NCERT CBSE Standard 12 Biomolecules Chapter 14 Organic Chemistry

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Chapter 14 :

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Pyran and Furan

1 Pyran and Furan

Alpha and Beta Glucopyranose

2 glucopyranose

3 Alpha Beta glucopyranose

4 Alpha Beta glucopyranose

5 D Glucose pyranose Furanose form

Fructofuranose

7 fructofuranose

– – – – – –

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6 Isomeric forms of Fructose

Biomolecules are related to living organisms in the sequence -> Living Organisms -> organs -> Tissues -> cells -> organelles -> Biomolecules

1 our body is made of 70 percent water

Small Biomolecules are in range of 100 to 1000 amu; with around 30 carbons max. These molecules move freely in the solution of Cytoplast of a cell.

2 Structural components of a cell

Macrobiomolecules are carbohydrates, Proteins, lipids, nucleic acids etc.

3 what are carbohydrates

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Hydrocarbons

1a Hydrocarbons

14.1 What are monosaccharides?

14.1 Ans Biomolecules CBSE Chemistry

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1b Monosaccharides

1c Monosaccharides examples

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Disaccharides

1d Disaccharides

1e Maltose

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1 sucrose = Glucose + Fructose

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Classification of Carbohydrates

4 classification of carbohydrates

5 Oligosaccharides, Polysaccharides

6 saccharin is 500 times sweeter than sugar

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14.2 What are reducing sugars?

14.2 Ans Biomolecules CBSE Chemistry

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Untitled

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Sucrose has α 1-2 Glycosidic bond

2 Sucrose has Alpha glycosidic bonds

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Amino Acids

1a Amino Acids with nonpolar R Group

1b Amino Acids with nonpolar R Group

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Monosaccharides

1 monosaccharides

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Monosaccarides give disaccarides

3 Monosaccarides give disaccarides

β Glycosidic linkages in Cellulose

4 Beta Glycosidic linkages in cellulose

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Amino Acids with Polar R Groups

1d name abbreviation structure Isoelectric point

1c Amino Acids with polar R Group

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1 Periodic trend in Electrode potential-4

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2 D L convention of monosaccharide naming

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Amino Acids with Charged R Groups

1d name abbreviation structure Isoelectric point

1e Amino Acids with charged R Group

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Fischer Projection Formula

1d Fischer Projection Formula

1e Fischer Projection Formula

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Except Glycine all other Amino acids have Chiral carbon.

Proteins almost exclusively contain Levo Isomers

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Formation of Maltose

2 Glucose monosaccarides give maltose + water after condensation

Formation of Maltose in colorful way

11 Sucrose to Maltose

see another difference

1 Lactose and sucrose

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1 Hormones

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3 Preparations of Glucose

4 Simple reactions of Glucose

5 Simple reactions of Glucose

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Maltose has α Glycosidic bonds and Lactose has β Glycosidic bonds

3 Maltose has Alpha and Lactose has beta glycosidic bond

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Peptide Linkage

1f Peptide Linkage

1g Geometry of Peptide Linkage

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Amylopectins have α Glycosidic linkages

4 Amylopectins have alpha glycosidic linkages

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Gyan

1 monosaccharides oligosacharides 1

2 trisaccharides polysacccharides

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6 Sobuj Mach aage dekhechi

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Sucrose has Alpha beta Glycosidic linkages

5 sucrose has alpha beta glycosidic linkages

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Stereoisomers

1f Stereoisomers

1g Cyclic Structures

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Carbohydrates means ” Hydrates of Carbon “. These are polyhydroxylated Aldehydes and Ketones.

1h Carbohydrates are Classified as

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6 reducing and nonreducing ends

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5 Reaction with Hydroxylamine

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6 Bagane crocodile

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Howorth Projection

1h Haworth Projection

Examples

1i Haworth Projection examples

Chair Conformational Formula

1j Chair conformational Formula

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1 Formation of Cynohydrin

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6 Foetus sculpture

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7 Glycosidic bond formation

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2 Reaction with NaOH

3 D-Glucose and L-Glucose

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6 ki rokom gotto sphere

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Mutarotation

1k Mutarotation

1l Mutarotation

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Cyclic Structure of Glucose

4 Cyclic structure of Glucose

5 Mutarotation of Alpha-D-Glucose

6 Alpha-D-Fructose

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Glycogen

8 Glycogen

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6 Koutor mundu chuyeche

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Reducing and Nonreducing sugars

1m Reducing and nonreducing Sugars

1n Reducing and nonreducing Sugars

1o Reducing and nonreducing Sugars

1p Reducing and nonreducing Sugars

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1 Disaccharides

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6 Lal neel pipe er diye

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Lactose has β Glycosidic bonds

9 Lactose has Beta Glycosidic bonds

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Degradation of HIO4

1a Degradation with HIO4

Reaction with Phenylhydrazine

1b Reaction with Phenylhydrazine

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Why is ATP Energy rich molecule ?

2 ATP is energy rich molecule

3 ATP is energy rich molecule

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Oxidation Reaction of Sugars

1c Oxidation reaction of Sugars

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Adenosine

10 Adenosine

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6 Man carrying woman

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Photosynthesis

4 Photosynthesis

5 Photosynthesis

6 Photosynthesis

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Starch and Cellulose

2 Starch and cellulose

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6 Manus Naki

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1 Metabolism

2 Carbohydrate Metabolism

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3 Methyl alpha D glucoside

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6 Mesh er mundu

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First and Second Stage of Glucose Metabolism

3 Oxidation of Glucose

4 First stage of Oxidation of glucose

7 Pyruvic Acid structure

5 Pyruvic acid

6 Pyruvic acid

8 second stage of Glucose metabolism

So now you know what is Kreb’s Cycle

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6 Mundu chada dance

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Gyan Question

1a Glucose and fructose separately treated with

Ans :  ( a )

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Gyan Question

2 Metabolic conversion of 1 molecule of palmitic acid

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Gyan Question

1b Acetylation of aldohexose with excess

Ans : ( c )

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1 Energy Relationship in Carbohydrate Metabolism

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Gyan Question

1c Furanose and Pyranose respectively contain

Ans :  (  a  )

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14.3 Write two main functions of carbohydrates in plants.

14.3 Ans Biomolecules CBSE Chemistry

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3 Some Typical types of Hormones

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Gyan Question

1d specific rotation of Alpha glucose

Ans :  ( c )

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14.4 Classify the following into monosaccharides and disaccharides.
Ribose, 2-deoxyribose, maltose, galactose, fructose and lactose.

14.4 Ans Biomolecules CBSE Chemistry

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Gyan Question

1e specific rotation of alpha maltose

Ans :  ( b )

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4 viral Bacterial Veneral Protozoal diseases

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Gyan Question

3 sucrose is non-reducing sugar 1

3 sucrose is non-reducing sugar 2

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14.5 What do you understand by the term glycosidic linkage?

14.5 Ans Biomolecules CBSE Chemistry

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Gyan Question

1f Treatment of Glucitol

Ans : ( b )

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Gyan

4 Inversion of Sugar 1

4 Inversion of Sugar 2

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14.6 What is glycogen? How is it different from starch?

14.6 Ans Biomolecules CBSE Chemistry

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Gyan Question

1g treatment of glucaric acid

Ans :   ( c )

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Gyan Question

5 Amino acids possess zwitter ion 1

5 Amino acids possess zwitter ion 2

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14.7 What are the hydrolysis products of
(i) sucrose and (ii) lactose?

14.7-1 Ans Biomolecules CBSE Chemistry

14.7-2 Ans Biomolecules CBSE Chemistry

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Gyan Question

1h Treatment of glucaricacid consumes

Ans : ( b )

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14.8 What is the basic structural difference between starch and cellulose?

14.8-1 Ans Biomolecules CBSE Chemistry

14.8-2 Ans Biomolecules CBSE Chemistry

14.8-3 Ans Biomolecules CBSE Chemistry

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Gyan Question

1i Cellobiose is a

Ans : ( b )

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14.9 What happens when D-glucose is treated with the following reagents?
(i) HI (ii) Bromine water (iii) HNO3

14.9-1 Ans Biomolecules CBSE

14.9-2 Ans Biomolecules CBSE

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Gyan Question

1j Cellobiose is a disaccharide

Ans : ( b )

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14.10 Enumerate the reactions of D-glucose which cannot be explained by its
open chain structure.

14.10 Ans Biomolecules CBSE

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Gyan Question

1k Maltose is a

Ans :  ( a )

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14.11 What are essential and non-essential amino acids? Give two examples of
each type.

14.11 Ans Biomolecules CBSE

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Gyan Question

1l Sucrose is a

Ans : ( d )

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14.12 Define the following as related to proteins
(i) Peptide linkage (ii) Primary structure (iii) Denaturation.

14.12-1 Ans Biomolecules CBSE

14.12-2 Ans Biomolecules CBSE

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Gyan Question

1m Invert Sugar is

Ans : ( c )

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Gyan Question

1d formation of osazone of an aldose

Ans :  ( c )

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Gyan Question

1n Sucrose is a

Ans : ( b )

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14.13 What are the common types of secondary structure of proteins?

14.13-1 Ans Biomolecules CBSE

14.13-2 Ans Biomolecules CBSE

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Gyan Question

1o An organic compound containing two or more

Ans :

1p An organic compound containing two or more

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14.14 What type of bonding helps in stabilising the Alpha-helix structure of proteins?

14.14 Ans Biomolecules CBSE

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Gyan Question

1a Match the statements

Ans :

1b Match the statements solution

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14.15 Differentiate between globular and fibrous proteins.

14.15 Ans Biomolecules CBSE

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Gyan Question

1c Match the enzymes given

Ans :

1d Match the enzymes given

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14.16 How do you explain the amphoteric behaviour of amino acids?

14.16 Ans Biomolecules CBSE

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14.17 What are enzymes?

14.17 Ans Biomolecules CBSE

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14.18 What is the effect of denaturation on the structure of proteins?

14.18 Ans Biomolecules CBSE

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14.19 How are vitamins classified? Name the vitamin responsible for the
coagulation of blood.

14.19 Ans Biomolecules CBSE

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14.20 Why are vitamin A and vitamin C essential to us? Give their important sources.

14.20 Ans Biomolecules CBSE

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14.21 What are nucleic acids? Mention their two important functions.

14.21 Ans Biomolecules CBSE

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14.22 What is the difference between a nucleoside and a nucleotide?

14.22-1 Ans Biomolecules CBSE 14.22-2 Ans Biomolecules CBSE
14.23 The two strands in DNA are not identical but are complementary. Explain.

14.23 Ans Biomolecules CBSE

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Monosaccharides

1a Monosaccharides

Examples

1b Aldotriose, Aldotetrose, Ketotriose, Ketopentose

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Gyan Question

1c Glucose can be converted into Glutaric acid

Ans :  ( d )

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14.24 Write the important structural and functional differences between DNA
and RNA.

14.24 Ans Biomolecules CBSE

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Gyan Question

1b Aldoses can be converted into aldonic acids

Ans :  ( c )

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14.25 What are the different types of RNA found in the cell?

14.25 Ans Biomolecules CBSE

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Gyan Question :

1a Bromine water oxidizes

Ans :  (  b )

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“It is the harmonious and synchronous progress of chemical reactions in body which leads to life”.

A living system grows, sustains and reproduces itself. The most amazing thing about a living system is that it is composed of non-living atoms and molecules. The pursuit of knowledge of what goes on chemically within a living system falls in the domain of biochemistry. Living systems are made up of various complex biomolecules like carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, etc. Proteins and carbohydrates are essential constituents of our food. These biomolecules interact with each other and constitute the molecular logic of life processes. In addition, some simple molecules like vitamins and mineral salts also play an important role in the functions of organisms. Structures and functions of some of these biomolecules are discussed in this Unit.

14.1 Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are primarily produced by plants and form a very large group of naturally occurring organic compounds. Some common examples are cane sugar, glucose, starch, etc. Most of them have a general formula, Cx(H2O)y, and were considered as hydrates of carbon from where the name carbohydrate was derived. For example, the molecular formula of glucose (C6H12O6) fits into this general formula, C6(H2O)6. But all the compounds which fit into this formula may not be classified as carbohydrates. Acetic acid (CH3COOH) fits into this general formula, C2(H2O)2 but is not a carbohydrate. Similarly, rhamnose, C6H12O5 is a carbohydrate but does not fit in this definition. A large number of their reactions have shown that they contain specific functional groups. Chemically, the carbohydrates may be defined as optically active polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones or the compounds which produce such units on hydrolysis. Some of the carbohydrates,

14.1.1 Classification of Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are classified on the basis of their behaviour on hydrolysis. They have been broadly divided into following three groups.
(i) Monosaccharides: A carbohydrate that cannot be hydrolysed further to give simpler unit of polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone is called a monosaccharide. About 20 monosaccharides are known to occur in nature. Some common examples are glucose, fructose, ribose, etc.
(ii) Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates that yield two to ten monosaccharide units, on hydrolysis, are called oligosaccharides. They are further classified as disaccharides, trisaccharides, tetrasaccharides, etc., depending upon the number of monosaccharides, they provide on hydrolysis. Amongst these the most common are disaccharides. The two monosaccharide units obtained on hydrolysis of a disaccharide may be same or different. For example, sucrose on hydrolysis gives one molecule each of glucose and fructose whereas maltose gives two molecules of glucose only.
(iii) Polysaccharides: Carbohydrates which yield a large number of monosaccharide units on hydrolysis are called polysaccharides. Some common examples are starch, cellulose, glycogen, gums, etc. Polysaccharides are not sweet in taste, hence they are also called non-sugars.
The carbohydrates may also be classified as either reducing or non- reducing sugars. All those carbohydrates which reduce Fehling’s solution and Tollen’s reagent are referred to as reducing sugars. All monosaccharides whether aldose or ketose are reducing sugars.
In disaccharides, if the reducing groups of monosaccharides i.e.,aldehydic or ketonic groups are bonded, these are non-reducing sugarse.g. sucrose. On the other hand, sugars in which these functional groups are free, are called reducing sugars, for example, maltose and lactose.

14.1.2 Monosaccharides

Monosaccharides are further classified on the basis of number of carbon atoms and the functional group present in them. If a monosaccharide contains an aldehyde group, it is known as an aldose and if it contains a keto group, it is known as a ketose. Number of carbon atoms constituting the monosaccharide is also introduced in the name as is evident from the examples given in Table 14.1

Table 13.2: Comparison of Boiling Points of Amines, Alcohols and Alkanes of Similar Molecular Masses
Carbon atom General term Aldehyde Ketone
3 Triose Aldotriose Ketotriose
4 Tetrose Aldotetrose Ketotetrose
5 Pentose Aldopentose Ketopentose
6 Hexose Aldohexose Ketohexose
7 Heptose Aldoheptose Ketoheptose

I. Glucose
Glucose occurs freely in nature as well as in the combined form. It is present in sweet fruits and honey. Ripe grapes also contain glucose in large amounts. It is prepared as follows:

14.1.3 Preparation of Glucose

1. From sucrose (Cane sugar): If sucrose is boiled with dilute HCl or H2SO4 in alcoholic solution, glucose and fructose are obtained in equal amounts.

2. From starch: Commercially glucose is obtained by hydrolysis of starch by boiling it with dilute H2SO4 at 393 K under pressure.

14.1.4 Structure of Glucose

Glucose is an aldohexose and is also known as dextrose. It is the monomer of many of the larger carbohydrates, namely starch, cellulose. It is probably the most abundant organic compound on earth. It was assigned the structure given below on the basis of the following evidences:
1. Its molecular formula was found to be C6H12O6.
2. On prolonged heating with HI, it forms n-hexane, suggesting that all the six carbon atoms are linked in a straight chain.

3. Glucose reacts with hydroxylamine to form an oxime and adds a molecule of hydrogen cyanide to give cyanohydrin. These reactions confirm the presence of a carbonyl group (>C = 0) in glucose.

4. Glucose gets oxidised to six carbon carboxylic acid (gluconic acid) on reaction with a mild oxidising agent like bromine water. This indicates that the carbonyl group is present as an aldehydic group.

5. Acetylation of glucose with acetic anhydride gives glucose pentaacetate which confirms the presence of five –OH groups. Since it exists as a stable compound, five –OH groups should be attached to different carbon atoms.

6. On oxidation with nitric acid, glucose as well as gluconic acid both yield a dicarboxylic acid, saccharic acid. This indicates the presence of a primary alcoholic (–OH) group in glucose.

The exact spatial arrangement of different —OH groups was given by Fischer after studying many other properties. Its configuration is correctly represented as I. So gluconic acid is represented as II and saccharic acid as III.

Glucose is correctly named as D(+)-glucose. ‘D’ before the name of glucose represents the configuration whereas ‘(+)’ represents dextrorotatory nature of the molecule. It may be remembered that ‘D’ and ‘L’ have no relation with the optical activity of the compound. The meaning of D– and L– notations is given as follows.
The letters ‘D’ or ‘L’ before the name of any compound indicate the relative configuration of a particular stereoisomer. This refers to their relation with a particular isomer of glyceraldehyde. Glyceraldehyde contains one asymmetric carbon atom and exists in two enantiomeric forms as shown below.

All those compounds which can be chemically correlated to (+) isomer of glyceraldehyde are said to have D-configuration whereas those which can be correlated to (–) isomer of glyceraldehyde are said to have L—configuration. For assigning the configuration of monosaccharides, it is the lowest asymmetric carbon atom (as shown below) which is compared. As in (+) glucose, —OH on the lowest asymmetric carbon is on the right side which is comparable to (+) glyceraldehyde, so it is assigned D-configuration. For this comparison, the structure is written in a way that most oxidised carbon is at the top.

14.1.5 Cyclic Structure of Glucose

The structure (I) of glucose explained most of its properties but the following reactions and facts could not be explained by this structure.
1. Despite having the aldehyde group, glucose does not give 2,4-DNP test, Schiff’s test and it does not form the hydrogensulphite addition product with NaHSO3.
2. The pentaacetate of glucose does not react with hydroxylamine indicating the absence of free —CHO group.
3. Glucose is found to exist in two different crystalline forms which are named as α and β. The α-form of glucose (m.p. 419 K) is obtained by crystallisation from concentrated solution of glucose at 303 K while the β-form (m.p. 423 K) is obtained by crystallisation from hot and saturated aqueous solution at 371 K.

This behaviour could not be explained by the open chain structure (I) for glucose. It was proposed that one of the —OH groups may add to the —CHO group and form a cyclic hemiacetal structure. It was found that glucose forms a six-membered ring in which —OH at C-5 is involved in ring formation. This explains the absence of —CHO group and also existence of glucose in two forms as shown below. These two cyclic forms exist in equilibrium with open chain structure.

The two cyclic hemiacetal forms of glucose differ only in the configuration of the hydroxyl group at C1, called anomeric carbon (the aldehyde carbon before cyclisation). Such isomers, i.e., α-form and β-form, are called anomers. The six membered cyclic structure of glucose is called pyranose structure (α– or β–), in analogy with pyran. Pyran is a cyclic organic compound with one oxygen atom and five carbon atoms in the ring. The cyclic structure of glucose is more correctly represented by Haworth structure as given below.

II. Fructose
Fructose is an important ketohexose. It is obtained along with glucose by the hydrolysis of disaccharide, sucrose.

14.1.6 Structure of Fructose

Fructose also has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and on the basis of its reactions it was found to contain a ketonic functional group at carbon number 2 and six carbons in straight chain as in the case of glucose. It belongs to D-series and is a laevorotatory compound. It is appropriately written as D-(–)-fructose. Its open chain structure is as shown.

It also exists in two cyclic forms which are obtained by the addition of ) group. The ring, thus formed is a five membered —OH at C5 to the (ring and is named as furanose with analogy to the compound furan. Furan is a five membered cyclic compound with one oxygen and four carbon atoms.

The cyclic structures of two anomers of fructose are represented by Haworth structures as given.

14.1.7 Disaccharides

You have already read that disaccharides on hydrolysis with dilute acids or enzymes yield two molecules of either the same or different monosaccharides. The two monosaccharides are joined together by an oxide linkage formed by the loss of a water molecule. Such a linkage between two monosaccharide units through oxygen atom is called glycosidic linkage.
(i) Sucrose: One of the common disaccharides is sucrose which on hydrolysis gives equimolar mixture of D-(+)-glucose and D-(-) fructose. These two monosaccharides are held together by a glycosidic linkage between C1 of α-glucose and C2 of β-fructose. Since the reducing groups of glucose and fructose are involved in glycosidic bond formation, sucrose is a non reducing sugar.

These two monosaccharides are held together by a glycosidic linkage between C1 of α-glucose and C2 of β-fructose. Since the reducing groups of glucose and fructose are involved in glycosidic bond formation, sucrose is a non reducing sugar.

Sucrose is dextrorotatory but after hydrolysis gives dextrorotatory glucose and laevorotatory fructose. Since the laevorotation of fructose (–92.4°) is more than dextrorotation of glucose (+ 52.5°), the mixture is laevorotatory. Thus, hydrolysis of sucrose brings about a change in the sign of rotation, from dextro (+) to laevo (–) and the product is named as invert sugar.

(ii) Maltose: Another disaccharide, maltose is composed of two α-D-glucose units in which C1 of one glucose (I) is linked to C4 of another glucose unit (II). The free aldehyde group can be produced at C1 of second glucose in solution and it shows reducing properties so it is a reducing sugar.

(iii) Lactose: It is more commonly known as milk sugar since this disaccharide is found in milk. It is composed of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose. The linkage is between C1 of galactose and C4 of glucose. Hence it is also a reducing sugar.

14.1.8 Polysaccharides

Polysaccharides contain a large number of monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic linkages. These are the most commonly encountered carbohydrates in nature. They mainly act as the food storage or structural materials.
(i) Starch: Starch is the main storage polysaccharide of plants. It is the most important dietary source for human beings. High content of starch is found in cereals, roots, tubers and some vegetables. It is a polymer of α-glucose and consists of two components— Amylose and Amylopectin. Amylose is water soluble component which constitutes about 15-20% of starch. Chemically amylose is a long unbranched chain with 200-1000 α-D-(+)-glucose units held by C1– C4 glycosidic linkage.

Amylopectin is insoluble in water and constitutes about 80- 85% of starch. It is a branched chain polymer of α-D-glucose units in which chain is formed by C1–C4 glycosidic linkage whereas branching occurs by C1–C6 glycosidic linkage.

(ii) Cellulose: Cellulose occurs exclusively in plants and it is the most abundant organic substance in plant kingdom. It is a predominant constituent of cell wall of plant cells. Cellulose is a straight chainpolysaccharide composed only of β-D-glucose units which are joined by glycosidic linkage between C1 of one glucose unit and C4 of the next glucose unit.

(iii) Glycogen: The carbohydrates are stored in animal body as glycogen. It is also known as animal starch because its structure is similar to amylopectin and is rather more highly branched. It is present in liver, muscles and brain. When the body needs glucose, enzymes break the glycogen down to glucose. Glycogen is also found in yeast and fungi.

14.1.9 Importance of Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are essential for life in both plants and animals. They form a major portion of our food. Honey has been used for a long time as an instant source of energy by ‘Vaids’ in ayurvedic system of medicine. Carbohydrates are used as storage molecules as starch in plants and glycogen in animals. Cell wall of bacteria and plants is made up of cellulose. We build furniture, etc. from cellulose in the form of wood and clothe ourselves with cellulose in the form of cotton fibre. They provide raw materials for many important industries like textiles, paper, lacquers and breweries.
Two aldopentoses viz. D-ribose and 2-deoxy-D-ribose (Section 14.5.1, Class XII) are present in nucleic acids. Carbohydrates are found in biosystem in combination with many proteins and lipids.

Intext Question
14.1 Glucose or sucrose are soluble in water but cyclohexane or benzene (simple six membered ring compounds) are insoluble in water. Explain.
14.2 What are the expected products of hydrolysis of lactose?
14.3 How do you explain the absence of aldehyde group in the pentaacetate of D-glucose?

14.2 proteins

Proteins are the most abundant biomolecules of the living system. Chief sources of proteins are milk, cheese, pulses, peanuts, fish, meat, etc. They occur in every part of the body and form the fundamental basis of structure and functions of life. They are also required for growth and maintenance of body. The word protein is derived from Greek word, “proteios” which means primary or of prime importance. All proteins are polymers of α-amino acids.

14.2.1 Amino Acids

Amino acids contain amino (–NH2) and carboxyl (–COOH) functional groups. Depending upon the relative position of amino group with respect to carboxyl group, the amino acids can beclassified as α, β, γ, δ and so on. Only α-amino acids are obtained on hydrolysis of proteins. They may contain other functional groups also.
All α-amino acids have trivial names, which (R = side chain) usually reflect the property of that compound or its source. Glycine is so named since it has sweet taste (in Greek glykos means sweet) and tyrosine was first obtained from cheese (in Greek, tyros means cheese.) Amino acids are generally represented by a three letter symbol, sometimes one letter symbol is also used. Structures of some commonly occurring amino acids along with their 3-letter and 1-letter symbols are given in Table 14.2.

*essential amino acid, a = entire structure

Table 14.2: Natural Amino Acids fig
Name of the amino acids Characteristics feature of side chain, R Three letter symbol One letter code
1. Glycine H Gly G
2. Alanine -CH3 Ala A
3. Valine* (H3C)2CH- Val V
4. Leucine* (H3C)2CH-CH2 Leu L
5. Isoleucine* Ile I
6. Arginine* Arg R
7. Lysine* H2N-(CH2)4 Lys K
8. Glutamic acid HOOC-CH2-CH2 Glu E
9. Aspartic acid HOOC-CH2 Asp D
10. Glutamine Gln Q
11. Asparagine Asn N
12. Threonine* H3C-CHOH- Thr T
13. Serine HO-CH2 Ser S
14. Cysteine HS-CH2 Cys C
15. Methionine* H3C-S-CH2-CH2 Met M
16. Phenylalanine* C6H5-CH2 Phe F
17. Tyrosine (p)HO-C6H4-CH2 Tyr Y
18. Tryptophan* Trp W
19. Histidine* His H
20. Proline Pro P

14.2.2 Classification of Amino Acids

Amino acids are classified as acidic, basic or neutral depending upon the relative number of amino and carboxyl groups in their molecule. Equal number of amino and carboxyl groups makes it neutral; more number of amino than carboxyl groups makes it basic and more carboxyl groups as compared to amino groups makes it acidic. The amino acids, which can be synthesised in the body, are known as non- essential amino acids. On the other hand, those which cannot be synthesised in the body and must be obtained through diet, are known as essential amino acids (marked with asterisk in Table 14.2).

Amino acids are usually colourless, crystalline solids. These are water-soluble, high melting solids and behave like salts rather than simple amines or carboxylic acids. This behaviour is due to the presence of both acidic (carboxyl group) and basic (amino group) groups in the same molecule. In aqueous solution, the carboxyl group can lose a proton and amino group can accept a proton, giving rise to a dipolar ion known as zwitter ion. This is neutral but contains both positive and negative charges.

In zwitter ionic form, amino acids show amphoteric behaviour as they react both with acids and bases.
Except glycine, all other naturally occurring α-amino acids are optically active, since the α-carbon atom is asymmetric. These exist both in ‘D’ and ‘L’ forms. Most naturally occurring amino acids have L-configuration. L-Aminoacids are represented by writing the –NH2 group on left hand side.

14.2.3 Structure of Proteins

You have already read that proteins are the polymers of α-amino acids and they are connected to each other by peptide bond or peptide linkage. Chemically, peptide linkage is an amide formed between –COOH group and –NH2 group. The reaction between two molecules of similar or different amino acids, proceeds through the combination of the amino group of one molecule with the carboxyl group of the other. This results in the elimination of a water molecule and formation of a peptide bond –CO–NH–. The product of the reaction is called a dipeptide because it is made up of two amino acids. For example, when carboxyl group of glycine combines with the amino group of alanine we get a dipeptide, glycylalanine.

If a third amino acid combines to a dipeptide, the product is called a tripeptide. A tripeptide contains three amino acids linked by two peptide linkages. Similarly when four, five or six amino acids are linked, the respective products are known as tetrapeptide, pentapeptide or hexapeptide, respectively. When the number of such amino acids is more than ten, then the products are called polypeptides. A polypeptide with more than hundred amino acid residues, having molecular mass higher than 10,000u is called a protein. However, the distinction between a polypeptide and a protein is not very sharp. Polypeptides with fewer amino acids are likely to be called proteins if they ordinarily have a well defined conformation of a protein such as insulin which contains 51 amino acids.
Proteins can be classified into two types on the basis of their molecular shape.

(a) Fibrous proteins

When the polypeptide chains run parallel and are held together by hydrogen and disulphide bonds, then fibre– like structure is formed. Such proteins are generally insoluble in water. Some common examples are keratin (present in hair, wool, silk) and myosin (present in muscles), etc.

(b) Globular proteins

This structure results when the chains of polypeptides coil around to give a spherical shape. These are usually soluble in water. Insulin and albumins are the common examples of globular proteins. Structure and shape of proteins can be studied at four different levels, i.e., primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary, each level being more complex than the previous one.
(i) Primary structure of proteins: Proteins may have one or more polypeptide chains. Each polypeptide in a protein has amino acids linked with each other in a specific sequence and it is this sequence of amino acids that is said to be the primary structure of that protein. Any change in this primary structure i.e., the sequence of amino acids creates a different protein.

(ii) Secondary structure of proteins: The secondary structure of protein refers to the shape in which a long polypeptide chain can exist. They are found to exist in two different types of structures viz. α-helix and β-pleated sheet structure. These structures arise due to the regular folding of the backbone of the polypeptide chain due to hydrogen bonding between and –NH– groups of the peptide bond.

α-Helix is one of the most common ways in which a polypeptide chain forms all possible hydrogen bonds by twisting into a right handed screw (helix) with the –NH group of each amino acid residue hydrogen bonded to the of an adjacent turn of the helix as shown in Fig.14.1.

In β-structure all peptide chains are stretched out to nearly maximum extension and then laid side by side which are held together by intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The structure resembles the pleated folds of drapery and therefore is known as β-pleated sheet.

(iii) Tertiary structure of proteins: The tertiary structure of proteins represents overall folding of the polypeptide chains i.e., further folding of the secondary structure. It gives rise to two major molecular shapes viz. fibrous and globular. The main forces which stabilise the 2° and 3° structures of proteins are hydrogen bonds, disulphide linkages, van der Waals and electrostatic forces of attraction.

(iv) Quaternary structure of proteins: Some of the proteins are composed of two or more polypeptide chains referred to as sub-units. The spatial arrangement of these subunits with respect to each other is known as quaternary structure.
A diagrammatic representation of all these four structures is given in Figure 14.3 where each coloured ball represents an amino acid.

14.2.4 Denaturation of Proteins

Protein found in a biological system with a unique three-dimensional structure and biological activity is called a native protein. When a protein in its native form, is subjected to physical change like change in temperature or chemical change like change in pH, the hydrogen bonds are disturbed. Due to this, globules unfold and helix get uncoiled and protein loses its biological activity. This is called denaturation of protein. During denaturation 2° and 3° structures are destroyed but 1o structure remains intact. The coagulation of egg white on boiling is a common example of denaturation. Another example is curdling of milk which is caused due to the formation of lactic acid by the bacteria present in milk.

Intext Questions
14.4 The melting points and solubility in water of amino acids are generally higher than that of the corresponding halo acids. Explain.
14.5 Where does the water present in the egg go after boiling the egg?

14.3 Enzymes

Life is possible due to the coordination of various chemical reactions in living organisms. An example is the digestion of food, absorption of appropriate molecules and ultimately production of energy. This process involves a sequence of reactions and all these reactions occur in the body under very mild conditions. This occurs with the help of certain biocatalysts called enzymes. Almost all the enzymes are globular proteins. Enzymes are very specific for a particular reaction and for a particular substrate. They are generally named after the compound or class of compounds upon which they work. For example, the enzyme that catalyses hydrolysis of maltose into glucose is named as maltase.

Sometimes enzymes are also named after the reaction, where they are used. For example, the enzymes which catalyse the oxidation of one substrate with simultaneous reduction of another substrate are named as oxidoreductase enzymes. The ending of the name of an enzyme is -ase.

14.3.1 Mechanism of Enzyme Action

Enzymes are needed only in small quantities for the progress of a reaction. Similar to the action of chemical catalysts, enzymes are said to reduce the magnitude of activation energy. For example, activation energy for acid hydrolysis of sucrose is 6.22 kJ mol–1, while the activation energy is only 2.15 kJ mol–1 when hydrolysed by the enzyme, sucrase. Mechanism for the enzyme action has been discussed in Unit 5.

14.4 Vitamins

It has been observed that certain organic compounds are required in small amounts in our diet but their deficiency causes specific diseases. These compounds are called vitamins. Most of the vitamins cannot be synthesised in our body but plants can synthesise almost all of them, so they are considered as essential food factors. However, the bacteria of the gut can produce some of the vitamins required by us. All the vitamins are generally available in our diet. Different vitamins belong to various chemical classes and it is difficult to define them on the basis of structure. They are generally regarded as organic compounds required in the diet in small amounts to perform specific biological functions for normal maintenance of optimum growth and health of the organism. Vitamins are designated by alphabets A, B, C, D, etc. Some of them are further named as sub-groups e.g. B1, B2, B6, B12, etc. Excess of vitamins is also harmful and vitamin pills should not be taken without the advice of doctor.
The term “Vitamine” was coined from the word vital + amine since the earlier identified compounds had amino groups. Later work showed that most of them did not contain amino groups, so the letter ‘e’ was dropped and the term vitamin is used these days.

14.4.1 Classification of Vitamins

Vitamins are classified into two groups depending upon their solubility in water or fat.
(i) Fat soluble vitamins: Vitamins which are soluble in fat and oils but insoluble in water are kept in this group. These are vitamins A, D, E and K. They are stored in liver and adipose (fat storing) tissues.
(ii) Water soluble vitamins: B group vitamins and vitamin C are soluble in water so they are grouped together. Water soluble vitamins must be supplied regularly in diet because they are readily excreted in urine and cannot be stored (except vitamin B12) in our body.
Some important vitamins, their sources and diseases caused by their deficiency are listed in Table 14.3.

Table 14.3: Some important Vitamins, their Sources and their Deficiency Diseases
Sl. No. Name of Vitamines Sources Deficiency diseases
1. Vitamin A Fish liver oil, carrots, butter and milk Xerophthalmia (hardening of cornea of eye) Night blindness
2. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Yeast, milk, green vegetables and cereals Beri beri (loss of appetite, retarded growth)
3. Vitamin B2(Riboflavin) Milk, eggwhite, liver, kidney Cheilosis (fissuring at corners of mouth and lips), digestive disorders and burning sensation of the skin.
4. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Yeast, milk, egg yolk, cereals and grams Convulsions
5. Vitamin B12 Meat, fish, egg and curd Pernicious anaemia (RBC deficient in haemoglobin)
6. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) Citrus fruits, amla and green leafy vegetables Scurvy (bleeding gums)
7. Vitamin D Exposure to sunlight, fish and egg yolk Rickets (bone deformities in children) and osteomalacia (soft bones and joint pain in adults)
8. Vitamin E Vegetable oils like wheat germ oil, sunflower oil, etc. Increased fragility of RBCs and muscular weakness
9. Vitamin K Green leafy vegetables Increased blood clotting time

14.5: Nucleic Acids

Every generation of each and every species resembles its ancestors in many ways. How are these characteristics transmitted from one generation to the next? It has been observed that nucleus of a living cell is responsible for this transmission of inherent characters, also called heredity. The particles in nucleus of the cell, responsible for heredity, are called chromosomes which are made up of proteins and another type of biomolecules called nucleic acids. These are mainly of two types, the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Since nucleic acids are long chain polymers of nucleotides, so they are also called polynucleotides.

James Dewey Watson

Born in Chicago, Illinois, in 1928, Dr Watson received his Ph.D. (1950) from Indiana University in Zoology. He is best known for his discovery of the structure of DNA for which he shared with Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins the 1962 Nobel prize in Physiology and Medicine. They proposed that DNA molecule takes the shape of a double helix, an elegantly simple structure that resembles a gently twisted ladder. The rails of the ladder are made of alternating units of phosphate and the sugar deoxyribose; the rungs are each composed of a pair of purine/ pyrimidine bases. This research laid the foundation for the emerging field of molecular biology. The complementary pairing of nucleotide bases explains how identical copies of parental DNA pass on to two daughter cells. This research launched a revolution in biology that led to modern recombinant DNA techniques.

14.5.1 Chemical Composition of Nucleic Acids

Complete hydrolysis of DNA (or RNA) yields a pentose sugar, phosphoric acid and nitrogen containing heterocyclic compounds (called bases). In DNA molecules, the sugar moiety is β-D-2-deoxyribose whereas in RNA molecule, it is β-D-ribose.

DNA contains four bases viz. adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and thymine (T). RNA also contains four bases, the first three bases are same as in DNA but the fourth one is uracil (U).

14.5.2 Structure of Nucleic Acids

A unit formed by the attachment of a base to 1′ position of sugar is known as nucleoside. In nucleosides, the sugar carbons are numbered as 1′, 2′, 3′, etc. in order to distinguish these from the bases (Fig. 14.5a). When nucleoside is linked to phosphoric acid at 5′-position of sugar moiety, we get a nucleotide (Fig. 14.5).

Nucleotides are joined together by phosphodiester linkage between 5′ and 3′ carbon atoms of the pentose sugar. The formation of a typical dinucleotide is shown in Fig. 14.6.

A simplified version of nucleic acid chain is as shown below.
Information regarding the sequence of nucleotides in the chain of a nucleic acid is called its primary structure. Nucleic acids have a secondary structure also. James Watson and Francis Crick gave a double strand helix structure for DNA (Fig. 14.7). Two nucleic acid chains are wound about each other and held together
by hydrogen bonds between pairs of bases. The two strands are complementary to each other because the hydrogen bonds are formed between specific pairs of bases. Adenine forms hydrogen bonds with thymine whereas cytosine forms hydrogen bonds with guanine.

In secondary structure of RNA, helices are present which are only single stranded. Sometimes they fold back on themselves to form a double helix structure. RNA molecules are of three types and they perform different functions. They are named as messenger RNA (m-RNA), ribosomal RNA (r-RNA) and transfer RNA (t-RNA).

Har Gobind Khorana

Har Gobind Khorana, was born in 1922. He obtained his M.Sc. degree from Punjab University in Lahore. He worked with Professor Vladimir Prelog, who moulded Khorana’s thought and philosophy towards science, work and effort. After a brief stay in India in 1949, Khorana went back to England and worked with Professor
G.W. Kenner and Professor A.R.Todd. It was at Cambridge, U.K. that he got interested in both proteins and nucleic acids. Dr Khorana shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology in 1968 with Marshall Nirenberg and Robert Holley for cracking the genetic code.

DNA Fingerprinting
It is known that every individual has unique fingerprints. These occur at the tips of the fingers and have been used for identification for a long time but these
can be altered by surgery. A sequence of bases on DNA is also unique for a person and information regarding this is called DNA fingerprinting. It is same for
every cell and cannot be altered by any known treatment. DNA fingerprinting is now used
(i) in forensic laboratories for identification of criminals.
(ii) to determine paternity of an individual.
(iii) to identify the dead bodies in any accident by comparing the DNA’s of parents or children.
(iv) to identify racial groups to rewrite biological evolution.

14.5.3 Biological Functions of Nucleic Acids

DNA is the chemical basis of heredity and may be regarded as the reserve of genetic information. DNA is exclusively responsible for maintaining the identity of different species of organisms over millions of years. A DNA molecule is capable of self duplication during cell division and identical DNA strands are transferred to daughter cells. Another important function of nucleic acids is the protein synthesis in the cell. Actually, the proteins are synthesised by various RNA molecules in the cell but the message for the synthesis of a particular protein is present in DNA.

Intext Questions
14.6 Why cannot vitamin C be stored in our body?
14.7 What products would be formed when a nucleotide from DNA containing thymine is hydrolysed?
14.8 When RNA is hydrolysed, there is no relationship among the quantities of different bases obtained. What does this fact suggest about the structure of RNA?

Summary
Carbohydrates are optically active polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones or molecules which provide such units on hydrolysis. They are broadly classified into three groups — monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. Glucose, the most important source of energy for mammals, is obtained by the digestion of starch. Monosaccharides are held together by glycosidic linkages to form disaccharides or polysaccharides.
Proteins are the polymers of about twenty different α-amino acids which are linked by peptide bonds. Ten amino acids are called essential amino acids because they cannot be synthesised by our body, hence must be provided through diet. Proteins perform various structural and dynamic functions in the organisms.
Proteins which contain only α-amino acids are called simple proteins. The secondary or tertiary structure of proteins get disturbed on change of pH or temperature and they are not able to perform their functions. This is called denaturation of proteins. Enzymes are biocatalysts which speed up the reactions in biosystems. They are very specific and selective in their action and chemically all enzymes are proteins. Vitamins are accessory food factors required in the diet. They are classified as fat soluble (A, D, E and K) and water soluble (Β group and C). Deficiency of vitamins leads to many diseases.
Nucleic acids are the polymers of nucleotides which in turn consist of a base, a pentose sugar and phosphate moiety. Nucleic acids are responsible for the transfer of characters from parents to offsprings. There are two types of nucleic acids — DNA and RNA. DNA contains a five carbon sugar molecule called 2-deoxyribose whereas RNA contains ribose. Both DNA and RNA contain adenine, guanine and cytosine. The fourth base is thymine in DNA and uracil in RNA. The structure of DNA is a double strand whereas RNA is a single strand molecule. DNA is the chemical basis of heredity and have the coded message for proteins to be synthesised in the cell. There are three types of RNA — mRNA, rRNA and tRNA which actually carry out the protein synthesis in the cell.

Exercises
14.1 What are monosaccharides?

14.2 What are reducing sugars?

14.3 Write two main functions of carbohydrates in plants.

14.4 Classify the following into monosaccharides and disaccharides.
Ribose, 2-deoxyribose, maltose, galactose, fructose and lactose.

14.5 What do you understand by the term glycosidic linkage?

14.6 What is glycogen? How is it different from starch?

14.7 What are the hydrolysis products of
(i) sucrose and
(ii) lactose?

14.8 What is the basic structural difference between starch and cellulose?

14.9 What happens when D-glucose is treated with the following reagents?
(i) HI
(ii) Bromine water
(iii) HNO3

14.10 Enumerate the reactions of D-glucose which cannot be explained by its open chain structure.

14.11 What are essential and non-essential amino acids? Give two examples of each type.

14.12 Define the following as related to proteins
(i) Peptide linkage
(ii) Primary structure
(iii) Denaturation.

14.13 What are the common types of secondary structure of proteins?

14.14 What type of bonding helps in stabilising the α-helix structure of proteins?

14.15 Differentiate between globular and fibrous proteins.

14.16 How do you explain the amphoteric behaviour of amino acids?

14.17 What are enzymes?

14.18 What is the effect of denaturation on the structure of proteins?

14.19 How are vitamins classified? Name the vitamin responsible for the coagulation of blood.

14.20 Why are vitamin A and vitamin C essential to us? Give their important sources.

14.21 What are nucleic acids? Mention their two important functions.

14.22 What is the difference between a nucleoside and a nucleotide?

14.23 The two strands in DNA are not identical but are complementary. Explain.

14.24 Write the important structural and functional differences between DNA and RNA.

14.25 What are the different types of RNA found in the cell?

TESTS FOR CARBOHYDRATES FATS AND PROTEINS

EXPERIMENT 11.1
Aim

To study the characteristics of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in pure form and detection of their presence in the given foodstuffs.

I. TEST FOR CARBOHYDRATES, FATS AND PROTEINS IN PURE FORM
A. Tests for Carbohydrates
Theory
Carbohydrates are optically active polyhydroxy aldehydes, polyhydroxy ketones or compounds, which give these units as hydrolysis product. Starch, cellulose
and sugars are the familiar examples of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are classified on the basis of number of polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone units obtained from them on hydrolysis. Three broad classes are as follows :

(i) Monosaccharides : These cannot be hydrolysed further to polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones.
(ii) Oligosaccharides : These yield 2-10 monosaccharide units on hydrolysis. Common amongst these are disaccharides, which produce two monosaccharide units.
(iii) Polysaccharides : These yield large number of monosaccharide units on hydrolysis.

Monosaccharides are further classified on the basis of number of carbon atoms and functional group present in them. If a monosaccharide contains aldehydic
group it is called aldose. If it contains keto group it is called ketose. Carbohydrates of all classes give Molisch’s test. Carbohydrates, which are sweet in taste, are called sugars. Glucose, fructose (fruit sugar) and sucrose (table sugar) are examples of sugars. Sugars are classified into two major categories: reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars. Reducing property of sugars is detected by the three tests namely Fehling’s test, Benedict’s test and Tollen’s test.

Prepare 1% stock solution of glucose, fructose and sucrose in separate beakers and divide each of the solutions into test tubes marked A, B, C and D etc. and
perform the following tests.

I. Theory of Molisch’s test

On adding concentrated sulphuric acid to the aqueous solution of carbohydrate containing alcoholic solution of 1-naphthol, a deep violet colour appears at the junction of the two liquids. Concentrated sulphuric acid hydrolyses glycosidic bonds of carbohydrate to give monosaccharides which are dehydrated to an aldehyde known as furfural which undergoes reaction with 1–naphthol to give a unstable condensation product of deep violet colour. This test may be given by some other organic compounds also. The following reaction takes place :

Material Required

Procedure

Add 2-3 drops of alcoholic solution of 1% 1-naphthol in test tube ‘A’ and then pour 2 mL conc. H2SO4 down the sides of the test tube so that it forms a separate layer at the bottom of the test tube. The formation of a purple ring at the interface of the two layers confirms the presence of carbohydrates.

II. Theory of test for reducing sugars
A. Fehling’s test and Benedict test

Black copper (II) oxide is formed on heating a suspension of copper hydroxide in alkaline solution.

If some reducing agent is present in the reaction medium, then orange-red copper (I) oxide is precipated.

Reducing sugars contain aldehydic group or α-hydroxy ketonic group, therefore in alkaline medium reduce Cu2+ ions. But if the reaction is carried out directly in the presence of an alkali then, copper (II) hydroxide gets precipitated. To overcome this problem, copper (II) ions are complexed with tartarate ions (Fehling’s reagent) or citrate ions (Benedict’s solution). Both the complex ions are soluble in alkaline medium and yield Cu2+ ions in such a low concentration that solubility product of cupric hydroxide is not reached.

Reducing sugars react with Fehling’s reagent according to the following reaction:

The discharge of blue colour due to Cu2+ ions and appearance of orange-red precipitate of Cu2O, indicates the reducing property of sugars.

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Sometimes, the cuprous precipitate comes down as yellow cuprous hydroxide, but on warming this is converted to orangered copper (I) oxide.

In some cases, this reaction may be used as a quantitative analytical process for the determination of reducing sugars in blood and urine etc.

All monosaccharides are reducing sugars. Disaccharides which contain a free hemi-acetal group ( ) are also mild reducing sugars. Most naturally occurring disaccharides are reducing sugars (sucrose is an exception).

B. Tollen’s test

Tollen’s reagent is ammoniacal solution of silver nitrate. A reducing sugar, reduces silver ion to metallic silver which gets deposited on the inner surface of the test tube in the form of silver mirror. The reaction occurs as follows:

RCHO + 2 [Ag (NH3)2]+ + 2OH → 2Ag + RCOONH4 + H2O + 3NH3

Material Required

Procedure
A. Fehling’s test

Mix 1 mL each of Fehling’s solutions A and B in a test tube and add the mixture to test tube B. Heat the content of the test tube on a water bath. The formation of a orange-red precipitate indicates the presence of reducing sugar.

B. Benedict’s test

Add 1 mL of Benedict’s reagent to test tube C and heat the mixture to boiling in a water bath for 2 minutes. The formation of a orangered precipitate due to the formation of copper (I) oxide indicates the presence of reducing sugar.

C. Tollen’s test

Prepare Tollen’s reagent by adding sodium hydroxide solution dropwise to 1 mL aqueous silver nitrate solution to get the precipitate of silver oxide. Now add ammonium hydroxide solution while shaking the mixture so that initially formed silver oxide precipitate dissolves. Add the reagent to the sugar solution contained in a test tube and warm the reaction mixture on a water bath. Formation of silver mirror on the walls of the test tube shows the presence of reducing sugar.

Caution!
Never heat the test tube on direct flame as it may cause explosion.

III. Theory of test to distinguish Monosaccharide from Disaccharide

Barfoed’s test

The reagent is cupric acetate in acetic acid solution. It is weakly acidic and is reduced by only monosaccharides. Prolonged boiling may hydrolyse disaccharides and false positive test may be obtained. Monosaccharides react with this reagent within 5 minutes to give a brick red precipitate of copper (I) oxide. Disaccharides take a longer time to react because aldehyde function is masked in the acetal linkage.

The precipitate of cuprous oxide obtained is less dense and its colour is brick-red instead of orange-red.

Material Required

Procedure

Take 10 drops of 1% sugar solution in a test tube and add 1 mL Barfoed’s reagent. Heat the the content of the test tube in a water bath to boiling for five minutes. The formation of orange-red precipitate indicates positive test for monosaccharides. Disaccharides do not give this test.

Test for Sucrose

Hydrolyse the sucrose for performing the test by adding 5 drops of concentrated HCl to 5 mL of 1% sucrose solution and heating the mixture in a boiling water bath. Cool the mixture and add NaOH solution to obtain neutral or slightly alkaline solution. Perform the tests for reducing sugar and Seliwanoff’s test given
below with the hydrolysed product and record your results.

IV. Test to distinguish Ketose from Aldose
Seliwanoff’s test

Ketoses dehydrate very rapidly under acidic conditions to give furfural, which reacts with resorcinol (1,3-dihydroxy benzene) to give a coloured product.

Ketohexoses give red colour and ketopentoses give blue-green colour. Aldoses take longer time to produce colour because under the same conditions, aldoses form furfural slowly, probably because β-elimination is required before dehydration to furfural. Therefore prolonged heating should be avoided.

Material Required

Procedure
Add 2 mL of Seliwanoff’s reagent to 10 drops of 1% sugar solution taken in a test tube. Heat the test tube in boiling water for two minutes. Ketohexoses give red colour. Ketopentose gives blue-green colour. Aldoses do not give colour within two minutes.

V. Theory of test for Polysaccharides (Starch)

Starch gives blue colour with iodine solution due to the formation of a complex known as starch iodide complex. Starch is present in wheat, rice, maize, potatoes etc.

Material Required

Procedure
Iodine test

Make a suspension of (0.5 g) starch in 5 mL water and pour it in 50 mL boiling water to get an aqueous colloidal solution. To this add a few drops of aqueous iodine solution. The appearance of blue colour indicates the presence of starch.

B. Test for Oils and Fats
Theory
These are the esters of glycerol and long chain fatty acids and are known as triglycerides. Triglycerides which are liquids at room temperature are oils and those that are solids are called fats. Oils are of plant origin and fats are of animal origin. Triglycerides in which three acyl groups are same are called simple triglycerides and a triglyceride in which three acyl groups are different is called mixed triglyceride. Many naturally occurring fatty acids contain two or three double bonds. The fats from which these come are called polyunsaturated fats or oils. while oils are glycerides of unsaturated fatty acids. Fats and oils are insoluble in water.

On heating with potassium hydrogen sulphate, oils and fats give characteristic odour of acrolein. This is the test for glycerol present either free or combined as an ester. On heating with potassium hydrogen sulphate, glycerol is dehydrated and acrolein is formed which has a pungent odour. The reaction is as follows :

Material Required

Procedure
Add a few crystals (0.5g) of dry potassium hydrogen sulphate to 3 mL of mustard oil/ghee taken in a test tube and heat the content of the test tube gently. A pungent smell confirms the presence of an oil or a fat.

C. Tests for Proteins
Theory
Proteins are complex organic compounds containing nitrogen and are made up of amino acids. Proteins are present in egg albumin, soya beans, pulses, fish, milk etc. Their presence can be confirmed by several tests. Due to the presence of characteristic side chains in them, certain amino acids exhibit typical colour reactions that form the basis for their identification. Proteins also respond to the colour reactions of amino acids, but can be distinguished from amino acids by biuret reaction, and coagulation reaction.

I. Biuret test for peptide bonds
Alkaline copper sulphate reacts with compounds containing two or more peptide bonds to form complexes of violet colour.

The name of the test comes from the name of the compound, biuret, which gives this test. The reaction is not absolutely specific for peptide bond because many compounds containing two carbonyl groups linked through nitrogen or carbon atoms give a positive result.

II. Ninhydrin reaction
Ninhydrin is a powerful oxidizing agent and reacts with proteins to give a blue-violet compound called Rhumann’s purple.

III. Xanthoproteic reaction
Aromatic groups of either the free aminoacid or protein, undergo nitration on heating with concentrated nitric acid. The salts of these derivatives are orange in colour.

Material Required

Procedure
A. Biuret test

Prepare 0.5% (w/V) solution of casein or egg albumin in 0.1 M NaOH solution. Take 2-3 mL of the solution and add about 2 mL of 10% sodium hydroxide solution to it. Add a few drops of copper reagent and warm the mixture for about 5 minutes. Appearance of violet colour due to the formation of a complex species of Cu2+ ions with – CONH – group confirms the presence of protein in the sample.

B. Ninhydrin reaction

Take 2-3 mL of an aqueous solution of egg albumin in a test tube. Add 3-4 drops of ninhydrin solution to it and heat. Appearance of blue colour indicates the presence of protein.

C. Xanthoproteic test

Take 1 mL of an aqueous solution of egg albumin in a test tube and add a few drops of concentrated nitric acid. Heat the reaction mixture for a few minutes on a Bunsen flame. A yellow colour appears. Cool the test tube under running tap and add a few drops of 10M sodium hydroxide solution, an orange colour appears.

II. TEST FOR CARBOHYDRATES, FATS AND PROTEINS IN FOODSTUFFS

(i) Take the samples of milk, wheat flour, rice and gram flour powder of legumes to test for the presence of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
(ii) Take 0.5 mL sample of milk to carry out each of the tests.
(iii) For wheat flour, rice flour, gram flour and legume powder, add 100 mg of the sample in 10 mL of distilled water and boil the suspensions, to get a colloidal solution. Perform the tests with this collidal solution and record the results in Table 11.1.

Table 11.1 : Test for carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the different samples of food materials

Sample Carbohydrates
Present/Absent
Fats
Present/Absent
Protein
Present/Absent
Milk
Wheat flour
Rice flour
Gram flour
Legumes

From the experiments, it will be observed that food materials like wheat flour, gram flour and legumes contain carbohydrates and proteins. The rice flour contains carbohydrates, while milk contains fats and proteins. Similarly, other food materials may be tested for the presence of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.

Precautions
(a) Shake the mixture thoroughly while preparing the extract of gram, wheat and rice flour.
(b) Always use fresh reagents to carry out the tests.
(c) Use only required quantities of reagents.

Discussion Questions

(i) How will you distinguish between sucrose and glucose?
(ii) Explain why does fructose reduce Fehling’s solution and Tollen’s reagent inspite of the presence of ketonic group?
(iii) What is the role of tartarate and citrate ions in Fehling’s reagent and Benedict’s reagent respectively?

I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)

1. Glycogen is a branched chain polymer of α-D-glucose units in which chain is formed by C1—C4 glycosidic linkage whereas branching occurs by the formation of C1-C6 glycosidic linkage. Structure of glycogen is similar to __________.

(i) Amylose
(ii) Amylopectin
(iii) Cellulose
(iv) Glucose

2. Which of the following polymer is stored in the liver of animals?

(i) Amylose
(ii) Cellulose
(iii) Amylopectin
(iv) Glycogen

3. Sucrose (cane sugar) is a disaccharide. One molecule of sucrose on hydrolysis gives _________.

(i) 2 molecules of glucose
(ii) 2 molecules of glucose + 1 molecule of fructose
(iii) 1 molecule of glucose + 1 molecule of fructose
(iv) 2 molecules of fructose

4. Which of the following pairs represents anomers?

5. Proteins are found to have two different types of secondary structures viz. α-helix and β-pleated sheet structure. α-helix structure of protein is stabilised by :

(i) Peptide bonds
(ii) van der Waals forces
(iii) Hydrogen bonds
(iv) Dipole-dipole interactions

6. In disaccharides, if the reducing groups of monosaccharides i.e. aldehydic or ketonic groups are bonded, these are non-reducing sugars. Which of the following disaccharide is a non-reducing sugar?

7. Which of the following acids is a vitamin?

(i) Aspartic acid
(ii) Ascorbic acid
(iii) Adipic acid
(iv) Saccharic acid

8. Dinucleotide is obtained by joining two nucleotides together by phosphodiester linkage. Between which carbon atoms of pentose sugars of nucleotides are these linkages present?

(i) 5′ and 3′
(ii) 1′ and 5′
(iii) 5′ and 5′
(iv) 3′ and 3′

9. Nucleic acids are the polymers of ______________.

(i) Nucleosides
(ii) Nucleotides
(iii) Bases
(iv) Sugars

10. Which of the following statements is not true about glucose?

(i) It is an aldohexose.
(ii) On heating with HI it forms n-hexane.
(iii) It is present in furanose form.
(iv) It does not give 2,4-DNP test.

11. Each polypeptide in a protein has aminoacids linked with each other in a specific sequence. This sequence of amino acids is said to be ____________.

(i) primary structure of proteins.
(ii) secondary structure of proteins.
(iii) tertiary structure of proteins.
(iv) quaternary structure of proteins.

12. DNA and RNA contain four bases each. Which of the following bases is not present in RNA?

(i) Adenine
(ii) Uracil
(iii) Thymine
(iv) Cytosine

13. Which of the following B group vitamins can be stored in our body?

(i) Vitamin B1
(ii) Vitamin B2
(iii) Vitamin B6
(iv) Vitamin B12

14. Which of the following bases is not present in DNA?

(i) Adenine
(ii) Thymine
(iii) Cytosine
(iv) Uracil

15. Three cyclic structures of monosaccharides are given below which of these are anomers.

(i) I and II
(ii) II and III
(iii) I and III
(iv) III is anomer of I and II

16. Which of the following reactions of glucose can be explained only by its cyclic structure?

(i) Glucose forms pentaacetate.
(ii) Glucose reacts with hydroxylamine to form an oxime.
(iii) Pentaacetate of glucose does not react with hydroxylamine.
(iv) Glucose is oxidised by nitric acid to gluconic acid.

17. Optical rotations of some compounds along with their structures are given below which of them have D configuration.

(i) I, II, III
(ii) II, III
(iii) I, II
(iv) III

18. Structure of a disaccharide formed by glucose and fructose is given below. Identify anomeric carbon atoms in monosaccharide units.

(i) ‘a’ carbon of glucose and ‘a’ carbon of fructose.
(ii) ‘a’ carbon of glucose and ‘e’ carbon of fructose.
(iii) ‘a’ carbon of glucose and ‘b’ carbon of fructose.
(iv) ‘f ’ carbon of glucose and ‘f ’ carbon of fructose.

19. Three structures are given below in which two glucose units are linked. Which of these linkages between glucose units are between C1 and C4 and which linkages are between C1 and C6?

(i) (A) is between C1 and C4, (B) and (C) are between C1 and C6
(ii) (A) and (B) are between C1 and C4, (C) is between C1 and C6
(iii) (A) and (C) are between C1 and C4, (B) is between C1 and C6
(iv) (A) and (C) are between C1 and C6, (B) is between C1 and C4

II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)

Note : In the following questions two or more options may be correct.

20. Carbohydrates are classified on the basis of their behaviour on hydrolysis and also as reducing or non-reducing sugar. Sucrose is a __________.

(i) monosaccharide
(ii) disaccharide
(iii) reducing sugar
(iv) non-reducing sugar

21. Proteins can be classified into two types on the basis of their molecular shape i.e., fibrous proteins and globular proteins. Examples of globular proteins are :

(i) Insulin
(ii) Keratin
(iii) Albumin
(iv) Myosin

22. Which of the following carbohydrates are branched polymer of glucose?

(i) Amylose
(ii) Amylopectin
(iii) Cellulose
(iv) Glycogen

23. Amino acids are classified as acidic, basic or neutral depending upon the relative number of amino and carboxyl groups in their molecule. Which of the following are acidic?

(iii) H2N—CH2—CH2—CH2—COOH

24.
Lysine, is _______________.

(i) α-Amino acid
(ii) Basic amino acid
(iii) Amino acid synthesised in body
(iv) β-Amino acid

25. Which of the following monosaccharides are present as five membered cyclic structure (furanose structure)?

(i) Ribose
(ii) Glucose
(iii) Fructose
(iv) Galactose

26. In fibrous proteins, polypeptide chains are held together by ___________.

(i) van der Waals forces
(ii) disulphide linkage
(iii) electrostatic forces of attraction
(iv) hydrogen bonds

27. Which of the following are purine bases?

(i) Guanine
(ii) Adenine
(iii) Thymine
(iv) Uracil

28. Which of the following terms are correct about enzyme?

(i) Proteins
(ii) Dinucleotides
(iii) Nucleic acids
(iv) Biocatalysts

III. Short Answer Type

29. Name the sugar present in milk. How many monosaccharide units are present in it? What are such oligosaccharides called?
30. How do you explain the presence of all the six carbon atoms in glucose in a straight chain?
31. In nucleoside a base is attached at 1′ position of sugar moiety. Nucleotide is formed by linking of phosphoric acid unit to the sugar unit of nucleoside. At which position of sugar unit is the phosphoric acid linked in a nucleoside to give a nucleotide?
32. Name the linkage connecting monosaccharide units in polysaccharides.
33. Under what conditions glucose is converted to gluconic and saccharic acid?
34. Monosaccharides contain carbonyl group hence are classified, as aldose or ketose. The number of carbon atoms present in the monosaccharide molecule are also considered for classification. In which class of monosaccharide will
you place fructose?
35. The letters ‘D’ or ‘L’ before the name of a stereoisomer of a compound indicate the correlation of configuration of that particular stereoisomer. This refers to their relation with one of the isomers of glyceraldehyde. Predict whether the following compound has ‘D’ or ‘L’ configuration.

36. Aldopentoses named as ribose and 2-deoxyribose are found in nucleic acids. What is their relative configuration?
37. Which sugar is called invert sugar? Why is it called so?
38. Amino acids can be classified as α-, β-, γ-, δ- and so on depending upon the relative position of amino group with respect to carboxyl group. Which type of amino acids form polypetide chain in proteins?

39. α-Helix is a secondary structure of proteins formed by twisting of polypeptide chain into right handed screw like structures. Which type of interactions are responsible for making the α-helix structure stable?
40. Some enzymes are named after the reaction, where they are used. What name is given to the class of enzymes which catalyse the oxidation of one substrate with simultaneous reduction of another substrate.
41. During curdling of milk, what happens to sugar present in it?
42. How do you explain the presence of five —OH groups in glucose molecule?
43. Why does compound (A) given below not form an oxime?

44. Why must vitamin C be supplied regularly in diet?
45. Sucrose is dextrorotatory but the mixture obtained after hydrolysis is laevorotatory. Explain.
46. Amino acids behave like salts rather than simple amines or carboxylic acids. Explain.
47. Structures of glycine and alanine are given below. Show the peptide linkage in glycylalanine.

48. Protein found in a biological system with a unique three-dimensional structure and biological activity is called a native protein. When a protein in its native form, is subjected to a physical change like change in temperature or a chemical change like, change in pH, denaturation of protein takes place. Explain the cause.

49. Activation energy for the acid catalysed hydrolysis of sucrose is 6.22 kJ mol–1, while the activation energy is only 2.15 kJ mol–1 when hydrolysis is catalysed by the enzyme sucrase. Explain.
50. How do you explain the presence of an aldehydic group in a glucose molecule?
51. Which moieties of nucleosides are involved in the formation of phosphodiester linkages present in dinucleotides? What does the word diester in the name of linkage indicate? Which acid is involved in the formation of this linkage?
52. What are glycosidic linkages? In which type of biomolecules are they present?
53. Which monosaccharide units are present in starch, cellulose and glucose and which linkages link these units?
54. How do enzymes help a substrate to be attacked by the reagent effectively?
55. Describe the term D- and L- configuration used for amino acids with examples.
56. How will you distinguish 1° and 2° hydroxyl groups present in glucose? Explain with reactions.
57. Coagulation of egg white on boiling is an example of denaturation of protein. Explain it in terms of structural changes.

IV. Matching Type

Note : Match the items of Column I and Column II in the following questions.

More than one option in Column II may match with the items given in Column I.

58. Match the vitamins given in Column I with the deficiency disease they cause given in Column II.

Column I (Vitamins) Column II (Diseases)
(i) Vitamin A (a) Pernicious anaemia
(ii) Vitamin B1 (b) Increased blood clotting time
(iii) Vitamin B12 (c) Xerophthalmia
(iv) Vitamin C (d) Rickets
(v) Vitamin D (e) Muscular weakness
(vi) Vitamin E (f) Night blindness
(vii) Vitamin K (g) Beri Beri
(h) Bleeding gums
(i) Osteomalacia

59. Match the following enzyms given in Column I with the reactions they catalyse given in Column II.

Column I (Enzymes) Column II (Reactions)
(i) Invertase (a) Decomposition of urea into NH3 and CO2
(ii) Maltase (b) Conversion of glucose into ethyl alcohol
(iii) Pepsin (c) Hydrolysis of maltose into glucose
(iv) Urease (d) Hydrolysis of cane sugar
(v) Zymase (e) Hydrolysis of proteins into peptides

V. Assertion and Reason Type

Note : In the following questions a statement of assertion followed by a statement of reason is given. Choose the correct answer out of the following choices.

(i) Assertion and reason both are correct statements and reason explains the assertion.
(ii) Both assertion and reason are wrong statements.
(iii) Assertion is correct statement and reason is wrong statement.
(iv) Assertion is wrong statement and reason is correct statement.
(v) Assertion and reason both are correct statements but reason does not explain assertion.

60. Assertion : D (+) – Glucose is dextrorotatory in nature.
Reason : ‘D’ represents its dextrorotatory nature.

61. Assertion : Vitamin D can be stored in our body.
Reason : Vitamin D is fat soluble vitamin.

62. Assertion : β-glycosidic linkage is present in maltose,

Reason : Maltose is composed of two glucose units in which C–1 of one glucose unit is linked to C–4 of another glucose unit.

63. Assertion : All naturally occurring α-aminoacids except glycine are optically active.
Reason : Most naturally occurring amino acids have L-configuration.

64. Assertion : Deoxyribose, C5H10O4 is not a carbohydrate.
Reason : Carbohydrates are hydrates of carbon so compounds which follow Cx(H2O)y formula are carbohydrates.

65. Assertion : Glycine must be taken through diet.
Reason : It is an essential amino acid.

66. Assertion : In presence of enzyme, substrate molecule can be attacked by the reagent effectively.
Reason : Active sites of enzymes hold the substrate molecule in a suitable position.

VI. Long Answer Type

67. Write the reactions of D-glucose which can’t be explained by its open-chain structure. How can cyclic structure of glucose explain these reactions?
68. On the basis of which evidences D-glucose was assigned the following structure?

69. Carbohydrates are essential for life in both plants and animals. Name the carbohydrates that are used as storage molecules in plants and animals, also name the carbohydrate which is present in wood or in the fibre of cotton cloth.
70. Explain the terms primary and secondary structure of proteins. What is the difference between α-helix and β-pleated sheet structure of proteins?
71. Write the structures of fragments produced on complete hydrolysis of DNA. How are they linked in DNA molecule? Draw a diagram to show pairing of nucleotide bases in double helix of DNA.

ANSWERS

I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)

1. (ii) 2. (iv) 3. (iii)
4. (iii), Hint : Cyclic hemiacetal forms of monosaccharide which differ only in the configuration of the hydroxyl group at C1 are anomers.
5. (iii), Hint : In α-helix, hydrogen bonds are present between –NH group of one amino acid residue to the >C== O group of another aminoacid residue.
6. (ii) 7. (ii) 8. (i) 9. (ii) 10. (iii) 11. (i) 12. (iii) 13. (iv) 14. (iv) 15. (i)
16. (iii) 17. (i) 18. (iii) 19. (iii)

II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)

20. (ii), (iv) 21. (i), (iii) 22. (ii), (iv) 23. (ii), (iv)
24. (i), (ii) 25. (i), (iii) 26. (ii), (iv) 27. (i), (ii) 28. (i), (iv)

III. Short Answer Type

29. Lactose, two monosaccharide units are present. Such oligosaccharides are called disaccharides.
30. On prolonged heating with HI, glucose gives n-hexane.

31. Phosphoric acid is linked at 5′-position of sugar moiety of nucleoside to give a nucleotide.

32. Glycosidic linkage.
33. Glucose is converted to gluconic acid by bromine water and to saccharic acid by conc. HNO3.
34. Fructose is a ketohexose.
35. ‘L’ configuration
36. ‘D’ configuration
37. Sucrose, see page no. 409 of NCERT textbook for the explanation.

38. α-amino acids,

39. In α-helix,a polypeptide chain is stabilised by the formation of hydrogen bonds between —NH— group of amino acids in one turn with the >C== O groups of amino acids belonging to adjacent turn.
40. Oxidoreductase
41. Lactic acid.
42. Glucose gives pentaacetate derivative on acetylation with acetic anhydride. This confirms the presence of five —OH groups.
43. Glucose pentaacetate (structure A) doesn’t have a free —OH group at C1 and so can’t be converted to the open chain form to give —CHO group and hence doesn’t form the oxime.

44. Vitamin C is water soluble therefore it is readily excreted in urine and can’t be stored in our body.
45. On hydrolysis sucrose (dextrorotatory), gives glucose (dextrorotatory, + 52.5°) and fructose (laevorotatory, – 92.4°). Since laevorotation of fructose is more than the dextrorotation of glucose, the mixture is laevorotatory.

46. In aqueous solution, the carboxyl group loses a proton and amino group accepts a proton to form a zwitter ion.

47. In glycylalanine, carboxyl group of glycine combines with the amino group of alanine.

48. Due to physical or chemical change, hydrogen bonds in proteins are disturbed, globules unfold and helix gets uncoiled therefore protein loses its biological activity. This is called denaturation of proteins.

49. Enzymes, the biocatalysts, reduce the magnitude of activation energy by providing alternative path. In the hydrolysis of sucrose the enzyme sucrase reduces the activation energy from 6.22 kJ mol–1 to 2.15 kJ mol–1.
50. Glucose reacts with hydroxylamine to form a monoxime and adds one molecule of hydrogen cyanide to give cyanohydrin so it contains a carbonyl group which can be an aldehyde or a ketone. On mild oxidation with bromine water, glucose gives gluconic acid which is a six carbon carboxylic acid. This indicates that carbonyl group present in glucose is an aldehydic group.
51. See page no. 420 of NCERT textbook.
52. See page no. 409 of NCERT textbook.
53. In starch and glycogen, glycosidic α-linkage is present and in cellulose, glycosidic β-linkage is present between glucose units.
54. Active site of enzymes hold the substrate molecule in a suitable position, so that it can be attacked by the reagent effectively.
55. See the NCERT textbook for Class XII.
56. For answer see page no. 406 of NCERT textbook for Class XII.
57. For answer see page no. 416-417 of NCERT textbook for Class XII.

IV. Matching Type

58. (i) → (c), (f) (ii) → (g) (iii) → (a) (iv) → (h) (v) → (d), (i) (vi) → (e), (vii) → (b)
59. (i) → (d) (ii) → (c) (iii) → (e) (iv) → (a) (v) → (b)

V. Assertion and Reason Type

60. (iii) 61. (i) 62. (iv) 63. (v) 64. (ii) 65. (ii) 66. (i)

VI. Long Answer Type

67. See NCERT textbook for Class XII.
68. See NCERT textbook for Class XII.
69. Hint : Carbohydrate used as storage molecule in plants is starch and in animals, it is glycogen. Cellulose is present in wood or in the fibre of cotton cloth.
70. See NCERT textbook for Class XII.
71. See NCERT textbook for Class XII.

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3 ) Why are you giving these ( high Quality ) lecture for free ?

Ans : Well there are lot of good things free in this world. Linux, My-SQL, Open-Office ….. Go to sourceforge and get thousands of high quality software free along with source code. Yes all officially free …. Why do you think Richard Stallman, Zimmerman, ….. etc are considered Guru philosophers ? In Punjab and Gurudwaras worldwide there are so many Langars where you get better food than Restaurants. ….. why ? Why do you have Dharmasalas and subsidized rest rooms near hospitals / Famous Temples / various places ? in Iftar party anyone can eat for free …. why ?

I am teaching since 1989 I have observed most students can do much better if they have the self motivation to solve and practice. Cheap books are available in second hand bookstalls, where you get thousands of Numericals to solve ….. but most students will like to blow their time going and coming for tuition, travel time …. TV for hours and hours watching cricket / Tennis games, playing computer games …. My free lectures are not going to make much difference in spending of unnecessary money for coaching ….. I know very well , how much people enjoy …. ! spending unnecessarily !!

Do you know that there are NO poor / needy students in Bangalore.

Sometime back I had tried to teach for IIT JEE FREE. Discussed with a few NGOs and social service guys. Arranged rooms but got only 1 student. We had informed many people in many ways to inform students …. We did not get students who are ready to learn for free. So I am sure these lectures are NOT FREE. If anyone learns from these, s/he changes and that’s the gain / benefit. This change ( due to learning ) is very costly …. Most do not want to learn ………..

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.weebly.com
You will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

🙂

4 ) How can I get all your lectures ?

Ans : – Apart from my lectures there are approx 700 GB of PCM ( Phy, Chem, Math ) lectures. It takes approx 3 years of continuous download from scattered sources. I have ( 20,000 )Thousands of these. You can take ALL of them from me in an external 1 TB hard disk, instead of spending so much money and time again for downloading. These cover ( by Various Professors ) everything of Chemistry, Physics, Maths… Lot of this is from outside India … as foreigners have much wider heart than Indians ( as most of GNU / open source software have been developed by Non-Indians ). I observed the gaps in these videos, and thus I am solving IIT, APhO, Roorkey, IPhO Numericals. Videos made by me along with these videos gives a complete preparation.

Send me a mail at mokshya@gmail.com to contact me.

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.weebly.com
You will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

🙂

5 ) How do you get benefited out of this ?

Ans :- If anyone learns we all will have better people in this world. I will have better “ YOU “.
🙂

6 ) Why do you call yourself a Zookeeper ?

Ans :- This is very nicely explained at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/z00keeper-why-do-i-call-myself-a-zoookeeper/

🙂

7 ) Where do you stay ?

Ans :- Presently I am in Bangalore.

🙂

8 ) If I need videos in a few topics can you make them for me ?

Ans :- We actively answers doubts at doubtpoint.
see http://skmclasses.weebly.com/doubtpoint.html
In case you appreciate our time and efforts involved in answering complicated Questions, then get Quality answers at doubtpoint.

🙂

9 ) Why did you write an article saying there are No Poor students ?

Ans :- There are lots of NGOs and others working for rural / poor children education at lower classes. While very less effort is on for std 9 till 12. Also see the answer in question number ( 3 ) above. In more than 2 decades of teaching I never met a Poor child who was seriously interested in ( higher ) studies. As I have a mind / thinking of a ” Physicist “, I go by ” Experimental Observation “.

It is not about what is being said about poor in media / TV etc, or ” what it should be ” ( ? ) …. It is about what I see happening. Also to add ( confuse ? you more )…. You must be knowing that in several states over many years now girl students have better ( by marks as well as by pass percentage ) result in std 10 / Board Exams….. well but NEVER a girl student came FIRST in IIT JEE … why ? [ The best rank by a Girl student is mostly in 2 digits, very rarely in single digit ] ????? So ????

🙂

10 ) How much do I have to study to make it to IIT ?

Ans :- My experience of Teaching for IIT JEE since 1989, tells me, Total 200 hours per subject ( PCM ) is sufficient. If you see my Maths and Physics videos, each subject is more than 200 hours. So if someone sees all the videos diligently, takes notes and remembers, …… Done.

🙂

11 ) What is EAMCET ?

Ans :- Engineering Agriculture and Medicine Common Entrance Test is conducted by JNT University Hyderabad on behalf of APSCHE. This examination is the gateway for entry into various professional courses offered in Government/Private Colleges in Andhra Pradesh.

12 ) In your videos are you covering other Exams apart from IIT ?

Ans : – Yes. See many videos made by solving problems of MPPET, Rajasthan / J&K CET, UPSEAT ( UPES Engineering Aptitude Test ), MHCET, BCECE ( Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination Board ), WB JEE etc

🙂

13 ) What is SCRA ?

Ans : – Special Class Railway Apprentice (SCRA) exam is conducted by Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) board, for about 10 seats.That translates into an astonishing ratio of 1 selection per 10,000 applicants. The SCRA scheme was started in 1927 by the British, to select a handful of most intelligent Indians to assist them in their Railway Operations, after training at their Railway’s largest workshop, i.e. Jamalpur Workshop, and for one year in United Kingdom. The selected candidates were required to appear in the Mechanical Engineering Degree Examination held by Engineering Council (London).

Thanks for your time. To become my friend in google+ ( search me as mokshya@gmail.com and send friend request )

Read http://edge.org/responses/what-scientific-concept-would-improve-everybodys-cognitive-toolkit
🙂
The following video is a must see for full CO2 cycle, plates of Earth, Geological activities, stability of weather

🙂
Article in Nature says CO2 increase is good for the trees
http://thegwpf.org/science-news/6086-co2-is-greening-the-planet-savannahs-soon-to-be-covered-by-forests.html
🙂
http://climaterealists.com/index.php?id=9752

BBC documentary Crescent and Cross shows the 1000 years of fight between Christians and Muslims. Millions have been killed in the name of Religion. To decided whose GOD is better, and which GOD to follow. The fight continues.

Summary of Women

🙂
The Virus of Faith

🙂
The God delusion

🙂
cassiopeia facts about evolution

Intermediate Fossil records shown and explained nicely Fossils, Genes, and Embryos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fdpMrE7BdHQ

The Rise Of Narcissism In Women

🙂
13 type of women whom you should never court
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/relationships/man-woman/13-Women-you-should-never-court/articleshow/14637014.cms

🙂
Media teaching Misandry in India

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-M2txSbOPIo

Summary of problems with women
http://problemwithwomentoday.blogspot.in/2009/12/problem-with-women-today-what-in-hell.html

🙂
Eyeopener men ? women only exists
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ZAuqkqxk9A

🙂
Each of you is an Activist in some way or other. You are trying to propagate those thoughts, ideas that you feel concerned / excited about.

Did you analyze your effectiveness ?

Culturomics can help you

😀
see how biased women are. Experimental proof. Women are happy when they see another woman is beating a man ( see how women misbehave with men )

🙂
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LlFAd4YdQks

see detailed statistics at

An eye opener in Misandry

My sincere advice would be to be EXTREMELY careful ( and preferably away ) of girls. As girls age; statistically certain behavior in them has been observed. Most Male can NOT manage those behaviors… Domestic violence, divorce etc are rising very fast. Almost in all cases boys / males are HUGE loosers. Be extremely choosy ( and think from several angles ) before even talking to a girl.
🙂
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/save-the-male/

🙂

How women manipulate men
http://www.angryharry.com/esWomenManipulateMen.htm

Gender Biased Laws in India
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/biased-laws/

🙂

Violence against Men

🙂

Only men are victimised

Men are BETTER than women
http://www.menarebetterthanwomen.com/
🙂

see

🙂

Male Psychology

Women are more violent than men
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/women-are-more-violent-says-study-622388.html

🙂

In the year 2010, 168 men ended their lives everyday ( on average ). More husbands committed suicide than wives.
🙂

http://www.rediff.com/news/report/ncrb-stats-show-more-married-men-committing-suicide/20111028.htm

It is EXTREMELY unfortunate that media projects men as fools, women as superiors, Husbands as servants, and replaceable morons. In ad after ad worldwide from so many companies, similar msg to disintegrate the world is being bombarded. It is highly unacceptable misandry

🙂

It is NOT at all funny that media shows violence against MEN. Some advertisers are trying to create a new ” Socially acceptable culture ” of slapping Men ( by modern city women ). We ( all men ) take objection to these advertisements.
We oppose this Misandry bad culture. Please share to increase awareness against Men bashing

🙂

Think what are you doing … why are you doing ?

Every Man must know this …

🙂
Manginas, White Knights, & Other Chivalrous Dogs

!
!
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(.(.(____)….`.#.´..(____).).)

 

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key words

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receptors reduction regioselectivity retro reaction rhodium ring closure ring contraction ring expansion ring opening ruthenium samarium scandium Schiff bases selenium self-assembly silicon sodium solid-phase synthesis solvent effects spectroscopy sphingolipids spiro compounds stereoselective synthesis stereoselectivity steric hindrance steroids Stille reaction substituent effects sulfates sulfonamides sulfones sulfoxides sulfur supported catalysis supramolecular tandem reaction tautomerism terpenoids thioacetals thiols tin titanium total synthesis transesterification transition metals transition states tungsten Umpolung vinylidene complexes vitamins Wacker reaction Wittig reaction ylides zeolites zinc BRST Quantization Effective field theories Field Theories Higher Dimensions Field Theories Lower Dimensions Large Extra Dimensions Lattice Quantum Field Theory Nonperturbative Effects Renormalization Group Renormalization Regularization skmclasses.weebly.com Renormalons Sigma Models 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delocalised electrons, bonded together strong metallic bonds greenhouse effect process IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com absorption subsequent emission infrared radiation atmospheric gases warms lower atmosphere planet’s surface group vertical column Periodic Table Elements group IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com similar chemical properties skmclasses.weebly.com atoms skmclasses.weebly.comnumber outer shell electrons Hess law reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one route skmclasses.weebly.com initial final conditions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com total enthalpy change skmclasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com route heterogeneous catalysis reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com catalyst IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com different physical state reactants; frequently, reactants IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com gases whilst catalyst solid heterolytic fission breaking covalent bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com both bonded electrons going IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one atoms, forming cation (+ ion) skmclasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com anion ion homogeneous catalysis reaction catalyst skmclasses.weebly.com reactants physical state, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com frequently aqueous gaseous state homologous series series organic compounds IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com functional group, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com successive member differing homolytic fission breaking covalent bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one bonded electrons going IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom, forming two radicals hydrated Crystalline skmclasses.weebly.com containing water molecules hydrocarbon compound hydrogen skmclasses.weebly.com carbon hydrogen bond strong dipole attraction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron deficient hydrogen atom (O H on different molecule hydrolysis reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com water aqueous hydroxide ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com breaks chemical compound skmclasses two compounds initiation first step radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com free radicals generated ultraviolet radiation intermolecular force attractive force IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com neighbouring molecules Intermolecular forces van der Waals’ forces induced dipole ces permanent dipole forces hydrogen bonds ion positively negatively charge atom covalently bonded group atoms molecular ion ionic bonding electrostatic attraction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oppositely charged ions first) ionisation energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com remove one electron IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole gaseous 2+ ions second) ionisation energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com remove one electron IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole gaseous 2+ ions successive ionisation measure energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com remove IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron Chemistry energy second ionisation energy energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one electron IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole gaseous 2+ ions isotopes Atoms skmclasses.weebly.com element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different numbers neutrons different masses le Chatelier’s principle system dynamic equilibrium subjected change position equilibrium will shift minimise change limiting reagent substance chemical reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com runs out first lone pair outer shell pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com involved chemical bonding mass nucleon number particles protons aneutrons) nucleus mechanism sequence steps showing path taken electrons reaction metallic bond electrostatic attraction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com positive metal ions adelocalised electrons molar mass substance units molar mass IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molar volume IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com mole gas. units molar volume IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com dm room temperature skmclasses.weebly.com pressure molar volume approximately 24.0 substance containing IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com many particles thereIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atoms exactly 12 g carbon isotope molecular formula number atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element molecule molecular ion M positive ion formed mass spectrometry IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecule loses electron molecule small group atoms held together covalent bonds monomer small molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com combines IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com monomers polymer nomenclature system naming compounds nucleophile atom group atoms attracted electron deficient centre atom donates pair electrons covalent bond nucleophilic substitution type substitution reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com nucleophile attracted electron deficient centre atom, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com donates pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com new covalent bond oxidation Loss electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com increase oxidation number oxidation number measure number electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom uses bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atoms another element. Oxidation numbers IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com derive d rules oxidising agent reagent IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oxidises (takes electrons from) another species percentage yield period horizontal row elements Periodic Table Elements show trends properties across period periodicity regular periodic variation properties elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atomic number position Periodic Table permanent dipole small charge difference across bond resulting IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com difference electronegativities bonded atoms permanent dipole dipole force attractive force IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com permanent dipoles neighbouring polar molecules pi bond (p bond reactive part double bond formed above skmclasses.weebly.com below plane bonded atoms sideways overlap p orbitalspolar covalent bond bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com permanent dipole polar molecule molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com overall dipole skmclasses account dipoles across bonds polymer long molecular chain built monomer units precipitation reaction formation solid solution during chemical reaction Precipitates IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two aqueous solutions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com mixed together principal quantum number n number representing relative overall energy orbital IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com increases distance nucleus sets orbitals IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com value IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com electron shells energy levels propagation two repeated radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com build up products chain reaction radical species unpaired electron rate reaction change concentration reactant product redox reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reduction skmclasses.weebly.com oxidation take IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reducing agent reagent IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reduces (adds electron to) species reduction Gain electrons decrease oxidation number yield actual amount mol product theoretical amount mol product Chemistry reflux continual boiling skmclasses.weebly.com condensing reaction mixture ensure IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com without contents flask boiling dry relative atomic mass weighted mean mass atom element compared one twelfth mass IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom carbon relative formula mass weighted mean mass formula unit compared IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one twelfth mass atom carbon relative isotopic mass mass atom isotope compared IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one twelfth mass atom carbon relative molecular mass weighted mean mass molecule compared twelfth mass atom carbon 12 repeat unit specific arrangement atom s IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com occurs structure over over again. Repeat units IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com included brackets outside IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com symbol n Salt chemical compound formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com acid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com H+ ion acid IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com been replaced metal ion another positive ion such IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com ammonium ion, NH saturated hydrocarbon IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com single bonds only shell group atomic orbitals IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com principal quantum number known main energy level simple molecular lattice three dimensional structure molecules, bonded together weak intermolecular forces skeletal formula simplified organic formula, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hydrogen atoms removed alkyl chains, leaving carbon skeleton skmclasses.weebly.com associated functional groups species particle IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com part chemical reaction specific heat capacity, c energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com raise temperature 1 g substance 1 C spectator ions Ions present part chemical reaction standard conditions pressure 100 kPa 1 atmosphere stated temperature usually 298 K (25 °C), skmclasses.weebly.com concentration 1 mol dm reactions aqueous solutions standard enthalpies enthalpystandard solution solution known concentration Standard solutions normally IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com titrations IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com determine unknown information another substance Chemistry standard state physical state substance under standard conditions 100 kPa 1 atmosphere) skmclasses.weebly.com 298 K 25 C stereoisomers Compounds skmclasses.weebly.com structural formula IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different arrangement atoms space stoichiometry molar relationship IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com relative quantities substances part reaction stratosphere second layer Earth’s atmosphere, containing ‘ozone layer’, about 10 km IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com 50 km above Earth’s surface structural formula formula showing minimal detail skmclasses.weebly.com arrangement atoms molecule structural isomers Molecules IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com molecular formula different structural arrangements atoms subshell group skmclasses.weebly.com type atomic orbitals s, p, d f within shell substitution reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom group atoms replaced different atom group atoms termination step end radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two radicals combine IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecule thermal decomposition breaking chemical substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com heat skmclasses least two chemical substances troposphere lowest layer Earth’s atmosphere extending Earth’s surface about 7 km (above poles) about 20 km above tropics unsaturated hydrocarbon hydrocarbon containing carbon carbon multiple bonds van der Waals’ forces Very weak attractive forces IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com induced dipoles neighbouring molecules volatility ease IITJEE 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actinium (89) skmclasses.weebly.com lawrencium (103 activated complex – structure IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com forms because collisionIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecules new bondsvIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com formed activation energy – minimum energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com must be inputIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com chemical system activity series actual yield addition reaction – within organic chemistry, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecules combineIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com larger aeration mixing air skmclasses liquid solid alkali metals metals Group 1 on periodic table alkaline earth metals – metals Group 2 on periodic table allomer substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comdifferent composition another skmclasses.weebly.comcrystalline structure allotropy elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different structures skmclasses.weebly.com therefore different forms IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com Carbon diamonds, graphite, skmclasses.weebly.com fullerene anion negatively charge ions anode – positive side dry cell battery cell aromaticity – chemical property conjugated rings IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com results unusual stability. See IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com benzene atom – chemical element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com smallest form, skmclasses.weebly.com made up neutrons skmclasses.weebly.comprotons within nucleus skmclasses.weebly.comelectrons circling nucleus atomic mass unit atomic number number representing IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com corresponds IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com number protons within nucleus atomic orbital region IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron atom may be found atomic radius average atomic mass Avogadro’s law Avogadro’s number number particles mole substance ( 6.02×10^23 ) barometer deviceIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com measure pressure atmosphere base substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com accepts proton skmclasses.weebly.com high pH; common example sodium hydroxide (NaOH biochemistry chemistry organisms boiling phase transition liquid vaporizing boiling point temperature IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com substance startsIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com boil boiling-point elevation process IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com boiling point elevated adding substance bond – attraction skmclasses.weebly.com repulsion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atoms skmclasses.weebly.com molecules IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com cornerstone Boyle’s law Brønsted-Lowrey acid chemical species IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com donates proton Brønsted–Lowry acid–base reaction Brønsted-Lowrey base – chemical species IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com accepts proton buffered solution – IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com aqueous solution consisting weak acid skmclasses.weebly.comits conjugate base weak base skmclasses.weebly.comits conjugate acid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com resists changes pH IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com strong acids basesIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com added burette (IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com buret glasswareIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com dispense specific amounts liquid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com precision necessary titration skmclasses.weebly.com resource dependent reactions example combustion catalyst chemical compoundIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com change rate IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com speed up slow down reaction,IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com regenerated at end reaction cation – positively charged ion centrifuge equipmentIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com separate substances based on density rotating tubes around centred axis cell potential force galvanic cell IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com pulls electron through reducing agentIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oxidizing agent chemical Law certain rules IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com pertain IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com laws nature skmclasses.weebly.comchemistry – examples chemical reaction – change one IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com substances skmclassesanother multiple substances colloid mixture evenly dispersed substances such IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comm milks combustion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com exothermic reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oxidant skmclasses.weebly.comfuel IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com heat skmclasses.weebly.comoften light compound – substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com made up two IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com chemically bonded elements condensation phase changeIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com gasIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com liquid conductor material IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com allows electric flow IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com freely covalent bond – chemical bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com involves sharing electrons crystal solid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com packed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ions, molecules atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com orderly fashion cuvette glasswareIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com spectroscopic experiments. usually made plastic glass quartz skmclasses.weebly.comshould be IITJEE possible deionization removal ions, skmclasses.weebly.com water’s case mineral ions such IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comsodium, iron skmclasses.weebly.comcalcium deliquescence substances IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com absorb water IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atmosphereIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com liquid solutions deposition – settling particles within solution mixture dipole electric magnetic separation charge dipole moment – polarity polar covalent bond dissolution solvation – spread ions monosacharide double bond sharing two pairs electradodes Microcentrifuge Eppendorf tube IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Coomassie Blue solution earth metal – see alkaline earth metal electrolyte solution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com conducts certain amount current skmclasses.weebly.com split categorically IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com weak skmclasses.weebly.comstrong electrolytes electrochemical cell using chemical reaction’s current electromotive force made electromagnetic radiation type wave IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com through vacuums IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comwell IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.commaterial skmclasses.weebly.comclassified IITJEE 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skmclasses.weebly.comH entropy – amount energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com available skmclasses.weebly.com work closed thermodynamic system usually symbolized IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com S enzyme – protein IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com speeds up catalyses reaction Empirical Formula – IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com called simplest formula gives simplest whole -number ratio atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element present compound eppendorf tube – generalized skmclasses.weebly.comtrademarked term skmclasses.weebly.com type tube; see microcentrifuge freezing – phase transitionIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com liquidIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com solid Faraday constant unit electrical charge widelyIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrochemistry skmclasses.weebly.comequalIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ~ 96,500 coulombs represents 1 mol electrons, Avogadro number electrons: 6.022 × 1023 electrons. F = 96 485.339 9(24) C/mol Faraday’s law electrolysis two part law IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Michael Faraday published about electrolysis mass substance altered at IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrode during electrolysis directly proportionalIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com quantity electricity transferred at IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrode mass IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com elemental material altered at IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrode directly proportionalIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element’s equivalent weight frequency number cyclesIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com unit time. Unit: 1 hertz = 1 cycleIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com 1 second galvanic cell battery made up electrochemical IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two different metals connected salt bridge gas particles container IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com no definite shape volume geochemistry – chemistry skmclasses.weebly.comchemical composition Earth Gibbs energy – value IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com indicates spontaneity reaction usually symbolized G Cavalier India, Kalyan Nagar halogens Group 7 Periodic Table skmclasses.weebly.comare non-metals heat energy transferredIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one systemIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com another thermal interaction jodium – Latin name halogen element iodine Joule SI I.M.S. Learning Resources Pvt. 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IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com called “visible light London dispersion forces weak intermolecular force Law Motion object motion stay motion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com object rest stays rest unless IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com unbalanced force acts molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one key components within chemistry Metal Chemical element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com good conductor both electricity skmclasses.weebly.comheat skmclasses.weebly.comforms cations skmclasses.weebly.comionic bonds IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com non-metals melting phase changeIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com solidIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com liquid metalloid substance possessing both properties metals skmclasses.weebly.comnon-metals methylene blue heterocyclic aromatic chemical compound IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecular formula C16H18N3SCl microcentrifuge plastic container IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com store small amounts liquid mole – abbreviated mol measurement IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com amount substance single mole contains approximately 6.022×1023 units entities mole water contains 6.022×1023 H2O molecules molecule chemically I Beacons Academy, Jaya Nagar 4th Block bonded number atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrically neutral molecular orbital region mIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron found molecule opposed atom neat Alchemy India Services Pvt. 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33, Sector IV HSR Layout, Bangalore hydrolysis hydrosilylation hydrostannation hyperconjugation imides imines indium indoles induction inhibitors insertion iodine ionic liquids iridium iron isomerization The Brigade International School , Brigade Millenium JP Nagar Brigade Millenium, JP Nagar Bangalore ketones kinetic resolution lactams lactones lanthanides Lewis acids ligands lipids lithiation lithium macrocycles magnesium manganese Mannich bases medicinal chemistry metalation metallacycles metallocenes metathesis Michael addition Mitsunobu reaction molecular recognition molybdenum multicomponent reaction nanostructures natural products neighboring-group effects nickel nitriles nitrogen nucleobases nucleophiles nucleophilic addition nucleophilic National Centre For Excellence 154/1, “Victorian Enclave”, 5th Main, Malleshpalya, Bangalore aromatic substitution nucleosides nucleotides olefination oligomerization oligonucleotides oligosaccharides organometallic reagents osmium oxidation oxygen oxygenations ozonolysis palladacycles palladium peptides pericyclic reaction peroxides phase-transfer catalysis phenols pheromones phosphates phosphorus phosphorylation Adugodi Aga Abbas Ali Road Agaram Agrahara Dasara Halli Agrahara Dasarahalli Airport Exit Road Airport Main Road Airport Road Akkipet Ali Askar Road Alur Venkatarao Road Amarjyothi Layout Amruth Nagar Amrutha Halli Ananda Nagar Anandrao Circle Anche Palya Ane Palya Anekal Anjana Nagar Anubhava Nagar APMC Yard Arabic College Arakere Arcot Sreenivasachar Street Ashok Nagar Ashwath Nagar Attibele Attiguppe Austin Town Avala Halli Avenue Road B. Narayanapura Babusahib Palya Bagalagunte Bagalur Balaji Nagar Balepet Banashankari Banashankari 1st Stage Banashankari 2nd Stage Banashankari 3rd Stage Banaswadi Banaswadi Ring Road Bangalore G.P.O Bannerghatta Bannerghatta Road Bapuji Nagar Basappa Circle Basava Nagar Basavanagudi Basaveshwara Nagar Basaveshwara Nagar 2nd Stage Basaveshwara Nagar 3rd Block Basaveshwara Nagar 3rd Stage Basaveshwara Road Bazaar Street Begur BEL Road Bellandur Bellandur Outer Ring Road Bellary Road BEML Layout Benagana Halli Bendre Nagar Benson Town Bharati Nagar Bhattara Halli Bhoopasandra Bhuvaneshwari Nagar Bidadi Bileka Halli Bilekahalli Binny Mill Road Bismillah Nagar Bommana Halli Bommanahalli Kendriya Vidyalaya Malleswaram 18th Cross Malleswaram Bangalore Bommasandra Bommasandra Industrial Area Brigade Road Brindavan Nagar Brookefield Brunton Road BTM 1st Stage BTM 2nd Stage Bull Temple Road Palace Orchards/Sadashivnagar area located north city centre IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com property prices higher brackets possibly IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com up-market residential area in Bangalore M.G. Road/Brigade Road M.G. Road skmclasses.weebly.comBrigade Road main commercial areas Bangalore. Residential areas nearbyIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Brunton Road Rest House Road, St. Mark’s Road skmclasses.weebly.comLavelle Road Airport Road/Indiranagar eastern suburb, Indiranagar is easily accessible IITJEE city centre skmclasses.weebly.com Airport Koramangala Located south Indiranagar, Koramangala quite favourite IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IT professionals Despite 7 kmsIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com city centre, property values Ulsoor scenic man-made lake Ulsoor seen a spurt building activity last few years.IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com proximityIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com M.G Road jacked up property prices here Jayanagar/J.P. Nagar/Banashankari proximity areas Electronic City main reason skmclasses.weebly.comtheir growth recent past Jayanagar largest colonies Asia skmclasses.weebly.comthese areas popular areas Bangalore. Jayanagara originally namedIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Sri Jayachamarajendra wodeyar last king Mysore. 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Malleswaram PSBB Learning Leadership Academy
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Hardinge Road old name Pampa Mahakavi Road. sometime, Cunningham Road crowded bazaar being called Sampangi Ramaswamy Temple Road Race Course Road became Devraj Urs Road National Public School, Rajajinagar 1036-A, Purandarapura, V Block, Rajajinagar, Bangalore skmclasses.weebly.comGrant Road became Vittal Mallya Road IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two Vittal Mallya Roads skmclasses bund Sampangi Tank Kanteerava Stadium Gear Innovative International School GEAR Road, Doddakannelli, Off Sarjapur Road & Outer Ring Road, Bangalore IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com built MacIver Town Shantala Nagar Assayee Road Meanee Road those names commemoration wars fought Madras New Horizon Gurukul Ring Road Marathalli, Behind New Horizon College of Engineering, Bangalore , Bangalore IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com Sappers, BGS National Public School Ramalingeshwara Cave Temple Hulimavu, Bangalore IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Presidency School (Bangalore – East) CA Site 7P1A, 2nd A Main, 3rd A cross, East of NGEF Layout, Kasturinagar, Bangalore British Army against Marathas first decade 19th century Basavanagudi, meaning temple Basava skmclasses.weebly.com big bull situated area reason behind naming area Basavanagudi extension skmclassesformed around 1900. 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Innovation Mall, JP Nagar 3rd Phase Chandapura Chandra Layout Global Academy For Learning Sri Chowdeshwari Farm, Near Global Village IT Park, National Public School, HSR Layout P2/32, Sector 4, HSR Layout Bangalore Pattanagere Main Road, Rajarajeshwarinagar, Bangalore Chickpet Chikkabanavara Chikkadugodi Chikkallasandra Chikkamavalli Cholara Palya Chowdeshwari Temple Street Chunchagatta Church Street Clevelskmclasses.weebly.com Town CMH Road Coles Park Commercial Street Commissariat Road Cooke Town Corporation Circle Cottonpet Cox Town Crescent Road Cubbon Park Cubbon Road Cubbonpet Cunningham Road Dairy Circle Dasara Halli Dasarahalli Devaiah Park Devana Halli Devanahalli Devara Chikkana Halli Devara Jeevana Halli Devasandra Dharmaram College Dickenson Road Dispensary Road Dodda Banaswadi Dodda Bommasandra Dodda Kallasandra Dodda Kanna Hally Dodda Mavalli Doddaballapur Road Doddaballapura Doddana Kundi Dollars Colony Domlur Domlur 2nd Stage Domlur Ring Road Dooravani Nagar Dr. Ambedkar Veedhi Dr. DVG Road Delhi Public School, South 11 K.M., kanakapura Road Konanakunte Post, Bangalore Dr. Raj Kumar Road Dr. TCM Royan Road Ejipura Electronic City Field Marshal Cariappa Road Frazer Town Ganapathi Nagar Gandhi Bazaar Gandhi Nagar Ganga Nagar Gangadhar Chetty Road Ganigarpet Garvebhavi Palya Gavipuram Extension Gayathri Nagar Geddala Halli Geddalahalli Giri Nagar Giri Nagar 1st Phase Giri Nagar 2nd Phase GM Palya Gokula Golf Course Road Gorgunte Palya Govindaraj Nagar Green Park Extension, Guddada Halli Gundopanth Street National Public School, Indiranagar 12 A Main HAL II Stage, Bangalore H.Siddaiah Road Haines Road HAL HAL 2nd Stage HAL 3rd Stage HAL Airport Road Hampi Nagar Hanumantha Nagar Hayes Road HBR Layout Hebbal Kempapura Hebbal Ring Road Hegde Nagar Heggana Halli Hennur Hesaraghatta HKP Road HMT Layout Hongasandra Hoody Horamavu Hosakere Halli photochemistry photooxidation piperidines polyanions polycations polycycles polymers Porphyrins prostaglandins 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Training iPhone Development Training Mobile Application Testing Training Mobile Gaming Training Mobile Application Development Training Oakridge International School Oakridge International School, Sarjapur Road, , Bangalore School of India, Bannerghatta, Bangalore Delhi Public School DPS North Campus, Yelahanka, Bangalore Jain International Residential School (JIRS), Jakkasandra Post, Bangalore Delhi Public School (DPS East), Sarjapur, Bangalore TREAMIS World School, Electronics City, Bangalore South Delhi Public School (South), Kanakapura Road, Bangalore The Deen’s Academy, Whitefield, Bangalore National Public School (NPS), Koramangala, Bangalore Royale Concorde International School, Kalyan Nagar, Bangalore Freedom International School, HSR Layout, Bangalore Air Force School Army Public School Bangalore Military School BGS International School Cambridge Public School Delhi Public School Deva Matha Central School Jain International Residential School Kendriya Vidyalaya A M C School 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for Excellence Capitol Public School CMR National Public School Delhi Public School East, South, North Edify School EuroSchool Freedom International School Geethanjali Montessori Geethanjali Vidhyalaya Gitanjali International School GISB Greengrove International School Gomathy Global School Harvest International School JSS Public School Kendriya Vidyalaya KV Manipal Tattva School Mirambika School for New Age NITTE International School National Centre for Excellence NCFE National Public School New Horizon Gurukul NHG Oakridge International School Presidency School PSBB LLA Padma Seshadri Bal Bhavan Radcliffe School Ravindra Bharathi Global School Sadhguru Sainath International School SSI Sri Kumaran Childrens Home Sunrise International Residential School Sujaya School The Samhita Academy Vagdevi Vilas School Venkat International Public School VIPS Vyasa International School Zee School IGCSE Syllabus Asia Pacific World School Krupanidhi Cambridge International School Candor International School Ekya School Gitanjali International GISB Greengrove International School Gomathy Global School Gopalan International School Harvest International School India International School (IIS) Oakridge International School Primus School Shibumi Trio World School International Baccalaureate IB Candor International School Oakridge International School (IB-PYP) State Board Amaatra Academy Lawrence School-State Board Paradise Residential School Primus School St. Francis De Sales (SFS) High School Sri Kumaran Childrens Home St Francis School Vagdevi Vilas School Special Schools Sri Rakum School for the blind Mirambika School for New Age Sri Aurobindo Shibumi (J. Krishnamurthi Aurinko Academy Chetana Kini Institute Samarthanam Residential School XSeed Schools Mirambika School New Age Sri Aurobindo Mother Teresa Public School curriculum Chrysalis High List of Schools Achievers International Academy ACTS Secondary School Amaatra Academy Amar Jyothi School Amrita Vidyalayam Army Public School Asia Pacific World School Aurinko Academy B Mona High School Baldwin Boys High School Baldwin Girls High School Bangalore International School Bangalore School Bethany High Bethany Junior School BGS-NPS School Bishop Cotton Boys School Bishop Cotton Girls School Brigade School British International School BRS Global Centre for Excellence BVM Global Cambridge Public School Candor International School Capitol Public School Cathedral High School Chinmaya Vidyalaya Christ Academy Chrysalis High CMR National Public School Delhi Public School Deva Matha Central School Edify School Ekya School EuroSchool Freedom International School Gear School Geethanjali Montessori Geethanjali Vidhyalaya Gitanjali International (GISB) Global Indian International School Gnan Srishti School Gomathy Global School Gopalan School Green County Public School Greengrove International School Greenwood High Harvest International School India International School Innisfree House School JSS Public School Kendriya Vidyalaya (KV) Lawrence School ICSE Lawrence School-State Magnolia Maaruti Public School Manipal Tattva School Mirambika School for New Age Mother Teresa Public School National Centre for Excellence National Hill View Public School National Public School New Horizon Gurukul New Horizon Public School Nitte International School Notre Dame Academy Oakridge International School Oxford Public School Parachute Regiment School Paradise Residential School Patel Public School Podar International School Prakriya Green Wisdom School Presidency School Primus School PSBB LLA Radcliffe School Ravindra Bharathi Global School Ryan International School Sadhguru Sainath International School Samarthanam Residential School SFS High School Sherwood High Shibumi Silver Oaks Sishu Griha Sri Chaitanya Techno School Sri Kumaran Childrens Home Sri Rakum School for the blind St Francis School St Johns High School St Mira School St Thomas Public School St. Patrick’s Academy St. Peters School Sujaya School Sunrise International Residential School The Samhita Academy Trio World School Vagdevi Vilas School Venkat International Public School Vibgyor High Vidyaniketan School Vyasa International School Whitefield Global School Xseed Pre-School Zee School
Primary Years Programme Colegio Anglo Mexicano MEXICO Milgate Primary School, AUSTRALIA Diploma Programme Australian International School Indonesia Pejaten Campus INDONESIA Instituto Educativa Fiscomisional Celina Vivar Espinosa, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Juan de Salinas, ECUADOR Primary Years Programme Academia Moderna Charter, UNITED STATES Beacon School BRAZIL Dr. Orlando Edreira Academy, School 26, UNITED STATES Westhill Institute Carpatos Elementary Campus, MEXICO Westhill Institute, S.C. MEXICO Middle Years Programme Cooper Academy, UNITED STATES European International School VIETNAM Mark Bills Middle School UNITED STATES Mount Washington School UNITED STATES UCSI International School MALAYSIA Diploma Programme Cass Technical High School, UNITED STATES Colegio Experimental Juan Montalvo, ECUADOR Colegio Miguel Moreno Ordoñez de Cuenca ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Ibarra ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Mariano Benítez ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Velasco Ibarra, ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Veracruz, ECUADOR Colegio Pedro Vicente Maldonado ECUADOR Colegio Técnico 12 de Febrero, ECUADOR Colegio Técnico Fiscomisional Ecuador Amazónico, ECUADOR Colegio de Bachillerato Limón ECUADOR King Fahd Academy Bonn GERMANY Saudi Schools Moscow RUSSIAN FEDERATION Unidad Educativa 17 de Julio ECUADOR Unidad Educativa 12 de Febrero ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Bernardo Valdivieso ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Dayuma ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Federico González Suárez ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Fiscomisional Fray Bartolomé de las Casas ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Fiscomisional Juan Pablo II ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Fiscomisional San José de Calasanz ECUADOR Unidad Educativa León Ruales ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Nacional Napo ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Temporal Camilo Gallegos Dominguez ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Temporal Manuel Córdova Galarza ECUADOR Primary Years Programme Campus International School, UNITED STATES Carl Hankey K-8 School UNITED STATES Christa McAuliffe Elementary School UNITED STATES Goethe International Charter School , UNITED STATES Hammond Eastside Elementary Magnet School, UNITED STATES Hawthorne Elementary School UNITED STATES Idlewild Elementary School, UNITED STATES J. Colin English Elementary UNITED STATES Jose de Escandon Elementary, UNITED STATES Lincoln Elementary School, UNITED STATES Qingdao Amerasia International School CHINA Roland Park K-8 Magnet School for International Studies, UNITED STATES Theodore Roosevelt Elementary School, UNITED STATES Woodrow Wilson Elementary UNITED STATES Middle Years Programme Cache La Poudre Middle School, UNITED STATES Carl Hankey K-8 School, UNITED STATES Cedar Shoals High School UNITED STATES Concord High School, UNITED STATES Harry Stone Montessori Academy, UNITED STATES International School of Monterey, UNITED STATES Johnnie R. Carr Middle School, UNITED STATES Prairie Seeds Academy, UNITED STATES Roland Park K-8 Magnet School, UNITED STATES Sterling Middle School UNITED STATES The Aga Khan Academy, Hyderabad, INDIA Diploma Programme Ausangate Bilingual School PERU Author’s School Istochnik RUSSIAN FEDERATION Colegio Fiscal Técnico El Chaco ECUADOR Colegio Juan Bautista Montini ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Ciudad de Cuenca ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Experimental Salcedo, ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Machachi, ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Mixto El Playon, ECUADOR Colegio Técnico Cascales, ECUADOR Dar al Marefa Private School, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Escola Internacional del Camp SPAIN Gymnasium Jovan Jovanovic Zmaj SERBIA ISTEK Private Acibadem Schools TURKEY Instituto Superior Tecnológico Carlos Cisneros ECUADOR Instituto Superior Tecnológico Daniel Alvarez Burneo ECUADOR Instituto Técnico Superior Isabel de Godin ECUADOR King Abdulaziz Saudi School Rome ITALY Riga State Gymnasium Nr. 2 LATVIA Saudi School Vienna AUSTRIA State IS Seeheim Jugenheim/Schuldorf Bergstrasse GERMANY Unidad Educativa Bolívar, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Abelardo Moncayo, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Fiscomisional Verbo Divino, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Mayor ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Nueva Semilla, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Temporal Juan Bautista Vásquez, ECUADOR Primary Years Programme Ajman Academy UNITED ARAB EMIRATES British International School Kiev UKRAINE Cache La Poudre Elementary School, UNITED STATES Dr. Thomas S. O Connell Elementary School UNITED STATES Gems World Academy Abu Dhabi UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Hebron-Harman Elementary School, UNITED STATES International School of Solothurn, SWITZERLAND Lisa-Junior Primary School AUSTRIA Madison Richard Simis Elementary School, UNITED STATES Miina Härma Gümnaasium, ESTONIA Riffenburgh Elementary School UNITED STATES Roscoe Wilson Elementary School, UNITED STATES Singapore International School INDIA William H. Wharton K-8 Dual Language Academy UNITED STATES World Academy of Tirana, ALBANIA École Centrale, CANADA École Micheline-Brodeur CANADA École Saint-Édouard, CANADA École élémentaire catholique Jean-Paul II CANADA Özel Istanbul Coskun Koleji Anaokulu & Ilkokulu TURKEY Middle Years Programme Abraham Lincoln Middle School UNITED STATES Beijing Huijia Private School CHINA Cakir Middle School TURKEY Durango High School UNITED STATES Emirates IS Meadows, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Madison International School, MEXICO Meadow Park Middle School, UNITED STATES North Central High School, UNITED STATES Phuket International Academy Day School THAILAND Ray Wiltsey Middle School UNITED STATES Rockridge Secondary School CANADA School Lane Charter School UNITED STATES Strothoff International School Rhein-Main Campus Dreieich GERMANY Tsukuba International School JAPAN École Père-Marquette, CANADA École secondaire Saint-Luc, CANADA Diploma Programme Anania Shirakatsy Armenian National Lyceum Ed’l Complex-CJSC, ARMENIA COLEGIO ALAUDA SPAIN Colegio Británico, MEXICO Colegio Nacional Camilo Gallegos Toledo ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Experimental Amazonas, ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Experimental María Angélica Idrobo, ECUADOR Colegio Nacional San José, ECUADOR Eastern Mediterranean International School, ISRAEL Emirates National School UNITED ARAB EMIRATES GEMS American Academy Abu Dhabi, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES German International School Sharjah UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Instituto Tecnológico Superior Angel Polibio Chaves, ECUADOR International School Moshi Arusha Campus TANZANIA, UNITED REPUBLIC OF International School of Bydgoszcz POLAND Ludoteca Elementary & High School, Padre Víctor Grados, ECUADOR Léman International School Chengdu CHINA Metropolitan School of Panama, PANAMA Munic. Atms. Educ. Institution Kogalym Secondary School ?8, RUSSIAN FEDERATION Phorms Bilingual Gymnasium, GERMANY Royal High School, UNITED STATES SIS Swiss International School Stuttgart-Fellbach, GERMANY Seedling Public School INDIA The British School of Beijing CHINA Unidad Educativa Fiscal Experimental del Milenio, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Juan de Velasco ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Tumbaco, ECUADOR École secondaire Gaétan Gervais, CANADA École secondaire Hanmer CANADA Stonehill International School American School of Bombay Mumbai Day school offering PYP MYP DP Dhirubhai Ambani International School Mumbai Day school offering DP Ecole Mondiale World School, Mumbai Day school offering DP Jamnabai Narsee School Mumbai Day school offering DP Ahmedabad International School Ahmedabad Day School offering PYP Mahatma Gandhi International School Ahmedabad Day school offering MYP Mahindra United World College of India Pune Boarding school offering DP Mercedes-Benz International School Pune American Embassy School Delhi Day school offering DP The British School, Delhi Day school offering DP Pathways World School, Gurgaon Boarding school offering PYP DP SelaQui World School, Dehra Dun Boarding school offering DP Canadian International School, Bangalore Mixed Boarding Day school offering DP International School of Bangalore, Bangalore Mixed Boarding Day school offering DP Oakridge International School Hyderabad Day school offering PYP Chinmaya International Residential School Coimbatore Boarding school offering DP Good Shepherd International School Ooty Boarding school offering DP Kodaikanal International School, Kodaikanal Boarding school offering DP Home Tuition Group teachers available small groupsstudents IB International Baccalaureate Programme, IGCSE, ISc, ICSE, CBSE Schools offering IB ( International Baccalaureate ) Programme Bangalore International School Geddalahalli Hennur Bagalur Road Kothanur Post Bengaluru India 560 077 Stonehill International School, 1st Floor, Embassy Point #150, Infantry Road Bengaluru 560 001 Stonehill International School 259/333/334/335 Tarahunise Post Jala Hobli, Bengaluru North 562157 Candor International School Begur Koppa Road, Hullahalli Off Bannerghatta Road, Near Electronic City Bangalore 560105 Greenwood High International School Bengaluru, No.8-14, Chickkawadayarapura, Near Heggondahalli Gunjur Post, Varthur Sarjapur Road, Bangalore 560087 Sarla Birla Academy, Bannerghatta, Bangalore, Canadian International School, Yelahanka, Bangalore Indus International School Billapura Cross Sarjapur Bangalore

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