NCERT CBSE Standard 12 Haloalkanes and HaloArenes Chapter 10 Organic Chemistry SKMClasses South Bangalore Subhashish Sir

Chapter 10 :

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10.1 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

10.1-1 Ans Haloalkanes

10.1-4,5 Ans Haloalkanes

10.1-6,7 Ans Haloalkanes

10.1-8,9 Ans Haloalkanes

10.1-10,11 Ans Haloalkanes

10.1-12 Ans Haloalkanes


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1 Periodic trend in Electrode potential-4


10.2 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

10.2-1,3 Ans Haloalkanes

10.2-4,5 Ans Haloalkanes

10.2-6 Ans Haloalkanes


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10.3 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

10.3-1,3 Ans Haloalkanes

10.3-4,6 Ans Haloalkanes

10.3-7,8 Ans Haloalkanes

10.4 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Ans : The dipole moments are calculated as follows

10.4-1 Ans Haloalkanes

10.4-2 Ans Haloalkanes

10.5 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Answer :

10.5-1 Ans Haloalkanes

10.6 Write the isomers of the compound having formula C4H9Br.

Ans :

10.6 Ans Haloalkanes


10.7 Write the equations for the preparation of 1-iodobutane from
(i) 1-butanol  (ii) 1-chlorobutane (iii) but-1-ene.

10.7 Ans Haloalkanes

10.8 What are ambident nucleophiles? Explain with an example.

10.8 Ans Ambidentate Nuleophile
10.9 Which compound in each of the following pairs will react faster in SN2 reaction
with –OH?
(i) CH3Br or CH3I (ii) (CH3)3CCl or CH3Cl

10.9 Ans SN2 reaction speed

10.10 Predict all the alkenes that would be formed by dehydrohalogenation of the
following halides with sodium ethoxide in ethanol and identify the major alkene:
(i) 1-Bromo-1-methylcyclohexane

10.10-1 Ans Haloalkanes

(ii) 2-Chloro-2-methylbutane

10.10-2 Ans Haloalkanes
(iii) 2,2,3-Trimethyl-3-bromopentane.

10.10-3-1 Ans Haloalkanes


10.11 How will you bring about the following conversions?
(i) Ethanol to but-1-yne

10.11-1 Ans Haloalkanes

(ii) Ethane to bromoethene

10.11-2 Ans Haloalkanes

(iii) Propene to 1-nitropropane

10.11-3 Ans Haloalkanes

(iv) Toluene to benzyl alcohol

10.11-4 Ans Haloalkanes

(v) Propene to propyne

10.11-5 Ans Haloalkanes
(vi) Ethanol to ethyl fluoride

10.11-6 Ans Haloalkanes

(vii) Bromomethane to propanone

10.11-7 Ans Haloalkanes

(viii) But-1-ene to but-2-ene

10.11-8 Ans Haloalkanes

(ix) 1-Chlorobutane to n-octane

10.11-9 Ans Haloalkanes

(x) Benzene to biphenyl

10.11-10 Ans Haloalkanes
10.12 Explain why
(i) the dipole moment of chlorobenzene is lower than that of cyclohexyl chloride?

Ans :

10.12-1 Ans Haloalkanes

(ii) alkyl halides, though polar, are immiscible with water?

Ans :

10.12-2 Ans Haloalkanes

(iii) Grignard reagents should be prepared under anhydrous conditions?

Ans :

10.12-3 Ans Haloalkanes

10.13 Give the uses of freon 12, DDT, carbon tetrachloride and iodoform

Ans :

10.13 Ans Haloalkanes

10.14 Haloalkenes

10.14 Ans Haloalkanes

10.14-2 Ans Haloalkanes

10.15 Haloalkenes

Ans :

10.15 Ans Haloalkanes

10.16 Haloalkenes 10.16-2 Haloalkenes

Ans :

10.16-1 Ans Haloalkanes

10.16-2 Ans Haloalkanes

10.16-3 Ans Haloalkanes

10.17 Haloalkenes

10.17 Ans Haloalkanes

10.18 p-Dichlorobenzene has higher m.p. and solubility than those of o- and m-isomers.

Ans :

10.18 Ans Haloalkanes



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10.19 How the following conversions can be carried out?
(i) Propene to propan-1-ol

Ans :

10.19-1 Ans Haloalkanes
(ii) Ethanol to but-1-yne

10.19-2 Ans Haloalkanes
(iii) 1-Bromopropane to 2-bromopropane

10.19-3 Ans Haloalkanes
(iv) Toluene to benzyl alcohol

10.19-4 Ans Haloalkanes
(v) Benzene to 4-bromonitrobenzene

10.19-5 Ans Haloalkanes
(vi) Benzyl alcohol to 2-phenylethanoic acid

10.19-6 Ans Haloalkanes
(vii) Ethanol to propanenitrile

10.19-7 Ans Haloalkanes
(viii) Aniline to chlorobenzene

10.19-8 Ans Haloalkanes
(ix) 2-Chlorobutane to 3, 4-dimethylhexane

10.19-9 Ans Haloalkanes
(x) 2-Methyl-1-propene to 2-chloro-2-methylpropane

10.19-10 Ans Haloalkanes
(xi) Ethyl chloride to propanoic acid

10.19-11 Ans Haloalkanes
(xii) But-1-ene to n-butyliodide

10.19-12 Ans Haloalkanes
(xiii) 2-Chloropropane to 1-propanol

10.19-13 Ans Haloalkanes
(xiv) Isopropyl alcohol to iodoform

10.19-14 Ans Haloalkanes
(xv) Chlorobenzene to p-nitrophenol

10.19-15 Ans Haloalkanes
(xvi) 2-Bromopropane to 1-bromopropane

10.19-16 Ans Haloalkanes
(xvii) Chloroethane to butane

10.19-17 Ans Haloalkanes
(xviii) Benzene to diphenyl


Benzene to biphenyl-1


4 Hantir opore


Option -1:

Treat benzene with oleum then treat product with sodium hydroxide and an acid then you can get phenol treat it with zinc chloride then you can have chloro benzene treat it with sodium in dry ether ” fittig reaction ” then you can have di phenyl

Option -2:

1) do nitration and convert benzene to nitro-benzene.2) treat it with 3 H2 and you’ll get Aniline. 3) treat Aniline with HONO/ conc. HCl and you’ll get benzene Di azonium chloride. (C6H5 -N2Cl)4) Now again treat it with benzene you’ll get Di- phenyl.(4)step is called Gambhar reaction.)

About Biphenyl –

Biphenyl (or diphenyl or phenylbenzene or 1,1′-biphenyl or lemonene) is an organic compound that forms colorless crystals. It has a distinctively pleasant smell. Biphenyl is an aromatic hydrocarbon with a molecular formula (C6H5)2. It is notable as a starting material for the production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which were once widely used as dielectric fluids and heat transfer agents. Biphenyl is also an intermediate for the production of a host of other organic compounds such as emulsifiers, optical brighteners, crop protection products, and plastics. Biphenyl is insoluble in water, but soluble in typical organic solvents. The biphenyl molecule consists of two connected phenyl rings.

Biphenyl is produced industrially as a byproduct of the dealkylation of toluene to produce benzene :

C6H5CH3 + C6H6 → C6H5-C6H5 + CH4

The other principal route is by the oxidative dehydrogenation of benzene

2 C6H6 + 1/2 O2 → C6H5-C6H5 + H2O

(xix) tert-Butyl bromide to isobutyl bromide

Tert Butyl Bromide to Isobutyl Bromide
(xx) Aniline to phenylisocyanide

Aniline to phenyl isocyanide

10.20 The treatment of alkyl chlorides with aqueous KOH leads to the formation of
alcohols but in the presence of alcoholic KOH, alkenes are major products. Explain.

Ans :

10.20 Ans Haloalkanes

10.21 Primary alkyl halide C4H9Br (a) reacted with alcoholic KOH to give compound (b).
Compound (b) is reacted with HBr to give (c) which is an isomer of (a). When
(a) is reacted with sodium metal it gives compound (d), C8H18 which is different
from the compound formed when n-butyl bromide is reacted with sodium.
Give the structural formula of (a) and write the equations for all the reactions.

10.21-1 Ans Haloalkanes 10.21-2 Ans Haloalkanes

10.22 What happens when
(i) n-butyl chloride is treated with alcoholic KOH,

Ans :

10.22-1 Ans Haloalkanes
(ii) bromobenzene is treated with Mg in the presence of dry ether,

10.22-2 Ans Haloalkanes
(iii) chlorobenzene is subjected to hydrolysis

10.22-3 Ans Haloalkanes
(iv) ethyl chloride is treated with aqueous KOH

10.22-4 Ans Haloalkanes

(v) methyl bromide is treated with sodium in the presence of dry ether

10.22-5 Ans Haloalkanes

(vi) methyl chloride is treated with KCN?

10.22-6 Ans Haloalkanes



Halogenated compounds persist in the environment due to their resistance to breakdown by soil bacteria.

The replacement of hydrogen atom(s) in a hydrocarbon, aliphatic or aromatic, by halogen atom(s) results in the formation of alkyl halide (haloalkane) and aryl halide (haloarene), respectively. Haloalkanes contain halogen atom(s) attached to the sp3 hybridised carbon atom of an alkyl group whereas haloarenes contain halogen atom(s) attached to sp2 hybridised carbon atom(s) of an aryl group. Many halogen containing organic compounds occur in nature and some of these are clinically useful. These classes of compounds find wide applications in industry as well as in day-to-day life. They are used as solvents for relatively non-polar compounds and as starting materials for the synthesis of wide range of organic compounds. Chlorine containing antibiotic, chloramphenicol, produced by soil microorganisms is very effective for the treatment of typhoid fever.Our body produces iodine containing hormone, thyroxine, the deficiency of which causes a disease called goiter. Synthetic halogen compounds, viz. chloroquine is used for the treatment of malaria; halothane is used as an anaesthetic during surgery. Certain fully fluorinated compounds are being considered as potential blood substitutes in surgery.
In this Unit, you will study the important methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties and uses of organohalogen compounds.

10.1 Classification
Haloalkanes and haloarenes may be classified as follows:

10.1.1 On the Basis of Number of halogen Atoms

On the These may be classified as mono, di, or polyhalogen (tri-,tetra-, etc.) compounds depending on whether they contain one, two or more halogen atoms in their structures. For example,

Monohalocompounds may further be classified according to the hybridisation of the carbon atom to which the halogen is bonded, as discussed below.

10.1.2 Compounds Containing sp3 C—X Bond (X= F, Cl, Br, I)

This class includes
(a) Alkyl halides or haloalkanes (R—X)

In alkyl halides, the halogen atom is bonded to an alkyl group (R). They form a homologous series represented by CnH2n+1X. They are further classified as primary, secondary or tertiary according to the nature of carbon to which halogen is attached.

(b) Allylic halides

These are the compounds in which the halogen atom is bonded to an sp3-hybridised carbon atom next to carbon-carbon double bond (C=C) i.e. to an allylic carbon.

(c) Benzylic halides

These are the compounds in which the halogen atom is bonded to an sp3-hybridised carbon atom next to an aromatic ring.

10.1.3 Compounds Containing sp2 C—X Bond
This class includes:

(a) Vinylic halides

These are the compounds in which the halogen atom is bonded to an sp2-hybridised carbon atom of a carbon-carbon double bond = C).

(b) Aryl halides

These are the compounds in which the halogen atom is bonded to the sp2-hybridised carbon atom of an aromatic ring.

10.2 Nomenclature

Having learnt the classification of halogenated compounds, let us now learn how these are named. The common names of alkyl halides are derived by naming the alkyl group followed by the halide. Alkyl halides are named as halosubstituted hydrocarbons in the IUPAC system of nomenclature. Haloarenes are the common as well as IUPAC names of aryl halides. For dihalogen derivatives, the prefixes o-, m-, p- are used in common system but in IUPAC system, the numerals 1,2; 1,3 and 1,4 are used.

The dihaloalkanes having the same type of halogen atoms are named as alkylidene or alkylene dihalides. The dihalo-compounds having same type of halogen atoms are further classified as geminal halides (halogen atoms are present on the same carbon atom) and vicinal halides (halogen atoms are present on the adjacent carbon atoms). In common name system, gem-dihalides are named as alkylidene halides and vic-dihalides are named as alkylene dihalides. In IUPAC system, they are named as dihaloalkanes.

Some common examples of halocompounds are mentioned in Table 10.1.

Table 10.1: Common and IUPAC Names of some Halides
Structure Common name IUPAC name
CH3CH2CH(Cl)CH3 sec – Butyl chloride 2 – Chlorobutane
(CH3)3CCH2Br neo-Pentyl bromide 1-Bromo-2,2-dimethylpropane
(CH3)3CBr tert-Butyl bromide 2-Bromo-2-methylpropane
CH2 = CHCl Vinyl chloride Chloroethane
CH2= CHCH2Br Allyl bromide 3-Bromopropane
o-Chlorotoluene 1-Chloro-2-methylbenzene or 2-cholorotoluene
Benzyl chloride Chlorophenylmethane
CH2Cl2 Methylene chloride Dichloromethane
CHCl3 Chloroform Trichloromethane
CHBr3 Bromoform Tribromomethane
CCl4 Carbon tetrachloride Tetrachloromethane
CH3CH2CH2F n-Propyl fluoride 1-Fluoropropane

Example 10.1 Draw the structures of all the eight structural isomers that have the molecular formula C5H11Br. Name each isomer according to IUPAC system and classify them as primary, secondary or tertiary bromide.
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2Br       1-Bromopentane (1 °)
CH3CH2CH2CH(Br)CH3      2-Bromopentane(2 °)
CH3CH2CH(Br)CH2CH3      3-Bromopentane (2 °)
(CH3)2CHCH2CH2Br      1-Bromo-3-methylbutane (1 ° )
(CH3)2CHCHBrCH3      2-Bromo-3-methylbutane(2°)
(CH3)2CBrCH2CH3      2-Bromo-2-methylbutane (3°)
CH3CH2CH(CH3)CH2Br      1-Bromo-2-methylbutane(1°)
(CH3)3CCH2Br      1-Bromo-2,2-dimethylpropane (1°)

Example 10.2
Write IUPAC names of the following:

(i) 4-Bromopent-2-ene
(ii) 3-Bromo-2-methylbut-1-ene
(iii) 4-Bromo-3-methylpent-2-ene
(iv) 1-Bromo-2-methylbut-2-ene
(v) 1-Bromobut-2-ene
(vi) 3-Bromo-2-methylpropene

Intext Question
10.1 Write structures of the following compounds:
(i) 2-Chloro-3-methylpentane
(ii) 1-Chloro-4-ethylcyclohexane
(iii) 4-tert. Butyl-3-iodoheptane
(iv) 1,4-Dibromobut-2-ene
(v) 1-Bromo-4-sec. butyl-2-methylbenzene.

10.3 Nature of C-X Bond

Since halogen atoms are more electronegative than carbon, the carbon- halogen bond of alkyl halide is polarised; the carbon atom bears a partial positive charge whereas the halogen atom bears a partial negative charge.

Since the size of halogen atom increases as we go down the group in the periodic table, fluorine atom is the smallest and iodine atom, the largest. Consequently the carbon-halogen bond length also increases from C—F to C—I. Some typical bond lengths, bond enthalpies and dipole moments are given in Table 10.2.

Table 10.2: Carbon-Halogen (C-X) Bond Lengths, Bond Enthalpies and Dipole Moments
Bond Bond lenth/pm C-X Bond enthalpies/kJmol-1 Dipole moment/Debye
CH3-F 139 452 1.847
CH3-Cl 178 351 1.860
CH3-Br 193 1.830
CH3 -I 214 234 1.639

10.4 Methods of Preparation

10.4.1 From Alcohols

Alkyl halides are best prepared from alcohols, which are easily accessible. The hydroxyl group of an alcohol is replaced by halogen on reaction with concentrated halogen acids, phosphorus halides or thionyl chloride. Thionyl chloride is preferred because the other two products are escapable gases. Hence the reaction gives pure alkyl halides. Phosphorus tribromide and triiodide are usually generated in situ (produced in the reaction mixture) by the reaction of red phosphorus with bromine and iodine respectively. The preparation of alkyl chloride is carried out either by passing dry hydrogen chloride gas through a solution of alcohol or by heating a solution of alcohol in concentrated aqueous acid.

The reactions of primary and secondary alcohols with HX require the presence of a catalyst, ZnCl2. With tertiary alcohols, the reaction is conducted by simply shaking with concentrated HCl at room temperature. Constant boiling with HBr (48%) is used for preparing alkyl bromide. Good yields of R—I may be obtained by heating alcohols with sodium or potassium iodide in 95% phosphoric acid. The order of reactivity of alcohols with a given haloacid is 3°>2°>1°. The above method is not applicable for the preparation of aryl halides because the carbon-oxygen bond in phenols has a partial double bond character and is difficult to break being stronger than a single bond (Unit 11, Class XI).

10.4.2 From Hydrocarbons

(a) By free radical halogenation

Free radical chlorination or bromination of alkanes gives a complex mixture of isomeric mono- and polyhaloalkanes, which is difficult to separate as pure compounds. Consequently, the yield of any one compound is low (Unit 13, Class XI).

Example 10.3
Identify all the possible monochloro structural isomers expected to be formed on free radical monochlorination of (CH3)2CHCH2CH3.
In the given molecule, there are four different types of hydrogen atoms. Replacement of these hydrogen atoms will give the following
(CH3)2CHCH2CH2Cl       (CH3)2CHCH(Cl)CH3
(CH3)2C(Cl)CH2CH3       CH3CH(CH2Cl)CH2CH3

(b) By electrophilic substitution

Aryl chlorides and bromides can be easily prepared by electrophilic substitution of arenes with chlorine and bromine respectively in the presence of Lewis acid catalysts like iron or iron(III) chloride.

The ortho and para isomers can be easily separated due to large difference in their melting points. Reactions with iodine are reversible in nature and require the presence of an oxidising agent (HNO3, HIO4) to oxidise the HI formed during iodination. Fluoro compounds are not prepared by this method due to high reactivity of fluorine.

(c) Sandmeyer’s reaction

When a primary aromatic amine, dissolved or suspended in cold aqueous mineral acid, is treated with sodium nitrite, a diazonium salt is formed (Unit 13, Class XII). Mixing the solution of freshly prepared diazonium salt with cuprous chloride or cuprous bromide results in the replacement of the diazonium group by –Cl or –Br.

Replacement of the diazonium group by iodine does not require the presence of cuprous halide and is done simply by shaking the diazonium salt with potassium iodide.

(d) From alkenes

(i) Addition of hydrogen halides: An alkene is converted to corresponding alkyl halide by reaction with hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide or hydrogen iodide.

Propene yields two products, however only one predominates as per Markovnikov’s rule. (Unit 13, Class XI)
minor              major

(ii) Addition of halogens: In the laboratory, addition of bromine in CCl4 to an alkene resulting in discharge of reddish brown colour of bromine constitutes an important method for the detection of double bond in a molecule. The addition results in the synthesis of vic-dibromides, which are colourless (Unit 13, Class XI).

Example 10.4
Write the products of the following reactions:


10.4.3 Halogen Exchange

Alkyl iodides are often prepared by the reaction of alkyl chlorides/ bromides with NaI in dry acetone. This reaction is known as Finkelstein reaction.
R-X + NaI → R-I + NaX
X=Cl, Br
NaCl or NaBr thus formed is precipitated in dry acetone. It facilitates the forward reaction according to Le Chatelier’s Principle.
The synthesis of alkyl fluorides is best accomplished by heating an alkyl chloride/bromide in the presence of a metallic fluoride such as AgF, Hg2F2, CoF2 or SbF3. The reaction is termed as Swarts reaction.
H3C-Br +AgF → H3C-F + AgBr

Intext Questions
10.2 Why is sulphuric acid not used during the reaction of alcohols with KI?
10.3 Write structures of different dihalogen derivatives of propane.
10.4 Among the isomeric alkanes of molecular formula C5H12, identify the one that on photochemical chlorination yields
(i) A single monochloride.
(ii) Three isomeric monochlorides.
(iii) Four isomeric monochlorides.
10.5 Draw the structures of major monohalo products in each of the following reactions:

10.5 Physical properties

Alkyl halides are colourless when pure. However, bromides and iodides develop colour when exposed to light. Many volatile halogen compounds have sweet smell.

Melting and boiling points

Methyl chloride, methyl bromide, ethyl chloride and some chlorofluoromethanes are gases at room temperature. Higher members are liquids or solids. As we have already learnt, molecules of organic halogen compounds are generally polar. Due to greater polarity as well as higher molecular mass as compared to the parent hydrocarbon, the intermolecular forces of attraction (dipole-dipole and van der Waals) are stronger in the halogen derivatives. That is why the boiling points of chlorides, bromides and iodides are considerably higher than those of the hydrocarbons of comparable molecular mass.
The attractions get stronger as the molecules get bigger in size and have more electrons. The pattern of variation of boiling points of different halides is depicted in Fig. 10.1. For the same alkyl group, the boiling points of alkyl halides decrease in the order: RI> RBr> RCl> RF. This is because with the increase in size and mass of halogen atom, the magnitude of van der Waal forces increases.

The boiling points of isomeric haloalkanes decrease with increase in branching (Unit 12, Class XI). For example, 2-bromo-2-methylpropane has the lowest boiling point among the three isomers.

Boiling points of isomeric dihalobenzenes are very nearly the same. However, the para-isomers are high melting as compared to their ortho- and meta-isomers. It is due to symmetry of para-isomers that fits in crystal lattice better as compared to ortho- and meta-isomers.


Bromo, iodo and polychloro derivatives of hydrocarbons are heavier than water. The density increases with increase in number of carbon atoms, halogen atoms and atomic mass of the halogen atoms (Table 10.3).

Table 10.3: Density of Some Haloalkanes
Compound Density(g/ml) Compound Density (g/mL)
n-C3H7Cl 0.89 CH2Cl2 1.336
n-C3H7Br 1.335 CHCl3 1.489
C3H7I 1.747 CCl4 1.595
CH3 -I 214 234 1.639


The haloalkanes are only very slightly soluble in water. In order for a haloalkane to dissolve in water, energy is required to overcome the attractions between the haloalkane molecules and break the hydrogen bonds between water molecules. Less energy is released when new attractions are set up between the haloalkane and the water molecules as these are not as strong as the original hydrogen bonds in water. As a result, the solubility of haloalkanes in water is low. However, haloalkanes tend to dissolve in organic solvents because the new intermolecular attractions between haloalkanes and solvent molecules have much the same strength as the ones being broken in the separate haloalkane and solvent molecules.

Intext Question
10.6 Arrange each set of compounds in order of increasing boiling points.
(i) Bromomethane, Bromoform, Chloromethane, Dibromomethane.
(ii) 1-Chloropropane, Isopropyl chloride, 1-Chlorobutane.

10.6 Chemical Reactions

10.6.1 Reactions of Haloalkanes

The reactions of haloalkanes may be divided into the following categories:
(i) Nucleophilic substitution
(ii) Elimination reactions
(iii) Reaction with metals.

(i) Nucleophilic substitution reactions
In this type of reaction, a nucleophile reacts with haloalkane (the substrate) having a partial positive charge on the carbon atom bonded to halogen. A substitution reaction takes place and halogen atom, called leaving group departs as halide ion. Since the substitution reaction is initiated by a nucleophile, it is called nucleophilic substitution reaction.

It is one of the most useful classes of organic reactions of alkyl halides in which halogen is bonded to sp3 hybridised carbon. The products formed by the reaction of haloalkanes with some common nucleophiles are given in Table 10.4.

Table 10.4: Nucleophilic Substitution of Alkyl Halides (R–X)R-X+Nu→R-Nu+X
Reagent Nucleophile(Nu) Substitution product R-Nu Class of main product
NaOH(KOH) HO ROH Alcohol
H2O H2O ROH Alcohol
NaOR’ R’O ROR’ Ether
NaI I R-I Alkyl iodide
NH3 NH3 RNH2 Primary amine
R’NH2 R’NH2 R’NHR2 Sec. amine
R’R”NH2 R’R”NH2 RNR’R”2 Tert. amine
KCN   RCN Nitrile (cyanide)
AgCN   RNC (isosynanide) Isonitrile
KNO2 O=N-O R-O-N=O (isosynanide) Alkyl nitrite
AgNO2   R-NO2 Nitroalkane
LiAlH4 H RH (isosynanide) Hydrocarbon
R’-M+ R’ RR Alkane

Groups like cyanides and nitrites possess two nucleophilic centres and are called ambident nucleophiles. Actually cyanide group is a hybrid of two contributing structures and therefore can act as a nucleophile in two different ways [ΘC≡N ↔ :C=NΘ], i.e., linking through carbon atom resulting in alkyl cyanides and through nitrogen atom leading to isocyanides. Similarly nitrite ion also represents an ambident nucleophile with two different points of linkage. The linkage through oxygen results in alkyl nitrites while through nitrogen atom, it leads to nitroalkanes.

Example 10.5
Haloalkanes react with KCN to form alkyl cyanides as main product while AgCN forms isocyanides as the chief product. Explain.
KCN is predominantly ionic and provides cyanide ions in solution. Although both carbon and nitrogen atoms are in a position to donate electron pairs, the attack takes place mainly through carbon atom and not through nitrogen atom since C—C bond is more stable than C—N bond. However, AgCN is mainly covalent in nature and nitrogen is free to donate electron pair forming isocyanide as the main product.

Mechanism: This reaction has been found to proceed by two different mechanims which are described below:
(a) Substitution nucleophilic bimolecular (SN2)

The reaction between CH3Cl and hydroxide ion to yield methanol and chloride ion follows a second order kinetics, i.e., the rate depends upon the concentration of both the reactants.

As you have already learnt in Section 12.3.2 of Class XI, the solid wedge represents the bond coming out of the paper, dashed line going down the paper and a straight line representing bond in the plane of the paper.

This can be represented diagrammatically as shown in Fig. 10.2.

It depicts a bimolecular nucleophilic displacement (SN2) reaction; the incoming nucleophile interacts with alkyl halide causing the carbon- halide bond to break while forming a new carbon-OH bond. These two processes take place simultaneously in a single step and no intermediate is formed. As the reaction progresses and the bond between the nucleophile and the carbon atom starts forming, the bond between carbon atom and leaving group weakens. As this happens, the configuration of carbon atom under attack inverts in much the same way as an umbrella is turned inside out when caught in a strong wind, while the leaving group is pushed away. This process is called as inversion of configuration. In the transition state, the carbon atom is simultaneously bonded to incoming nucleophile and the outgoing leaving group and such structures are unstable and cannot be isolated. This is because the carbon atom in the transition state is simultaneously bonded to five atoms and therefore is unstable.

Since this reaction requires the approach of the nucleophile to the carbon bearing the leaving group, the presence of bulky substituents on or near the carbon atom have a dramatic inhibiting effect. Of the simple alkyl halides, methyl halides react most rapidly in SN2 reactions because there are only three small hydrogen atoms. Tertiary halides are the least reactive because bulky groups hinder the approaching nucleophiles. Thus the order of reactivity followed is:
Primary halide > Secondary halide > Tertiary halide.

(b) Substitution nucleophilic unimolecular (SN1)

SN1 reactions are generally carried out in polar protic solvents (like water, alcohol, acetic acid, etc.). The reaction between tert-butyl bromide and hydroxide ion yields tert-butyl alcohol and follows the first order kinetics, i.e., the rate of reaction depends upon the concentration of only one reactant, which is tert- butyl bromide.

It occurs in two steps. In step I, the polarised C—Br bond undergoes slow cleavage to produce a carbocation and a bromide ion. The carbocation thus formed is then attacked by nucleophile in step II to complete the substitution reaction.

Step I is the slowest and reversible. It involves the C–Br bond breaking for which the energy is obtained through solvation of halide ion with the proton of protic solvent. Since the rate of reaction depends upon the slowest step, the rate of reaction depends only on the concentration of alkyl halide and not on the concentration of hydroxide ion. Further, greater the stability of carbocation, greater will be its ease of formation from alkyl halide and faster will be the rate of reaction. In case of alkyl halides, 3° alkyl halides undergo SN1 reaction very fast because of the high stability of 3° carbocations. We can sum up the order of reactivity of alkyl halides towards SN1 and SN2 reactions as follows:

For the same reasons, allylic and benzylic halides show high reactivity towards the SN1 reaction. The carbocation thus formed gets stabilised through resonance (Unit 12, Class XI) as shown below:

For a given alkyl group, the reactivity of the halide, R-X, follows the same order in both the mechanisms R–I> R–Br>R–Cl>>R–F.

Example 10.6
In the following pairs of halogen compounds, which would undergo SN2 reaction faster?


Example 10.7
Predict the order of reactivity of the following compounds in SN1 and SN2 reactions:
(i) The four isomeric bromobutanes
(ii) C6H5CH2Br, C6H5CH(C6H5)Br, C6H5CH(CH3)Br, C6H5C(CH3)(C6H5)Br
(i) CH3CH2CH2CH2Br < (CH3)2CHCH2Br < CH3CH2CH(Br)CH3 < (CH3)3CBr (SN1)
CH3CH2CH2CH2Br > (CH3)2CHCH2Br > CH3CH2CH(Br)CH3 > (CH3)3CBr (SN2)
Of the two primary bromides, the carbocation intermediate derived from (CH3)2CHCH2Br is more stable than derived from CH3CH2CH2CH2Br because of greater electron donating inductive effect of (CH3)2CH- group. Therefore, (CH3)2CHCH2Br is more reactive than CH3CH2CH2CH2Br in SN1 reactions. CH3CH2CH(Br)CH3 is a secondary bromide and (CH3)3CBr is a tertiary bromide. Hence the above order is followed in SN1. The reactivity in SN2 reactions follows the reverse order as the steric hinderance around the electrophilic carbon increases in that order.
ii) C6H5C(CH3)(C6H5)Br > C6H5CH(C6H5)Br > C6H5CH(CH3)Br > C6H5CH2Br (SN1)
C6H5C(CH3)(C6H5)Br < C6H5CH(C6H5)Br < C6H5CH(CH3)Br < C6H5CH2Br (SN2)
Of the two secondary bromides, the carbocation intermediate obtained from C6H5CH(C6H5)Br is more stable than obtained from C6H5CH(CH3)Br because it is stabilised by two phenyl groups due to resonance. Therefore, the former bromide is more reactive than the latter in SN1 reactions. A phenyl group is bulkier than a methyl group. Therefore, C6H5CH(C6H5)Br is less reactive than C6H5CH(CH3)Br in SN2 reactions.

(c) Stereochemical aspects of nucleophilic substitution reactions A SN2 reaction proceeds with complete stereochemical inversion while a SN1 reaction proceeds with racemisation.
In order to understand this concept, we need to learn some basic stereochemical principles and notations (optical activity, chirality, retention, inversion, racemisation, etc.).

(i) Plane polarised light and optical activity: Certain compounds rotate the plane polarised light (produced by passing ordinary light through Nicol prism) when it is passed through their solutions. Such compounds are called optically active compounds. The angle by which the plane polarised light is rotated is measured by an instrument called polarimeter. If the compound rotates the plane polarised light to the right, i.e., clockwise direction, it is called dextrorotatory (Greek for right rotating) or the d-form and is indicated by placing a positive (+)sign before the degree of rotation. If the light is rotated towards left (anticlockwise direction), the compound is said to be laevo- rotatory or the l-form and a negative (–) sign is placed before the degree of rotation. Such (+) and (–) isomers of a compound are called optical isomers and the phenomenon is termed as optical isomerism.

(ii) Molecular asymmetry, chirality and enantiomers: The observation of Louis Pasteur (1848) that crystals of certain compounds exist in the form of mirror images laid the foundation of modern stereochemistry. He demonstrated that aqueous solutions of both types of crystals showed optical rotation, equal in magnitude (for solution of equal concentration) but opposite in direction. He believed that this difference in optical activity was associated with the three dimensional arrangements of atoms (configurations) in two types of crystals. Dutch scientist, J. Van’t Hoff and French scientist, C. Le Bel in the same year (1874), independently argued that the spatial arrangement of four groups (valencies) around a central carbon is tetrahedral and if all the substituents attached to that carbon are different, such a carbon is called asymmetric carbon or stereocentre. The resulting molecule would lack symmetry and is referred to as asymmetric molecule. The asymmetry of the molecule is responsible for the optical activity in such organic compounds.

The symmetry and asymmetry are also observed in many day to day objects: a sphere, a cube, a cone, are all identical to their mirror images and can be superimposed. However, many objects are non superimposable on their mirror images. For example, your left and right hand look similar but if you put your left hand on your right hand, they do not coincide. The objects which are non- superimposable on their mirror image (like a pair of hands) are said to be chiral and this property is known as chirality. While the objects, which are, superimposable on their mirror images are called achiral.

The above test of molecular chirality can be applied to organic molecules by constructing models and its mirror images or by drawing three dimensional structures and attempting to superimpose them in our minds. There are other aids, however, that can assist us in recognising chiral molecules. One such aid is the presence of a single asymmetric carbon atom. Let us consider two simple molecules propan-2-ol and butan-2-ol and their mirror images.

As you can see very clearly, propan-2-ol does not contain an asymmetric carbon, as all the four groups attached to the tetrahedral carbon are not different. Thus it is an achiral molecule.

Butan-2-ol has four different groups attached to the tetrahedral carbon and as expected is chiral. Some common examples of chiral molecules such as 2-chlorobutane, 2, 3-dihyroxypropanal, (OHC–CHOH–CH2OH), bromochloro-iodomethane (BrClCHI), 2-bromopropanoic acid (H3C–CHBr–COOH), etc. The stereoisomers related to each other as non- superimposable mirror images are called enantiomers (Fig. 10.5).

Enantiomers possess identical physical properties namely, melting point, boiling point, solubility, refractive index, etc. They only differ with respect to the rotation of plane polarised light. If one of the enantiomer is dextro rotatory, the other will be laevo rotatory.

However, the sign of optical rotation is not necessarily related to the absolute configuration of the molecule.

A mixture containing two enantiomers in equal proportions will have zero optical rotation, as the rotation due to one isomer will be cancelled by the rotation due to the other isomer. Such a mixture is known as racemic mixture or racemic modification. A racemic mixture is represented by prefixing dl or (±) before the name, for example (±) butan-2-ol. The process of conversion of enantiomer into a racemic mixture is known as racemisation.

Example 10.8
Identify chiral and achiral molecules in each of the following pair of compounds. (Wedge and Dash representations according to Class XI, Fig 12.1).


(iii) Retention: Retention of configuration is the preservation of integrity of the spatial arrangement of bonds to an asymmetric centre during a chemical reaction or transformation. It is also the configurational correlation when a chemical species XCabc is converted into the chemical species YCabc having the same relative configuration.

In general, if during a reaction, no bond to the stereocentre is broken, the product will have the same general configuration of groups around the stereocentre as that of reactant. Such a reaction is said to proceed with retention of the configuration. Consider as an example, the reaction that takes place when (–)-2-methylbutan-1-ol is heated with concentrated hydrochloric acid.

(iv) Inversion, retention and racemisation: There are three outcomes for a reaction at an asymmetric carbon atom. Consider the replacement of a group X by Y in the following reaction;

If (A) is the only compound obtained, the process is called retention of configuration.

If (B) is the only compound obtained, the process is called inversion of configuration.

If a 50:50 mixture of the above two is obtained then the process is called racemisation and the product is optically inactive, as one isomer will rotate light in the direction opposite to another.

Now let us have a fresh look at SN1 and SN2 mechanisms by taking examples of optically active alkyl halides.
In case of optically active alkyl halides, the product formed as a result of SN2 mechanism has the inverted configuration as compared to the reactant. This is because the nucleophile attaches itself on the side opposite to the one where the halogen atom is present. When (–)-2-bromooctane is allowed to react with sodium hydroxide, (+)-octan-2-ol is formed with the –OH group occupying the position opposite to what bromide had occupied.

Thus, SN2 reactions of optically active halides are accompanied by inversion of configuration.

In case of optically active alkyl halides, SN1 reactions are accompanied by racemisation. Can you think of the reason why it happens? Actually the carbocation formed in the slow step being sp2 hybridised is planar (achiral). The attack of the nucleophile may be accomplished from either side resulting in a mixture of products, one having the same configuration (the –OH attaching on the same position as halide ion) and the other having opposite configuration (the –OH attaching on the side opposite to halide ion). This may be illustrated by hydrolysis of optically active 2-bromobutane, which results in the formation of (±)-butan-2-ol.

2. Elimination reactions

When a haloalkane with β-hydrogen atom is heated with alcoholic solution of potassium hydroxide, there is elimination of hydrogen atom from β-carbon and a halogen atom from the α-carbon atom. As a result, an alkene is formed as a product. Since β-hydrogen atom is involved in elimination, it is often called β-elimination.

If there is possibility of formation of more than one alkene due to the availability of more than one β-hydrogen atoms, usually one alkene is formed as the major product. These form part of a pattern first observed by Russian chemist, Alexander Zaitsev (also pronounced as Saytzeff) who in 1875 formulated a rule which can be summarised as “in dehydrohalogenation reactions, the preferred product is that alkene which has the greater number of alkyl groups attached to the doubly bonded carbon atoms.” Thus, 2-bromopentane gives pent-2-ene as the major product.

Ellimination versus substitution

A chemical reaction is the result of competition; it is a race that is won by the fastest runner. A collection of molecules tend to do, by and large, what is easiest for them. An alkyl halide with α-hydrogen atoms when reacted with a base or a nucleophile has two competing routes: substitution (SN1 and SN2) and elimination. Which route will be taken up depends upon the nature of alkyl halide, strength and size of base/nucleophile and reaction conditions. Thus, a bulkier nucleophile will prefer to act as a base and abstracts a proton rather than approach a tetravalent carbon atom (steric reasons) and vice versa. Similarly, a primary alkyl halide will prefer a SN2 reaction, a secondary halide- SN2 or elimination depending upon the strength of base/nucleophile and a tertiary halide- SN1 or elimination depending upon the stability of carbocation or the more substituted alkene.

3. Reaction with metals

Most organic chlorides, bromides and iodides react with certain metals to give compounds containing carbon-metal bonds. Such compounds are known as organo-metallic compounds. An important class of organo-metallic compounds discovered by Victor Grignard in 1900 is alkyl magnesium halide, RMgX, referred as Grignard Reagents. These reagents are obtained by the reaction of haloalkanes with magnesium metal in dry ether.


Victor Grignard had a strange start in academic life for a chemist – he took a maths degree. When he eventually switched to chemistry, it was not to the mathematical province of physical chemistry but to organic chemistry. While attempting to find an efficient catalyst for the process of methylation, he noted that Zn in diethyl ether had been used for this purpose and wondered whether the Mg/ether combination might be successful. Grignard reagents were first reported in 1900 and Grignard used this work for his doctoral thesis in 1901. In 1910, Grignard obtained a professorship at the University of Nancy and in 1912, he was awarded the Nobel prize for Chemistry which he shared with Paul Sabatier who had made advances in nickel catalysed hydrogenation.

In the Grignard reagent, the carbon-magnesium bond is covalent but highly polar, with carbon pulling electrons from electropositive magnesium; the magnesium halogen bond is essentially ionic.


Grignard reagents are highly reactive and react with any source of proton to give hydrocarbons. Even water, alcohols, amines are sufficiently acidic to convert them to corresponding hydrocarbons.
RMgX + H2O &RARR; RH + Mg(OH)X
It is therefore necessary to avoid even traces of moisture from a Grignard reagent. On the other hand, this could be considered as one of the methods for converting halides to hydrocarbons.

Wurtz reaction

Alkyl halides react with sodium in dry ether to give hydrocarbons containing double the number of carbon atoms present in the halide. This reaction is known as Wurtz reaction. (Unit 13, Class XI).
2RX + 2Na &RARR; RR-2NaX

10.6.2 Reactions of Haloarenes

1. Nucleophilic substitution
Aryl halides are extremely less reactive towards nucleophilic substitution reactions due to the following reasons:
(i) Resonance effect : In haloarenes, the electron pairs on halogen atom are in conjugation with π-electrons of the ring and the following resonating structures are possible.

C—Cl bond acquires a partial double bond character due to resonance. As a result, the bond cleavage in haloarene is difficult than haloalkane and therefore, they are less reactive towards nucleophilic substitution reaction.

(ii) Difference in hybridisation of carbon atom in C—X bond: In haloalkane, the carbon atom attached to halogen is sp3 hybridised while in case of haloarene, the carbon atom attached to halogen is sp2-hybridised.

The sp2 hybridised carbon with a greater s-character is more electronegative and can hold the electron pair of C—X bond more tightly than sp3-hybridised carbon in haloalkane with less s-chararcter. Thus, C—Cl bond length in haloalkane is 177pm while in haloarene is 169 pm. Since it is difficult to break a shorter bond than a longer bond, therefore, haloarenes are less reactive than haloalkanes towards nucleophilic substitution reaction.
(iii) Instability of phenyl cation: In case of haloarenes, the phenyl cation formed as a result of self-ionisation will not be stabilised by resonance and therefore, SN1 mechanism is ruled out.
(iv) Because of the possible repulsion, it is less likely for the electron rich nucleophile to approach electron rich arenes.

Replacement by hydroxyl group

Chlorobenzene can be converted into phenol by heating in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution at a temperature of 623K and a pressure of 300 atmospheres.

The presence of an electron withdrawing group (-NO2) at ortho- and para-positions increases the reactivity of haloarenes.

The effect is pronounced when (-NO2) group is introduced at ortho- and para- positions. However, no effect on reactivity of haloarenes is observed by the presence of electron withdrawing group at meta-position. Mechanism of the reaction is as depicted:

Can you think why does NO2 group show its effect only at ortho- and para- positions and not at meta- position?
As shown, the presence of nitro group at ortho- and para-positions withdraws the electron density from the benzene ring and thus facilitates the attack of the nucleophile on haloarene. The carbanion thus formed is stabilised through resonance. The negative charge appeared at ortho- and para- positions with respect to the halogen substituent is stabilised by –NO2 group while in case of meta-nitrobenzene, none of the resonating structures bear the negative charge on carbon atom bearing the –NO2 group. Therefore, the presence of nitro group at meta- position does not stabilise the negative charge and no effect on reactivity is observed by the presence of –NO2 group at meta-position.

2. Electrophilic substitution reactions

Haloarenes undergo the usual electrophilic reactions of the benzene ring such as halogenation, nitration, sulphonation and Friedel-Crafts reactions. Halogen atom besides being slightly deactivating is o, p- directing; therefore, further substitution occurs at ortho- and para- positions with respect to the halogen atom. The o, p-directing influence of halogen atom can be easily understood if we consider the resonating structures of halobenzene as shown:

Due to resonance, the electron density increases more at ortho- and para-positions than at meta-positions. Further, the halogen atom because of its –I effect has some tendency to withdraw electrons from the benzene ring. As a result, the ring gets somewhat deactivated as compared to benzene and hence the electrophilic substitution reactions in haloarenes occur slowly and require more drastic conditions as compared to those in benzene.
(i) Halogenation

(iv) Friedel-Crafts reaction

Example 10.9 Although chlorine is an electron withdrawing group, yet it is ortho-, para- directing in electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions. Why?
Chlorine withdraws electrons through inductive effect and releases electrons through resonance. Through inductive effect, chlorine destabilises the intermediate carbocation formed during the electrophilic substitution.

Through resonance, halogen tends to stabilise the carbocation and the effect is more pronounced at ortho- and para- positions. The inductive effect is stronger than resonance and causes net electron withdrawal and thus causes net deactivation. The resonance effect tends to oppose the inductive effect for the attack at ortho- and para- positions and hence makes the deactivation less for ortho- and para- attack. Reactivity is thus controlled by the stronger inductive effect and orientation is controlled by resonance effect.

3. Reaction with metals

Wurtz-Fittig reaction
A mixture of an alkyl halide and aryl halide gives an alkylarene when treated with sodium in dry ether and is called Wurtz-Fittig reaction.

Fittig reaction
Aryl halides also give analogous compounds when treated with sodium in dry ether, in which two aryl groups are joined together. It is called Fittig reaction.

Intext Questions
10.7 Which alkyl halide from the following pairs would you expect to react more rapidly by an SN2 mechanism? Explain your answer.

10.8 In the following pairs of halogen compounds, which compound undergoes faster SN1 reaction?

10.9 Identify A, B, C, D, E, R and R1 in the following:

10.7 Polyhalogen Compounds

Carbon compounds containing more than one halogen atom are usually referred to as polyhalogen compounds. Many of these compounds are useful in industry and agriculture. Some polyhalogen compounds are described in this section.

10.7.1 Dichloro- methane (Methylene chloride)

Dichloromethane is widely used as a solvent as a paint remover, as a propellant in aerosols, and as a process solvent in the manufacture of drugs. It is also used as a metal cleaning and finishing solvent. Methylene chloride harms the human central nervous system. Exposure to lower levels of methylene chloride in air can lead to slightly impaired hearing and vision. Higher levels of methylene chloride in air cause dizziness, nausea, tingling and numbness in the fingers and toes. In humans, direct skin contact with methylene chloride causes intense burning and mild redness of the skin. Direct contact with the eyes can burn the cornea.

10.7.2 Trichloro-methane (Chloroform)

Iodine and other substances. The major use of chloroform today is in Chemically, chloroform is employed as a solvent for fats, alkaloids, (Chloroform) the production of the freon refrigerant R-22. It was once used as a general anaesthetic in surgery but has been replaced by less toxic, safer anaesthetics, such as ether. As might be expected from its use as an anaesthetic, inhaling chloroform vapours depresses the central nervous system. Breathing about 900 parts of chloroform per million parts of air (900 parts per million) for a short time can cause dizziness, fatigue, and headache. Chronic chloroform exposure may cause damage to the liver (where chloroform is metabolised to phosgene) and to the kidneys, and some people develop sores when the skin is immersed in chloroform. Chloroform is slowly oxidised by air in the presence of light to an extremely poisonous gas, carbonyl chloride, also known as phosgene. It is therefore stored in closed dark coloured bottles completely filled so that air is kept out.

10.7.3 Triiodo-methane (Iodoform)

It was used earlier as an antiseptic but the antiseptic properties are due to the liberation of free iodine and not due to iodoform itself. Due to its objectionable smell, it has been replaced by other formulations containing iodine.

10.7.4 Tetrachlo- romethane (Carbon tetrachloride)

It is produced in large quantities for use in the manufacture of refrigerants and propellants for aerosol cans. It is also used as feedstock in the synthesis of chlorofluorocarbons and other chemicals, pharmaceutical manufacturing, and general solvent use. Until the mid 1960s, it was also widely used as a cleaning fluid, both in industry, as a degreasing agent, and in the home, as a spot remover and as fire extinguisher. There is some evidence that exposure to carbon tetrachloride causes liver cancer in humans. The most common effects are dizziness, light headedness, nausea and vomiting, which can cause permanent damage to nerve cells. In severe cases, these effects can lead rapidly to stupor, coma, unconsciousness or death. Exposure to CCl4 can make the heart beat irregularly or stop. The chemical may irritate the eyes on contact. When carbon tetrachloride is released into the air, it rises to the atmosphere and depletes the ozone layer. Depletion of the ozone layer is believed to increase human exposure to ultraviolet rays, leading to increased skin cancer, eye diseases and disorders, and possible disruption of the immune system.

10.7.5 Freons

The chlorofluorocarbon compounds of methane and ethane are collectively known as freons. They are extremely stable, unreactive, non-toxic, on-corrosive and easily liquefiable gases. Freon 12 (CCl2F2) is one of the most common freons in industrial use. It is manufactured from tetrachloromethane by Swarts reaction. These are usually produced for aerosol propellants, refrigeration and air conditioning purposes. By 1974, total freon production in the world was about 2 billion pounds annually. Most freon, even that used in refrigeration, eventually makes its way into the atmosphere where it diffuses unchanged into the stratosphere. In stratosphere, freon is able to initiate radical chain reactions that can upset the natural ozone balance (Unit 14, Class XI).

10.7.6 p,p-Dichlorodiphenyl trichloro ethane(DDT)

DDT, the first chlorinated organic insecticides, was originally prepared in 1873, but it was not until 1939 that Paul Muller of Geigy Pharmaceuticals in Switzerland discovered the effectiveness of DDT as an insecticide. Paul Muller was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology in 1948 for this discovery. The use of DDT increased enormously on a worldwide basis after World War II, primarily because of its effectiveness against the mosquito that spreads malaria and lice that carry typhus. However, problems related to extensive use of DDT began to appear in the late 1940s. Many species of insects developed resistance to DDT, and it was also discovered to have a high toxicity towards fish. The chemical stability of DDT and its fat solubility compounded the problem. DDT is not metabolised very rapidly by animals; instead, it is deposited and stored in the fatty tissues. If ingestion ontinues at a steady rate, DDT builds up within the animal over time. The use of DDT was banned in the United States in 1973, although it is still in use in some other parts of the world.

Alkyl/ Aryl halides may be classified as mono, di, or polyhalogen (tri-, tetra-, etc.) compounds depending on whether they contain one, two or more halogen atoms in their structures. Since halogen atoms are more electronegative than carbon, the carbon- halogen bond of alkyl halide is polarised; the carbon atom bears a partial positive charge, and the halogen atom bears a partial negative charge. Alkyl halides are prepared by the free radical halogenation of alkanes, addition of halogen acids to alkenes, replacement of –OH group of alcohols with halogens using phosphorus halides, thionyl chloride or halogen acids. Aryl halides are prepared by electrophilic substitution to arenes. Fluorides and iodides are best prepared by halogen exchange method.
The boiling points of organohalogen compounds are comparatively higher than the corresponding hydrocarbons because of strong dipole-dipole and van der Waals forces of attraction. These are slightly soluble in water but completely soluble in organic solvents.
The polarity of carbon-halogen bond of alkyl halides is responsible for their nucleophilic substitution, elimination and their reaction with metal atoms to form organometallic compounds. Nucleophilic substitution reactions are categorised into SN1 and SN2 on the basis of their kinetic properties. Chirality has a profound role in understanding the reaction mechanisms of SN1 and SN2 reactions. SN2 reactions of chiral alkyl halides are characterised by the inversion of configuration while SN1 reactions are characterised by racemisation.
A number of polyhalogen compounds e.g., dichloromethane, chloroform, iodoform, carbon tetrachloride, freon and DDT have many industrial applications. However, some of these compounds cannot be easily decomposed and even cause depletion of ozone layer and are proving environmental hazards.


10.1 Name the following halides according to IUPAC system and classify them as alkyl, allyl, benzyl (primary, secondary, tertiary), vinyl or aryl halides:
(i) (CH3)2CHCH(Cl)CH3
(ii) CH3CH2CH(CH3)CH(C2H5)Cl
(iii) CH3CH2C(CH3)2CH2I
(iv) (CH3)3CCH2CH(Br)C6H5
(v) CH3CH(CH3)CH(Br)CH3
(vi) CH3C(C2H5)2CH2Br
(vii) CH3C(Cl)(C2H5)CH2CH3
(viii) CH3CH=C(Cl)CH2CH(CH3)2
(ix) CH3CH=CHC(Br)(CH3)2
(x) p-ClC6H4CH2CH(CH3)2
(xi) m-ClCH2C6H4CH2C(CH3)3
(xii) o-Br-C6H4CH(CH3)CH2CH3

10.2 Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds:
(i) CH3CH(Cl)CH(Br)CH3
(ii) CHF2CBrClF
(iii) ClCH2C≡CCH2Br
(iv) (CCl3)3CCl
(v) CH3C(p-ClC6H4)2CH(Br)CH3
(vi) (CH3)3CCH=ClC6H4I-p

10.3 Write the structures of the following organic halogen compounds.
(i) 2-Chloro-3-methylpentane
(ii) p-Bromochlorobenzene
(iii) 1-Chloro-4-ethylcyclohexane
(iv) 2-(2-Chlorophenyl)-1-iodooctane
(v) 2-Bromobutane
(vi) 4-tert-Butyl-3-iodoheptane
(vii) 1-Bromo-4-sec-butyl-2-methylbenzene
(viii) 1,4-Dibromobut-2-ene

10.4 Which one of the following has the highest dipole moment?
(i) CH2Cl2 (ii) CHCl3 (iii) CCl4

10.5 A hydrocarbon C5H10 does not react with chlorine in dark but gives a single monochloro compound C5H9Cl in bright sunlight. Identify the hydrocarbon.

10.6 Write the isomers of the compound having formula C4H9Br.

10.7 Write the equations for the preparation of 1-iodobutane from
(i) 1-butanol
(ii) 1-chlorobutane
(iii) but-1-ene.

10.8 What are ambident nucleophiles? Explain with an example.

10.9 Which compound in each of the following pairs will react faster in SN2 reaction with –OH?
(i) CH3Br or CH3I (ii) (CH3)3CCl or CH3Cl

10.10 Predict all the alkenes that would be formed by dehydrohalogenation of the following halides with sodium ethoxide in ethanol and identify the major alkene:
(i) 1-Bromo-1-methylcyclohexane
(ii) 2-Chloro-2-methylbutane
(iii) 2,2,3-Trimethyl-3-bromopentane.

10.11 How will you bring about the following conversions?
(i) Ethanol to but-1-yne
(ii) Ethane to bromoethene
(iii) Propene to1-nitropropane
(iv) Toluene to benzyl alcohol
(v) Propene to propyne
(vi) Ethanol to ethyl fluoride
(vii) Bromomethane to propanone
(viii) But-1-ene to but-2-ene
(ix) 1-Chlorobutane to n-octane
(x) Benzene to biphenyl.

10.12 Explain why
(i) the dipole moment of chlorobenzene is lower than that of cyclohexyl chloride?
(ii) alkyl halides, though polar, are immiscible with water?
(iii) Grignard reagents should be prepared under anhydrous conditions?

10.13 Give the uses of freon 12, DDT, carbon tetrachloride and iodoform.

10.14 Write the structure of the major organic product in each of the following reactions:

10.15 Write the mechanism of the following reaction:

10.16 Arrange the compounds of each set in order of reactivity towards SN2 displacement:
(i) 2-Bromo-2-methylbutane, 1-Bromopentane, 2-Bromopentane
(ii) 1-Bromo-3-methylbutane, 2-Bromo-2-methylbutane, 3-Bromo-2-methylbutane
(iii) 1-Bromobutane, 1-Bromo-2,2-dimethylpropane, 1-Bromo-2-methylbutane, 1-Bromo-3-methylbutane.

10.17 Out of C6H5CH2Cl and C6H5CHClC6H5, which is more easily hydrolysed by aqueous KOH.

10.18 p-Dichlorobenzene has higher m.p. and solubility than those of o- and m-isomers. Discuss.

10.19 How the following conversions can be carried out?
(i) Propene to propan-1-ol
(ii) Ethanol to but-1-yne
(iii) 1-Bromopropane to 2-bromopropane
(iv) Toluene to benzyl alcohol
(v) Benzene to 4-bromonitrobenzene
(vi) Benzyl alcohol to 2-phenylethanoic acid
(vii) Ethanol to propanenitrile
(viii) Aniline to chlorobenzene
(ix) 2-Chlorobutane to 3, 4-dimethylhexane
(x) 2-Methyl-1-propene to 2-chloro-2-methylpropane
(xi) Ethyl chloride to propanoic acid
(xii) But-1-ene to n-butyliodide
(xiii) 2-Chloropropane to 1-propanol
(xiv) Isopropyl alcohol to iodoform
(xv) Chlorobenzene to p-nitrophenol
(xvi) 2-Bromopropane to 1-bromopropane
(xvii) Chloroethane to butane
(xviii) Benzene to diphenyl
(xix) tert-Butyl bromide to isobutyl bromide
(xx) Aniline to phenylisocyanide

10.20 The treatment of alkyl chlorides with aqueous KOH leads to the formation of alcohols but in the presence of alcoholic KOH, alkenes are major products. Explain.

10.21 Primary alkyl halide C4H9Br (a) reacted with alcoholic KOH to give compound (b). Compound (b) is reacted with HBr to give (c) which is an isomer of (a). When (a) is reacted with sodium metal it gives compound (d), C8H18 which is different
from the compound formed when n-butyl bromide is reacted with sodium. Give the structural formula of (a) and write the equations for all the reactions.

10.22 What happens when
(i) n-butyl chloride is treated with alcoholic KOH,
(ii) bromobenzene is treated with Mg in the presence of dry ether,
(iii) chlorobenzene is subjected to hydrolysis,
(iv) ethyl chloride is treated with aqueous KOH,
(v) methyl bromide is treated with sodium in the presence of dry ether,
(vi) methyl chloride is treated with KCN?

Answers to Some Intext Questions


10.2 (i) H2SO4 cannot be used along with KI in the conversion of an alcohol to an alkyl iodide as it converts KI to corresponding HI and then oxidises it to I2.

10.3 (i) ClCH2CH2CH2Cl (ii) ClCH2CHClCH3 (iii) Cl2CH2CH2CH3 (iv) CH3CCl2CH3



10.6 (i) Chloromethane, Bromomethane, Dibromomethane, Bromoform. Boiling point increases with increase in molecular mass.
(ii) Isopropylchloride, 1-Chloropropane, 1-Chlorobutane. Isopropylchloride being branched has lower b.p. than 1-Chloropropane.




Some Useful Links

I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)

1. The order of reactivity of following alcohols with halogen acids is ___________.

(A) CH3CH2 —CH2—OH

(i) (A) > (B) > (C)
(ii) (C) > (B) > (A)
(iii) (B) > (A) > (C)
(iv) (A) > (C) > (B)

2. Which of the following alcohols will yield the corresponding alkyl chloride on reaction with concentrated HCl at room temperature?

(i) CH3CH2—CH2—OH

3. Identify the compound Y in the following reaction.


4. Toluene reacts with a halogen in the presence of iron (III) chloride giving ortho and para halo compounds. The reaction is

(i) Electrophilic elimination reaction
(ii) Electrophilic substitution reaction
(iii) Free radical addition reaction
(iv) Nucleophilic substitution reaction

5. Which of the following is halogen exchange reaction?


6. Which reagent will you use for the following reaction?

(i) Cl2/UV light
(ii) NaCl + H2SO4
(iii) Cl2 gas in dark
(iv) Cl2 gas in the presence of iron in dark

7. Arrange the following compounds in the increasing order of their densities.


(i) (a) < (b) < (c) < (d)
(ii) (a) < (c) < (d) < (b)
(iii) (d) < (c) < (b) < (a)
(iv) (b) < (d) < (c) < (a)

8. Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their boiling points.

(b) CH3CH2CH2CH2Br

(i) (b) < (a) < (c)
(ii) (a) < (b) < (c)
(iii) (c) < (a) < (b)
(iv) (c) < (b) < (a)

9. In which of the following molecules carbon atom marked with asterisk (*) is asymmetric?


(i) (a), (b), (c), (d)
(ii) (a), (b), (c)
(iii) (b), (c), (d)
(iv) (a), (c), (d)

10. Which of the following structures is enantiomeric with the molecule (A) given below :


11. Which of the following is an example of vic-dihalide?

(i) Dichloromethane
(ii) 1,2-dichloroethane
(iii) Ethylidene chloride
(iv) Allyl chloride

12. The position of –Br in the compound in CH3CH==CHC(Br)(CH3)2 can be classified as ____________.

(i) Allyl
(ii) Aryl
(iii) Vinyl

13. Chlorobenzene is formed by reaction of chlorine with benzene in the presence of AlCl3. Which of the following species attacks the benzene ring in this reaction?

(i) Cl
(ii) Cl+
(iii) AlCl3
(iv) [AlCl4]

14. Ethylidene chloride is a/an ______________.

(i) vic-dihalide
(ii) gem-dihalide
(iii) allylic halide
(iv) vinylic halide

15. What is ‘A’ in the following reaction?


16. A primary alkyl halide would prefer to undergo _____________.

(i) SN1 reaction
(ii) SN2 reaction
(iii) α–Elimination
(iv) Racemisation

17. Which of the following alkyl halides will undergo SN1 reaction most readily?

(i) (CH3)3C—F
(ii) (CH3)3C—Cl
(iii) (CH3)3C—Br
(iv) (CH3)3C—I

18. Which is the correct IUPAC name for ?

(i) 1-Bromo-2-ethylpropane
(ii) 1-Bromo-2-ethyl-2-methylethane
(iii) 1-Bromo-2-methylbutane
(iv) 2-Methyl-1-bromobutane

19. What should be the correct IUPAC name for diethylbromomethane?

(i) 1-Bromo-1,1-diethylmethane
(ii) 3-Bromopentane
(iii) 1-Bromo-1-ethylpropane
(iv) 1-Bromopentane

20. The reaction of toluene with chlorine in the presence of iron and in the absence of light yields ____________.


21. Chloromethane on treatment with excess of ammonia yields mainly

(i) N, N-Dimethylmethanamine
(ii) N–methylmethanamine (CH3—NH—CH3)
(iii) Methanamine (CH3NH2)
(iv) Mixture containing all these in equal proportion

22. Molecules whose mirror image is non superimposable over them are known as chiral. Which of the following molecules is chiral in nature?

(i) 2-Bromobutane
(ii) 1-Bromobutane
(iii) 2-Bromopropane
(iv) 2-Bromopropan-2-ol

23. Reaction of C6H5CH2Br with aqueous sodium hydroxide follows ____________.

(i) SN1 mechanism
(ii) SN2 mechanism
(iii) Any of the above two depending upon the temperature of reaction
(iv) Saytzeff rule

24. Which of the carbon atoms present in the molecule given below are asymmetric?


(i) a, b, c, d
(ii) b, c
(iii) a, d
(iv) a, b, c

25. Which of the following compounds will give racemic mixture on nucleophilic substitution by OH ion?


(i) (a)
(ii) (a), (b), (c)
(iii) (b), (c)
(iv) (a), (c)

Note : In the questions 26 to 29 arrange the compounds in increasing order of rate of reaction towards nucleophilic substitution.


(i) (a) < (b) < (c)
(ii) (c) < (b) < (a)
(iii) (a) < (c) < (b)
(iv) (c) < (a) < (b)


(i) (a) < (b) < (c)
(ii) (a) < (c) < (b)
(iii) (c) < (b) < (a)
(iv) (b) < (c) < (a)


(i) (c) < (b) < (a)
(ii) (b) < (c) < (a)
(iii) (a) < (c) < (b)
(iv) (a) < (b) < (c)


(i) (a) < (b) < (c)
(ii) (b) < (a) < (c)
(iii) (c) < (b) < (a)
(iv) (a) < (c) < (b)

30. Which is the correct increasing order of boiling points of the following compounds?
1-Iodobutane, 1-Bromobutane, 1-Chlorobutane, Butane

(i) Butane < 1-Chlorobutane < 1-Bromobutane < 1-Iodobutane
(ii) 1-Iodobutane < 1-Bromobutane < 1-Chlorobutane < Butane
(iii) Butane < 1-Iodobutane < 1-Bromobutane < 1-Chlorobutane
(iv) Butane < 1-Chlorobutane < 1-Iodobutane < 1-Bromobutane

31. Which is the correct increasing order of boiling points of the following compounds?

1-Bromoethane, 1-Bromopropane, 1-Bromobutane, Bromobenzene

(i) Bromobenzene < 1-Bromobutane < 1-Bromopropane < 1-Bromoethane
(ii) Bromobenzene < 1-Bromoethane < 1-Bromopropane < 1-Bromobutane
(iii) 1-Bromopropane < 1-Bromobutane < 1-Bromoethane < Bromobenzene
(iv) 1-Bromoethane < 1-Bromopropane < 1-Bromobutane < Bromobenzene

II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)

Note : In the following questions two or more options may be correct. Consider the following reaction and answer the questions no. 32–34.


32. Which of the statements are correct about above reaction?

(i) (a) and (e) both are nucleophiles.
(ii) In (c) carbon atom is sp3 hybridised.
(iii) In (c) carbon atom is sp2 hybridised.
(iv) (a) and (e) both are electrophiles.

33. Which of the following statements are correct about this reaction?

(i) The given reaction follows SN2 mechanism.
(ii) (b) and (d) have opposite configuration.
(iii) (b) and (d) have same configuration.
(iv) The given reaction follows SN1 mechanism.

34. Which of the following statements are correct about the reaction intermediate?

(i) Intermediate (c) is unstable because in this carbon is attached to 5 atoms.
(ii) Intermediate (c) is unstable because carbon atom is sp2 hybridised.
(iii) Intermediate (c) is stable because carbon atom is sp2 hybridised.
(iv) Intermediate (c) is less stable than the reactant (b).

Answer Q. No. 35 and 36 on the basis of the following reaction.


35. Which of the following statements are correct about the mechanism of this reaction?

(i) A carbocation will be formed as an intermediate in the reaction.
(ii) OH will attach the substrate (b) from one side and Cl will leave it simultaneously from other side.
(iii) An unstable intermediate will be formed in which OH and Cl will be attached by weak bonds.
(iv) Reaction proceeds through SN1 mechanism.

36. Which of the following statements are correct about the kinetics of this reaction?

(i) The rate of reaction depends on the concentration of only (b).
(ii) The rate of reaction depends on concentration of both (a) and (b).
(iii) Molecularity of reaction is one.
(iv) Molecularity of reaction is two.

37. Haloalkanes contain halogen atom (s) attached to the sp3 hybridised carbon atom of an alkyl group. Identify haloalkane from the following compounds.

(i) 2-Bromopentane
(ii) Vinyl chloride (chloroethene)
(iii) 2-chloroacetophenone
(iv) Trichloromethane

38. Ethylene chloride and ethylidene chloride are isomers. Identify the correct statements.

(i) Both the compounds form same product on treatment with alcoholic KOH.
(ii) Both the compounds form same product on treatment with aq.NaOH.
(iii) Both the compounds form same product on reduction.
(iv) Both the compounds are optically active.

39. Which of the following compounds are gem-dihalides?

(i) Ethylidene chloride
(ii) Ethylene dichloride
(iii) Methylene chloride
(iv) Benzyl chloride

40. Which of the following are secondary bromides?

(i) (CH3)2 CHBr
(ii) (CH3)3C CH2Br
(iii) CH3CH(Br)CH2CH3
(iv) (CH3)2CBrCH2CH3

41. Which of the following compounds can be classified as aryl halides?

(i) p-ClC6H4CH2CH(CH3)2
(ii) p-CH3CHCl(C6H4)CH2CH3
(iii) o-BrH2C-C6H4CH(CH3)CH2CH3
(iv) C6H5-Cl

42. Alkyl halides are prepared from alcohols by treating with

(i) HCl + ZnCl2
(ii) Red P + Br2
(iii) H2SO4 + KI
(iv) All the above

43. Alkyl fluorides are synthesised by heating an alkyl chloride/bromide in presence of ____________ or ____________.

(i) Ca F2
(ii) CoF2
(iii) Hg2F2
(iv) NaF

III. Short Answer Type

44. Aryl chlorides and bromides can be easily prepared by electrophilic substitution of arenes with chlorine and bromine respectively in the presence of Lewis acid catalysts. But why does preparation of aryl iodides requires
presence of an oxidising agent?

45. Out of o-and p-dibromobenzene which one has higher melting point and why?
46. Which of the compounds will react faster in SN1 reaction with the OH ion?
CH3— CH2— Cl or C6H5— CH2— Cl

47. Why iodoform has appreciable antiseptic property?
48. Haloarenes are less reactive than haloalkanes and haloalkenes. Explain.
49. Discuss the role of Lewis acids in the preparation of aryl bromides and chlorides in the dark.
50. Which of the following compounds (a) and (b) will not react with a mixture of NaBr and H2SO4. Explain why?


51. Which of the products will be major product in the reaction given below? Explain.

(A)                  (B)

52. Why is the solubility of haloalkanes in water very low?
53. Draw other resonance structures related to the following structure and find out whether the functional group present in the molecule is ortho, para directing or meta directing.


54. Classify the following compounds as primary, secondary and tertiary halides.
(i) 1-Bromobut-2-ene (ii) 4-Bromopent-2-ene
(iii) 2-Bromo-2-methylpropane
55. Compound ‘A’ with molecular formula C4H9Br is treated with aq. KOH solution. The rate of this reaction depends upon the concentration of the compound ‘A’ only. When another optically active isomer ‘B’ of this compound was treated
with aq. KOH solution, the rate of reaction was found to be dependent on concentration of compound and KOH both.

(i) Write down the structural formula of both compounds ‘A’ and ‘B’.
(ii) Out of these two compounds, which one will be converted to the product with inverted configuration.

56. Write the structures and names of the compounds formed when compound ‘A’ with molecular formula, C7H8 is treated with Cl2 in the presence of FeCl3.

57. Identify the products A and B formed in the following reaction :
(a) CH3—CH2—CH==CH—CH3+HCl → A + B

58. Which of the following compounds will have the highest melting point and why?


59. Write down the structure and IUPAC name for neo-pentylbromide.
60. A hydrocarbon of molecular mass 72 g mol–1 gives a single monochloro derivative and two dichloro derivatives on photo chlorination. Give the structure of the hydrocarbon.
61. Name the alkene which will yield 1-chloro-1-methylcyclohexane by its reaction with HCl. Write the reactions involved.
62. Which of the following haloalkanes reacts with aqueous KOH most easily? Explain giving reason.

(i) 1-Bromobutane
(ii) 2-Bromobutane
(iii) 2-Bromo-2-methylpropane
(iv) 2-Chlorobutane

63. Why can aryl halides not be prepared by reaction of phenol with HCl in the presence of ZnCl2?
64. Which of the following compounds would undergo SN1 reaction faster and why?


65. Allyl chloride is hydrolysed more readily than n-propyl chloride. Why?
66. Why is it necessary to avoid even traces of moisture during the use of a Grignard reagent?
67. How do polar solvents help in the first step in SN1 mechanism?
68. Write a test to detect the presence of double bond in a molecule.
69. Diphenyls are potential threat to the environment. How are these produced from arylhalides?

70. What are the IUPAC names of the insecticide DDT and benzenehexachloride? Why is their use banned in India and other countries?
71. Elimination reactions (especially β-elimination) are as common as the nucleophilic substitution reaction in case of alkyl halides. Specify the reagents used in both cases.
72. How will you obtain monobromobenzene from aniline?
73. Aryl halides are extremely less reactive towards nucleophilic substitution. Predict and explain the order of reactivity of the following compounds towards nucleophilic substitution:


74. tert-Butylbromide reacts with aq. NaOH by SN1 mechanism while n-butylbromide reacts by SN2 mechanism. Why?
75. Predict the major product formed when HCl is added to isobutylene. Explain the mechanism involved.
76. Discuss the nature of C–X bond in the haloarenes.
77. How can you obtain iodoethane from ethanol when no other iodine containing reagent except NaI is available in the laboratory?
78. Cyanide ion acts as an ambident nucleophile. From which end it acts as a stronger nucleophile in aqueous medium? Give reason for your answer.

IV. Matching Type

Note : Match the items given in Column I and Column II in the following questions.

79. Match the the compounds given in Column I with the effects given in Column II.

Blood substituent

  Column I   Column II
(i) Chloramphenicol (a) Malaria
(ii) Thyroxine (b) Anaesthetic
(iii) Chloroquine (c) Typhoid fever
(iv) Chloroform (d) Goiter

80. Match the items of Column I and Column II.

  Column I   Column II
(i) SN1 reaction (a) vic-dibromides
(ii) Chemicals in fire extinguisher (b) gem-dihalides
(iii) Bromination of alkenes (c) Racemisation
(iv) Alkylidene halides (d) Saytzeff rule
(v) Elimination of HX from alkylhalide (e) Chlorobromocarbons

81. Match the structures of compounds given in Column I with the classes of compounds given in Column II.


82. Match the reactions given in Column I with the types of reactions given in Column II.


83. Match the structures given in Column I with the names in Column II.


84. Match the reactions given in Column I with the names given in Column II.


V. Assertion and Reason Type

Note : In the following questions a statement of assertion followed by a statement of reason is given. Choose the correct answer out of the following choices.

(i) Assertion and reason both are correct and reason is correct explanation of assertion.
(ii) Assertion and reason both are wrong statements.
(iii) Assertion is correct but reason is wrong statement.
(iv) Assertion is wrong but reason is correct statement.
(v) Assertion and reason both are correct statements but reason is not correct explanation of assertion.

85. Assertion : Phosphorus chlorides (tri and penta) are preferred over thionyl chloride for the preparation of alkyl chlorides from alcohols.
Reason : Phosphorus chlorides give pure alkyl halides.

86. Assertion : The boiling points of alkyl halides decrease in the order :
RI > RBr > RCl > RF
Reason : The boiling points of alkyl chlorides, bromides and iodides are considerably higher than that of the hydrocarbon of comparable molecular mass.

87. Assertion : KCN reacts with methyl chloride to give methyl isocyanide
Reason : CN is an ambident nucleophile.

88. Assertion : tert-Butyl bromide undergoes Wurtz reaction to give 2, 2, 3, 3-tetramethylbutane.
Reason : In Wurtz reaction, alkyl halides react with sodium in dry ether to give hydrocarbon containing double the number of carbon atoms present in the halide.

89. Assertion : Presence of a nitro group at ortho or para position increases the reactivity of haloarenes towards nucleophilic substitution.
Reason : Nitro group, being an electron withdrawing group decreases the electron density over the benzene ring.

90. Assertion : In monohaloarenes, further electrophilic substitution occurs at ortho and para positions.
Reason : Halogen atom is a ring deactivator.

91. Assertion : Aryl iodides can be prepared by reaction of arenes with iodine in the presence of an oxidising agent.
Reason : Oxidising agent oxidises I2 into HI.

92. Assertion : It is difficult to replace chlorine by –OH in chlorobenzene in comparison to that in chloroethane.
Reason : Chlorine-carbon (C—Cl) bond in chlorobenzene has a partial double bond character due to resonance.

93. Assertion : Hydrolysis of (–)-2-bromooctane proceeds with inversion of configuration.
Reason : This reaction proceeds through the formation of a carbocation.

94. Assertion : Nitration of chlorobenzene leads to the formation of m-nitrochlorobenzene
Reason : —NO2 group is a m-directing group.

VI. Long Answer Type

95. Some alkylhalides undergo substitution whereas some undergo elimination reaction on treatment with bases. Discuss the structural features of alkyl halides with the help of examples which are responsible for this difference.

96. Some halogen containing compounds are useful in daily life. Some compounds of this class are responsible for exposure of flora and fauna to more and more of UV light which causes destruction to a great extent. Name the class of these halocompounds. In your opinion, what should be done to minimise harmful effects of these compounds.

97. Why are aryl halides less reactive towards nucleophilic substitution reactions than alkyl halides? How can we enhance the reactivity of aryl halides?


I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)

1. (ii)     2. (iv)     3. (i)     4. (ii)     5. (i)     6. (i)     7. (i)
8. (iii), boiling point of (a) 364 K. boiling point of (b) 375 K, boiling point of (c) 346 K
9. (ii)
10. (i), Hint : Make the models of all the molecules and superimpose (i) to (iv) molecules on molecule (A).
11. (ii)     12. (i)     13. (ii)     14. (ii)     15. (iii)     16. (ii)     17. (iv)     18. (iii)     19. (ii)     20. (iv)     21. (iii)     22. (i)

23. (i), Hint : is stable cation so favours the progress of reaction by SN1 mechanism.
24. (ii)     25. (i)     26. (iii)     27. (iv)     28. (iv)     29. (iii)     30. (i)     31. (iv)

II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)

32. (i), (iii)     33. (i), (ii)     34. (i), (iv)     35. (i), (iv)     36. (i), (iii)     37. (i), (iv)     38. (i), (iii)     39. (i), (iii)     40. (i), (iii)     41. (i), (iv)     42. (i), (ii)     43. (ii), (iii)

III. Short Answer Type

44. Iodination reactions are reversible in nature. To carry out the reaction in the forward direction, HI formed during iodination is removed by oxidation. HIO4 is used as an oxidising agent.
45. p-Dibromobenzene has higher melting point than its o-isomer. It is due to symmetry of p-isomer which fits in crystal lattice better than the o-isomer.
46. C6H5—CH2—Cl

47. Due to liberation of free iodine.
48. See NCERT textbook for Class XII.
49. See NCERT textbook for Class XII.
50. (b), C—O bond is more stable in (b) because of resonance.

51. ‘B’ is major product of the reaction. For explanation, see Markownikov’s rule. Consult chemistry textbook, Class XI, NCERT, Section 13.3.5.
52. See NCERT textbook for Class XII.
53. Ortho-para directing due to increase in the electron density at ortho and para positions. (For resonance structures consult NCERT textbook, Class XII)
54. (i) Primary (ii) Secondary (iii) Tertiary

55. (i) Compound A : Compound B : –
(ii) Compound ‘B’.



58. II, due to symmetry of para-positions; it fits into crystal lattice better than other isomers.

– ; 1-Bromo-2,2-dimethylpropane

60. C5H12, pentane has molecular mass 72 g mol–1, i.e. the isomer of pentane which yields single monochloro derivative should have all the 12 hydrogens equivalent.


62. (iii); The tertiary carbocation formed in the reaction is stable.
63. C—O bond in phenols is more stable due to resonance effect and it has double bond character, hence breaking of this bond is difficult.
64. (B) Undergoes SN1 reaction faster than (A) because in case of (B), the carbocation formed after the loss of Cl is stabilised by resonance, whereas, no such stabilisation is possible in the carbocation obtained from (A).
65. Allyl chloride shows high reactivity as the carbocation formed by hydrolysis is stabilised by resonance while no such stabilisation of carbocation exists in the case of n-propyl chloride.
66. Grignard reagents are highly reactive and react with water to give corresponding hydrocarbons.
RMgX + H2O → RH + Mg(OH)X
67. [Hint: solvation of carbocation.]
68. [Hint : (1) Unsaturation test with Br2 water (2) Bayer’s test.]
69. Consult NCERT textbook for Class XII.
70. Consult NCERT textbook for Class XII.
71. Consult NCERT textbook for Class XII.
72. Consult NCERT textbook for Class XII.
73. III > II > I
74. Consult Chemistry textbook (NCERT) Class XII, Part II.


The mechanism involved in this reaction is:

76. Hint : Discuss polar nature and stabilisation of C—X bond.


78. Hint : It acts as a stronger nucleophile from the carbon end because it will lead to the formation of C–C bond which is more stable than the C–N bond.

IV. Matching Type

79. (i) → (c) (ii) → (d) (iii) → (a) (iv) → (b)
80. (i) → (c) (ii) → (e) (iii) → (a) (iv) → (b) (v) →→ (d)
81. (i) → (b) (ii) → (d) (iii) → (a) (iv) → (c)
82. (i) → (b) (ii) → (d) (iii) → (e) (iv) → (a) (v) → (c)
83. (i) → (a) (ii) → (c) (iii) → (b) (iv) → (d)
84. (i) → (b) (ii) → (a) (iii) → (d) (iv) → (c)

V. Assertion and Reason Type

85. (ii) 86. (v) 87. (iv) 88. (i) 89. (i) 90. (v) 91. (iii) 92. (i) 93. (iii) 94. (iv)

VI. Long Answer Type

95. Hint : Primary alkyl halides prefer to undergo substitution reaction by SN2 mechanism whereas tertiary halides undergo elimination reaction due to the formation of stable carbocation.
96. Consult Chemistry textbook of NCERT for Class XII.
97. Consult Chemistry textbook of NCERT for Class XII.



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I am teaching since 1989 I have observed most students can do much better if they have the self motivation to solve and practice. Cheap books are available in second hand bookstalls, where you get thousands of Numericals to solve ….. but most students will like to blow their time going and coming for tuition, travel time …. TV for hours and hours watching cricket / Tennis games, playing computer games …. My free lectures are not going to make much difference in spending of unnecessary money for coaching ….. I know very well , how much people enjoy …. ! spending unnecessarily !!

Do you know that there are NO poor / needy students in Bangalore.

Sometime back I had tried to teach for IIT JEE FREE. Discussed with a few NGOs and social service guys. Arranged rooms but got only 1 student. We had informed many people in many ways to inform students …. We did not get students who are ready to learn for free. So I am sure these lectures are NOT FREE. If anyone learns from these, s/he changes and that’s the gain / benefit. This change ( due to learning ) is very costly …. Most do not want to learn ………..

search for videos in
You will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.


4 ) How can I get all your lectures ?

Ans : – Apart from my lectures there are approx 700 GB of PCM ( Phy, Chem, Math ) lectures. It takes approx 3 years of continuous download from scattered sources. I have ( 20,000 )Thousands of these. You can take ALL of them from me in an external 1 TB hard disk, instead of spending so much money and time again for downloading. These cover ( by Various Professors ) everything of Chemistry, Physics, Maths… Lot of this is from outside India … as foreigners have much wider heart than Indians ( as most of GNU / open source software have been developed by Non-Indians ). I observed the gaps in these videos, and thus I am solving IIT, APhO, Roorkey, IPhO Numericals. Videos made by me along with these videos gives a complete preparation.

Send me a mail at to contact me.

search for videos in
You will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.


5 ) How do you get benefited out of this ?

Ans :- If anyone learns we all will have better people in this world. I will have better “ YOU “.

6 ) Why do you call yourself a Zookeeper ?

Ans :- This is very nicely explained at


7 ) Where do you stay ?

Ans :- Presently I am in Bangalore.


8 ) If I need videos in a few topics can you make them for me ?

Ans :- We actively answers doubts at doubtpoint.
In case you appreciate our time and efforts involved in answering complicated Questions, then get Quality answers at doubtpoint.


9 ) Why did you write an article saying there are No Poor students ?

Ans :- There are lots of NGOs and others working for rural / poor children education at lower classes. While very less effort is on for std 9 till 12. Also see the answer in question number ( 3 ) above. In more than 2 decades of teaching I never met a Poor child who was seriously interested in ( higher ) studies. As I have a mind / thinking of a ” Physicist “, I go by ” Experimental Observation “.

It is not about what is being said about poor in media / TV etc, or ” what it should be ” ( ? ) …. It is about what I see happening. Also to add ( confuse ? you more )…. You must be knowing that in several states over many years now girl students have better ( by marks as well as by pass percentage ) result in std 10 / Board Exams….. well but NEVER a girl student came FIRST in IIT JEE … why ? [ The best rank by a Girl student is mostly in 2 digits, very rarely in single digit ] ????? So ????


10 ) How much do I have to study to make it to IIT ?

Ans :- My experience of Teaching for IIT JEE since 1989, tells me, Total 200 hours per subject ( PCM ) is sufficient. If you see my Maths and Physics videos, each subject is more than 200 hours. So if someone sees all the videos diligently, takes notes and remembers, …… Done.


11 ) What is EAMCET ?

Ans :- Engineering Agriculture and Medicine Common Entrance Test is conducted by JNT University Hyderabad on behalf of APSCHE. This examination is the gateway for entry into various professional courses offered in Government/Private Colleges in Andhra Pradesh.

12 ) In your videos are you covering other Exams apart from IIT ?

Ans : – Yes. See many videos made by solving problems of MPPET, Rajasthan / J&K CET, UPSEAT ( UPES Engineering Aptitude Test ), MHCET, BCECE ( Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination Board ), WB JEE etc


13 ) What is SCRA ?

Ans : – Special Class Railway Apprentice (SCRA) exam is conducted by Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) board, for about 10 seats.That translates into an astonishing ratio of 1 selection per 10,000 applicants. The SCRA scheme was started in 1927 by the British, to select a handful of most intelligent Indians to assist them in their Railway Operations, after training at their Railway’s largest workshop, i.e. Jamalpur Workshop, and for one year in United Kingdom. The selected candidates were required to appear in the Mechanical Engineering Degree Examination held by Engineering Council (London).

Thanks for your time. To become my friend in google+ ( search me as and send friend request )

The following video is a must see for full CO2 cycle, plates of Earth, Geological activities, stability of weather

Article in Nature says CO2 increase is good for the trees

BBC documentary Crescent and Cross shows the 1000 years of fight between Christians and Muslims. Millions have been killed in the name of Religion. To decided whose GOD is better, and which GOD to follow. The fight continues.

Summary of Women
The Virus of Faith

The God delusion

cassiopeia facts about evolution

Intermediate Fossil records shown and explained nicely Fossils, Genes, and Embryos

The Rise Of Narcissism In Women

13 type of women whom you should never court

Media teaching Misandry in India

Summary of problems with women

Eyeopener men ? women only exists


Most unfortunate for men



Each of you is an Activist in some way or other. You are trying to propagate those thoughts, ideas that you feel concerned / excited about.

Did you analyze your effectiveness ?
Culturomics can help you


see how biased women are. Experimental proof. Women are happy when they see another woman is beating a man ( see how women misbehave with men )


see detailed statistics at

An eye opener in Misandry

My sincere advice would be to be EXTREMELY careful ( and preferably away ) of girls. As girls age; statistically certain behavior in them has been observed. Most Male can NOT manage those behaviors… Domestic violence, divorce etc are rising very fast. Almost in all cases boys / males are HUGE loosers. Be extremely choosy ( and think from several angles ) before even talking to a girl.


How women manipulate men

Gender Biased Laws in India


Only men are victimised

Men are BETTER than women


Male Psychology

Women are more violent than men


In the year 2010, 168 men ended their lives everyday ( on average ). More husbands committed suicide than wives.

It is EXTREMELY unfortunate that media projects men as fools, women as superiors, Husbands as servants, and replaceable morons. In ad after ad worldwide from so many companies, similar msg to disintegrate the world is being bombarded. It is highly unacceptable misandry


It is NOT at all funny that media shows violence against MEN. Some advertisers are trying to create a new ” Socially acceptable culture ” of slapping Men ( by modern city women ). We ( all men ) take objection to these advertisements.
We oppose this Misandry bad culture. Please share to increase awareness against Men bashing


Every Man must know this …

Manginas, White Knights, & Other Chivalrous Dogs

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key words

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Yard, Bangalore Mallya Aditi International School, Yelahanka Bangalore India International school 26/1,Chikkabellandur, Carmel Ram Post, Bangalore Ryan International School, Yelahanka, Vederapura Village, Gentiganahalli Road, Training Centre, Yelahanka Bangalore Indus International School, Billapura Cross Sarjapur, Bangalore The International School Bangalore (TISB), NAFL Valley Whitefield – Sarjapur Road, Bangalore Treamis World School, Hulimangala Post Bangalore Ryan International School, Bannerghatta road, Opp. Confident Cascade Bannergatta Main Road Bangalore International School, Geddalahalli Hennur Bagalur Road, Kothanur Post Bangalore Sarla Birla Academy Bannerghatta Jigni Road Bangalore Inventure Academy Whitefield – Sarjapur Road Bangalore Prakriya, # 70, Chikkanayakanahalli Road off Doddakannelli Sarjapur Road, Bangalore Buddhi School, 57, 3rd Main, 4th Cross RMV 2nd Stage, H.I.G Colony, Bangalore B.G.S. International Residential School Nithyananda Nagar, Kumbalagudu, Gollahalli Kengeri, Bangalore Solutions, India, IPhO, APhO, IMO, RMO, INMO, through, lectures, problems numericals Zookeeper, Subhashish, Chattopadhyay, Projectile, Latent, Heat Thermodynamics std 11 12 ISc Calculus BE BTech Differentiation Integration Mechanics Surface Tension Viscosity Accelerating Frame velocity wedge mass pulley Moment Inertia Roorkey Joint Entrance Exam CET AIEEE Irodov HCV Verma South Bangalore Intermediate Algebra Trigonometry Sexy Free Coaching study material preparation Olympiad Friction sin Modelling cos Potential tan cot Gravitation Electrostatics sec Field cosec Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola inverse string Tuition Kinetic Theory Gases Isothermal Adiabatic Isochoric Isobaric Processes Root Mean Square Differential Equation Soomrit Specific Cp Cv PV Diagram Bending Stress Strain Geostationary Satellite Entropy Coefficient Linear Expansion Alpha Beta Gamma Pendulum Conductivity Latent ice water Hydrometer Glass tube series Parallel travelling standing wave Sound Radiation stefan Boltzmann law Newton cooling cylinder Harmonic Overtone Resonance Sonometer Kunds Beat Frequency vibration tuning Fork Swimmer Young Bulk Modulus welded chamber not similar dissimilar MIT Caltech Yale pipe Magnetic Tesla Lenz LvB Vijaya Bank Enclave Apartments Bannerghatta Road Behind IIM Jayanagar J-P-Nagar Buoyant Buoyancy Rho efflux Bernoullis rare Poiseuilles Torricellis critical Terminal Reynolds Poise coalescing Laplace Ventury Hoop orifice Siphon Foucault stretched compression ball scale constant length shear poisson Ratio clock loosing time tvanausdal1 vkiledj Density Partial Pressure Humidity Leak SmartlearnwebTV Space Puncture Photon RC RLC LR Circuit Electrical Capacitor Inductance Linked Flux Wheatstone Bridge Freelanceteach Troutons Rule Van Arkel Method Overview Metallurgy Roasting Calcination Froth Floatation Purification Projected Area PET Kerala MPPET Delta Star conversion Internal 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reactions many unsaturated alkene molecules monomers addition polymerisation process unsaturated alkene molecules monomers add growing polymer chain one timeIITJEE long saturated molecular chain addition polymer addition reaction reaction IITJEE reactant added IITJEE unsaturated molecule saturated molecule adsorption process IITJEE occurs gas, liquid solute surface solid rarely liquid alicyclic hydrocarbon hydrocarbon IITJEE carbon atoms joined together ring structure aliphatic hydrocarbon hydrocarbon IITJEE carbon atoms joined together straight branched chains alkali type base IITJEE dissolves water forming hydroxide ions OH (aq) ions alkanes homologous series IITJEE general formula C alkyl group alkane IITJEE hydrogen atom removed CH alkyl groups IITJEE IITJEE ‘R’ amount substance quantity whose unit mole Chemists amount substance IITJEE IITJEE counting atoms anhydrous substance IITJEE contains water molecules anion negatively charged ion atom economy atomic orbital region within atom hold two electrons IITJEE opposite spins atomic proton number number protons nucleus atom 100 products masses molecular sum product desired mass molecular economy atom Chemistry average bond enthalpy average enthalpy change IITJEE place IITJEE breaking homolytic fission 1 molIITJEE type bond molecules gaseous species Avogadro constant,isotope number atoms mole carbon base species IITJEE proton acceptor biodegradable material substance IITJEE broken IITJEE naturally environment living organisms Boltzmann distribution distribution energies molecules particular temperature IITJEE graph bond enthalpy enthalpy change IITJEE IITJEE breaking homolytic fission 1 mol bond molecules gaseous species carbanion organic ion IITJEE carbon atom hIITJEE negative charge carbocation organic ion IITJEE carbon atom hIITJEE positive charge catalyst substance IITJEE increases rate chemical reaction process cation positively charged ion cis trans isomerism special type isomerism IITJEE non hydrogen group hydrogen atom C C=C double bond cis isomer ( Z isomer) IITJEE H atoms on IITJEE carbon same side trans isomer E isomer H atoms carbon different bond compound substance formed IITJEE two IITJEE chemically bonded elements fixed ratio, usually chemical formula concentration amount solute mol IITJEE 1 dm 3 1000 cm solution coordinate bond shared pair electrons provided one bonding atoms called dative covalent bond covalent bond bond formed shared pair electrons cracking breaking long chained saturated hydrocarbonsIITJEE mixture shorter chained alkanesalkenes curly arrow symbol IITJEE reaction mechanisms IITJEE show movement electron Coaching ICWA Coaching CFA Coaching CFP Coaching CMAT Coaching School Tuitions CBSE School Tuitions Home Tuitions 9th STD Tuitions PUC Coaching 10th Std Tuitions College Tuitions Maths Tuitions Engineering Tuitions Accounts & Finance Tuitions MBA & BBA Coaching Microbiology & Biotech Tuitions Study Abroad GRE & SAT Coaching GMAT Coaching IELTS/TOEFL Coaching PTE Coaching proteins protonation pyridines pyrroles quinones quinolines radical reaction radicals rearrangement receptors reduction regioselectivity retro reaction rhodium ring closure ring contraction ring expansion ring opening ruthenium samarium scandium Schiff bases selenium self-assembly silicon sodium solid-phase synthesis solvent effects spectroscopy sphingolipids spiro compounds stereoselective synthesis stereoselectivity steric hindrance steroids Stille reaction substituent effects sulfates sulfonamides sulfones sulfoxides sulfur supported catalysis supramolecular tandem reaction tautomerism terpenoids thioacetals thiols tin titanium total synthesis transesterification transition metals transition states tungsten Umpolung vinylidene complexes vitamins Wacker reaction Wittig reaction ylides zeolites zinc BRST Quantization Effective field theories Field Theories Higher Dimensions Field Theories Lower Dimensions Large Extra Dimensions Lattice Quantum Field Theory Nonperturbative Effects Renormalization Group Renormalization Regularization Renormalons Sigma Models Solitons Monopoles Instantons Supersymmetric gauge theory Topological Field Theories 1/N Expansion Anyons Chern-Simons Theories Confinement Duality Gauge Field Theories Lattice Gauge Field Theories Scattering Amplitudes Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking Strong Coupling Expansion Topological States Matter Wilson ‘t Hooft skmclasses.weebly.comPolyakov loops Anomalies Field skmclasses.weebly.comString Theories BRST Symmetry Conformal W Symmetry Discrete skmclasses.weebly.comFinite Symmetries Gauge Symmetry Global Symmetries Higher Spin Symmetry Space-Time Symmetries AdS-CFT Correspondence Black Holes String Theory Bosonic Strings Brane Dynamics Gauge Theories Conformal Field Models String Theory D-branes dS vacua string theory F-Theory Flux compactifications Gauge-gravity correspondence Holography skmclasses.weebly.comcondensed matter physics (AdS CMT) Holography skmclasses.weebly.comquark-gluon plasmas Intersecting branes models Long strings M(atrix) Theories M-Theory p-branes Penrose limit skmclasses.weebly.compp-wave background String Duality String Field Theory String theory skmclasses.weebly.comcosmic string Superstring Vacua Superstrings skmclasses.weebly.comHeterotic Strings Tachyon Condensation Topological Strings 2D Gravity Black Holes Classical Theories Gravity Higher Spin Gravity Lattice Models Gravity Models Quantum Gravity Spacetime Singularities Extended Supersymmetry Supergravity Models Superspaces Supersymmetric Effective Theories Supersymmetry Duality Supersymmetry Breaking Differential skmclasses.weebly.comAlgebraic Geometry Integrable Hierarchies Non-Commutative Geometry Quantum Groups Statistical Methods Stochastic Processes Cosmology Theories beyond SM Solar skmclasses.weebly.comAtmospheric Neutrinos Thermal Field Theory Be Ansatz Boundary Quantum Field Theory Exact S-Matrix Quantum Dissipative Systems Random Systems B-Physics Beyond Standard Model Compactification String Models CP violation Electromagnetic Processes Properties GUT Heavy Quark Higgs Kaon LEP HERA SLC Neutrino Physics Quark Masses skmclasses.weebly.comSM Parameters Rare Decays Standard Model Supersymmetric Standard Model Technicolor Composite Models Chiral Lagrangians Deep Inelastic Scattering Higher Twist Effects Lattice QCD Parton Model Phase Diagram QCD Phenomenological Models QCD Quark-Gluon Plasma Resummation Sum Rules Aim Global Education Koramangala Computer Networking Training Cloud Computing Training JBOSS Training Juniper Certification Training L2 & L3 Protocol Training MCTS Training Engineering design Training CAD & CAM Training MATLAB Training PLC Training SCADA Training VLSI Design Multimedia & Design Training 2D Animation Training 3D Animation Training 4D Animation Training CorelDRAW Training VFX Training Web Technologies Training ASP.Net Training JQuery pair breaking formation covalent bond dative covalent shared pair electrons IITJEE hIITJEE been provided one bonding atoms only IITJEE called coordinate bond dehydration elimination reaction IITJEE water removed saturated molecule IITJEE IITJEE unsaturated molecule delocalised Electrons IITJEE shared IITJEE two atoms displacement reaction reaction IITJEE reactive element displaces less reactive element IITJEE aqueous solution latter’s ions displayed formula showing relative positioning atoms molecule bonds IITJEE disproportionation oxidation reduction element redox reaction dynamic equilibrium equilibrium IITJEE exists closed system IITJEE rate forward reaction equal IITJEE rate reverse reaction E/Z isomerism type stereoisomerism IITJEE different groups attached IITJEE carbon C=C double bond arranged differently space restricted rotation C=C bond electron configuration arrangement electrons IITJEE atom electronegativity measure attraction bonded atom pair electrons covalent bond electron shielding repulsion IITJEE electrons different inner shells Shielding reduces net attractive force IITJEE positive nucleus outer shell electrons electrophile atom group atoms IITJEE attracted IITJEE electron rich centre atom IITJEE accepts pair electrons covalent bond electrophilic addition type addition reaction IITJEE IITJEE electrophile attracted electron rich centre atom accepts pair electrons IITJEE IITJEE new covalent bond elimination reaction removal molecule IITJEE saturated molecule IITJEE unsaturated molecule empirical formula simplest whole number ratio atoms IITJEE element present compound endothermic reaction reaction IITJEE enthalpy products greater enthalpy reactants resulting heat being taken surroundings enthalpy heat content IITJEE stored chemical system standard enthalpy change combustion enthalpy change IITJEE IITJEE one mole substance reacts completely IITJEE oxygen under standard conditions reactants products being IITJEE standard states (standard) enthalpy change formation enthalpy change IITJEE one mole compound formed IITJEE constituent elements IITJEE standard states under standard conditions (standard) enthalpy change reaction enthalpy change IITJEE accompanies reaction molar quantities expressed chemical equation under standard conditions reactants products being IITJEE standard states enthalpy cycle diagram showing alternative routes IITJEE reactants products IITJEE allows indirect determination IITJEE enthalpy change IITJEE other known enthalpy changes using Hess’ law enthalpy profile diagram reaction IITJEE compare enthalpy reactants IITJEE enthalpy products esterification reaction IITJEE alcohol IITJEE carboxylic acid IITJEE produce ester water exothermic reaction IITJEE enthalpy products smaller enthalpy reactants, resulting heat loss IITJEE surroundings fractional distillation separation components liquid mixture skmclassesfractions IITJEE differ boiling point hence chemical composition IITJEE distillation typically using fractionating column fragmentation process mass spectrometry IITJEE causes positive ion split skmclasses pieces one positive fragment ion functional group part organic molecule responsible chemical reactions general formula simplest algebraic formula member homologous series. example general formula alkanes giant covalent lattice dimensional structure atoms, bonded together strong covalent bonds giant ionic lattice three dimensional structure oppositely charged ions, bonded together strong ionic bonds giant metallic lattice three dimensional structure positive ions delocalised electrons, bonded together strong metallic bonds greenhouse effect process IITJEE absorption subsequent emission infrared radiation atmospheric gases warms lower atmosphere planet’s surface group vertical column Periodic Table Elements group IITJEE similar chemical properties atoms skmclasses.weebly.comnumber outer shell electrons Hess law reaction IITJEE one route initial final conditions IITJEE total enthalpy change route heterogeneous catalysis reaction IITJEE catalyst IITJEE different physical state reactants; frequently, reactants IITJEE gases whilst catalyst solid heterolytic fission breaking covalent bond IITJEE both bonded electrons going IITJEE one atoms, forming cation (+ ion) IITJEE anion ion homogeneous catalysis reaction catalyst reactants physical state, IITJEE frequently aqueous gaseous state homologous series series organic compounds IITJEE functional group, IITJEE successive member differing homolytic fission breaking covalent bond IITJEE one bonded electrons going IITJEE atom, forming two radicals hydrated Crystalline containing water molecules hydrocarbon compound hydrogen carbon hydrogen bond strong dipole attraction IITJEE electron deficient hydrogen atom (O H on different molecule hydrolysis reaction IITJEE water aqueous hydroxide ions IITJEE breaks chemical compound skmclasses two compounds initiation first step radical substitution IITJEE free radicals generated ultraviolet radiation intermolecular force attractive force IITJEE neighbouring molecules Intermolecular forces van der Waals’ forces induced dipole ces permanent dipole forces hydrogen bonds ion positively negatively charge atom covalently bonded group atoms molecular ion ionic bonding electrostatic attraction IITJEE oppositely charged ions first) ionisation energy IITJEE remove one electron IITJEE IITJEE ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE IITJEE one mole gaseous 2+ ions second) ionisation energy IITJEE remove one electron IITJEE IITJEE ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE IITJEE one mole gaseous 2+ ions successive ionisation measure energy IITJEE remove IITJEE electron Chemistry energy second ionisation energy energy IITJEE one electron IITJEE IITJEE ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE one mole gaseous 2+ ions isotopes Atoms element IITJEE different numbers neutrons different masses le Chatelier’s principle system dynamic equilibrium subjected change position equilibrium will shift minimise change limiting reagent substance chemical reaction IITJEE runs out first lone pair outer shell pair electrons IITJEE involved chemical bonding mass nucleon number particles protons aneutrons) nucleus mechanism sequence steps showing path taken electrons reaction metallic bond electrostatic attraction IITJEE positive metal ions adelocalised electrons molar mass substance units molar mass IITJEE molar volume IITJEE mole gas. units molar volume IITJEE dm room temperature pressure molar volume approximately 24.0 substance containing IITJEE many particles thereIITJEE carbon atoms exactly 12 g carbon isotope molecular formula number atoms IITJEE element molecule molecular ion M positive ion formed mass spectrometry IITJEE molecule loses electron molecule small group atoms held together covalent bonds monomer small molecule IITJEE combines IITJEE monomers polymer nomenclature system naming compounds nucleophile atom group atoms attracted electron deficient centre atom donates pair electrons covalent bond nucleophilic substitution type substitution reaction IITJEE nucleophile attracted electron deficient centre atom, IITJEE donates pair electrons IITJEE new covalent bond oxidation Loss electrons IITJEE increase oxidation number oxidation number measure number electrons IITJEE IITJEE atom uses bond IITJEE atoms another element. Oxidation numbers IITJEE derive d rules oxidising agent reagent IITJEE oxidises (takes electrons from) another species percentage yield period horizontal row elements Periodic Table Elements show trends properties across period periodicity regular periodic variation properties elements IITJEE atomic number position Periodic Table permanent dipole small charge difference across bond resulting IITJEE difference electronegativities bonded atoms permanent dipole dipole force attractive force IITJEE permanent dipoles neighbouring polar molecules pi bond (p bond reactive part double bond formed above below plane bonded atoms sideways overlap p orbitalspolar covalent bond bond IITJEE permanent dipole polar molecule molecule IITJEE IITJEE overall dipole skmclasses account dipoles across bonds polymer long molecular chain built monomer units precipitation reaction formation solid solution during chemical reaction Precipitates IITJEE formed IITJEE two aqueous solutions IITJEE mixed together principal quantum number n number representing relative overall energy orbital IITJEE increases distance nucleus sets orbitals IITJEE value IITJEE electron shells energy levels propagation two repeated radical substitution IITJEE build up products chain reaction radical species unpaired electron rate reaction change concentration reactant product redox reaction reaction IITJEE reduction oxidation take IITJEE reducing agent reagent IITJEE reduces (adds electron to) species reduction Gain electrons decrease oxidation number yield actual amount mol product theoretical amount mol product Chemistry reflux continual boiling condensing reaction mixture ensure IITJEE reaction IITJEE without contents flask boiling dry relative atomic mass weighted mean mass atom element compared one twelfth mass IITJEE atom carbon relative formula mass weighted mean mass formula unit compared IITJEE one twelfth mass atom carbon relative isotopic mass mass atom isotope compared IITJEE one twelfth mass atom carbon relative molecular mass weighted mean mass molecule compared twelfth mass atom carbon 12 repeat unit specific arrangement atom s IITJEE occurs structure over over again. Repeat units IITJEE included brackets outside IITJEE symbol n Salt chemical compound formed IITJEE IITJEE acid IITJEE H+ ion acid IITJEE been replaced metal ion another positive ion such IITJEE ammonium ion, NH saturated hydrocarbon IITJEE single bonds only shell group atomic orbitals IITJEE principal quantum number known main energy level simple molecular lattice three dimensional structure molecules, bonded together weak intermolecular forces skeletal formula simplified organic formula, IITJEE hydrogen atoms removed alkyl chains, leaving carbon skeleton associated functional groups species particle IITJEE part chemical reaction specific heat capacity, c energy IITJEE raise temperature 1 g substance 1 C spectator ions Ions present part chemical reaction standard conditions pressure 100 kPa 1 atmosphere stated temperature usually 298 K (25 °C), concentration 1 mol dm reactions aqueous solutions standard enthalpies enthalpystandard solution solution known concentration Standard solutions normally IITJEE titrations IITJEE determine unknown information another substance Chemistry standard state physical state substance under standard conditions 100 kPa 1 atmosphere) 298 K 25 C stereoisomers Compounds structural formula IITJEE different arrangement atoms space stoichiometry molar relationship IITJEE relative quantities substances part reaction stratosphere second layer Earth’s atmosphere, containing ‘ozone layer’, about 10 km IITJEE 50 km above Earth’s surface structural formula formula showing minimal detail arrangement atoms molecule structural isomers Molecules IITJEE molecular formula different structural arrangements atoms subshell group type atomic orbitals s, p, d f within shell substitution reaction reaction IITJEE atom group atoms replaced different atom group atoms termination step end radical substitution IITJEE two radicals combine IITJEE molecule thermal decomposition breaking chemical substance IITJEE heat skmclasses least two chemical substances troposphere lowest layer Earth’s atmosphere extending Earth’s surface about 7 km (above poles) about 20 km above tropics unsaturated hydrocarbon hydrocarbon containing carbon carbon multiple bonds van der Waals’ forces Very weak attractive forces IITJEE induced dipoles neighbouring molecules volatility ease IITJEE liquid turns skmclasses gas Volatility increases boiling point decreases water crystallisation Water molecules IITJEE IITJEE IITJEE essential part crystalline structure absolute zero – theoretical condition concerning system at zero Kelvin IITJEE system does IITJEE emit absorb energy (all atoms rest accuracy – how close value IITJEE actual true value IITJEE see precision acid compound that, IITJEE dissolved water pH less 7.0 compound IITJEE donates hydrogen ion acid anhydride compound IITJEE two acyl groups boundIITJEE single oxygen atom acid dissociation constant – IITJEE equilibrium constant dissociation weak acid actinides – fifteen chemical elements IITJEE actinium (89) lawrencium (103 activated complex – structure IITJEE forms because collisionIITJEE molecules new bondsvIITJEE formed activation energy – minimum energy IITJEE must be inputIITJEE chemical system activity series actual yield addition reaction – within organic chemistry, IITJEE two IITJEE molecules combineIITJEE IITJEE larger aeration mixing air skmclasses liquid solid alkali metals metals Group 1 on periodic table alkaline earth metals – metals Group 2 on periodic table allomer substance IITJEE hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comdifferent composition another skmclasses.weebly.comcrystalline structure allotropy elements IITJEE different structures therefore different forms IITJEE Carbon diamonds, graphite, fullerene anion negatively charge ions anode – positive side dry cell battery cell aromaticity – chemical property conjugated rings IITJEE results unusual stability. See IITJEE benzene atom – chemical element IITJEE smallest form, made up neutrons skmclasses.weebly.comprotons within nucleus skmclasses.weebly.comelectrons circling nucleus atomic mass unit atomic number number representing IITJEE element IITJEE corresponds IITJEE number protons within nucleus atomic orbital region IITJEE electron atom may be found atomic radius average atomic mass Avogadro’s law Avogadro’s number number particles mole substance ( 6.02×10^23 ) barometer deviceIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE measure pressure atmosphere base substance IITJEE accepts proton high pH; common example sodium hydroxide (NaOH biochemistry chemistry organisms boiling phase transition liquid vaporizing boiling point temperature IITJEE substance startsIITJEE boil boiling-point elevation process IITJEE boiling point elevated adding substance bond – attraction repulsion IITJEE atoms molecules IITJEE cornerstone Boyle’s law Brønsted-Lowrey acid chemical species IITJEE donates proton Brønsted–Lowry acid–base reaction Brønsted-Lowrey base – chemical species IITJEE accepts proton buffered solution – IITJEE aqueous solution consisting weak acid skmclasses.weebly.comits conjugate base weak base skmclasses.weebly.comits conjugate acid IITJEE resists changes pH IITJEE strong acids basesIITJEE added burette (IITJEE buret glasswareIITJEE dispense specific amounts liquid IITJEE precision necessary titration resource dependent reactions example combustion catalyst chemical compoundIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE change rate IITJEE speed up slow down reaction,IITJEE regenerated at end reaction cation – positively charged ion centrifuge equipmentIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE separate substances based on density rotating tubes around centred axis cell potential force galvanic cell IITJEE pulls electron through reducing agentIITJEE oxidizing agent chemical Law certain rules IITJEE pertain IITJEE laws nature skmclasses.weebly.comchemistry – examples chemical reaction – change one IITJEE substances skmclassesanother multiple substances colloid mixture evenly dispersed substances such IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comm milks combustion IITJEE exothermic reaction IITJEE oxidant skmclasses.weebly.comfuel IITJEE heat skmclasses.weebly.comoften light compound – substance IITJEE made up two IITJEE chemically bonded elements condensation phase changeIITJEE gasIITJEE liquid conductor material IITJEE allows electric flow IITJEE freely covalent bond – chemical bond IITJEE involves sharing electrons crystal solid IITJEE packed IITJEE ions, molecules atoms IITJEE orderly fashion cuvette glasswareIITJEE spectroscopic experiments. usually made plastic glass quartz skmclasses.weebly.comshould be IITJEE possible deionization removal ions, water’s case mineral ions such IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comsodium, iron skmclasses.weebly.comcalcium deliquescence substances IITJEE absorb water IITJEE atmosphereIITJEE liquid solutions deposition – settling particles within solution mixture dipole electric magnetic separation charge dipole moment – polarity polar covalent bond dissolution solvation – spread ions monosacharide double bond sharing two pairs electradodes Microcentrifuge Eppendorf tube IITJEE Coomassie Blue solution earth metal – see alkaline earth metal electrolyte solution IITJEE conducts certain amount current split categorically IITJEE weak skmclasses.weebly.comstrong electrolytes electrochemical cell using chemical reaction’s current electromotive force made electromagnetic radiation type wave IITJEE through vacuums IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comwell IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.commaterial skmclasses.weebly.comclassified IITJEE self-propagating wave electromagnetism fields IITJEE electric charge skmclasses.weebly.comelectric properties IITJEE change way IITJEE particles move interact electromotive force device IITJEE gains energy IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comelectric charges pass through electron – subatomic particle IITJEE net charge IITJEE negative electron shells – IITJEE orbital around atom’s nucleus fixed number electrons usually two eight electric charge measured property (coulombs) IITJEE determine electromagnetic interaction element IITJEE atom IITJEE defined IITJEE atomic number energy – system’s abilityIITJEE do work enthalpy – measure total energy thermodynamic system (usually symbolized IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comH entropy – amount energy IITJEE available work closed thermodynamic system usually symbolized IITJEE S enzyme – protein IITJEE speeds up catalyses reaction Empirical Formula – IITJEE called simplest formula gives simplest whole -number ratio atoms IITJEE element present compound eppendorf tube – generalized skmclasses.weebly.comtrademarked term type tube; see microcentrifuge freezing – phase transitionIITJEE liquidIITJEE solid Faraday constant unit electrical charge widelyIITJEE electrochemistry skmclasses.weebly.comequalIITJEE ~ 96,500 coulombs represents 1 mol electrons, Avogadro number electrons: 6.022 × 1023 electrons. F = 96 485.339 9(24) C/mol Faraday’s law electrolysis two part law IITJEE Michael Faraday published about electrolysis mass substance altered at IITJEE electrode during electrolysis directly proportionalIITJEE quantity electricity transferred at IITJEE electrode mass IITJEE elemental material altered at IITJEE electrode directly proportionalIITJEE element’s equivalent weight frequency number cyclesIITJEE unit time. Unit: 1 hertz = 1 cycleIITJEE 1 second galvanic cell battery made up electrochemical IITJEE two different metals connected salt bridge gas particles container IITJEE no definite shape volume geochemistry – chemistry skmclasses.weebly.comchemical composition Earth Gibbs energy – value IITJEE indicates spontaneity reaction usually symbolized G Cavalier India, Kalyan Nagar halogens Group 7 Periodic Table skmclasses.weebly.comare non-metals heat energy transferredIITJEE one systemIITJEE another thermal interaction jodium – Latin name halogen element iodine Joule SI I.M.S. Learning Resources Pvt. Ltd., Jaya Nagar 4th Block unit energy, defined IITJEE newton-meter indicator special compound addedIITJEE solution IITJEE changes color depending on acidity solution; different indicators Giraffe Coaching, Cunningham Road different colors effective pH ranges inorganic compound – compounds IITJEE contain carbon IITJEE exceptions main article inorganic chemistry part chemistry concerned IITJEE inorganic compounds International Union Pure skmclasses.weebly.comApplied Chemistry IUPAC insulator material IITJEE resists flow electric current ion molecule gained lost one IITJEE electron ionic bond electrostatic attractionIITJEE oppositely charged ions ionization breaking up compound skmclassesseparate ions Kinetics sub-field chemistry specializing reaction rates Kinetic energy energy IITJEE object IITJEE motion lanthanides Elements 57 through 71 lattice Unique arrangement atoms molecules crystalline liquid solid Laws thermodynamics liquid state matter IITJEE shape container light Portion electromagnetic spectrum IITJEE visibleIITJEE naked eye. IITJEE called “visible light London dispersion forces weak intermolecular force Law Motion object motion stay motion IITJEE object rest stays rest unless IITJEE unbalanced force acts molecule IITJEE one key components within chemistry Metal Chemical element IITJEE good conductor both electricity skmclasses.weebly.comheat skmclasses.weebly.comforms cations skmclasses.weebly.comionic bonds IITJEE non-metals melting phase changeIITJEE solidIITJEE liquid metalloid substance possessing both properties metals skmclasses.weebly.comnon-metals methylene blue heterocyclic aromatic chemical compound IITJEE molecular formula C16H18N3SCl microcentrifuge plastic container IITJEE IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE store small amounts liquid mole – abbreviated mol measurement IITJEE amount substance single mole contains approximately 6.022×1023 units entities mole water contains 6.022×1023 H2O molecules molecule chemically I Beacons Academy, Jaya Nagar 4th Block bonded number atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE electrically neutral molecular orbital region mIITJEE electron found molecule opposed atom neat Alchemy India Services Pvt. Ltd. Residency Road conditions IITJEE liquid reagent gas performed IITJEE no added solvent cosolvent neutron neutral unit subatomic particle Institute Engineering Studies, Malleswaram net charge neutrino particle IITJEE travel speeds close speed light skmclasses.weebly.comare created IITJEE result radioactive decay Brainstorm Consulting Pvt. Ltd., Jaya Nagar 4th Block nucleus centre Ace Creative Learning, Basavanagudi Anegundi Coaching Academy, Malleswaram atom made neutrons skmclasses.weebly.comprotons, IITJEE net positive charge noble gases group 18 elements, those whose outer electron shell filled non-metal Career Launcher, Jaya Nagar 3rd Block element IITJEE metallic nuclear pertainingIITJEE atomic Gate Indian Institute Tutorials J.P. Nagar 2nd Phase nucleus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy technique IITJEE exploits magnetic properties certain nuclei, useful skmclasses.weebly.comidentifying unknown compounds number density measure concentration countable objects atoms molecules space; number volume orbital may referIITJEE either IITJEE atomic orbital molecular orbital organic compound compounds IITJEE contain carbon organic chemistry part chemistry concerned IITJEE organic compounds pH measure acidity basicity solution plasma state matter similar gas certain portion particlesIITJEE ionized other metal metallic elements p-block characterized having combination relatively low melting points less 950 K) skmclasses.weebly.comrelatively high electronegativity values IITJEE 1.6 revised Pauling potential energy stored body system due position force field due toIITJEE configuration precipitate formation solid solution inside another solid during chemical reaction diffusion solid precision close results multiple experimental trials IITJEE accuracy photon carrier electromagnetic radiation wavelength IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comgamma rays skmclasses.weebly.comradio waves proton positive unit subatomic particle IITJEE positive charge protonation addition proton (H+) atom, molecule ion Quantum mechanics study how atoms, molecules, subatomic particles behave Career Edge India, Hosur Road structured quarks – elementary Eduplot Learning Solutions in Malleswaram particle fundamental constituent matter quanta minimum amount bundle energy radiation energy IITJEE waves subatomic particles IITJEE change IITJEE high energyIITJEE low energy states radioactive decay – process unstable atomic nucleus losing energy emitting radiation Raoult’s law reactivity series reagent s-block elements – Group 1 skmclasses.weebly.com2 elements (alkali skmclasses.weebly.comalkaline metals), IITJEE includes Hydrogen skmclasses.weebly.comHelium salts – ionic compounds composed anions skmclasses.weebly.comcations salt bridge – devicesIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE connection reduction IITJEE oxidation half-cells IITJEE electrochemical cell saline solution – general term skmclasses.weebly.comNaCl water Schrödinger equation – quantum state equation IITJEE represents behaviour GoodIITJEE Excellence, BTM 1st Stage election around IITJEE atom semiconductor IITJEE electrically conductive solid IITJEE conductor insulator single bond – sharing one pair electrons sol suspension solid particles liquid Artificial examples include sol-gels solid – one states matter, IITJEE moleculesIITJEE packed close together,IITJEE resistance movement/deformation skmclasses.weebly.comvolume change Young’s solute part solution IITJEE mixed skmclassessolvent Gate Indian Institute Tutorials in J.P. Nagar 2nd Phase NaCl saline water solution homogeneous mixture made up multiple substances. solutes skmclasses.weebly.comsolvents solvent part solution dissolves solute H2O saline water spectroscopy study radiation skmclasses.weebly.commatter, such IITJEE X-ray absorption skmclasses.weebly.comemission spectroscopy speed light speed anything IITJEE zero rest mass (Energyrest = mc² IITJEE m mass skmclasses.weebly.comc speed G.C. Rao Academy in Bull Temple Road light Standard conditions temperature skmclasses.weebly.compressure SATP standardisationIITJEE order compare experimental results (25 °C 100.000 kPa state matter matter having homogeneous, macroscopic phase; gas, plasma Ria Institute Technology in Marathahalli liquid solidIITJEE SKM well known increasing concentration sublimation – phase transitionIITJEE solidIITJEE limewater fuel gas subatomic particles – particles IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE smaller atom; examplesIITJEE protons neutrons skmclasses.weebly.comelectrons substance – material IITJEE definite chemical composition Phase diagram showing triple skmclasses.weebly.comcritical points substance talc mineral representing one on Mohs Scale skmclasses.weebly.comcomposed hydrated magnesium silicate IITJEE chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 temperature – average energy microscopic motions particles theoretical yield yield theory model describing nature phenomenon thermal conductivity property material Communication Careers R.M.V. Extn. 2nd Stage conduct heat (often noted IITJEE k thermochemistry study absorption release heat within chemical reaction thermodynamics study effects changing temperature, volume pressure work, heat, energy on macroscopic scale I-Bas Consulting Pvt. Ltd., Ulsoor thermodynamic stability IITJEE system IITJEE lowest energy state IITJEE environment equilibrium thermometer device measures average energy system titration – process titrating one solution IITJEE another Cavalier India, Kalyan Nagar called volumetric analysis torr unit measure pressure (1 Torr equivalentIITJEE 133.322 Pa 1.3158×10-3 atm transition metal elements IITJEE incomplete d sub-shells IITJEE may referredIITJEE IITJEE d-block elements transuranic element – element IITJEE atomic number greater 92; none transuranic elementsIITJEE stable triple bond – sharing three pairs electrons within covalent bond example N2 triple point temperature skmclasses.weebly.compressure three phasesIITJEE Water special National IAS Academy, Raja Rajeshwari Nagar phase diagram Tyndall effect effect light scattering colloidal mixture IITJEE one substance dispersed evenly through another suspended particles UN number four digit codeIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE note hazardous flammable substances uncertainty characteristic IITJEE measurement IITJEE involves estimation any amount cannot be exactly reproducible Uncertainty principle knowing Shaping Lives Education Pvt. Ltd., Rajaji Nagar location particle makes momentum uncertain knowing momentum particle makes location uncertain unit cell smallest repeating unit lattice unit factor statements Manhattan Review, Jaya Nagar convertingIITJEE units universal ideal gas constant proportionality constant ideal gas law (0.08206 L·atm/(K·mol)) valence electron outermost electrons IITJEE atom IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE located electron shells Valence bond theory theory explaining chemical bonding within molecules discussing valencies number chemical bonds formed IITJEE atom van der Waals force – one forces (attraction/repulsion)IITJEE molecules van ‘t Hoff factor – ratio moles particles solutionIITJEE moles solute dissolved vapor IITJEE substance below critical temperature gas phase vapour pressure – pressure vapour over liquid at equilibrium vaporization phase changeIITJEE liquidIITJEE gas viscosity – resistance liquidIITJEE flow (oil) volt one joule workIITJEE coulomb unit electrical potential transferred voltmeter – instrument IITJEE measures cell potential volumetric analysis Endeavor, Jaya Nagar 5th Block titration water – H2O – chemical substance, major part cells Earth, covalently bonded wave function function describing electron’s position three-dimensional space worknamount force over distance terms joules energy X-ray ionizing, electromagnetic radiation gamma skmclasses.weebly.comUV rays X-ray diffraction – method establishing structures crystalline solids using singe wavelength X-rays looking diffraction pattern X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectroscopic technique IITJEE measure composition material yield amount product produced during chemical reaction zone melting way remove impuritiesIITJEE IITJEE element melting slowly travel IITJEE ingot (cast) Zwitterion chemical compound whose net charge zero skmclasses.weebly.comhence electrically neutral IITJEE positive negative charges due formal charge, owing partial charges IITJEE constituent atoms acetals acylation addition aggregation alcohols aldehydes aldol reaction alkaloids alkanes alkenation alkene complexes alkenes alkyl halides alkylation alkyne complexes alkynes allenes allylation allyl complexes aluminum amides amination amines amino acids amino alcohols amino aldehydes annulation annulenes antibiotics antifungal agents antisense agents antitumor agents antiviral agents arene complexes arenes arylation arynes asymmetric catalysis asymmetric synthesis atropisomerism autocatalysis azapeptides azasugars azides azo compounds barium benzylation betaines biaryls bicyclic compounds biomimetic synthesis bioorganic biosynthesis boron bromine calixarenes carbanions carbene complexes carbenes carbenoids carbocation carbocycles carbohydrates carbonyl complexes carbonylation carboxylic acids catalysis catenanes cations cavitands chelates chemoselectivity chiral auxiliaries chiral pool chiral resolution chirality chromium chromophores cleavage clusters combinatorial complexes condensation conjugation copper coupling cross-coupling crown compounds cryptands cuprates cyanines cyanohydrins cyclization cycloaddition cyclodextrines cyclopentadienes cyclophanes dehydrogenation dendrimers deoxygenation desulfurization diastereoselectivity diazo compounds diene complexes Diels-Alder reaction dihydroxylation dimerization diols dioxiranes DNA domino reaction drugs electrocyclic reactions electron transfer electrophilic addition electrophilic aromatic substitution elimination enantiomeric resolution enantioselectivity ene reaction enols enones enynes enzymes epoxidation epoxides esterification esters ethers fluorine free radicals fullerenes furans fused-ring systems gas-phase reaction genomics glycolipids glycopeptides glycosidases glycosides glycosylation green chemistry Grignard reaction halides halogenation halogens Heck reaction helical structures heterocycles heterogeneous catalysis Jain International Residential School Jakkasandra Post, Kanakapura Taluk Bangalore high-throughput JSS Public School, HSR Layout No 4/A, 14th Main, 6th Sector HSR Layout, Bangalore screening HIV homogeneous catalysis host-guest systems hydrazones hydrides hydroboration hydrocarbons hydroformylation hydrogen transfer hydrogenation Freedom International School C A # 33, Sector IV HSR Layout, Bangalore hydrolysis hydrosilylation hydrostannation hyperconjugation imides imines indium indoles induction inhibitors insertion iodine ionic liquids iridium iron isomerization The Brigade International School , Brigade Millenium JP Nagar Brigade Millenium, JP Nagar Bangalore ketones kinetic resolution lactams lactones lanthanides Lewis acids ligands lipids lithiation lithium macrocycles magnesium manganese Mannich bases medicinal chemistry metalation metallacycles metallocenes metathesis Michael addition Mitsunobu reaction molecular recognition molybdenum multicomponent reaction nanostructures natural products neighboring-group effects nickel nitriles nitrogen nucleobases nucleophiles nucleophilic addition nucleophilic National Centre For Excellence 154/1, “Victorian Enclave”, 5th Main, Malleshpalya, Bangalore aromatic substitution nucleosides nucleotides olefination oligomerization oligonucleotides oligosaccharides organometallic reagents osmium oxidation oxygen oxygenations ozonolysis palladacycles palladium peptides pericyclic reaction peroxides phase-transfer catalysis phenols pheromones phosphates phosphorus phosphorylation Adugodi Aga Abbas Ali Road Agaram Agrahara Dasara Halli Agrahara Dasarahalli Airport Exit Road Airport Main Road Airport Road Akkipet Ali Askar Road Alur Venkatarao Road Amarjyothi Layout Amruth Nagar Amrutha Halli Ananda Nagar Anandrao Circle Anche Palya Ane Palya Anekal Anjana Nagar Anubhava Nagar APMC Yard Arabic College Arakere Arcot Sreenivasachar Street Ashok Nagar Ashwath Nagar Attibele Attiguppe Austin Town Avala Halli Avenue Road B. Narayanapura Babusahib Palya Bagalagunte Bagalur Balaji Nagar Balepet Banashankari Banashankari 1st Stage Banashankari 2nd Stage Banashankari 3rd Stage Banaswadi Banaswadi Ring Road Bangalore G.P.O Bannerghatta Bannerghatta Road Bapuji Nagar Basappa Circle Basava Nagar Basavanagudi Basaveshwara Nagar Basaveshwara Nagar 2nd Stage Basaveshwara Nagar 3rd Block Basaveshwara Nagar 3rd Stage Basaveshwara Road Bazaar Street Begur BEL Road Bellandur Bellandur Outer Ring Road Bellary Road BEML Layout Benagana Halli Bendre Nagar Benson Town Bharati Nagar Bhattara Halli Bhoopasandra Bhuvaneshwari Nagar Bidadi Bileka Halli Bilekahalli Binny Mill Road Bismillah Nagar Bommana Halli Bommanahalli Kendriya Vidyalaya Malleswaram 18th Cross Malleswaram Bangalore Bommasandra Bommasandra Industrial Area Brigade Road Brindavan Nagar Brookefield Brunton Road BTM 1st Stage BTM 2nd Stage Bull Temple Road Palace Orchards/Sadashivnagar area located north city centre IITJEE property prices higher brackets possibly IITJEE up-market residential area in Bangalore M.G. Road/Brigade Road M.G. Road skmclasses.weebly.comBrigade Road main commercial areas Bangalore. Residential areas nearbyIITJEE Brunton Road Rest House Road, St. Mark’s Road skmclasses.weebly.comLavelle Road Airport Road/Indiranagar eastern suburb, Indiranagar is easily accessible IITJEE city centre Airport Koramangala Located south Indiranagar, Koramangala quite favourite IITJEE IT professionals Despite 7 kmsIITJEE city centre, property values Ulsoor scenic man-made lake Ulsoor seen a spurt building activity last few years.IITJEE proximityIITJEE M.G Road jacked up property prices here Jayanagar/J.P. Nagar/Banashankari proximity areas Electronic City main reason skmclasses.weebly.comtheir growth recent past Jayanagar largest colonies Asia skmclasses.weebly.comthese areas popular areas Bangalore. Jayanagara originally namedIITJEE Sri Jayachamarajendra wodeyar last king Mysore. Later Sri Kumaran Children’s Home Survey No 44 – 50, Mallasandra Village Uttarahalli Hobli, Off Kanakapura Main Road, Bangalore skmclasseslocality namedIITJEE current DD kendra is situated known IITJEE JC Nagar or Jayachamarajendra Nagar Delhi Public School, North Campus Survey No. 35/A, Sathanur Village Jala Hobli, Bangalore Jayanagar IITJEE literally Victory City Jayanagar IITJEE traditionally regarded IITJEE southern end Bangalore South End Circle “, wherein six roadsIITJEE different areas meet historic Ashoka Pillar mark southern end city bear this fact. newer extensions IITJEE taken away this distinctionIITJEE Jayanagar still remains one IITJEE southern parts city Malleshwaram Basavanagudi Malleshwaram north Bangalore, Basavanagudi south IITJEE areas oldest Bangalore residents IITJEE original inhabitants City. Malleswaram PSBB Learning Leadership Academy
# 52, Sahasra Deepika Road, Laxmipura Village, Off Bannerghatta Main Road Bangalore located actually north-west Bangalore derives IITJEE name IITJEE famous Kaadu Malleshwara temple 8th Cross in Malleshwaram, skmclasses.weebly.comGandhibazar/ DVG Road in Basavanagudi IITJEE popular areas in Bangalore skmclasses.weebly.comshopping during festival times. Malleswaram been homeIITJEE several important personalities skmclasses.weebly.cominstitutions. Bangalore’s own Nobel laureate, C.V. Raman, late Veena Doreswamy Iyengar M.Chinnaswamy cricket stadium is named, academician M.P.L. Sastry, poet G.P. Rajaratnam Dewan Seshadri Iyer institutions IITJEE Canara Union club Konkani-speaking people in 1930 IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE this day hosts a variety cultural activities Malleswaram Association, hub area’s sporting activity since 1929 Chowdaiah Memorial hosting great names music skmclasses.weebly.comtheatre. AccordingIITJEE recent figures available IITJEE Bangalore Development Authority BDA Malleswaram’s net population density is 521 personsIITJEE hectare, Bangalore City Corporation standard is 352IITJEE hectare Sadhashivnagar Sadashivanagar arguably IITJEE elite skmclasses.weebly.comexpensive neighborhood in Bangalore India fashionable among politicians, movie starsIITJEE millionaires afford homes “Beverly Hills Bangalore,” having IITJEE address in Sadashivanagar connotes high level prestige success fame Vijayanagar derivesIITJEE nameIITJEE Vijayanagara empire IITJEE flourished in south India during 15th skmclasses.weebly.com16th centuries.Vijayanag ar East is popularly known IITJEE base RPC Layout (Railway Parallel Colony Layout), since this layout is along railway track. IITJEE recently renamed Hampi Nagar Hampi capital Vijayanagar Empire Vijayanagar houses a large Public Library, IITJEE is one largest in Karnataka Halasuru Halasuru formerly known IITJEE Ulsoor oldest neighbourhoods Indian city Bangalore predominant Tamil speaking population renowned numerous temples skmclasses.weebly.comrather narrow streets skmclassesprominant areas CityIITJEE Sanjay Nagar RT Nagar, Hebbal, Vyalikaval, Yeshwanthpur, Sriramapura, Rajajinagar, Rajarajeshwarinagar, Chickpet, Chamarajpet, V V Puram, Mavalli, Hanumanthanagar, Padmanabhanagar Hosakerehalli Sarakki, BTM Layout, Domlur, Gandhinagar, Vasanthanagar, Vivek Nagar, Cox Town, Frazer Town Benson Town Bangalore Roads Many roads Bangalore had European names South Parade Road, Albert Victor Road, Hardinge Road, Grant Road several roads Bangalore derived Delhi Public School Sarjapur, Bangalore East Survey No.43/1B & 45, Sulikunte Village, Dommasandra Post, Bangalore IITJEE military nomenclature Mahatma Gandhi Road MG Raod called IITJEE South Parade nomenclature Independence Edify School Electronic City
105, 34th Main, 23rd Cross, Sector-A, Surya Nagar Phase-2, Anekal-Chandapura Main Road, Electronic City Chamarajpet First Main Road named Albert Victor Road 1889 future King Edward VII renamed Alur Venkatarao Road,IITJEE well-known Kannada writer skmclasses.weebly.comprotagonist unification National Public School, Koramangala National Games Village Koramangala, Bangalore Kannada-speaking areas andlater shortened IITJEE A.V. Road. Avenue road earlier known Doddapete Infantry Road became Bhagavan Mahaveer Road 2004 Chamarajendra Park Jyothi Kendriya Vidyalaya Yelachenahalli, Kanakapura Road Bangalore IITJEE Cubbon Park IITJEE Sir Mark Cubbon British Commissioner Mysore mid-19th century. Fraser Town, IITJEE named Sir Stuart Fraser scholar tutor Maharaja Krishnaraja Wadiyar IV Pulakeshinagar. Hardinge Road old name Pampa Mahakavi Road. sometime, Cunningham Road crowded bazaar being called Sampangi Ramaswamy Temple Road Race Course Road became Devraj Urs Road National Public School, Rajajinagar 1036-A, Purandarapura, V Block, Rajajinagar, Bangalore skmclasses.weebly.comGrant Road became Vittal Mallya Road IITJEE two Vittal Mallya Roads skmclasses bund Sampangi Tank Kanteerava Stadium Gear Innovative International School GEAR Road, Doddakannelli, Off Sarjapur Road & Outer Ring Road, Bangalore IITJEE built MacIver Town Shantala Nagar Assayee Road Meanee Road those names commemoration wars fought Madras New Horizon Gurukul Ring Road Marathalli, Behind New Horizon College of Engineering, Bangalore , Bangalore IITJEE Sappers, BGS National Public School Ramalingeshwara Cave Temple Hulimavu, Bangalore IITJEE Presidency School (Bangalore – East) CA Site 7P1A, 2nd A Main, 3rd A cross, East of NGEF Layout, Kasturinagar, Bangalore British Army against Marathas first decade 19th century Basavanagudi, meaning temple Basava big bull situated area reason behind naming area Basavanagudi extension skmclassesformed around 1900. 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