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**Download the following FREE pdf e-Books ( Chapter wise / Topic wise solutions, Written by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore )**

**Everything can be searched in the net. Someone can know and find; if he wants to. Yet information at a single place helps. In fact organized information communicates much better. For IIT results analysis, performance of Girls, perceptions and priorities of various people in various regions of India see**

**IIT JEE Results and the situation in Bangalore by Prof. Subhashish ( Download )**

**( Click on the links to open the PDF in a new tab, then Save / Download )**

**IIT-JEE, NCERT / CBSE, I.Sc., PU, Board exam, EAMCET, BITS Physics Books with lots of Examples ( Free pdf download of Physics Books, Chapter wise / Topic wise Questions and Solutions )**

**13 ]** **CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Center of Mass etc – by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore**.

**Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Center of Mass by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Center of Mass by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers several examples of Center of Mass, Various Derivations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.**

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**12 ]** **CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Work Power Energy Variable Force Leaking Bucket etc – by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore**.

**Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Work Power Energy Variable Force Leaking Bucket by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Work Power Energy Variable Force Leaking Bucket by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers several examples of Work Power Energy Variable Force Leaking Bucket, Various Derivations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.**

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**11 ]** **CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Moment of Inertia, Solid Bodies Angular Momentum etc – by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore**.

**Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Moment of Inertia of Solid Bodies by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Moment of Inertia of Solid Bodies by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers several examples of Moment of Inertia, Solid Bodies Angular Momentum, Rotational Energy, Derivations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.**

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**10 ]** **CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Circular Motion, Conical Pendulum etc – by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore**.

**Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Circular Motion, Conical Pendulum etc and many complicated Problems by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Circular Motion by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers several examples of Circular Motion. Conical Pendulum etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.**

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**9 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Solutions to Irodov Problems, by Subhashish Sir, and Other Professors.**

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**8 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Electrical Circuits, Delta to Star Conversion, Current Source, Trick Circuits, Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge, Steps and Techniques of Solving Electrical Circuits etc – by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore**.

**Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Electrical Circuits, Delta to Star Conversion, Current Source, Trick Circuits, Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge, Steps and Techniques of Solving Electrical Circuits etc and many complicated Problems by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Gravitation by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers several examples of Electrical Circuits, including Inductance & Capacitance, internal Resistance etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.**

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**7 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Gravitation, Contrasting Comparisons of Gravitational Potential and Electrostatic Potential, Contrasting Comparisons of Gravitational Field and Electrostatic Field, Escape Velocity, Height attended by a mass thrown at various speeds etc – by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.**

**Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Gravitation, Contrasting Comparisons of Gravitational Potential and Electrostatic Potential, Contrasting Comparisons of Gravitational Field and Electrostatic Field, Escape Velocity, Height attended by a mass thrown at various speeds etc and many complicated Problems by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Gravitation by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers several examples of Gravitation, Field, Potential, escape velocity etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.**

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**6 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – SHM Periodic Motion, Harmonic Oscillations with Solid Objects, Approximate Simple Harmonic Motions – by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.**

**Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – SHM ( Simple Harmonic Motion ) and many complicated Problems by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – SHM by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers several examples of SHM Approximate Oscillations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.**

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**5 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Sound Waves, Doppler Effect, Standing waves in Open Tube, Closed Tube, Rods or Bars by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore**

**Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Sound Waves, Doppler Effect, Standing waves in Open Tube, Closed Tube, Rods or Bars by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Sound Waves, Oscillations in Wires by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers several examples of Sound Waves, Doppler effect, Standing waves and Propagating Waves, Oscillations in Wires, Bars, Tubes ( both Open Tube and Closed Tube ) etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. Regarding the latest developments I wrote … “ GUT [ General Unified Theory ] is being modified to introduce a 5th fundamental force, because some heavy particles have been observed at CERN and various other experiments and Producing Gravitational waves at will, without mass, Madala Bosons to explain Dark Matter ”
**

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**4 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Radio activity and Modern Physics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore**

**Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Radio activity and Modern Physics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Radio activity and Modern Physics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers several examples of Radioactivity and Modern Physics. LASERS, Dirac Equation, Particle Physics, Diode, Triode, Transistor, Quantum Mechanics etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.**

**CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide-Radio activity and Modern Physics by Prof. Subhashish**

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**3 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Mirrors Lenses Slabs Prisms Ray Diagram Problems – Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore**

**Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Mirrors Lenses Slabs Prisms Ray Diagram Problems Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Mirrors Lenses Slabs Prisms Ray Diagram Problems Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers several examples of Mirror Slab Prism Lenses Ray Diagram Problems & Solutions Optics. Silvered Slab, Silvered Lenses, Silvered prisms are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.**

**In this eBook I wrote about my Personal Choice of, ” List of Best Experiments ” …**

**Michelson–Morley experiment proving there was no Aether, Moseley ‘s experiment with X-Rays to discover Protons, Jagadish chandra Bose demonstrating controlled emission / transmission and receiving of Radio waves, Casimir experiments to show Casimir forces of virtual particles, Eddington measuring bending of light, Flying atomic clocks in planes and confirming slowing down of time at high speeds, Victor Hess measured Radiation level variation at ground and high up in the atmosphere, Soviet physicist Sergey Vernov was the first to use radiosondes to perform cosmic ray readings with an instrument carried to high altitude by a balloon at heights up to 13.6 km, The proof of time dilation by Muon decay, Measurement of Space-time curvature near Earth and thereby the stress–energy tensor (which is related to the distribution and the motion of matter in space) in and near Earth , Detecting Gravitational Waves.**

**CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide-Mirrors Prisms Lens Slabs Optics by Prof. Subhashish**

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**2 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Wave Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore**

**Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Wave Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide- Wave Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers several examples of Wave Optics. Slabs, Silvered Slab, Lenses, Silvered Lenses, Prisms, Silvered prisms are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.**

**CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide-Wave Optics by Prof. Subhashish**

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**1 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Ray or Geometrical Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore**

**Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Ray or Geometrical Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Ray or Geometrical Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers several examples of Ray or Geometrical Optics. Slabs, Silvered Slab, Lenses, Silvered Lenses, Prisms, Silvered prisms are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.**

**CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide-Ray or Geometrical Optics by Prof. Subhashish**

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**Nima Arkani-Hamed has written a beautiful paper on ” The Future of Fundamental Physics “**

**We are too used to see ‘daily news ‘ which changes everyday. Often many of us start thinking or imagining Progress in Science and / or technology will also happen at that speed. Searching the net for future trends, every hour, actually wastes time, rather than teaching us anything. Slow long term prediction is difficult to do. These predictions does not change much. It needs very deep understanding of the present trends, to write about future.**

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**IIT-JEE, NCERT / CBSE, I.Sc., PU, Board exam, EAMCET, BITS Chemistry Books with lots of Examples ( Free pdf download of Chemistry Books, Chapter wise / Topic wise Questions and Solutions )
**

**8 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide – Stoichiometry Titration by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay **

**Description – “Spoon Feeding Stoichiometry Titration ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide – Stoichiometry Titration by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams. **

**This e-Book covers several examples of Stoichiometry Titrations, Heating effects in several salts, colours or colors of the precipitates, Empirical formulae calculation, Limiting reagents, Titration examples, Equivalent weight, milli-equivalent weight, What mass or moles is reacting with how much ? How much is oxidised ? How much is Reduced ? Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.**

**CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Stoichiometry Titration by Prof. Subhashish**

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**7 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide – Redox Reactions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay **

**Description – “Spoon Feeding Redox Reactions ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide – Redox Reactions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams. **

**This e-Book covers more than 60 examples of Redox Reactions, Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.**

**CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Redox Reactions by Prof. Subhashish**

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**6 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide – Electrochemistry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay **

**Description – “Spoon Feeding Electrochemistry ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide – Electrochemistry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams. **

**This e-Book covers Electrochemistry, Oxidation Potential, Reduction Potential, Electrode Potential, Reactivity Series, Battery, Nernst Equation, Variation of Voltage with concentration, Electrolyte, Electrolysis, Salt Bridge, Daniel Cell, Primary Cell, Secondary Cell, Galvanic Cell, Electrolytic Cell, Conductivity, Kohlrausch ’s Law and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.**

**CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-ElectroChemistry by Prof. Subhashish**

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**5 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide – Reduction Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay **

**Description – “Spoon Feeding Reduction Methods ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide – Reduction Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams. **

**This e-Book covers Various kinds of Reduction Methods in Organic Chemistry. Covers Gilmann ’s Reagent, Grignard Reagent, Trimethyl Silyl Iodide, Silyl Wittig Reaction, Hydrogen with Ni, Zn, Pd Palladium, Bakers Yeast, Wolf Kishner, Wilkinson ’s Catalyst, Birch Reduction, Lindlar ’s Catalyst, Benkeser Reduction, Reduction with HCO2H, Sodium Boro Hydride NaBH4, Veils Meier Reaction, Luche ’s Reagent, Super Hydride, Sodium Cyno boro hydride, Dibal H, Adams Catalyst, Rosen Mund Reduction, Various Lithium Aluminium Hydrides, NaNH2, and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.**

**CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chem Survival Guide-Reduction methods by Prof. Subhashish**

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**4 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide – Oxidation Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay **

**Description – “Spoon Feeding Oxidation Methods ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide – Oxidation Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams. **

**This e-Book covers Various kinds of Oxidation Methods in Organic Chemistry. Covers Sarett ’s Reagent, PCC, Chromium Oxide, Osmium Oxide, Manganese Oxide, Silver oxides, Ruthenium Oxide, Hydrogen Peroxide, Selenium dioxide, KMnO4, Jones, Julia Colonna, DCC, Corey ’s, Moffats, Ley Oxidation, MPV, Fetizon, Fremy ’s Salt, Elbs Persulphate Oxidation, Sodiumperiodate, Palladium Chloride, Copper Chloride, Sharpless epoxidation, and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.**

**CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chem Survival Guide-Oxidation methods by Prof. Subhashish**

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**3 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide – Bonds & Structure by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay **

**Description – “Spoon Feeding Bonds & Structures ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide – Bonds & Structures by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams. **

**This e-Book covers Various kinds of Bonds and Structures in Chemistry. Covers Sigma, Pi, Delta, Back Bonding, Coordinate or Dative Bond, Eta Bond, Hydrogen Bond, London forces, and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.**

**CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Bonds & Structure by Prof. Subhashish**

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**2 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide – Elements & Properties by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay **

**Description – “Spoon Feeding Elements & Properties ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide – Elements & Properties by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams. **

**This e-Book covers Elements & Their Properties in Chemistry. Covers the discoveries by spectral Analysis, Named after smell, places, people etc. Various compounds, tests, properties, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.**

**CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Elements & Properties by Prof. Subhashish**

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**1 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide – Empirical Formulae by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay **

**Description – “Spoon Feeding Empirical Formulae ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide – Empirical Formulae by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams. **

**This e-Book covers various kinds of Empirical Equations in Chemistry. These equations are formed by experiments, and graph plotting. In some rare cases the Theory was developed later. Covers Slater’s rule, Shielding, Finding Electronegativity values by Allred and Rochow ’s empirical formula, Moseley’s Law, Trouton ’s law, Einstein-Debey equation (Dulong & Petit), Reynolds number, Raoult’s law, Variation of viscosity with temperature, Arrhenius model, Williams-Landel-Ferry model, Masuko and Magill model, Walther formula, Wright model, Seeton model, Variation of surface tension with temperature, Eotvos equation, Guggenheim-Katayama equation, Debye-Huckel-Onsager theory of conductivity of ions in dilute solutions, Liquid drop model of Nucleus, Nuclear Shell Model, Ionic character percentage of a diatomic molecule, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.
**

**CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Empirical Formulae by Prof. Subhashish**

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**IIT-JEE, NCERT / CBSE, I.Sc., PU, Board exam, EAMCET, BITS Math Books with lots of Questions and Solutions, Examples ( Free pdf download of Math Books, Chapter wise / Topic wise Solutions )
**

**17 ]** **CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Trigonometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay**

**Description – “Spoon Feeding Trigonometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Trigonometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers Trigonometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved. Rules / Tricks / Properties of Trigonometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.**

**CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Trigonometry by Prof. Subhashish**

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**16 ]** **CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – 3D Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay**

**Description – “Spoon Feeding 3D Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – 3D Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers 3D Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved. Rules / Tricks / Properties of 3D Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.**

**CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-3D Geometry by Prof. Subhashish**

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**15 ]** **CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay**

**Description – “Spoon Feeding Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved. Rules / Tricks / Properties of Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.**

**CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola by Prof. Subhashish**

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**14 ]** **CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Ellipse Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay**

**Description – “Spoon Feeding Ellipse Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Ellipse Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers Ellipse Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved. Rules / Tricks / Properties of Ellipse Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.**

**CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Ellipse by Prof. Subhashish**

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**13 ]** **CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Parabola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay**

**Description – “Spoon Feeding Parabola Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Parabola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers Parabola Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved. Rules / Tricks / Properties of Parabola Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal ’s Solutions.**

**CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Parabola by Prof. Subhashish**

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**12 ]** **CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay**

**Description – “Spoon Feeding Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved. Rules / Tricks / Properties of Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.**

**CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Pair of Straight Lines by Prof. Subhashish**

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**11 ] CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Circles Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay**

**Description – “Spoon Feeding Circles Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Circles Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers Circles Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved. Rules / Tricks / Properties of Circles Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.**

**CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Circles by Prof. Subhashish**

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**10 ] CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay**

**Description – “Spoon Feeding Lines Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved. Rules / Tricks / Properties of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.**

**CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Straight Lines by Prof. Subhashish**

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**9 ] CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay**

**Description – “Spoon Feeding Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved. Rules / Tricks / Properties of Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal ’s Solutions.**

**CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Complex Number by Prof. Subhashish**

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**8 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Quadratic Equations by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay
**

**Description – “Spoon Feeding Quadratic Equations” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Quadratic Equation by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers Quadratic Equations with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved. Rules / Tricks / Properties of Quadratic Equations, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.**

**CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Quadratic Equation by Prof. Subhashish**

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**7 ]** **CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Continuity and Differentiability by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay
**

**Description – “Spoon Feeding Continuity & Differentiability” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Continuity and Differentiability by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers Continuity and Differentiability with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved. Rules / Tricks / Properties of Continuity and Differentiability, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal ’s Solutions.**

**CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Continuity & Differentiability by Prof. Subhashish**

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**6 ]** **CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Relations and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay
**

**Description – “Spoon Feeding Relations & Functions” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Relations and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers Relations and Functions with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved. Rules / Tricks / Properties of Relations and Functions, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal ’s Solutions.**

**CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Relations & Functions by Prof. Subhashish**

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**5 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Graphs and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay
**

**Description – “Spoon Feeding Graphs & Functions” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Graphs and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers Graphs and Functions with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved. Rules / Tricks / Properties of Graphs and Functions, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.
**

**CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Functions & Graphs by Prof. Subhashish**

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**4 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Indefinite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay
**

**Description – “Spoon Feeding Indefinite Integrals & Calculus” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Indefinite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers Indefinite Integrals with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved. Rules / Tricks / Properties of Indefinite Integrals, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.**

**CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Indefinite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish**

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**3 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Area & Volume by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay
**

**Description – “Spoon Feeding Area and Volume ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Area and Volume by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams. **

**This e-Book covers various kinds of graphs, such as graph of Ln x, ( ln x )/x, x Ln x, floor x [ x ] , Shifting of graphs, roots of Quadratic, cubic, and other higher powers of x ( polynomials ), asymptotes, ( How to find Asymptotes ) etc. Volume by revolution and hundreds of Area problems of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal ’s Solutions.**

**CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Area & Volume by Prof. Subhashish**

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**2 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Definite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay
**

**Description – “Spoon Feeding Definite Integrals ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Definite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams. **

**CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Definite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish**

**This e-Book covers Definite Integrals with [ x ] greatest integer functions, { x } fraction function, Max and Min functions. Gamma function, Beta function, Integration after converting to Complex number, Leibnitz forms of Differentiating Integrals, L Hospital’s rule applied to limits with Integrals, Inequalities of Integrals, Rules / Tricks / Properties of Definite Integrals, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.**

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**1 ] CBSE 12 Math Survival Guide – Differential Equations by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay
**

**Description – “Spoon Feeding Differential Equations ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Differential Equations by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams. **

**CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Differential Equations by Prof. Subhashish**

**This e-Book covers all kinds of Differential equations, and methods to solve them. There is a priority checklist for the approach to be taken for solving the problems. Covers ISc, CBSE, COMED-K IIT-JEE problems, Linear, Homogeneous, Variable separable by substitution, Exact, Reducible to exact, Bernoulli, Integrating Factors or Multiplying Factors, even Clairaut’s Differential Equations ( IIT-JEE 1999, Bihar CEE 1999 ). Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal ’s Solutions. **

**:-{D**

**Various States have different names for the Engineering Entrance Exams.**

**CET – Common Engineering Entrance Test or Common Entrance Test is for Karnataka, Maharastra, Gujrat, Himachal Pradesh, J&K**

**GUJCET Exam – Gujarat Entrance Common Entrance Test – Engineering**

**HPCET – Himachal Pradesh Common Entrance Test **

**CEE – Commissionerate of Entrance Examinations Kerala. Some people say Common Entrance Exam. The exam in Kerala actually is known as KEAM – Kerala **

**Engineering Agriculture Medical Degree.**

**ASSAM CEE – Assam Combined Entrance Exam**

**EAMCET – Engineering and Medical Common Entrance Test**

**MP PET – Madhya Pradesh Pre Engineering Test. Randomly I liked lots of Physics Questions of MP-PET, as these were of very high quality / interesting.**

**RPET or R-PET – Rajasthan Pre Engineering Test**

**WBJEE or WB-JEE – West Bengal Joint Entrance Exam. The questions of these are very good / high quality.**

**UPSEE – Utter Pradesh State Entrance Exam**

**BCECEB – Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination Board. The exam name is BCECE. Some call it as Bihar Combined Engineering Entrance Exam BCEEE or **

**BCECE (Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination)**

**OJEE – Orissa Joint Entrance Exam**

**Tamilnadu does not have any state ( common ) entrance test. The admissions in colleges / universities are through standard 12 marks.**

**TNEA is a State Engineering Entrance Examination, which is conducted by Anna University. Tamil Nadu Engineering Admission.**

**COMEDK PGET – Consortium of Medical, Engineering and Dental Colleges of Karnataka for PG Post Graduate**

**NATA – National Aptitude Test in Architecture. National Institute of Advanced Studies in Architecture (NIASA) conducts this.**

**ISAT by IISAT – Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IISAT) Admission Test (ISAT) is a National Level Entrance Examination.**

**NAT – National Aptitude Test by Society for Research & Development in Education (SRDE), New Delhi**

**ENAT – EPSI National Admission Test. by Manipal Institute of Technology. Manipal Online Entrance Test Manipal-OET**

**VITEEE – VIT Engineering Entrance Exam, Vellore Institute of Technology. Conducted by VIT university**

**BITSAT – Birla Institute of Technology and Science Admission Test.**

**Punjab PET – Punjab Engineering Admission, Pre Engineering Test**

**ASSAM CEE – Assam Combined Entrance Exam**

**Tripura JEE – Tripura Joint Entrance Exam**

**NEE – NERIST Entrance Examination. Conducted by the North Eastern Regional Institute of Science & Technology (NERIST), Nirjuli, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh**

**1 ]** **CET CEE EAMCET JEE**** Math Survival Guide – Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay**

**Description – “Spoon Feeding Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.**

**This e-Book covers Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved. Rules / Tricks / Properties of Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, CET, CEE, PET, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal ’s Solutions.**

**CET CEE PET EAMCET JEE Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola by Prof. Subhashish**

**:-{D**

**https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/some-points-which-i-wish-all-my-new-prospective-students-know/**

–

**Some books which are must read. I tell all my friends and students to read these**

**You should read the books by Daniel Kahneman,**

**https://vk.com/doc23267904_175119602**

**The Black Swan – by Nassim Taleb**

**http://shifter-magazine.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Taleb_The-Black-Swan.pdf**

**also**

**see http://stavochka.com/files/Nate_Silver_The_Signal_and_the_Noise.pdf**

**Nudge by Thaler and Sunstein**

**https://ethicslab.georgetown.edu/studio/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Richard_H._Thaler_Cass_R._Sunstein_Nudge_Impro_BookFi.org_.pdf**

**book which explains pricing is ” The undercover Economist “**

**or**

**http://ebook.stepor.com/book/the-undercover-economist-76396-pdf.html**

**–**

**Many more free pdf e-Books are available at ( such as H C Verma Concepts of Physics Solutions, Arihant Books, free download eBooks for IIT JEE guides, AIEEE IIT JEE advanced Chapter wise solutions, preparation materials )**

**1 ] A Guide Book to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry by Peter Sykes**

A_GUIDE_BOOK_TO_MECHANISM_IN_ORGANIC_CHEMISTRY

**2 ] Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry – IUPAC Recommendations 2005**

Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry – IUPAC Recommendations 2005

**3 ] Linear Algebra For Dummies**

**4 ] Calculus Workbook For Dummies**

**5 ] Differential Equations For Dummies**

Differential_Equations_For_Dummies

**6 ] Linear Algebra by Jim Hefferon**

**7 ] Mathematics – Puzzles from around the world**

Mathematics—Puzzles-from-around-the-world

**8 ] Graph Theory by Reinhard Diestel**

**9 ] Electronics for Dummies**

**10 ] Electronics Projects for Dummies**

Electronics Projects For Dummies

**11 ] Physics For Dummies**

**12 ] Physics Workbook For Dummies**

**13 ] Inorganic Chemistry James E. House**

Inorganic Chemistry James E. House

**14 ] Inorganic Chemistry by Cox**

**15 ] Inorganic Chemistry 5th Edition Miessler**

Inorganic Chemistry 5th Edition Miessler

**16 ] Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry Solomon**

Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry Solomon

**17 ] Illustrated Guide to Home Chemistry Experiments**

Illustrated Guide to Home Chemistry Experiments

**:-{D**

**e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book–e-Book**

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**You can advertise for free to sell your House at free4u.info **

**Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay is providing a Social Service for all in Bangalore, to advertise for Free**

**If you want to sell your Car, why do you have to pay 2% to a Broker or to a website ? **

**You can advertise for free to sell your Car at free4u.info **

**Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay is providing a Social Service for all in Bangalore, to advertise for Free**

**If you are looking for Organ Donation, where do you ask ? Where do you want to put up your requirements ? Do you give costly ads ? **

**You can advertise or Post Classifieds for free at free4u.info **

**Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay is providing a Social Service for all in Bangalore, to advertise for Free. Post all kinds of Classified ads and Requirements for FREE.
**

**If you are a Tutor, or a Shopkeeper, or a Teacher, or a Cook, or a Gardener, or a Dog Trainer ….. or something something something….. How can you afford costly ads ? Post your requirements for free at free4u.info Advertise yourself free at free4u.info Doing a garage sell …. Tell all for free at free4u.info**

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**Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay is providing a Social Service for all in Bangalore, to advertise for Free. Post all kinds of Classified ads and Requirements for FREE. Following Categories and Subcategories will surely help you. This is not an exhaustive list. You can give general requirements as well. Post all your skills. Post all your needs. Looking for a job ? You can post your profile as well.**

**Some call this as ” Yellow Pages “. free4u.info**

**Some call this a FREE listing sites free4u.info**

–

**Bike ( Want to sell your Bike ? Want a Buyer ? Advertise for free at free4u.info )**

**–**

While studying for IIT-JEE thoroughly, within standard 11-12 course we get names of a few temperatures. Let us list them in reverse order of common knowledge.

1 ) Krafft Temperature – This is the least known temperature by the students. The **Krafft temperature** (also known as **Krafft point**, or **critical micelle temperature**) is the minimum temperature at which surfactants form micelles. Below the Krafft temperature, there is no value for the critical micelle concentration (CMC), i.e., micelles cannot form. The Krafft temperature is a point of phase change below which the surfactant remains in crystalline form, even in aqueous solution.

Surfactants in such a crystalline state will only solubilize / gather and form micelles if another surfactant assists it in overcoming the forces that keep it crystallized, or if the temperature increases, thus causing entropy to have a stronger force and encouraging the crystalline structure to break apart.

The Krafft point is named after German chemist Friedrich Krafft.

2 ) Inversion Temperature – In thermodynamics, the **Joule–Thomson effect** (also known as the **Joule–Kelvin effect**, **Kelvin–Joule effect**, or **Joule–Thomson expansion**) describes the temperature change of a gas or liquid when it is forced through a valve or porous plug while kept insulated so that no heat is exchanged with the environment. This procedure is called a *throttling process* or *Joule–Thomson process*

At room temperature, all gases except hydrogen ( H ), helium ( He ) and neon ( Ne ) cool upon expansion by the Joule–Thomson process. The effect is named after James Prescott Joule and William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, who discovered it in 1852. It followed upon earlier work by Joule on Joule expansion, in which a gas undergoes free expansion in a vacuum and the temperature is unchanged, if the gas is ideal.

The adiabatic (no heat exchanged) expansion of a gas may be carried out in a number of ways. The change in temperature experienced by the gas during expansion depends not only on the initial and final pressure, but also on the manner in which the expansion is carried out.

- If the expansion process is reversible, meaning that the gas is in thermodynamic equilibrium at all times, it is called an
*isentropic*expansion. In this scenario, the gas does positive work during the expansion, and its temperature decreases. - In a free expansion, on the other hand, the gas does no work and absorbs no heat, so the internal energy is conserved. Expanded in this manner, the temperature of an ideal gas would remain constant, but the temperature of a real gas may either increase or decrease, depending on the initial temperature and pressure.
- The method of expansion discussed in this article, in which a gas or liquid at pressure
*P*_{1}flows into a region of lower pressure*P*_{2}via a valve or porous plug under steady state conditions and without change in kinetic energy, is called the Joule–Thomson process. During this process, enthalpy remains unchanged

The **inversion temperature** in thermodynamics and cryogenics is the critical temperature below which a non-ideal gas (all gases in reality) that is expanding at constant enthalpy will experience a temperature decrease, and above which will experience a temperature increase. This temperature change is known as the Joule-Thomson effect, and is exploited in the liquefaction of gases. As per the scientific paper that I read, For He Ti is close to 200 ± 50 K, Neon Ti is 870 ± 390 K, Argon Ti 3800 ± 1800 K, For Hydrogen Ti is close to 930 K far from commonly recognized value of 400 K.

Contrast to this “ Temperature Inversion “ is something else. **temperature inversion****,** a reversal of the normal behaviour of temperature in the troposphere (the region of the atmosphere nearest the Earth’s surface), in which a layer of cool air at the surface is overlain by a layer of warmer air. (Under normal conditions air temperature usually decreases with height.) Inversions play an important role in determining cloud forms, precipitation, and visibility. An inversion acts as a cap on the upward movement of air from the layers below. As a result, convection produced by the heating of air from below is limited to levels below the inversion. Diffusion of dust, smoke, and other air pollutants is likewise limited. In regions where a pronounced low-level inversion is present, convective clouds cannot grow high enough to produce showers and, at the same time, visibility may be greatly reduced below the inversion, even in the absence of clouds, by the accumulation of dust and smoke particles. Because air near the base of an inversion tends to be cool, fog is frequently present there.

3 ) Critical Temperature – The ** critical temperature** of a substance is the temperature at and above which vapor of the substance cannot be liquefied, no matter how much pressure is applied.

Every substance has a critical temperature. Some examples are shown below.

NH3 132C , Oxygen – 119 C , Carbondioxide 31.2 C, Water 374 C

🙂

4 ) Eutectic Temperature or Eutectic Point – lowest possible temperature of solidification for any mixture of specified constituents. Used especially of an alloy whose melting point is lower than that of any other alloy composed of the same constituents in different proportions. The word “eutectic” comes from Greek and means “easily melted”. The eutectic mixture has the lowest melting point (which is, of course, the same as the freezing point) of any mixture of metals, meaning Alloys. The temperature at which the eutectic mixture freezes or melts is known as the ** eutectic temperature**.

There are calculations available for Eutectic Temperatures of various kinds of Alloys.

🙂

5 ) Antoine Temperature or Least temperature in clausius-clapeyron equation for Vapour Pressure – Cox temperature – Warmer air can hold more water vapor at equilibrium than colder air. Air that holds this equilibrium amount is saturated. If air is cooled below the saturation temperature, some of the water vapor condenses into liquid, which releases latent heat and warms the air. The Clausius-Clapeyron equation relates the latent heat (heat of transformation) of vaporization or condensation to the rate of change of vapour pressure with temperature. Or, in the case of a solid-liquid transformation, it relates the latent heat of fusion or solidification to the rate of change of melting point with pressure. Air can hold any proportion of water vapor. However, for humidities greater than a threshold called the saturation humidity, water vapor tends to condense into liquid faster than it re-evaporates. This condensation process lowers the humidity toward the equilibrium (saturation) value. The process is so fast that humidities rarely exceed the equilibrium value. Thus, while air can hold any portion of water vapor, the threshold is rarely exceeded by more than 1% in the real atmosphere. At a given temperature, the vapor pressure of a pure compound is the pressure at which vapor and liquid coexist at equilibrium. The term “vapor pressure” should be used only with pure compounds and is usually considered as a liquid (rather than a gas) property. For a pure compound, there is only one vapor pressure at any temperature. Thus saturation vapor pressure *e _{s}* is a function of temperature, such that

*e*The vapor pressure

_{s}(T).*e*of an air parcel is the measure of the moisture content, while the saturation vapor pressure is a function of temperature. Frost point temperature,

*T*, can be defined as the temperature a parcel of air can be cooled isobarically to form frost. If the dew-point is greater than 0

_{F}^{o}C, the frost point cannot be defined. But at temperature where the dewpoint is <0

^{o}C, the frost point will be higher than the dewpoint. Thus, the general frost is not formed by dew freezing, since as air cooled below freezing the frost point will be reached before the dew point. Clausius-Clapeyron equation can also be applied to obtain the water vapor pressure with respect to supercooled water at temperatures below 0 deg C. As long as no ice is present, the supercooled water is in equilibrium with the water vapor. Specific heat of water is 2% larger at 30 deg Celsius than the value at 0 deg Celsius. Below -12 deg Celsius the clothes will not dry at all. Bergeron-Findeisen process describes this.

🙂

Also be aware of Pomeranchuk Effect.

The anomalous character of the melting, or solidification, of the light helium isotope^{3} He: at a temperature below 0.3°K, the entropy of liquid^{3} He is less than that of the solid, and heat absorption occurs when the solid phase is formed. According to the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, the dependence of the melting point *T*_{melt} on pressure is in this case also anomalous—that is, as the pressure rises, *T*_{melt} decreases. The effect was theoretically predicted by I. Ia. Pomeranchuk in 1950 and experimentally detected by the American physicists W. M. Fairbank and G. K. Walters in 1957

6 ) Boiling Point – The temperature at which the vapor pressure is equal to 1 atm (14.696 psia or 101.32 kPa) is known as the normal boiling point.

🙂

7 ) Freezing Point – Melting point – Pure, crystalline solids have a characteristic **melting point**, the temperature at which the solid melts to become a liquid. The transition between the solid and the liquid is so sharp for small samples of a pure substance that melting points can be measured to 0.1^{o}C. The melting point of solid oxygen, for example, is -218.4^{o}C.

It is difficult, if not impossible, to heat a solid above its melting point because the heat that enters the solid at its melting point is used to convert the solid into a liquid. It is possible, however, to cool some liquids to temperatures below their freezing points without forming a solid. When this is done, the liquid is said to be *supercooled*.

An example of a supercooled liquid can be made by heating solid sodium acetate trihydrate (NaCH_{3}CO_{2} 3 H_{2}O). When this solid melts, the sodium acetate dissolves in the water that was trapped in the crystal to form a solution. When the solution cools to room temperature, it should solidify. But it often doesn’t. If a small crystal of sodium acetate trihydrate is added to the liquid, however, the contents of the flask solidify within seconds.

A liquid can become supercooled because the particles in a solid are packed in a regular structure that is characteristic of that particular substance. Some of these solids form very easily; others do not. Some need a particle of dust, or a seed crystal, to act as a site on which the crystal can grow. In order to form crystals of sodium acetate trihydrate, Na^{+} ions, CH_{3}CO_{2}^{–} ions, and water molecules must come together in the proper orientation. It is difficult for these particles to organize themselves, but a seed crystal can provide the framework on which the proper arrangement of ions and water molecules can grow.

8 ) Curie Temperature – **Curie point****,** also called Curie Temperature, temperature at which certain magnetic materials undergo a sharp change in their magnetic properties. the temperature above which a ferromagnetic substance loses its ferromagnetism and becomes paramagnetic. In the case of rocks and minerals, Remnant magnetism appears below the Curie point—about 570° C (1,060° F) for the common magnetic mineral magnetite. This temperature is named for the French physicist Pierre Curie, who in 1895 discovered the laws that relate some magnetic properties to change in temperature.

Below the Curie point—for example, 770° C (1,418° F) for iron—atoms that behave as tiny magnets spontaneously align themselves in certain magnetic materials. In ferromagnetic materials, such as pure iron, the atomic magnets are oriented within each microscopic region (domain) in the same direction, so that their magnetic fields reinforce each other. In antiferromagnetic materials, atomic magnets alternate in opposite directions, so that their magnetic fields cancel each other. In ferrimagnetic materials, the spontaneous arrangement is a combination of both patterns, usually involving two different magnetic atoms, so that only partial reinforcement of magnetic fields occurs.

Raising the temperature to the Curie point for any of the materials in these three classes entirely disrupts the various spontaneous arrangements, and only a weak kind of more general magnetic behaviour, called paramagnetism, remains. One of the highest Curie points is 1,121° C (2,050° F) for cobalt. Temperature increases above the Curie point produce roughly similar patterns of decreasing paramagnetism in all three classes of materials. When these materials are cooled below their Curie points, magnetic atoms spontaneously realign so that the ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism, or ferrimagnetism revives.

The antiferromagnetic Curie point is called the Néel temperature in honour of the French physicist Louis Néel, who in 1936 successfully explained antiferromagnetism.

9 ) Neel Temperature – the temperature above which an antiferromagnetic substance loses its antiferromagnetism and becomes paramagnetic. A temperature, characteristic of certain metals, alloys, and salts, below which spontaneous nonparalleled magnetic ordering takes place so that they become antiferromagnetic, and above which they are paramagnetic. Also known as Néel point. The antiferromagnetic Curie point is called the Néel temperature in honour of the French physicist Louis Néel, who in 1936 successfully explained antiferromagnetism.

🙂

10 ) Kindling Temperature – Temperature at which a substance will catch fire and continue to burn is called its ignition point or its kindling point. A substance that can be ignited in the air is said to be flammable (or inflammable). The flash point of a flammable liquid is lower than its ignition point.

S K M Classes

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