR ORBITAL THEORY

Molecular orbital (MO) theory was developed by F. Hund and R.S. Mulliken in 1932. The salient features of this theory are :

(i) The electrons in a molecule are present in the various molecular orbitals as the electrons of atoms are present in the various atomic orbitals.

(ii) The atomic orbitals of comparable energies and proper symmetry combine to form molecular orbitals.

(iii) While an electron in an atomic orbital is influenced by one nucleus, in a molecular orbital it is influenced by two or more nuclei depending upon the number of atoms in the molecule. Thus, an atomic orbital is monocentric while a molecular orbital is polycentric.

(iv) The number of molecular orbital formed is equal to the number of combining atomic orbitals. When two atomic orbitals combine, two molecular orbitals are formed. One is known as bonding molecular orbital while the other is called antibonding molecular orbital.

(v) The bonding molecular orbital has lower energy and hence greater stability than the corresponding antibonding molecular orbital.

(vi) Just as the electron probability distribution around a nucleus in an atom is given by an atomic orbital, the electron probability distribution around a group of nuclei in a molecule is given by a molecular orbital.

vii) The molecular orbitals like atomic orbitals are filled in accordance with the aufbau principle obeying the Pauli’s exclusion principle and the Hund’s rule.

4.7.1 Formation of Molecular Orbitals Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO)

According to wave mechanics, the atomic orbitals can be expressed by wave functions (ψ ’s) which represent the amplitude of the electron waves. These are obtained from the solution of Schrödinger wave equation. However, since it cannot be solved for any system containing more than one electron, molecular orbitals which are one electron wave functions for molecules are difficult to obtain directly from the solution of Schrödinger wave equation. To overcome this  problem, an approximate method known as linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) has been adopted.

Let us apply this method to the homonuclear diatomic hydrogen molecule. Consider the hydrogen molecule consisting of two atoms A and B. Each hydrogen atom in the ground state has one electron in 1s orbital. The atomic orbitals of these atoms may be represented by the wave functions ψA and ψB. Mathematically, the formation of molecular orbitals may be described by the linear combination of atomic orbitals that can take place by addition and by subtraction of wave functions of individual atomic orbitals as shown below :

ψMO = ψA + ψB

Therefore, the two molecular orbitals σ and σ* are formed as :

σ = ψA + ψB

σ* = ψA – ψB

The molecular orbital σ formed by the addition of atomic orbitals is called the bonding molecular orbital while the molecular orbital σ* formed by the subtraction of atomic orbital is called antibonding molecular orbital as depicted in Fig. 4.19.

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31n Fig 4.19

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Qualitatively, the formation of molecular orbitals can be understood in terms of the constructive or destructive interference of the electron waves of the combining atoms. In the formation of bonding molecular orbital, the two electron waves of the bonding atoms reinforce each other due to constructive interference while in the formation of antibonding molecular orbital, the electron waves cancel each other due to destructive interference. As a result, the electron density in a bonding molecular orbital is located between the nuclei of the bonded atoms because of which the repulsion between the nuclei is very less while in case of an antibonding molecular orbital, most of the electron density is located away from the space between the nuclei. Infact, there is a nodal plane (on which the electron density is zero) between the nuclei and hence the repulsion between the nuclei is high. Electrons placed in a bonding molecular orbital tend to hold the nuclei together and stabilise a molecule. Therefore, a bonding molecular orbital always possesses lower energy than either of the atomic orbitals that have combined to form it. In contrast, the electrons placed in the antibonding molecular orbital destabilise the molecule. This is because the mutual repulsion of the electrons in this orbital is more than the attraction between the electrons and the nuclei, which causes a net increase in energy.

It may be noted that the energy of the antibonding orbital is raised above the energy of the parent atomic orbitals that have combined and the energy of the bonding orbital has been lowered than the parent orbitals. The total energy of two molecular orbitals, however, remains the same as that of two original atomic orbitals.

4.7.2 Conditions for the Combination of Atomic Orbitals

The linear combination of atomic orbitals to form molecular orbitals takes place only if the following conditions are satisfied:

1.The combining atomic orbitals must have the same or nearly the same energy. This means that 1s orbital can combine with another 1s orbital but not with 2s orbital because the energy of 2s orbital is appreciably higher than that of 1s orbital. This is not true if the atoms are very different.

2.The combining atomic orbitals must have the same symmetry about the molecular axis. By convention z-axis is taken as the molecular axis. It is important to note that atomic orbitals having same or nearly the same energy will not combine if they do not have the same symmetry. For example, 2pz orbital of one atom can combine with 2pz orbital of the other atom but not with the 2px or 2py orbitals because of their different symmetries.

3.The combining atomic orbitals must overlap to the maximum extent. Greater the extent of overlap, the greater will be the electron-density between the nuclei of a molecular orbital.

4.7.3 Types of Molecular Orbitals

Molecular orbitals of diatomic molecules are designated as σ (sigma), π (pi), δ (delta), etc.

In this nomenclature, the sigma (σ) molecular orbitals are symmetrical around the bond-axis while pi (π) molecular orbitals are not symmetrical. For example, the linear combination of 1s orbitals centered on two nuclei produces two molecular orbitals which are symmetrical around the bond-axis. Such molecular orbitals are of the σ type and are designated as σ1s and σ*1s [Fig. 4.20(a),page 124]. If internuclear axis is taken to be in the z-direction, it can be seen that a linear combination of 2pz orbitals of two atoms also produces two sigma molecular orbitals designated as σ2pz and σ*2pz. [Fig. 4.20(b)]

Molecular orbitals obtained from 2px and 2py orbitals are not symmetrical around the bond axis because of the presence of positive lobes above and negative lobes below the molecular plane. Such molecular orbitals, are labelled as π and π * [Fig. 4.20(c)]. A π bonding MO has larger electron density above and below the inter-nuclear axis. The π* antibonding MO has a node between the nuclei.

4.7.4 Energy Level Diagram for Molecular Orbitals

We have seen that 1s atomic orbitals on two atoms form two molecular orbitals designated as σ1s and σ*1s. In the same manner, the 2s and 2p atomic orbitals (eight atomic orbitals on two atoms) give rise to the following eight molecular orbitals:

Antibonding MOs σ*2s σ*2pz π*2px π*2py

Bonding MOs σ2s σ2pz π2px π2py

The energy levels of these molecular orbitals have been determined experimentally from spectroscopic data for homonuclear diatomic
molecules of second row elements of the periodic table. The increasing order of energies of various molecular orbitals for O2 and F2 is given below :

σ1s < σ*1s < σ2s < σ*2s <σ2pz<(π 2px = π 2py)< (π *2px= π *2py)<σ*2pz

However, this sequence of energy levels of molecular orbitals is not correct for the remaining molecules Li2, Be2, B2, C2, N2. For instance, it has been observed experimentally that for molecules such as B2, C2, N2 etc. the increasing order of energies of various molecular orbitals is

σ1s < σ*1s < σ2s < σ*2s < (π 2px = π 2py) <σ2pz < (π *2px= π *2py) < σ*2pz

The important characteristic feature of this order is that the energy of σ2pz molecular orbital is higher than that of π 2px and π 2py molecular orbitals.

4.7.5 Electronic Configuration and Molecular Behaviour

The distribution of electrons among various molecular orbitals is called the electronic configuration of the molecule. From the electronic configuration of the molecule, it is possible to get important information about the molecule as discussed below.

Stability of Molecules: If Nb is the number of electrons occupying bonding orbitals and Na the number occupying the antibonding orbitals, then

(i) the molecule is stable if Nb is greater than Na, and

(ii) the molecule is unstable if Nb is less than Na.

In (i) more bonding orbitals are occupied and so the bonding influence is stronger and a stable molecule results. In (ii) the antibonding influence is stronger and therefore the molecule is unstable.

Bond order

Bond order (b.o.) is defined as one half the difference between the number of electrons present in the bonding and the antibonding
orbitals i.e.,
Bond order (b.o.) = 1/2 (Nb – Na)

The rules discussed above regarding the stability of the molecule can be restated in terms of bond order as follows: A positive bond order (i.e., Nb > Na) means a stable molecule while a negative (i.e., Nba) or zero (i.e., Nb = Na) bond order means an unstable molecule.

Nature of the bond

Integral bond order values of 1, 2 or 3 correspond to single, double or triple bonds respectively as studied in the classical concept.

Bond-length

The bond order between two atoms in a molecule may be taken as an approximate measure of the bond length. The bond length decreases as bond order increases.

Magnetic nature

If all the molecular orbitals in a molecule are doubly occupied, the substance is diamagnetic (repelled by magnetic field). However if one or more molecular orbitals are singly occupied it is paramagnetic (attracted by magnetic field), e.g., O2 molecule.

4.8 BONDING IN SOME HOMONUCLEAR DIATOMIC MOLECULES

In this section we shall discuss bonding in some homonuclear diatomic molecules.

1. Hydrogen molecule (H2 ): It is formed by the combination of two hydrogen atoms. Each hydrogen atom has one electron in 1s orbital. Therefore, in all there are two electrons in hydrogen molecule which are present in σ1s molecular orbital. So electronic configuration of hydrogen molecule is
H2 : (σ1s)2

The bond order of H2 molecule can be calculated as given below:

Bond order = (Na – Nb) / 2 = (2 -0) / 2 = 1

This means that the two hydrogen atoms are bonded together by a single covalent bond. The bond dissociation energy of hydrogen molecule has been found to be 438 kJ mol-1 and bond length equal to 74 pm. Since no unpaired electron is present in hydrogen molecule, therefore, it is diamagnetic.

2. Helium molecule (He2 ): The electronic configuration of helium atom is 1s2. Each helium atom contains 2 electrons, therefore, in He2 molecule there would be 4 electrons. These electrons will be accommodated in σ1s and σ*1s molecular orbitals leading to electronic configuration:

He2: (σ1s)2 (σ*1s)2

Bond order of He2 is (2 – 2) = 0

He2 molecule is therefore unstable and does not exist.

Similarly, it can be shown that Be2 molecule (σ1s)2 (σ*1s)2 (σ2s)2 (σ*2s)2 also does not exist.

3. Lithium molecule (Li2 ): The electronic configuration of lithium is 1s2, 2s1 . There are six electrons in Li2. The electronic configuration of Li2 molecule, therefore, is

Li2 : (σ1s)2 (σ*1s)2 (σ2s)2

The above configuration is also written as KK(σ2s)2 where KK represents the closed K shell structure (σ1s)2 (σ*1s)2.

From the electronic configuration of Li2 molecule it is clear that there are four electrons present in bonding molecular orbitals and two electrons present in antibonding molecular orbitals. Its bond order, therefore, is 1/2 (4 – 2) = 1. It means that Li2 molecule is stable and since it has no unpaired electrons it should be diamagnetic. Indeed diamagnetic Li2 molecules are known to exist in the vapour phase.

4. Carbon molecule (C2 ): The electronic configuration of carbon is 1s2 2s2 2p2. There are twelve electrons in C2. The electronic configuration of C2 molecule, therefore, is

C2 : (σ1s)2 (σ*1s )2(σ2s )2(σ*2s )2( π2px2 = π2py2)

or KK(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2(π2px2=π2py2)

The bond order of C2 is 1/2 (8 – 4) = 2 and C2 should be diamagnetic. Diamagnetic C2 molecules have indeed been detected in vapour phase. It is important to note that double bond in C2 consists of both pi bonds because of the presence of four electrons in two pi molecular orbitals. In most of the other molecules a double bond is made up of a sigma bond and a pi bond. In a similar fashion the bonding in N2 molecule can be discussed.

5. Oxygen molecule (O2 ): The electronic configuration of oxygen atom is 1s2 2s2 2p4. Each oxygen atom has 8 electrons, hence, in O2 molecule there are 16 electrons. The electronic configuration of O2 molecule, therefore, is

O2 : (σ1s)2 (σ*1s )2(σ2s )2(σ*2s )2(σ2pz )2 (π2px2 ≡ π2py2)(π*2px1 ≡ π*2py1)

or KK(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2(σ2pz )2(π2px2 ≡ π2py2),(π*2px1 ≡ π*2py1)

From the electronic configuration of O2 molecule it is clear that ten electrons are present in bonding molecular orbitals and six electrons are present in antibonding molecular orbitals. Its bond order, therefore, is

Bond order = 1/2[Nb−Na] = 1/2[10-6] = 2

So in oxygen molecule, atoms are held by a double bond. Moreover, it may be noted that it contains two unpaired electrons in π *2px and π *2py molecular orbitals, therefore, O2 molecule should be paramagnetic, a prediction that corresponds to experimental observation. In this way, the theory successfully explains the paramagnetic nature of oxygen.

Similarly, the electronic configurations of other homonuclear diatomic molecules of the second row of the periodic table can be written. In Fig.4.21 are given the molecular orbital occupancy and molecular properties for B2 through Ne2. The sequence of MOs and their electron population are shown. The bond energy, bond length, bond order, magnetic properties and valence electron configuration appear below the orbital diagrams.

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31o Fig 4.21

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4.9 HYDROGEN BONDING

Nitrogen, oxygen and fluorine are the higly electronegative elements. When they are attached to a hydrogen atom to form covalent bond, the electrons of the covalent bond are shifted towards the more electronegative atom. This partially positively charged hydrogen atom forms a bond with the other more electronegative atom. This bond is known as hydrogen bond and is weaker than the covalent bond. For example, in HF molecule, the hydrogen bond exists between hydrogen atom of one molecule and fluorine atom of another molecule as depicted below :

− − −Hδ+ –Fδ− − − −Hδ+ –Fδ− − − −Hδ+ –Fδ−

Here, hydrogen bond acts as a bridge between two atoms which holds one atom by covalent bond and the other by hydrogen bond. Hydrogen bond is represented by a dotted line (− − −) while a solid line represents the covalent bond. Thus, hydrogen bond can be defined as the attractive force which binds hydrogen atom of one molecule with the electronegative atom (F, O or N) of another molecule.

4.9.1 Cause of Formation of Hydrogen Bond

When hydrogen is bonded to strongly electronegative element ‘X’, the electron pair shared between the two atoms moves far away from hydrogen atom. As a result the hydrogen atom becomes highly electropositive with respect to the other atom ‘X’. Since there is displacement of electrons towards X, the hydrogen acquires fractional positive charge (δ +) while ‘X’ attain fractional negative charge (δ−). This results in the formation of a polar molecule having electrostatic force of attraction which can be represented as :

Hδ+ − Xδ− −−− Hδ+ −Xδ− −−− Hδ+ − Xδ−

The magnitude of H-bonding depends on the physical state of the compound. It is maximum in the solid state and minimum in the gaseous state. Thus, the hydrogen bonds have strong influence on the structure and properties of the compounds.

4.9.2 Types of H-Bonds

There are two types of H-bonds

(i) Intermolecular hydrogen bond
(ii) Intramolecular hydrogen bond

(1) Intermolecular hydrogen bond : It is formed between two different molecules of the same or different compounds. For example, H-bond in case of HF molecule, alcohol or water molecules, etc.

(2) Intramolecular hydrogen bond : It is formed when hydrogen atom is in between the two highly electronegative (F, O, N) atoms present within the same molecule. For example, in o-nitrophenol the hydrogen is in between the two oxygen atoms.

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31p Fig 4.22

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SUMMARY

Kössel’s first insight into the mechanism of formation of electropositive and electronegative ions related the process to the attainment of noble gas configurations by the respective ions. Electrostatic attraction between ions is the cause for their stability. This gives the concept of electrovalency.

The first description of covalent bonding was provided by Lewis in terms of the sharing of electron pairs between atoms and he related the process to the attainment of noble gas configurations by reacting atoms as a result of sharing of electrons. The Lewis dot symbols show the number of valence electrons of the atoms of a given element and Lewis dot structures show pictorial representations of bonding in molecules.

An ionic compound is pictured as a three-dimensional aggregation of positive and negative ions in an ordered arrangement called the crystal lattice. In a crystalline solid there is a charge balance between the positive and negative ions. The crystal lattice is stabilized by the enthalpy of lattice formation.

While a single covalent bond is formed by sharing of an electron pair between two atoms, multiple bonds result from the sharing of two or three electron pairs. Some bonded atoms have additional pairs of electrons not involved in bonding. These are called lonepairs of electrons. A Lewis dot structure shows the arrangement of bonded pairs and lone pairs around each atom in a molecule. Important parameters, associated with chemical bonds, like: bond length, bond angle, bond enthalpy, bond order and bond polarity have significant effect on the properties of compounds.

A number of molecules and polyatomic ions cannot be described accurately by a single Lewis structure and a number of descriptions (representations) based on the same skeletal structure are written and these taken together represent the molecule or ion. This is a very important and extremely useful concept called resonance. The contributing structures or canonical forms taken together constitute the resonance hybrid which represents the molecule or ion.

The VSEPR model used for predicting the geometrical shapes of molecules is based on the assumption that electron pairs repel each other and, therefore, tend to remain as far apart as possible. According to this model, molecular geometry is determined by repulsions between lone pairs and lone pairs ; lone pairs and bonding pairs and bonding pairs and bonding pairs. The order of these repulsions being : lp-lp > lp-bp > bp-bp

The valence bond (VB) approach to covalent bonding is basically concerned with the energetics of covalent bond formation about which the Lewis and VSEPR models are silent. Basically the VB theory discusses bond formation in terms of overlap of orbitals. For example the formation of the H2 molecule from two hydrogen atoms involves the overlap of the 1s orbitals of the two H atoms which are singly occupied. It is seen that the potential energy of the system gets lowered as the two H atoms come near to each other. At the equilibrium inter-nuclear distance (bond distance) the energy touches a minimum. Any attempt to bring the nuclei still closer results in a sudden increase in energy and consequent
destabilization of the molecule. Because of orbital overlap the electron density between the nuclei increases which helps in bringing them closer. It is however seen that the actual bond enthalpy and bond length values are not obtained by overlap alone and other variables have to be taken into account.

For explaining the characteristic shapes of polyatomic molecules Pauling introduced the concept of hybridisation of atomic orbitals. sp,sp2, sp3 hybridizations of atomic orbitals of Be, B,C, N and O are used to explain the formation and geometrical shapes of molecules like BeCl2, BCl3, CH4, NH3 and H2O. They also explain the formation of multiple bonds in molecules like C2H2 and C2H4.

The molecular orbital (MO) theory describes bonding in terms of the combination and arrangment of atomic orbitals to form molecular orbitals that are associated with the molecule as a whole. The number of molecular orbitals are always equal to the number of atomic orbitals from which they are formed. Bonding molecular orbitals increase electron density between the nuclei and are lower in energy than the individual atomic orbitals. Antibonding molecular orbitals have a region of zero electron density between the nuclei and have more energy than the individual atomic orbitals.

The electronic configuration of the molecules is written by filling electrons in the molecular orbitals in the order of increasing energy levels. As in the case of atoms, the Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule are applicable for the filling of molecular orbitals. Molecules are said to be stable if the number of elctrons in bonding molecular orbitals is greater than that in antibonding molecular orbitals.

Hydrogen bond is formed when a hydrogen atom finds itself between two highly electronegative atoms such as F, O and N. It may be intermolecular (existing between two or more molecules of the same or different substances) or intramolecular (present within the same molecule). Hydrogen bonds have a powerful effect on the structure and properties of many compounds.

EXERCISES

4.1 Explain the formation of a chemical bond.

4.2 Write Lewis dot symbols for atoms of the following elements : Mg, Na, B, O, N, Br.

4.3 Write Lewis symbols for the following atoms and ions:

S and S2-; Al and Al3+; H and H

4.4 Draw the Lewis structures for the following molecules and ions :

H2S, SiCl4, BeF2, CO32− , HCOOH

4.5 Define octet rule. Write its significance and limitations.

4.6 Write the favourable factors for the formation of ionic bond.

4.7 Discuss the shape of the following molecules using the VSEPR model:

BeCl2, BCl3, SiCl4, AsF5, H2S, PH3

4.8 Although geometries of NH3 and H2O molecules are distorted tetrahedral, bond angle in water is less than that of ammonia. Discuss.

4.9 How do you express the bond strength in terms of bond order ?

4.10 Define the bond length.

4.11 Explain the important aspects of resonance with reference to the CO32−

4.12 H3PO3 can be represented by structures 1 and 2 shown below. Can these two structures be taken as the canonical forms of the resonance hybrid representing H3PO3 ? If not, give reasons for the same.

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31q H3PO3

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4.13 Write the resonance structures for SO3, NO2 and NO3 .

4.14 Use Lewis symbols to show electron transfer between the following atoms to form cations and anions : (a) K and S (b) Ca and O (c) Al and N.

4.15 Although both CO2 and H2O are triatomic molecules, the shape of H2O molecule is bent while that of CO2 is linear. Explain this on the basis of dipole moment.

4.16 Write the significance/applications of dipole moment.

4.17 Define electronegativity. How does it differ from electron gain enthalpy ?

4.18 Explain with the help of suitable example polar covalent bond.

4.19 Arrange the bonds in order of increasing ionic character in the molecules: LiF, K2O, N2, SO2 and ClF3.

4.20 The skeletal structure of CH3COOH as shown below is correct, but some of the bonds are shown incorrectly. Write the correct Lewis structure for acetic acid.

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31r H2 something

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4.21 Apart from tetrahedral geometry, another possible geometry for CH4 is square planar with the four H atoms at the corners of the square and the C atom at its centre. Explain why CH2 is not square planar ?

4.22 Explain why BeH2 molecule has a zero dipole moment although the Be-H bonds are polar.

4.23 Which out of NH3 and NF3 has higher dipole moment and why ?

4.24 What is meant by hybridisation of atomic orbitals? Describe the shapes of sp, sp2, sp3 hybrid orbitals.

4.25 Describe the change in hybridisation (if any) of the Al atom in the following reaction.
AlCl3 + Cl → AlCl4

4.26 Is there any change in the hybridisation of B and N atoms as a result of the following reaction ?

BF3 + NH3 → F3 B.NH3

4.27 Draw diagrams showing the formation of a double bond and a triple bond between carbon atoms in C2H4 and C2H2 molecules.

4.28 What is the total number of sigma and pi bonds in the following molecules ?
(a) C2H2 (b) C2H4

4.29 Considering x-axis as the internuclear axis which out of the following will not form a sigma bond and why? (a) 1s and 1s (b) 1s and 2px ; (c) 2py and 2py (d) 1s and 2s.

4.30 Which hybrid orbitals are used by carbon atoms in the following molecules ?
CH3-CH3; (b) CH3-CH=CH2; (c) CH3-CH2-OH; (d) CH3-CHO (e) CH3COOH

4.31 What do you understand by bond pairs and lone pairs of electrons ? Illustrate by giving one exmaple of each type.

4.32 Distinguish between a sigma and a pi bond.

4.33 Explain the formation of H2 molecule on the basis of valence bond theory.

4.34 Write the important conditions required for the linear combination of atomic orbitals to form molecular orbitals.

4.35 Use molecular orbital theory to explain why the Be2 molecule does not exist.

4.36 Compare the relative stability of the following species and indicate their magnetic properties;

O2 ,O2+ ,O2 (superoxide), O22− (peroxide)

4.37 Write the significance of a plus and a minus sign shown in representing the orbitals.

4.38 Describe the hybridisation in case of PCl5. Why are the axial bonds longer as compared to equatorial bonds ?

4.39 Define hydrogen bond. Is it weaker or stronger than the van der Waals forces?

4.40 What is meant by the term bond order ? Calculate the bond order of : N2, O2, O2+ and O2.

I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)

1. Isostructural species are those which have the same shape and hybridisation. Among the given species identify the isostructural pairs.

(i) [NF3 and BF3]
(ii) [BF4 and NH4+]
(iii) [BCl3 and BrCl3]
(iv) [NH3 and NO3]

2. Polarity in a molecule and hence the dipole moment depends primarily on
electronegativity of the constituent atoms and shape of a molecule. Which of
the following has the highest dipole moment?

(i) CO2
(ii) HI
(iii) H2O
(iv) SO2

3. The types of hybrid orbitals of nitrogen in NO2+, NO3 and NH4+ respectively are expected to be

(i) sp, sp3 and sp2
(ii) sp, sp2 and sp3
(iii) sp2, sp and sp3
(iv) sp2, sp3 and sp

4. Hydrogen bonds are formed in many compounds e.g., H2O, HF, NH3 . The boiling point of such compounds depends to a large extent on the strength of hydrogen bond and the number of hydrogen bonds. The correct decreasing order of the boiling points of above compounds is :

(i) HF > H2O > NH3
(ii) H2O > HF > NH3
(iii) NH3 > HF > H2O
(iv) NH3 > H2O > HF

5. In PO43– ion the formal charge on the oxygen atom of P–O bond is

(i) + 1
(ii) – 1
(iii) – 0.75
(iv) + 0.75

6. In NO3 ion, the number of bond pairs and lone pairs of electrons on nitrogen atom are

(i) 2, 2
(ii) 3, 1
(iii) 1, 3
(iv) 4, 0

7. Which of the following species has tetrahedral geometry?

(i) BH4
(ii) NH2
(iii) CO32–
(iv) H3O+

8. Number of π bonds and σ bonds in the following structure is–

🙂

31s Naphthalin

🙂

(i) 6, 19
(ii) 4, 20
(iii) 5, 19
(iv) 5, 20

9. Which molecule/ion out of the following does not contain unpaired electrons?

(i) N2+
(ii) O2
(iii) O22–
(iv) B2

10. In which of the following molecule/ion all the bonds are not equal?

(i) XeF4
(ii) BF4
(iii) C2H4
(iv) SiF4

11. In which of the following substances will hydrogen bond be strongest?

(i) HCl
(ii) H2O
(iii) HI
(iv) H2S

12. If the electronic configuration of an element is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d2 4s2, the four electrons involved in chemical bond formation will be_____.

(i) 3p6
(ii) 3p6, 4s2
(iii) 3p6, 3d2
(iv) 3d2, 4s2

13. Which of the following angle corresponds to sp2 hybridisation?

(i) 90°
(ii) 120°
(iii) 180°
(iv) 109°

The electronic configurations of three elements, A, B and C are given below. Answer the questions 14 to 17 on the basis of these configurations.

A 1s2 2s2 2p6
B 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3
C 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5

14. Stable form of A may be represented by the formula :

(i) A
(ii) A2
(iii) A3
(iv) A4

15. Stable form of C may be represented by the formula :

(i) C
(ii) C2
(iii) C3
(iv) C4

16. The molecular formula of the compound formed from B and C will be

(i) BC
(ii) B2C
(iii) BC2
(iv) BC3

17. The bond between B and C will be

(i) Ionic
(ii) Covalent
(iii) Hydrogen
(iv) Coordinate

18. Which of the following order of energies of molecular orbitals of N2 is correct?

(i) (π2py ) < (σ2pz) < (π*2px) ≈ (π*2py)
(ii) (π2py ) > (σ2pz) > (π*2px) ≈ (π*2py )
(iii) (π2py ) < (σ2pz) > (π*2px) ≈ (π*2py )
(iv) (π2py ) > (σ2pz) < (π*2px) ≈ (π*2py )

19. Which of the following statement is not correct from the view point of molecular orbital theory?

(i) Be2 is not a stable molecule.
(ii) He2 is not stable but He2 + is expected to exist.
(iii) Bond strength of N2 is maximum amongst the homonuclear diatomic molecules belonging to the second period.
(iv) The order of energies of molecular orbitals in N2 molecule is σ2s < σ* 2s < σ2pz < (π2px = π2py ) < (π*2px = π* 2py) < σ*2pz

20. Which of the following options represents the correct bond order :

(i) O2 > O2 > O2+
(ii) O2 < O2 < O2+
(iii) O2 > O2 < O2+
(iv) O2 < O2 > O2+

21. The electronic configuration of the outer most shell of the most electronegative element is

(i) 2s22p5
(ii) 3s23p5
(iii) 4s24p5
(iv) 5s25p5

22. Amongst the following elements whose electronic configurations are given below, the one having the highest ionisation enthalpy is

(i) [Ne]3s23p1
(ii) [Ne]3s23p3
(iii) [Ne]3s23p2
(iv) [Ar]3d104s24p3

II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)

In the following questions two or more options may be correct.

23. Which of the following have identical bond order?

(i) CN
(ii) NO+
(iii) O2
(iv) O22–

24. Which of the following attain the linear structure:

(i) BeCl2
(ii) NCO+
(iii) NO2
(iv) CS2

25. CO is isoelectronic with

(i) NO+
(ii) N2
(iii) SnCl2
(iv) NO2

26. Which of the following species have the same shape?

(i) CO2
(ii) CCl4
(iii) O3
(iv) NO2

27. Which of the following statements are correct about CO32– ?

(i) The hybridisation of central atom is sp3.
(ii) Its resonance structure has one C–O single bond and two C=O double
bonds.
(iii) The average formal charge on each oxygen atom is 0.67 units.
(iv) All C–O bond lengths are equal.

28. Dimagnetic species are those which contain no unpaired electrons. Which
among the following are dimagnetic?

(i) N2
(ii) N22–
(iii) O2
(iv) O22–

29. Species having same bond order are :

(i) N2
(ii) N2
(iii) F2+
(iv) O2

30. Which of the following statements are not correct?

(i) NaCl being an ionic compound is a good conductor of electricity in the solid state.

(ii) In canonical structures there is a difference in the arrangement of atoms.

(iii) Hybrid orbitals form stronger bonds than pure orbitals.

(iv) VSEPR Theory can explain the square planar geometry of XeF4.

III. Short Answer Type

31. Explain the non linear shape of H2S and non planar shape of PCl3 using valence shell electron pair repulsion theory.

32. Using molecular orbital theory, compare the bond energy and magnetic
character of O2+ and O2 species.

33. Explain the shape of BrF5.

34. Structures of molecules of two compounds are given below :

🙂

31t Intramolecular bond

🙂

(a) Which of the two compounds will have intermolecular hydrogen bonding and which compound is expected to show intramolecular hydrogen bonding.

(b) The melting point of a compound depends on, among other things, the extent of hydrogen bonding. On this basis explain which of the above two compounds will show higher melting point.

(c) Solubility of compounds in water depends on power to form hydrogen bonds with water. Which of the above compounds will form hydrogen bond with water easily and be more soluble in it.

35. Why does type of overlap given in the following figure not result in bond formation?

🙂

31u 36 37

🙂

38. Write Lewis structure of the following compounds and show formal charge on each atom.HNO3, NO2, H2SO4

39. The energy of σ2pz molecular orbital is greater than π2px and π2py molecular orbitals in nitrogen molecule. Write the complete sequence of energy levels in the increasing order of energy in the molecule. Compare the relative stability and the magnetic behaviour of the following species :
N2, N2+ , N2 , N22+

40. What is the effect of the following processes on the bond order in N2 and O2?

(i) N2 → N2+ + e– (ii) O2 → O2+ + e–

41. Give reasons for the following :

(i) Covalent bonds are directional bonds while ionic bonds are nondirectional.
(ii) Water molecule has bent structure whereas carbon dioxide molecule is linear.
(iii) Ethyne molecule is linear.

42. What is an ionic bond? With two suitable examples explain the difference between an ionic and a covalent bond?

43. Arrange the following bonds in order of increasing ionic character giving reason. N—H, F—H, C—H and O—H

44. Explain why CO32– ion cannot be represented by a single Lewis structure. How can it be best represented?

45. Predict the hybridisation of each carbon in the molecule of organic compound given below. Also indicate the total number of sigma and pi bonds in this molecule.

🙂

31d molecule

🙂

31c Platypus has no stomach

🙂

46. Group the following as linear and non-linear molecules :
H2O, HOCl, BeCl2, Cl2O

47. Elements X, Y and Z have 4, 5 and 7 valence electrons respectively. (i) Write the molecular formula of the compounds formed by these elements individually with hydrogen. (ii) Which of these compounds will have the highest dipole moment?

48. Draw the resonating structure of

(i) Ozone molecule
(ii) Nitrate ion

49. Predict the shapes of the following molecules on the basis of hybridisation.

BCl3, CH4, CO2, NH3

50. All the C—O bonds in carbonate ion (CO32– ) are equal in length. Explain.

51. What is meant by the term average bond enthalpy? Why is there difference in bond enthalpy of O—H bond in ethanol (C2H5OH) and water?

IV. Matching Type

52. Match the species in Column I with the type of hybrid orbitals in Column II.

Column I Column II
(i) SF4 (a) sp3d2
(ii) IF5 (b) d2sp3
(iii) NO2+ (c) sp3d
(iv) NH4+ (d) sp3
(e) sp

53. Match the species in Column I with the geometry/shape in Column II.

Column I Column II
(i) H3O+ (a) Linear
(ii) HC ≡ CH (b) Angular
(iii) ClO2 (c) Tetrahedral
(iv) NH4+ (d) Trigonal bipyramidal
(e) Pyramidal

54. Match the species in Column I with the bond order in Column II.

Column I Column II
(i) NO (a) 1.5
(ii) CO (b) 2.0
(iii) O2 (c) 2.5
(iv) O2 (d) 3.0

55. Match the items given in Column I with examples given in Column II.

Column I Column II
(i) Hydrogen bond (a) C
(ii) Resonance (b) LiF
(iii) Ionic solid (c) H2
(iv) Covalent solid (d) HF
(e) O3

56. Match the shape of molecules in Column I with the type of hybridisation in Column II.

Column I Column II
(i) Tetrahedral (a) sp2
(ii) Trigonal (b) sp
(iii) Linear (c) sp3

V. Assertion and Reason Type

In the following questions a statement of Assertion (A) followed by a statement ofb Reason (R) is given. Choose the correct option out of the choices given below each question.

57. Assertion (A) : Sodium chloride formed by the action of chlorine gas on sodium metal is a stable compound.
Reason (R) : This is because sodium and chloride ions acquire octet in sodium chloride formation.

(i) A and R both are correct, and R is the correct explanation of A.
(ii) A and R both are correct, but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(iii) A is true but R is false.
(iv) A and R both are false.

58. Assertion (A) : Though the central atom of both NH3 and H2O molecules are sp3 hybridised, yet H–N–H bond angle is greater than that of H–O–H.

Reason (R) : This is because nitrogen atom has one lone pair and oxygen atom has two lone pairs.

(i) A and R both are correct, and R is the correct explanation of A.
(ii) A and R both are correct, but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(iii) A is true but R is false.
(iv) A and R both are false.

59. Assertion (A): Among the two O–H bonds in H2O molecule, the energy required to break the first O–H bond and the other O–H bond is the same.

Reason (R) : This is because the electronic environment around oxygen is the same even after breakage of one O–H bond.

(i) A and R both are correct, and R is correct explanation of A.
(ii) A and R both are correct, but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(iii) A is true but R is false.
(iv) A and R both are false.

VI. Long Answer Type

60. (i) Discuss the significance/ applications of dipole moment.
(ii) Represent diagrammatically the bond moments and the resultant dipole
moment in CO2 , NF3 and CHCl3.

61. Use the molecular orbital energy level diagram to show that N2 would be expected to have a triple bond, F2, a single bond and Ne2, no bond.

62. Briefly describe the valence bond theory of covalent bond formation by taking an example of hydrogen. How can you interpret energy changes taking place in the formation of dihydrogen?

63. Describe hybridisation in the case of PCl5 and SF6. The axial bonds are longer as compared to equatorial bonds in PCl5 whereas in SF6 both axial bonds and equatorial bonds have the same bond length. Explain.

64. (i) Discuss the concept of hybridisation. What are its different types in a carbon atom.
(ii) What is the type of hybridisation of carbon atoms marked with star.

🙂

31c Molecules

31b Green Cow funny

🙂

Comprehension given below is followed by some multiple choice questions. Each question has one correct option. Choose the correct option.

Molecular orbitals are formed by the overlap of atomic orbitals. Two atomic orbitals combine to form two molecular orbitals called bonding molecular orbital (BMO) and anti bonding molecular orbital (ABMO). Energy of anti bonding orbital is raised above the parent atomic orbitals that have combined and the energy of the bonding orbital is lowered than the parent atomic orbitals. Energies of various molecular orbitals for elements hydrogen to nitrogen increase in the order :

1s *1s 2s *2s ( 2px 2py ) 2pz ( *2px * 2py ) *2pz and for oxygen and fluorine order of energy of molecular orbitals is given below :

1s *1s 2s *2s 2pz ( 2px ?? 2py ) ( *2px ???? *2py ) *2pz

Different atomic orbitals of one atom combine with those atomic orbitals of the second atom which have comparable energies and proper orientation. Further, if the overlapping is head on, the molecular orbital is called ‘Sigma’, (σ) and if the overlap is lateral, the molecular orbital is called ‘pi’, (π). The molecular orbitals are filled with electrons according to the same rules as followed for filling of atomic orbitals. However, the order for filling is not the same for all molecules or their ions. Bond order is one of the most important parameters to compare the strength of bonds.

65. Which of the following statements is correct?

(i) In the formation of dioxygen from oxygen atoms 10 molecular orbitals will be formed.
(ii) All the molecular orbitals in the dioxygen will be completely filled.
(iii) Total number of bonding molecular orbitals will not be same as total number of anti bonding orbitals in dioxygen.
(iv) Number of filled bonding orbitals will be same as number of filled anti bonding orbitals.

66. Which of the following molecular orbitals has maximum number of nodal planes?

(i) σ*1s
(ii) σ*2pz
(iii) π2px
(iv) π*2py

67. Which of the following pair is expected to have the same bond order?

(i) O2 , N2
(ii) O2+, N2
(iii) O2 , N2+
(iv) O2, N2

68. In which of the following molecules, σ2pz molecular orbital is filled after π2px and π2py molecular orbitals?

(i) O2
(ii) Ne2
(iii) N2
(iv) F2

ANSWERS

I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)

1. (ii)          2. (iii)          3. (ii)          4. (ii)          5. (ii)          6. (iv)          7. (i)          8. (iii)          9. (iii)          10. (iii)          11. (ii)          12. (iv)          13. (ii)          14. (i)          15. (ii)          16. (iv)          17. (ii)          18. (i)          19. (iv)          20. (ii)          21. (i)          22. (ii)

II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)

23. (i), (ii)          24. (i), (iv)          25. (i), (ii)          26. (iii), (iv)          27. (iii), (iv)          28. (i), (iv)          29. (iii), (iv)          30. (i), (ii)

III. Short Answer Type

32. (i) According to molecular orbital theory electronic configurations of O2+ and O2 species are as follows:

🙂

31b upto 34

🙂

(b) Compound (II) will have higher melting point because it forms intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Thus, more and more molecules are joined together through hydrogen bond formation.

(c) Due to intramolecular hydrogen bonding compound (I) will not be able to form hydrogen bonds with water thus will be less soluble in it while compound (II) can form hydrogen bond with water more easily and will be soluble in water.

37. [Hint : Dimethyl ether will have larger bond angle. There will be more repulsion between bond pairs of CH3 groups attached in ether than between bond pairs of hydrogen atoms attached to oxygen in water. The carbon of CH3 in ether is attached to three hydrogen atoms through σ bonds and electron pairs of these bonds add to the electronic charge density on carbon atom. Hence, repulsion between two —CH3 groups will be more than that between two hydrogen atoms.]

IV. Matching Type

52. (i) → (c) (ii) → (a) (iii) → (e) (iv) → (d)
53. (i) → (e) (ii) → (a) (iii) → (b) (iv) → (c)
54. (i) → (c) (ii) → (d) (iii) → (a) (iv) → (b)
55. (i) → (d) (ii) → (e) (iii) → (b) (iv) → (a)
56. (i) → (c) (ii) → (a) (iii) → (b)

V. Assertion and Reason Type

57. (i)      58. (i)      59. (iv)      65. (i)      66. (ii)       67. (ii)      68. (iii)

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29b green sea nil aakash 28b Back Bonding 28c Back Bonding 28d Back Bonding 28e Back Bonding 29a Jhulonto Rock
!

Haptacity Eta Bonds

🙂

30b Haptacity eta bond

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Ans : – See the videos made by me ( search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.weebly.com
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Ans :- If anyone learns we all will have better people in this world. I will have better “ YOU “.
🙂

6 ) Why do you call yourself a Zookeeper ?

Ans :- This is very nicely explained at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/z00keeper-why-do-i-call-myself-a-zoookeeper/

🙂

7 ) Where do you stay ?

Ans :- Presently I am in Bangalore.

🙂

8 ) If I need videos in a few topics can you make them for me ?

Ans :- We actively answers doubts at doubtpoint.
see http://skmclasses.weebly.com/doubtpoint.html
In case you appreciate our time and efforts involved in answering complicated Questions, then get Quality answers at doubtpoint.

🙂

9 ) Why did you write an article saying there are No Poor students ?

Ans :- There are lots of NGOs and others working for rural / poor children education at lower classes. While very less effort is on for std 9 till 12. Also see the answer in question number ( 3 ) above. In more than 2 decades of teaching I never met a Poor child who was seriously interested in ( higher ) studies. As I have a mind / thinking of a ” Physicist “, I go by ” Experimental Observation “.

It is not about what is being said about poor in media / TV etc, or ” what it should be ” ( ? ) …. It is about what I see happening. Also to add ( confuse ? you more )…. You must be knowing that in several states over many years now girl students have better ( by marks as well as by pass percentage ) result in std 10 / Board Exams….. well but NEVER a girl student came FIRST in IIT JEE … why ? [ The best rank by a Girl student is mostly in 2 digits, very rarely in single digit ] ????? So ????

🙂

10 ) How much do I have to study to make it to IIT ?

Ans :- My experience of Teaching for IIT JEE since 1989, tells me, Total 200 hours per subject ( PCM ) is sufficient. If you see my Maths and Physics videos, each subject is more than 200 hours. So if someone sees all the videos diligently, takes notes and remembers, …… Done.

🙂

11 ) What is EAMCET ?

Ans :- Engineering Agriculture and Medicine Common Entrance Test is conducted by JNT University Hyderabad on behalf of APSCHE. This examination is the gateway for entry into various professional courses offered in Government/Private Colleges in Andhra Pradesh.

12 ) In your videos are you covering other Exams apart from IIT ?

Ans : – Yes. See many videos made by solving problems of MPPET, Rajasthan / J&K CET, UPSEAT ( UPES Engineering Aptitude Test ), MHCET, BCECE ( Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination Board ), WB JEE etc

🙂

13 ) What is SCRA ?

Ans : – Special Class Railway Apprentice (SCRA) exam is conducted by Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) board, for about 10 seats.That translates into an astonishing ratio of 1 selection per 10,000 applicants. The SCRA scheme was started in 1927 by the British, to select a handful of most intelligent Indians to assist them in their Railway Operations, after training at their Railway’s largest workshop, i.e. Jamalpur Workshop, and for one year in United Kingdom. The selected candidates were required to appear in the Mechanical Engineering Degree Examination held by Engineering Council (London).

Thanks for your time. To become my friend in google+ ( search me as mokshya@gmail.com and send friend request )

Read http://edge.org/responses/what-scientific-concept-would-improve-everybodys-cognitive-toolkit
🙂
The following video is a must see for full CO2 cycle, plates of Earth, Geological activities, stability of weather
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oIuoNtRBG4w

🙂
Article in Nature says CO2 increase is good for the trees
http://thegwpf.org/science-news/6086-co2-is-greening-the-planet-savannahs-soon-to-be-covered-by-forests.html
🙂
http://climaterealists.com/index.php?id=9752

BBC documentary Crescent and Cross shows the 1000 years of fight between Christians and Muslims. Millions have been killed in the name of Religion. To decided whose GOD is better, and which GOD to follow. The fight continues.

Summary of Women
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yIpmML49hMU
🙂
The Virus of Faith
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scarHc8RA0g

🙂
The God delusion
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LVr9bJ8Sctk

🙂
cassiopeia facts about evolution
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K7tQIB4UdiY

Intermediate Fossil records shown and explained nicely Fossils, Genes, and Embryos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fdpMrE7BdHQ

The Rise Of Narcissism In Women
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wZHKCbHGlS0

🙂
13 type of women whom you should never court
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/relationships/man-woman/13-Women-you-should-never-court/articleshow/14637014.cms

🙂
Media teaching Misandry in India http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-M2txSbOPIo

Summary of problems with women
http://problemwithwomentoday.blogspot.in/2009/12/problem-with-women-today-what-in-hell.html

🙂
Eyeopener men ? women only exists
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ZAuqkqxk9A

🙂

Most unfortunate for men
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=73fGqUwmOPg

🙂
Each of you is an Activist in some way or other. You are trying to propagate those thoughts, ideas that you feel concerned / excited about.

Did you analyze your effectiveness ?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=61qn7S9NCOs
Culturomics can help you

😀

see how biased women are. Experimental proof. Women are happy when they see another woman is beating a man ( see how women misbehave with men )

🙂
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LlFAd4YdQks

see detailed statistics at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5lHmCN3MBMI

An eye opener in Misandry
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YiTaDS_X6CU

My sincere advice would be to be EXTREMELY careful ( and preferably away ) of girls. As girls age; statistically certain behavior in them has been observed. Most Male can NOT manage those behaviors… Domestic violence, divorce etc are rising very fast. Almost in all cases boys / males are HUGE loosers. Be extremely choosy ( and think from several angles ) before even talking to a girl.
🙂
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/save-the-male/

🙂

How women manipulate men
http://www.angryharry.com/esWomenManipulateMen.htm

Gender Biased Laws in India
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/biased-laws/

🙂

Only men are victimised
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4JA4EPRbWhQ

Men are BETTER than women
http://www.menarebetterthanwomen.com/
🙂

see http://www.youtube.com/watch?&v=T0xoKiH8JJM#!
🙂

Male Psychology http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uwxgavf2xWE

Women are more violent than men
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/women-are-more-violent-says-study-622388.html

🙂

In the year 2010, 168 men ended their lives everyday ( on average ). More husbands committed suicide than wives.
🙂

http://www.rediff.com/news/report/ncrb-stats-show-more-married-men-committing-suicide/20111028.htm

It is EXTREMELY unfortunate that media projects men as fools, women as superiors, Husbands as servants, and replaceable morons. In ad after ad worldwide from so many companies, similar msg to disintegrate the world is being bombarded. It is highly unacceptable misandry

🙂
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oq14WHkFq30

It is NOT at all funny that media shows violence against MEN. Some advertisers are trying to create a new ” Socially acceptable culture ” of slapping Men ( by modern city women ). We ( all men ) take objection to these advertisements.
We oppose this Misandry bad culture. Please share to increase awareness against Men bashing

🙂
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D8ecN2rh0uU

Think what are you doing … why are you doing ?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qp0HIF3SfI4

Every Man must know this …
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cIFmQHJEG1M

🙂
Manginas, White Knights, & Other Chivalrous Dogs
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oXQDtBT70B8

!
!
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key words

_________________________________________________________________________
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receptors reduction regioselectivity retro reaction rhodium ring closure ring contraction ring expansion ring opening ruthenium samarium scandium Schiff bases selenium self-assembly silicon sodium solid-phase synthesis solvent effects spectroscopy sphingolipids spiro compounds stereoselective synthesis stereoselectivity steric hindrance steroids Stille reaction substituent effects sulfates sulfonamides sulfones sulfoxides sulfur supported catalysis supramolecular tandem reaction tautomerism terpenoids thioacetals thiols tin titanium total synthesis transesterification transition metals transition states tungsten Umpolung vinylidene complexes vitamins Wacker reaction Wittig reaction ylides zeolites zinc BRST Quantization Effective field theories Field Theories Higher Dimensions Field Theories Lower Dimensions Large Extra Dimensions Lattice Quantum Field Theory Nonperturbative Effects Renormalization Group Renormalization Regularization skmclasses.weebly.com Renormalons Sigma Models 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SKMClasses.weebly.com remove IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron Chemistry energy second ionisation energy energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one electron IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole gaseous 2+ ions isotopes Atoms skmclasses.weebly.com element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different numbers neutrons different masses le Chatelier’s principle system dynamic equilibrium subjected change position equilibrium will shift minimise change limiting reagent substance chemical reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com runs out first lone pair outer shell pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com involved chemical bonding mass nucleon number particles protons aneutrons) nucleus mechanism sequence steps showing path taken electrons reaction metallic bond electrostatic attraction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com positive metal ions adelocalised electrons molar mass substance units molar mass IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molar volume IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com mole gas. units molar volume IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com dm room temperature skmclasses.weebly.com pressure molar volume approximately 24.0 substance containing IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com many particles thereIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atoms exactly 12 g carbon isotope molecular formula number atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element molecule molecular ion M positive ion formed mass spectrometry IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecule loses electron molecule small group atoms held together covalent bonds monomer small molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com combines IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com monomers polymer nomenclature system naming compounds nucleophile atom group atoms attracted electron deficient centre atom donates pair electrons covalent bond nucleophilic substitution type substitution reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com nucleophile attracted electron deficient centre atom, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com donates pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com new covalent bond oxidation Loss electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com increase oxidation number oxidation number measure number electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom uses bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atoms another element. Oxidation numbers IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com derive d rules oxidising agent reagent IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oxidises (takes electrons from) another species percentage yield period horizontal row elements Periodic Table Elements show trends properties across period periodicity regular periodic variation properties elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atomic number position Periodic Table permanent dipole small charge difference across bond resulting IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com difference electronegativities bonded atoms permanent dipole dipole force attractive force IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com permanent dipoles neighbouring polar molecules pi bond (p bond reactive part double bond formed above skmclasses.weebly.com below plane bonded atoms sideways overlap p orbitalspolar covalent bond bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com permanent dipole polar molecule molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com overall dipole skmclasses account dipoles across bonds polymer long molecular chain built monomer units precipitation reaction formation solid solution during chemical reaction Precipitates IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two aqueous solutions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com mixed together principal quantum number n number representing relative overall energy orbital IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com increases distance nucleus sets orbitals IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com value IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com electron shells energy levels propagation two repeated radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com build up products chain reaction radical species unpaired electron rate reaction change concentration reactant product redox reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reduction skmclasses.weebly.com oxidation take IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reducing agent reagent IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reduces (adds electron to) species reduction Gain electrons decrease oxidation number yield actual amount mol product theoretical amount mol product Chemistry reflux continual boiling skmclasses.weebly.com condensing reaction mixture ensure IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com without contents flask boiling dry relative atomic mass weighted mean mass atom element compared one twelfth mass IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom carbon relative formula mass weighted mean mass formula unit compared IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one twelfth mass atom carbon relative isotopic mass mass atom isotope compared IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one twelfth mass atom carbon relative molecular mass weighted mean mass molecule compared twelfth mass atom carbon 12 repeat unit specific arrangement atom s IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com occurs structure over over again. Repeat units IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com included brackets outside IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com symbol n Salt chemical compound formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com acid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com H+ ion acid IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com been replaced metal ion another positive ion such IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com ammonium ion, NH saturated hydrocarbon IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com single bonds only shell group atomic orbitals IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com principal quantum number known main energy level simple molecular lattice three dimensional structure molecules, bonded together weak intermolecular forces skeletal formula simplified organic formula, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hydrogen atoms removed alkyl chains, leaving carbon skeleton skmclasses.weebly.com associated functional groups species particle IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com part chemical reaction specific heat capacity, c energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com raise temperature 1 g substance 1 C spectator ions Ions present part chemical reaction standard conditions pressure 100 kPa 1 atmosphere stated temperature usually 298 K (25 °C), skmclasses.weebly.com concentration 1 mol dm reactions aqueous solutions standard enthalpies enthalpystandard solution solution known concentration Standard solutions normally IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com titrations IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com determine unknown information another substance Chemistry standard state physical state substance under standard conditions 100 kPa 1 atmosphere) skmclasses.weebly.com 298 K 25 C stereoisomers Compounds skmclasses.weebly.com structural formula IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different arrangement atoms space stoichiometry molar relationship IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com relative quantities substances part reaction stratosphere second layer Earth’s atmosphere, containing ‘ozone layer’, about 10 km IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com 50 km above Earth’s surface structural formula formula showing minimal detail skmclasses.weebly.com arrangement atoms molecule structural isomers Molecules IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com molecular formula different structural arrangements atoms subshell group skmclasses.weebly.com type atomic orbitals s, p, d f within shell substitution reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom group atoms replaced different atom group atoms termination step end radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two radicals combine IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecule thermal decomposition breaking chemical substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com heat skmclasses least two chemical substances troposphere lowest layer Earth’s atmosphere extending Earth’s surface about 7 km (above poles) about 20 km above tropics unsaturated hydrocarbon hydrocarbon containing carbon carbon multiple bonds van der Waals’ forces Very weak attractive forces IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com induced dipoles neighbouring molecules volatility ease IITJEE 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actinium (89) skmclasses.weebly.com lawrencium (103 activated complex – structure IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com forms because collisionIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecules new bondsvIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com formed activation energy – minimum energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com must be inputIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com chemical system activity series actual yield addition reaction – within organic chemistry, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecules combineIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com larger aeration mixing air skmclasses liquid solid alkali metals metals Group 1 on periodic table alkaline earth metals – metals Group 2 on periodic table allomer substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comdifferent composition another skmclasses.weebly.comcrystalline structure allotropy elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different structures skmclasses.weebly.com therefore different forms IITJEE 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See IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com benzene atom – chemical element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com smallest form, skmclasses.weebly.com made up neutrons skmclasses.weebly.comprotons within nucleus skmclasses.weebly.comelectrons circling nucleus atomic mass unit atomic number number representing IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com corresponds IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com number protons within nucleus atomic orbital region IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron atom may be found atomic radius average atomic mass Avogadro’s law Avogadro’s number number particles mole substance ( 6.02×10^23 ) barometer deviceIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com measure pressure atmosphere base substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com accepts proton skmclasses.weebly.com high pH; common example sodium hydroxide (NaOH biochemistry chemistry organisms boiling phase transition liquid vaporizing boiling point temperature IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com substance 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33, Sector IV HSR Layout, Bangalore hydrolysis hydrosilylation hydrostannation hyperconjugation imides imines indium indoles induction inhibitors insertion iodine ionic liquids iridium iron isomerization The Brigade International School , Brigade Millenium JP Nagar Brigade Millenium, JP Nagar Bangalore ketones kinetic resolution lactams lactones lanthanides Lewis acids ligands lipids lithiation lithium macrocycles magnesium manganese Mannich bases medicinal chemistry metalation metallacycles metallocenes metathesis Michael addition Mitsunobu reaction molecular recognition molybdenum multicomponent reaction nanostructures natural products neighboring-group effects nickel nitriles nitrogen nucleobases nucleophiles nucleophilic addition nucleophilic National Centre For Excellence 154/1, “Victorian Enclave”, 5th Main, Malleshpalya, Bangalore aromatic substitution nucleosides nucleotides olefination oligomerization oligonucleotides oligosaccharides organometallic reagents osmium oxidation oxygen oxygenations ozonolysis palladacycles palladium peptides pericyclic reaction peroxides phase-transfer catalysis phenols pheromones phosphates phosphorus phosphorylation Adugodi Aga Abbas Ali Road Agaram Agrahara Dasara Halli Agrahara Dasarahalli Airport Exit Road Airport Main Road Airport Road Akkipet Ali Askar Road Alur Venkatarao Road Amarjyothi Layout Amruth Nagar Amrutha Halli Ananda Nagar Anandrao Circle Anche Palya Ane Palya Anekal Anjana Nagar Anubhava Nagar APMC Yard Arabic College Arakere Arcot Sreenivasachar Street Ashok Nagar Ashwath Nagar Attibele Attiguppe Austin Town Avala Halli Avenue Road B. Narayanapura Babusahib Palya Bagalagunte Bagalur Balaji Nagar Balepet Banashankari Banashankari 1st Stage Banashankari 2nd Stage Banashankari 3rd Stage Banaswadi Banaswadi Ring Road Bangalore G.P.O Bannerghatta Bannerghatta Road Bapuji Nagar Basappa Circle Basava Nagar Basavanagudi Basaveshwara Nagar Basaveshwara Nagar 2nd Stage Basaveshwara Nagar 3rd Block Basaveshwara Nagar 3rd Stage Basaveshwara Road Bazaar Street Begur BEL Road Bellandur Bellandur Outer Ring Road Bellary Road BEML Layout Benagana Halli Bendre Nagar Benson Town Bharati Nagar Bhattara Halli Bhoopasandra Bhuvaneshwari Nagar Bidadi Bileka Halli Bilekahalli Binny Mill Road Bismillah Nagar Bommana Halli Bommanahalli Kendriya Vidyalaya Malleswaram 18th Cross Malleswaram Bangalore Bommasandra Bommasandra Industrial Area Brigade Road Brindavan Nagar Brookefield Brunton Road BTM 1st Stage BTM 2nd Stage Bull Temple Road Palace Orchards/Sadashivnagar area located north city centre IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com property prices higher brackets possibly IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com up-market residential area in Bangalore M.G. 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