NCERT CBSE Standard 11 Chemistry Chapter 9 Hydrogen

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Solutions to Chapter 9:

Hydrogen

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Hydrogen, the most abundant element in the universe and the third most abundant on the surface of the globe, is being visualised as the major future source of energy.

Hydrogen has the simplest atomic structure among all the elements around us in Nature. In atomic form it consists of only one proton and one electron. However, in elemental form it exists as a diatomic (H2) molecule and is called dihydrogen. It forms more compounds than any other element. Do you know that the global concern related to energy can be overcome to a great extent by the use of hydrogen as a source of energy? In fact, hydrogen is of great industrial importance as you will learn in this unit.

9.1 POSITION OF HYDROGEN IN THE PERIODIC TABLE

Hydrogen is the first element in the periodic table. However, its placement in the periodic table has been a subject of discussion in the past. As you know by now that the elements in the periodic table are arranged according to their electronic configurations. Hydrogen has electronic configuration 1s1. On one hand, its electronic configuration is similar to the outer electronic configuration (ns1) of alkali metals , which belong to the first group of the periodic table. On the other hand, like halogens (with ns2np5 configuration belonging to the seventeenth group of the periodic table), it is short by one electron to the corresponding noble gas configuration, helium (1s2). Hydrogen, therefore, has resemblance to alkali metals, which lose one electron to form unipositive ions, as well as with halogens, which gain one electron to form uninegative ion. Like alkali metals, hydrogen forms oxides, halides and sulphides. However, unlike alkali metals, it has a very high ionization enthalpy and does not possess metallic characteristics under normal conditions. In fact, in terms of ionization enthalpy, hydrogen resembles more with halogens, Δi H of Li is 520 kJ mol-1, F is 1680 kJ mol-1 and that of H is 1312 kJ mol-1. Like halogens, it forms a diatomic molecule, combines with elements to form hydrides and a large number of covalent compounds. However, in terms of reactivity, it is very low as compared to halogens.
Inspite of the fact that hydrogen, to a certain extent resembles both with alkali metals and halogens, it differs from them as well. Now the pertinent question arises as where should it be placed in the periodic table? Loss of the electron from hydrogen atom results in nucleus (H+) of ~1.510-3 pm size. This is extremely small as compared to normal atomic and ionic sizes of 50 to 200pm. As a consequence, H+ does not exist freely and is always associated with other atoms or molecules. Thus, it is unique in behaviour and is, therefore, best placed separately in the periodic table (Unit 3).

9.2 DIHYDROGEN, H2

9.2.1 Occurrence

Dihydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe (70% of the total mass of the universe) and is the principal element in the solar atmosphere. The giant planets Jupiter and Saturn consist mostly of hydrogen. However, due to its light nature, it is much less abundant (0.15% by mass) in the earth’s atmosphere. Of course, in the combined form it constitutes 15.4% of the earth’s crust and the oceans. In the combined form besides in water, it occurs in plant and animal tissues, carbohydrates, proteins, hydrides including hydrocarbons and many other compounds.

9.2.2 Isotopes of Hydrogen

Hydrogen has three isotopes: protium, 11H, deuterium, 21H or D and tritium,31H or T. Can you guess how these isotopes differ from each other ? These isotopes differ from one another in respect of the presence of neutrons. Ordinary hydrogen, protium, has no neutrons, deuterium (also known as heavy hydrogen) has one and tritium has two neutrons in the nucleus. In the year 1934, an American scientist, Harold C. Urey, got Nobel Prize for separating hydrogen isotope of mass number 2 by physical methods.
The predominant form is protium. Terrestrial hydrogen contains 0.0156% of deuterium mostly in the form of HD. The tritium concentration is about one atom per 1018 atoms of protium. Of these isotopes, only tritium is radioactive and emits low energy β particles (t, 12.33 years).

Table 9.1 Atomic and Physical Properties of Hydrogen
Property Hydrogen Deuterium Tritium
Relative abundance (%) 99.985 0.0156 10-15
Relative atomic mass (g mol)-1 1.008 2.014 3.016
Melting point / K 13.96 18.73 20.62
Boiling point/ K 20.39 23.67 25.0
Density / gL-1 0.09 0.18 0.27
Enthalpy of fusion /kJ mol -1 0.117 0.197
Enthalpy of vapourization/kJ mol -1 0.904 1.226
Enthalpy of bond dissociation/kJ mol-1 435.88 443.35
Internuclear distance/pm 74.14 74.14
Ionization enthalpy/kJ mol-1 1312
Electron gain enthalpy/kJ mol-1 -73
Covalent radius/pm 37
Ionic radius(H )/pm 208    

Since the isotopes have the same electronic configuration, they have almost the same chemical properties. The only difference is in their rates of reactions, mainly due to their different enthalpy of bond dissociation (Table 9.1). However, in physical properties these isotopes differ considerably due to their large mass differences.

9.3 PREPARATION OF DIHYDROGEN, H2

There are a number of methods for preparing dihydrogen from metals and metal hydrides.

9.3.1 Laboratory Preparation of Dihydrogen
(i) It is usually prepared by the reaction of granulated zinc with dilute hydrochloric acid.
Zn + 2H+ → Zn2+ + H2
(ii) It can also be prepared by the reaction of zinc with aqueous alkali.
Zn + 2NaOH → Na2ZnO2 + H2
Sodium zincate

9.3.2 Commercial Production of Dihydrogen
The commonly used processes are outlined below:
(i) Electrolysis of acidified water using platinum electrodes gives hydrogen.

(ii) High purity (>99.95%) dihydrogen is obtained by electrolysing warm aqueous barium hydroxide solution between nickel
electrodes.

(iii) It is obtained as a byproduct in the manufacture of sodium hydroxide and chlorine by the electrolysis of brine
solution. During electrolysis, the reactions that take place are:
at anode: 2Cl(aq) → Cl2(g) + 2e
at cathode: 2H2O (l) + 2e→ H2(g) + 2OH(aq)
The overall reaction is

(iv) Reaction of steam on hydrocarbons or coke at high temperatures in the presence of catalyst yields hydrogen.

The mixture of CO and H2 is called water gas. As this mixture of CO and H2 is used for the synthesis of methanol and a number of hydrocarbons, it is also called synthesis gas or ’syngas’. Nowadays ’syngas’ is produced from sewage, saw-dust, scrap wood, newspapers etc. The process of producing ’syngas’ from coal is called ’coal gasification’.

The production of dihydrogen can be increased by reacting carbon monoxide of syngas mixtures with steam in the presence of
iron chromate as catalyst.

This is called water-gas shift reaction. Carbon dioxide is removed by scrubbing with sodium arsenite solution.

Presently ~77% of the industrial dihydrogen is produced from petro-chemicals, 18% from coal, 4% from electrolysis of aqueous solutions and 1% from other sources.

9.4 PROPERTIES OF DIHYDROGEN

9.4.1 Physical Properties

Dihydrogen is a colourless, odourless, tasteless, combustible gas. It is lighter than air and insoluble in water. Its other physical properties alongwith those of deuterium are given in Table 9.1.

9.4.2 Chemical Properties

The chemical behaviour of dihydrogen (and for that matter any molecule) is determined, to a large extent, by bond dissociation enthalpy. The H-H bond dissociation enthalpy is the highest for a single bond between two atoms of any element. What inferences would you draw from this fact ? It is because of this factor that the dissociation of dihydrogen into its atoms is only ~0.081% around 2000K which increases to 95.5% at 5000K. Also, it is relatively inert at room temperature due to the high H-H bond enthalpy. Thus, the atomic hydrogen is produced at a high temperature in an electric arc or under ultraviolet radiations. Since its orbital is incomplete with 1s1 electronic configuration, it does combine with almost all the elements. It accomplishes reactions by (i) loss of the only electron to give H+, (ii) gain of an electron to form H, and (iii) sharing electrons to form a single covalent bond. The chemistry of dihydrogen can be illustrated by the following reactions:

Reaction with halogens: It reacts with halogens, X2 to give hydrogen halides, HX,
H2(g) + X2(g) → 2HX(g) (X = F,Cl, Br,I)
While the reaction with fluorine occurs even in the dark, with iodine it requires a catalyst.

Reaction with dioxygen: It reacts with dioxygen to form water. The reaction is highly exothermic.

Reaction with dinitrogen: With dinitrogen it forms ammonia.

This is the method for the manufacture of ammonia by the Haber process.

Reactions with metals: With many metals it combines at a high temperature to yield the corresponding hydrides (section 9.5)
H2<(g) +2M(g) → 2MH(s);
where M is an alkali metal

Reactions with metal ions and metal oxides: It reduces some metal ions in aqueous solution and oxides of metals (less active than iron) into corresponding metals.

H2(g)+ Pd2+(aq)→ Pd(s)+2H+(aq)
yH2(g)+ MxOy(s)→ xM(s)+ yH2O(l)

Reactions with organic compounds: It reacts with many organic compounds in the presence of catalysts to give useful hydrogenated products of commercial importance. For example :
(i) Hydrogenation of vegetable oils using nickel as catalyst gives edible fats (margarine and vanaspati ghee)
(ii) Hydroformylation of olefins yields aldehydes which further undergo reduction to give alcohols.
H2 + CO + RCH = CH2 → RCH2CH2CHO
H2 + RCH2CH2CHO → RCH2CH2CHOH

Problem 9.1
Comment on the reactions of dihydrogen with (i) chlorine, (ii) sodium, and (iii) copper(II) oxide
Solution
(i) Dihydrogen reduces chlorine into chloride (Cl) ion and itself gets oxidised to H+ion by chlorine to form hydrogen chloride. An electron pair is shared between H and Cl leading to the formation of a covalent molecule.
(ii) Dihydrogen is reduced by sodium to form NaH. An electron is transferred from Na to H leading to the formation of an ionic compound, Na+H.
(iii) Dihydrogen reduces copper(II) oxide to copper in zero oxidation state and itself gets oxidised to H2O, which is a covalent molecule.

9.4.3 Uses of Dihydrogen

• The largest single use of dihydrogen is in the synthesis of ammonia which is used in the manufacture of nitric acid and nitrogenous fertilizers.
• Dihydrogen is used in the manufacture of vanaspati fat by the hydrogenation of polyunsaturated vegetable oils like soyabean, cotton seeds etc.
• It is used in the manufacture of bulk organic chemicals, particularly methanol.

• It is widely used for the manufacture of metal hydrides (Section 9.5)
• It is used for the preparation of hydrogen chloride, a highly useful chemical.
• In metallurgical processes, it is used to reduce heavy metal oxides to metals.
• Atomic hydrogen and oxy-hydrogen torches find use for cutting and welding purposes. Atomic hydrogen atoms (produced by dissociation of dihydrogen with the help of an electric arc) are allowed to recombine on the surface to be welded to generate the temperature of 4000 K.
• It is used as a rocket fuel in space research.
• Dihydrogen is used in fuel cells for generating electrical energy. It has many advantages over the conventional fossil fuels and electric power. It does not produce any pollution and releases greater energy per unit mass of fuel in comparison to gasoline and other fuels.

9.5 HYDRIDES

Dihydrogen, under certain reaction conditions, combines with almost all elements, except noble gases, to form binary compounds, called hydrides. If ‘E’ is the symbol of an element then hydride can be expressed as EHx (e.g., MgH2)
or EmHn (e.g., B2H6).
The hydrides are classified into three categories :
(i) Ionic or saline or saltlike hydrides
(ii) Covalent or molecular hydrides
(iii) Metallic or non-stoichiometric hydrides

9.5.1 Ionic or Saline Hydrides

These are stoichiometric compounds of dihydrogen formed with most of the s-block elements which are highly electropositive in character. However, significant covalent character is found in the lighter metal hydrides such as LiH, BeH2 and MgH2. In fact BeH2 and MgH2 are polymeric in structure. The ionic hydrides are crystalline, non-volatile and nonconducting in solid state. However, their melts conduct electricity and on electrolysis liberate dihydrogen gas at anode, which confirms the existence of H ion.

Saline hydrides react violently with water producing dihydrogen gas.
NaH(s) + H2O(aq) → NaOH(aq) + H2(g)

Lithium hydride is rather unreactive at moderate temperatures with O2 or Cl2. It is, therefore, used in the synthesis of other useful hydrides, e.g.,
8LiH + Al2Cl6 → 2LiAlH4 + 6LiCl
2LiH + B2H6 → 2LiBH4

9.5.2 Covalent or Molecular Hydride

Dihydrogen forms molecular compounds with most of the p-block elements. Most familiar examples are CH4, NH3, H2O and HF. For convenience hydrogen compounds of nonmetals have also been considered as hydrides. Being covalent, they are volatile compounds.
Molecular hydrides are further classified according to the relative numbers of electrons and bonds in their Lewis structure into : (i) electron-deficient, (ii) electron-precise, and (iii) electron-rich hydrides.

An electron-deficient hydride, as the name suggests, has too few electrons for writing its conventional Lewis structure. Diborane (B2H6) is an example. In fact all elements of group 13 will form electron-deficient compounds. What do you expect from their behaviour? They act as Lewis acids i.e., electron acceptors.

Electron-precise compounds have the required number of electrons to write their conventional Lewis structures. All elements of group 14 form such compounds (e.g., CH4) which are tetrahedral in geometry.

Electron-rich hydrides have excess electrons which are present as lone pairs. Elements of group 15-17 form such compounds. (NH3 has 1- lone pair, H2O – 2 and HF -3 lone pairs). What do you expect from the behaviour of such compounds ? They will behave as Lewis bases i.e., electron donors. The presence of lone pairs on highly electronegative atoms like N, O and F in hydrides results in hydrogen bond formation between the molecules. This leads to the association of molecules.

Problem 9.2
Would you expect the hydrides of N, O and F to have lower boiling points than the hydrides of their subsequent group members ? Give reasons.
Solution
On the basis of molecular masses of NH3, H2O and HF, their boiling points are expected to be lower than those of the subsequent group member hydrides. However, due to higher electronegativity of N, O and F, the magnitude of hydrogen bonding in their hydrides will be quite appreciable. Hence, the boiling points NH3, H2O and HF will be higher than the hydrides of their subsequent group members.

9.5.3 Metallic or Non-stoichiometric (or Interstitial ) Hydrides

These are formed by many d-block and f-block elements. However, the metals of group 7, 8 and 9 do not form hydride. Even from group 6, only chromium forms CrH. These hydrides conduct heat and electricity though not as efficiently as their parent metals do. Unlike saline hydrides, they are almost always nonstoichiometric, being deficient in hydrogen. For example, LaH2.87, YbH2.55, TiH1.5-1.8, ZrH1.3-1.75, VH0.56, NiH0.6-0.7, PdH0.6-0.8 etc. In such hydrides, the law of constant composition does not hold good.

Earlier it was thought that in these hydrides, hydrogen occupies interstices in the metal lattice producing distortion without any change in its type. Consequently, they were termed as interstitial hydrides. However, recent studies have shown that except for hydrides of Ni, Pd, Ce and Ac, other hydrides of this class have lattice different from that of the parent metal. The property of absorption of hydrogen on transition metals is widely used in catalytic reduction / hydrogenation reactions for the preparation of large number of compounds. Some of the metals (e.g., Pd, Pt) can accommodate a very large volume of hydrogen and, therefore, can be used as its storage media. This property has high potential for hydrogen storage and as a source of energy.

Problem 9.3
Can phosphorus with outer electronic configuration 3s23p3 form PH5 ?
Solution
Although phosphorus exhibits +3 and +5 oxidation states, it cannot form PH5. Besides some other considerations, high ΔaH value of dihydrogen and ΔegH value of hydrogen do not favour to exhibit the highest oxidation state of P, and consequently the formation of PH5.

9.6 WATER

A major part of all living organisms is made up of water. Human body has about 65% and some plants have as much as 95% water. It is a crucial compound for the survival of all life forms. It is a solvent of great importance. The distribution of water over the earth’s surface is not uniform. The estimated world water supply is given in Table 9.2

Table 9.2 Estimated World Water Supply
Source % of Total
Oceans 97.33
Saline lakes and inland seas 0.008
Polar ice and glaciers 2.04
Ground water 0.61
Lakes 0.009
Soil moisture 0.005
Atmospheric water 0.001
Rivers 0.0001

9.6.1 Physical Properties of Water

It is a colourless and tasteless liquid. Its physical properties are given in Table 9.3 along with the physical properties of heavy water. The unusual properties of water in the condensed phase (liquid and solid states) are due to the presence of extensive hydrogen bonding between water molecules. This leads to high freezing point, high boiling point, high heat of vaporisation and high heat of fusion in comparison to H2S and H2Se. In comparison to other liquids, water has a higher specific heat, thermal conductivity, surface tension, dipole moment and dielectric constant, etc. These properties allow water to play a key role in the biosphere.

The high heat of vaporisation and heat capacity are responsible for moderation of the climate and body temperature of living beings. It is an excellent solvent for transportation of ions and molecules required for plant and animal metabolism. Due to hydrogen bonding with polar molecules, even covalent compounds like alcohol and carbohydrates dissolve in water.

Table 9.3 Physical Properties of H2O and D2O
Property H2O D2O
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 18.0151 20.0276
Melting point /K 273.0 276.8
Boiling point/K 373.0 374.4
Enthalpy of formation /kJ mol-1 -285.9 -294.6
Enthlpy of vapourisation (373K)/kJ mol-1 40.66 41.61
Enthlpy of fusion /kJ mol-1 6.01
Temp of max. density / K 276.98 284.2
Density (298K)/g cm-3 1.0000 1.1059
Viscocity/centipoise 0.8903 1.107
Dielectric constant/C2/N.m2 78.39 78.06
Electric conductivity (293k/ohm-1 5.710-8

9.6.2 Structure of Water

In the gas phase water is a bent molecule with a bond angle of 104.5°, and O-H bond length of 95.7 pm as shown in Fig 9.1(a). It is a highly polar molecule, (Fig 9.1(b)). Its orbital overlap picture is shown in Fig. 9.1(c). In the liquid phase water molecules are associated together by hydrogen bonds.

The crystalline form of water is ice. At atmospheric pressure ice crystallises in the hexagonal form, but at very low temperatures it condenses to cubic form. Density of ice is less than that of water. Therefore, an ice cube floats on water. In winter season ice formed on the surface of a lake provides thermal insulation which ensures the survival of the aquatic life. This fact is of great ecological significance.

9.6.3 Structure of Ice

Ice has a highly ordered three dimensional hydrogen bonded structure as shown in Fig. 9.2. Examination of ice crystals with X-rays shows that each oxygen atom is surrounded tetrahedrally by four other oxygen atoms at a distance of 276 pm.
Hydrogen bonding gives ice a rather open type structure with wide holes. These holes can hold some other molecules of appropriate size interstitially.

9.6.4 Chemical Properties of Water

Water reacts with a large number of substances. Some of the important reactions are given below.
(1) Amphoteric Nature: It has the ability to act as an acid as well as a base i.e., it behaves as an amphoteric substance. In the Brönsted sense it acts as an acid with NH3 and a base with H2S.

The auto-protolysis (self-ionization) of water takes place as follows :

(2) Redox Reactions Involving Water: Water can be easily reduced to dihydrogen by highly electropositive metals.
2H2O(l) + 2Na(s) → 2NaOH(aq) + H2(g)
Thus, it is a great source of dihydrogen. Water is oxidised to O2 during photosynthesis.
6CO2(g) + 12H2O(l) → C6H12O6(aq) + 6H2O(l) + 6O2(g)
With fluorine also it is oxidised to O2.
2F2(g) + 2H2O(l) → 4H+ (aq) + 4F(aq) + O2(g)

(3) Hydrolysis Reaction: Due to high dielectric constant, it has a very strong hydrating tendency. It dissolves many ionic compounds. However, certain covalent and some ionic compounds are hydrolysed in water.
P4O10(s) + 6H2O(l) →4H3PO4(aq)
SiCl4(l) + 2H2O(l) → SiO2(s) + 4HCl(aq)
N3−(s) + 3H2O(l) → NH3(g) + 3OH(aq)

(4) Hydrates Formation: From aqueous solutions many salts can be crystallised as hydrated salts. Such an association of water is of different types viz.,
(i) coordinated water e.g.,
[Cr(H2O)6]3-3Cl
(ii) interstitial water e.g.,BaCl2.2H2O
(iii) hydrogen-bonded water e.g.,
[Cu(H2O)4]2+SO42-.H2O in CuSO4.5H2O,

Problem 9.4
How many hydrogen-bonded water molecule(s) are associated in CuSO4.5H2O?
Solution
Only one water molecule, which is outside the brackets (coordination sphere), is hydrogen-bonded. The other four molecules of water are coordinated.

9.6.5 Hard and Soft Water

Rain water is almost pure (may contain some dissolved gases from the atmosphere). Being a good solvent, when it flows on the surface of the earth, it dissolvesmany salts. Presence of calcium and magnesium salts in the form of hydrogencarbonate, chloride and sulphate in water makes water ‘hard’. Hard water does not give lather with soap. Water free from soluble salts of calcium and magnesium is called Soft water. It gives lather with soap easily.
Hard water forms scum/precipitate with soap. Soap containing sodium stearate (C17H35COONa) reacts with hard water to precipitate out Ca/Mg stearate.

It is, therefore, unsuitable for laundry. It is harmful for boilers as well, because of deposition of salts in the form of scale. This reduces the efficiency of the boiler. The hardness of water is of two types:

9.6.6 Temporary Hardness

Temporary hardness is due to the presence of magnesium and calcium hydrogencarbonates. It can be removed by :
(i) Boiling: During boiling, the soluble Mg(HCO3)2 is converted into insoluble Mg(OH)2 and Ca(HCO3)2 is changed to insoluble CaCO3.
It is because of high solubility product of Mg(OH)2 as compared to that of MgCO3, that Mg(OH)2 is precipitated. These precipitates can be removed by filtration. Filtrate thus obtained will be soft water.

(ii) Clark’s method: In this method calculated amount of lime is added to hard water. It precipitates out calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide which can be filtered off.

9.6.7 Permanent Hardness
It is due to the presence of soluble salts of magnesium and calcium in the form of chlorides and sulphates in water. Permanent hardness is not removed by boiling. It can be removed by the following methods:
(i) Treatment with washing soda (sodium carbonate): Washing soda reacts with soluble calcium and magnesium chlorides and sulphates in hard water to form insoluble carbonates.

(ii) Calgon’s method: Sodium hexametaphosphate (Na6P6O18), commercially called ‘calgon’, when added to hard water, the following reactions take place.
Na6P6O18→ 2Na++ Na4P6O2-18
(M= Mg, Ca)
M2++ Na4P6O182-→ [Na2MP6O18]2-+2Na+

The complex anion keeps the Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions in solution.

(iii) Ion-exchange method: This method is also called zeolite/permutit process. Hydrated sodium aluminium silicate is zeolite/permutit. For the sake of simplicity, sodium aluminium silicate (NaAlSiO4) can be written as NaZ. When this is added in hard water, exchange reactions take place.
2NaZ(s)+ M2+(aq)→ MZ2(s)+2Na+(aq)
(M=Mg, Ca)

Permutit/zeolite is said to be exhausted when all the sodium in it is used up. It is regenerated for further use by treating with an aqueous sodium chloride solution.
MZ2(s) + 2NaCl(aq) →2NaZ(s) + MCl2(aq)

(iv) Synthetic resins method: Nowadays hard water is softened by using synthetic cation exchangers. This method is more efficient than zeolite process. Cation exchange resins contain large organic molecule with – SO3H group and are water insoluble. Ion exchange resin (RSO3H) is changed to RNa by treating it with NaCl. The resin exchanges Na+ ions with Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions present in hard water to make the water soft. Here R is resin anion.
2RNa(s) + M2+(aq) →R2M(s) + 2Na+(aq)
The resin can be regenerated by adding aqueous NaCl solution.
Pure de-mineralised (de-ionized) water free from all soluble mineral salts is obtained by passing water successively through a cation exchange (in the H+ form) and an anion exchange (in the OH form) resins:

In this cation exchange process, H+ exchanges for Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and other cations present in water. This process results in proton release and thus makes the water acidic. In the anion exchange process:

OHexchanges for anions like Cl, HCO3, SO42- etc. present in water. OH ions, thus, liberated neutralise the H+ ions set free in the cation exchange.
H+(aq) + OH(aq)→H2O(l)
The exhausted cation and anion exchange resin beds are regenerated by treatment with dilute acid and alkali solutions respectively.

9.7 HYDROGEN PEROXIDE (H2O2)
Hydrogen peroxide is an important chemical used in pollution control treatment of domestic and industrial effluents.

9.7.1 Preparation
It can be prepared by the following methods. (i) Acidifying barium peroxide and removing excess water by evaporation under reduced pressure gives hydrogen peroxide.

BaO2.8H2O(s)+ H2SO4(aq)→ BaSO4(s)+H2O2(aq)+8H2O(l)

(ii) Peroxodisulphate, obtained by electrolytic oxidation of acidified sulphate solutions at high current density, on hydrolysis yields hydrogen peroxide.

This method is now used for the laboratory preparation of D2O2.
K2S2O8(s) +2D2O(l) →2KDSO4(aq) +D2O2(l)

(iii) Industrially it is prepared by the autooxidation of 2-alklylanthraquinols.

In this case 1% H2O2 is formed. It is extracted with water and concentrated to ~30% (by mass) by distillation under reduced pressure. It can be further concentrated to ~85% by careful distillation under low pressure. The remaining water can be frozen out to obtain pure H2O2.

9.7.2 Physical Properties
In the pure state H2O2 is an almost colourless (very pale blue) liquid. Its important physical properties are given in Table 9.4.

Table 9.4 Physical Properties of Hydrogen Peroxide
Melting point/K 272.4 Density (liquid at 298K)/g cm-3 1.44
Boiling point(extrapolated)/K 423 Viscosity (290K)/centipoise 70.7
Vapour pressure(298K)/mmHg 1.9 Dielectric constant (298K)/C2/N m2 70.7
Density (solid at 268.5K)/g cm-3 1.64 Electric conductivity (298K)/Ω-1cm-1 5.110-8

H2O2 is miscible with water in all proportions and forms a hydrate H2O2.H2O (mp 221K). A 30% solution of H2O2 is marketed as ’100 volume’ hydrogen peroxide. It means that one millilitre of 30% H2O2 solution will give 100 V of oxygen at STP. Commercially, it is marketed as 10 V, which means it contains 3% H2O2.

Problem 9.4
Calculate the strength of 10 volume solution of hydrogen peroxide.
Solution
10 volume solution of H2O2 means that 1L of this H2O2 will give 10 L of oxygen at STP

22.4 L of O2 at STP is produced from H2O2 = 68 g
10 L of O2 at STP is produced from H2O2=(68 × 10/22.4)g=30.34g

Therefore, strength of H2O2 in 10 volume H2O2 = 30.36 g/L

9.7.3 Structure
Hydrogen peroxide has a non-planar structure. The molecular dimensions in the gas phase and solid phase are shown in Fig 9.3

9.7.4 Chemical Properties
It acts as an oxidising as well as reducing agent in both acidic and alkaline media. Simple reactions are described below.
(i) Oxidising action in acidic medium

2Fe2+(aq)+ 2H+(aq)+H2O2(aq)→ 2Fe3+(aq)+ 2H2O(l)
PbS(s)+ 4H2O2(aq)→ PbSO4(s)+4H2O(l)

(ii) Reducing action in acidic medium
2MnO4+6H++5H2O2→ 2Mn2++8H2O+ 5O2
HOCl+H2O2→ H3O++ Cl+O2

(iii) Oxidising action in basic medium
2Fe2++ H2O2→ 2Fe3++ 2OH
Mn2++ H2O2→ Mn4++ 2OH

(iv) Reducing action in basic medium
I2+ H2O+2OH→ 2I+2H2O+ O2
2MnO4+ 3H2O2→ 2MnO2+ 3O2+2H2O+ 2OH

9.7.5 Storage
H2O2 decomposes slowly on exposure to light.
2H2O2(l) → 2H2O(l) +O2(g)
In the presence of metal surfaces or traces of alkali (present in glass containers), the above reaction is catalysed. It is, therefore, stored in wax-lined glass or plastic vessels in dark. Urea can be added as a stabiliser. It is kept away from dust because dust can induce explosive decomposition of the compound.

9.7.6 Uses
Its wide scale use has led to tremendous increase in the industrial production of H2O2. Some of the uses are listed below:
(i) In daily life it is used as a hair bleach and as a mild disinfectant. As an antiseptic it is sold in the market as perhydrol.
(ii) It is used to manufacture chemicals like sodium perborate and per-carbonate, which are used in high quality detergents.
(iii) It is used in the synthesis of hydroquinone, tartaric acid and certain food products and pharmaceuticals (cephalosporin) etc.
(iv) It is employed in the industries as a bleaching agent for textiles, paper pulp, leather, oils, fats, etc.
(v) Nowadays it is also used in Environmental (Green) Chemistry. For example, in pollution control treatment of domestic and industrial effluents, oxidation of cyanides, restoration of aerobic conditions to sewage wastes, etc.

9.8 HEAVY WATER, D2O
It is extensively used as a moderator in nuclear reactors and in exchange reactions for the study of reaction mechanisms. It can be prepared by exhaustive electrolysis of water or as a by-product in some fertilizer industries. Its physical properties are given in Table 9.3. It is used for the preparation of other deuterium compounds, for example:

CaC2+2D2O → C2D2+Ca(OD)2
SO3+D2O→D2SO4
Al4C3+ 12D4O→ 3CD4+4Al(OD)3

9.9 DIHYDROGEN AS A FUEL
Dihydrogen releases large quantities of heat on combustion. The data on energy released by combustion of fuels like dihydrogen, methane, LPG etc. are compared in terms of the same amounts in mole, mass and volume, are shown in Table 9.5.

Table 9.5 The Energy Released by Combustion of Various Fuels in Moles, Mass and Volume
Energy releaed on cumbustion in kJ state) Dihydrogen (in gaseous state) Dihydrogen(in liquid) LPG CH4 gas Octane (in liquid state)
per mole 286 285 2220 880 5511
per gram 143 142 50 53 47
per litre 12 9968 25590 35 34005

From this table it is clear that on a mass for mass basis dihydrogen can release more energy than petrol (about three times). Moreover, pollutants in combustion of dihydrogen will be less than petrol. The only pollutants will be the oxides of dinitrogen (due to the presence of dinitrogen as impurity with dihydrogen). This, of course, can be minimised by injecting a small amount of water into the cylinder to lower the temperature so that the reaction between dinitrogen and dioxygen may not take place. However, the mass of the containers in which dihydrogen will be kept must be taken into consideration. A cylinder of compressed dihydrogen weighs about 30 times as much as a tank of petrol containing the same amount of energy. Also, dihydrogen gas is converted into liquid state by cooling to 20K. This would require expensive insulated tanks. Tanks of metal alloy like NaNi5, Ti-TiH2, Mg-MgH2 etc. are in use for storage of dihydrogen in small quantities. These limitations have prompted researchers to search for alternative techniques to use dihydrogen in an efficient way.
In this view Hydrogen Economy is an alternative. The basic principle of hydrogen economy is the transportation and storage of energy in the form of liquid or gaseous dihydrogen. Advantage of hydrogen economy is that energy is transmitted in the form of dihydrogen and not as electric power. It is for the first time in the history of India that a pilot project using dihydrogen as fuel was launched in October 2005 for running automobiles. Initially 5% dihydrogen has been mixed in CNG for use in four-wheeler vehicles. The percentage of dihydrogen would be gradually increased to reach the optimum level.
Nowadays, it is also used in fuel cells for generation of electric power. It is expected that economically viable and safe sources of dihydrogen will be identified in the years to come, for its usage as a common source of energy.
SUMMARY
Hydrogen is the lightest atom with only one electron. Loss of this electron results in an elementary particle, the proton. Thus, it is unique in character. It has three isotopes, namely : protium (11H), deuterium (D or21H) and tritium (T or31H). Amongst these three, only tritium is radioactive. Inspite of its resemblance both with alkali metals and halogens, it occupies a separate position in the periodic table because of its unique properties.
Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe. In the free state it is almost not found in the earth’s atmosphere. However, in the combined state, it is the third most abundant element on the earth’s surface.
Dihydrogen on the industrial scale is prepared by the water-gas shift reaction from petrochemicals. It is obtained as a byproduct by the electrolysis of brine.
The H-H bond dissociation enthalpy of dihydrogen (435.88 kJ mol-1) is the highest for a single bond between two atoms of any elements. This property is made use of in the atomic hydrogen torch which generates a temperature of ~4000K and is ideal for welding of high melting metals.
Though dihydrogen is rather inactive at room temperature because of very high negative dissociation enthalpy, it combines with almost all the elements under appropriate conditions to form hydrides. All the type of hydrides can be classified into three categories: ionic or saline hydrides, covalent or molecular hydrides and metallic or non-stoichiometric hydrides. Alkali metal hydrides are good reagents for preparing other hydride compounds. Molecular hydrides (e.g., B2H6, CH4, NH3, H2O) are of great importance in day-to-day life. Metallic hydrides are useful for ultrapurification of dihydrogen and as dihydrogen storage media.
Among the other chemical reactions of dihydrogen, reducing reactions leading to the formation hydrogen halides, water, ammonia, methanol, vanaspati ghee, etc. are of great importance. In metallurgical process, it is used to reduce metal oxides. In space programmes, it is used as a rocket fuel. In fact, it has promising potential for use as a non-polluting fuel of the near future (Hydrogen Economy). Water is the most common and abundantly available substance. It is of a great
chemical and biological significance. The ease with which water is transformed from liquid to solid and to gaseous state allows it to play a vital role in the biosphere. The water molecule is highly polar in nature due to its bent structure. This property leads to hydrogen bonding which is the maximum in ice and least in water vapour. The polar nature of water makes it: (a) a very good solvent for ionic and partially ionic compounds; (b) to act as an amphoteric (acid as well as base) substance; and (c) to form hydrates of different types. Its property to dissolve many salts, particularly in large quantity, makes it hard and hazardous for industrial use. Both temporary and permanent hardness can be removed by the use of zeolites, and synthetic ion-exchangers.
Heavy water, D2O is another important compound which is manufactured by the electrolytic enrichment of normal water. It is essentially used as a moderator in nuclear reactors.
Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 has an interesting non-polar structure and is widely used as an industrial bleach and in pharmaceutical and pollution control treatment of industrial and domestic effluents.

EXERCISES
9.1 Justify the position of hydrogen in the periodic table on the basis of its electronic configuration.
9.2 Write the names of isotopes of hydrogen. What is the mass ratio of these isotopes?
9.3 Why does hydrogen occur in a diatomic form rather than in a monoatomic form under normal conditions?
9.4 How can the production of dihydrogen, obtained from ‘coal gasification’, be increased?
9.5 Describe the bulk preparation of dihydrogen by electrolytic method. What is the role of an electrolyte in this process ?
9.6 Complete the following reactions:

9.7 Discuss the consequences of high enthalpy of H-H bond in terms of chemical reactivity of dihydrogen.
9.8 What do you understand by (i) electron-deficient, (ii) electron-precise, and (iii) electron-rich compounds of hydrogen? Provide justification with suitable examples.
9.9 What characteristics do you expect from an electron-deficient hydride with respect to its structure and chemical reactions?
9.10 Do you expect the carbon hydrides of the type (CnH2n + 2) to act as ‘Lewis’ acid or base? Justify your answer.
9.11 What do you understand by the term ‘non-stoichiometric hydrides’? Do you expect this type of the hydrides to be formed by alkali metals? Justify your answer.
9.12 How do you expect the metallic hydrides to be useful for hydrogen storage? Explain.
9.13 How does the atomic hydrogen or oxy-hydrogen torch function for cutting and welding purposes ? Explain.
9.14 Among NH3, H2O and HF, which would you expect to have highest magnitude of hydrogen bonding and why?
9.15 Saline hydrides are known to react with water violently producing fire. Can CO2,a well known fire extinguisher, be used in this case? Explain.
9.16 Arrange the following
(i) CaH2, BeH2 and TiH2 in order of increasing electrical conductance.
(ii) LiH, NaH and CsH in order of increasing ionic character.
(iii) H-H, D-D and F-F in order of increasing bond dissociation enthalpy.
(iv) NaH, MgH2 and H2O in order of increasing reducing property.
9.17 Compare the structures of H2O and HO2.
9.18 What do you understand by the term ‘auto-protolysis’ of water? What is its significance?
9.19 Consider the reaction of water with F2 and suggest, in terms of oxidation and reduction, which species are oxidised/reduced.
9.20 Complete the following chemical reactions.
(i)PbS(s) + H2O2(aq) →
(ii)MnO4(aq) + H2O(aq) →
(iii)CaO(s)+ H2O(g) →
(v)AlCl3(g) + H2O(l) →
(vi)Ca3N2(s) + H2O(l) →
Classify the above into (a) hydrolysis, (b) redox and (c) hydration reactions.
9.21 Describe the structure of the common form of ice.
9.22 What causes the temporary and permanent hardness of water ?
9.23 Discuss the principle and method of softening of hard water by synthetic ionexchange resins.
9.24 Write chemical reactions to show the amphoteric nature of water.
9.25 Write chemical reactions to justify that hydrogen peroxide can function as an oxidising as well as reducing agent.
9.26 What is meant by ‘demineralised’ water and how can it be obtained ?
9.27 Is demineralised or distilled water useful for drinking purposes? If not, how can it be made useful?
9.28 Describe the usefulness of water in biosphere and biological systems.
9.29 What properties of water make it useful as a solvent? What types of compound can it (i) dissolve, and (ii) hydrolyse ?
9.30 Knowing the properties of H2O and D2O, do you think that D2O can be used for drinking purposes?
9.31 What is the difference between the terms ‘hydrolysis’ and ‘hydration’ ?
9.32 How can saline hydrides remove traces of water from organic compounds?
9.33 What do you expect the nature of hydrides is, if formed by elements of atomic numbers 15, 19, 23 and 44 with dihydrogen? Compare their behaviour towards water.
9.34 Do you expect different products in solution when aluminium(III) chloride and potassium chloride treated separately with (i) normal water (ii) acidified water, and (iii) alkaline water? Write equations wherever necessary.
9.35 How does H2O2 behave as a bleaching agent?
9.36 What do you understand by the terms:
(i) hydrogen economy (ii) hydrogenation (iii) ‘syngas’ (iv) water-gas shift reaction (v) fuel-cell ?

I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)

1. Hydrogen resembles halogens in many respects for which several factors are responsible. Of the following factors which one is most important in this respect?

(i) Its tendency to lose an electron to form a cation.
(ii) Its tendency to gain a single electron in its valence shell to attain stable electronic configuration.
(iii) Its low negative electron gain enthalpy value.
(iv) Its small size.

2. Why does H+ ion always get associated with other atoms or molecules?

(i) Ionisation enthalpy of hydrogen resembles that of alkali metals.
(ii) Its reactivity is similar to halogens.
(iii) It resembles both alkali metals and halogens.
(iv) Loss of an electron from hydrogen atom results in a nucleus of very small size as compared to other atoms or ions. Due to smal size it cannot exist free.

3. Metal hydrides are ionic, covalent or molecular in nature. Among LiH, NaH, KH, RbH, CsH, the correct order of increasing ionic character is

(i) LiH > NaH > CsH > KH>RbH
(ii) LiH < NaH < KH < RbH < CsH
(iii) RbH > CsH > NaH > KH > LiH
(iv) NaH > CsH > RbH > LiH > KH

4. Which of the following hydrides is electron-precise hydride?

(i) B2H6
(ii) NH3
(iii) H2O
(iv) CH4

5. Radioactive elements emit α, β and γ rays and are characterised by their halflives. The radioactive isotope of hydrogen is

(i) Protium
(ii) Deuterium
(iii) Tritium
(iv) Hydronium

6. Consider the reactions

(A) H2O2 + 2HI → I2 + 2H2O
(B) HOCl + H2O2 → H3O+ + Cl + O2

Which of the following statements is correct about H2O2 with reference to these reactions? Hydrogen perioxide is ________.

(i) an oxidising agent in both (A) and (B)
(ii) an oxidising agent in (A) and reducing agent in (B)
(iii) a reducing agent in (A) and oxidising agent in (B)
(iv) a reducing agent in both (A) and (B)

7. The oxide that gives H2O2 on treatment with dilute H2SO4 is —

(i) PbO2
(ii) BaO2 .8H2O + O2
(iii) MnO2
(iv) TiO2

8. Which of the following equations depict the oxidising nature of H2O2?

(i) 2MnO4 + 6H+ + 5H2O2 → 2Mn2+ + 8H2O + 5O2
(ii) 2Fe3+ + 2H+ + H2O2 → 2Fe2+ + 2H2O + O2
(iii) 2I + 2H+ + H2O2 → I2 + 2H2O
(iv) KIO4 + H2O2 → KIO3 + H2O + O2

9. Which of the following equation depicts reducing nature of H2O2?

(i) 2[Fe(CN)6]4– + 2H+ + H2O2 → 2[Fe (CN)6]3– + 2H2O
(ii) I2 + H2O2 + 2OH → 2I + 2H2O + O2
(iii) Mn2+ + H2O2 → Mn4+ + 2OH
(iv) PbS + 4H2O2 → PbSO4 + 4H2O

10. Hydrogen peroxide is _________.

(i) an oxidising agent
(ii) a reducing agent
(iii) both an oxidising and a reducing agent
(iv) neither oxidising nor reducing agent

11. Which of the following reactions increases production of dihydrogen from synthesis gas?

12. When sodium peroxide is treated with dilute sulphuric acid, we get ______.

(i) sodium sulphate and water
(ii) sodium sulphate and oxygen
(iii) sodium sulphate, hydrogen and oxygen
(iv) sodium sulphate and hydrogen peroxide

13. Hydrogen peroxide is obtained by the electrolysis of ______.

(i) water
(ii) sulphuric acid
(iii) hydrochloric acid
(iv) fused sodium peroxide

14. Which of the following reactions is an example of use of water gas in the synthesis of other compounds?

15. Which of the following ions will cause hardness in water sample?

(i) Ca2+
(ii) Na+
(iii) Cl
(iv) K+

16. Which of the following compounds is used for water softening?

(i) Ca3(PO4)2
(ii) Na3PO4
(iii) Na6P6O18
(iv) Na2HPO4

17. Elements of which of the following group(s) of periodic table do not form hydrides.

(i) Groups 7, 8, 9
(ii) Group 13
(iii) Groups 15, 16, 17
(iv) Group 14

18. Only one element of ________ forms hydride.

(i) group 6
(ii) group 7
(iii) group 8
(iv) group 9

II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)

In the following questions two or more options may be correct.

19. Which of the following statements are not true for hydrogen?

(i) It exists as diatomic molecule.
(ii) It has one electron in the outermost shell.
(iii) It can lose an electron to form a cation which can freely exist
(iv) It forms a large number of ionic compounds by losing an electron.

20. Dihydrogen can be prepared on commercial scale by different methods. In its preparation by the action of steam on hydrocarbons, a mixture of CO and H2 gas is formed. It is known as ____________.

(i) Water gas
(ii) Syngas
(iii) Producer gas
(iv) Industrial gas

21. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct in the case of heavy water?

(i) Heavy water is used as a moderator in nuclear reactor.
(ii) Heavy water is more effective as solvent than ordinary water.
(iii) Heavy water is more associated than ordinary water.
(iv) Heavy water has lower boiling point than ordinary water.

22. Which of the following statements about hydrogen are correct?

(i) Hydrogen has three isotopes of which protium is the most common.
(ii) Hydrogen never acts as cation in ionic salts.
(iii) Hydrogen ion, H+, exists freely in solution.
(iv) Dihydrogen does not act as a reducing agent.

23. Some of the properties of water are described below. Which of them is/are not correct?

(i) Water is known to be a universal solvent.
(ii) Hydrogen bonding is present to a large extent in liquid water.
(iii) There is no hydrogen bonding in the frozen state of water.
(iv) Frozen water is heavier than liquid water.

24. Hardness of water may be temporary or permanent. Permanent hardness is due to the presence of

(i) Chlorides of Ca and Mg in water
(ii) Sulphates of Ca and Mg in water
(iii) Hydrogen carbonates of Ca and Mg in water
(iv) Carbonates of alkali metals in water

25. Which of the following statements is correct?

(i) Elements of group 15 form electron deficient hydrides.
(ii) All elements of group 14 form electron precise hydrides.
(iii) Electron precise hydrides have tetrahedral geometries.
(iv) Electron rich hydrides can act as Lewis acids.

26. Which of the following statements is correct?

(i) Hydrides of group 13 act as Lewis acids.
(ii) Hydrides of group 14 are electron deficient hydrides.
(iii) Hydrides of group 14 act as Lewis acids.
(iv) Hydrides of group 15 act as Lewis bases.

27. Which of the following statements is correct?

(i) Metallic hydrides are deficient of hydrogen.
(ii) Metallic hydrides conduct heat and electricity.
(iii) Ionic hydrides do not conduct electricity in solid state.
(iv) Ionic hydrides are very good conductors of electricity in solid state.

III. Short Answer Type

28. How can production of hydrogen from water gas be increased by using water gas shift reaction?

29. What are metallic/interstitial hydrides? How do they differ from molecular hydrides?

30. Name the classes of hydrides to which H2O, B2H6 and NaH belong.

31. If same mass of liquid water and a piece of ice is taken, then why is the density of ice less than that of liquid water?

32. Complete the following equations:

(i) PbS (s) + H2O2(aq) →

33. Give reasons:

(i) Lakes freeze from top towards bottom.
(ii) Ice floats on water.

34. What do you understand by the term ‘auto protolysis of water’ ? What is its significance?

35. Discuss briefly de-mineralisation of water by ion exchange resin.

36. Molecular hydrides are classified as electron deficient, electron precise and electron rich compounds. Explain each type with two examples.

37. How is heavy water prepared? Compare its physical properties with those of ordinary water.

38. Write one chemical reaction for the preparation of D2O2.

39. Calculate the strength of 5 volume H2O2 solution.

40. (i) Draw the gas phase and solid phase structure of H2O2.
(ii) H2O2 is a better oxidising agent than water. Explain.

41. Melting point, enthalpy of vapourisation and viscosity data of H2O and D2O is given below :

  H2O D2O
Melting point / K 373.0 374.4
Enthalpy of vapourisation at (373 K)/ kJ mol–1 40.66 41.61
Viscosity/centipoise 0.8903 1.107

On the basis of this data explain in which of these liquids intermolecular forces are stronger?

42. Dihydrogen reacts with dioxygen (O2) to form water. Write the name and formula of the product when the isotope of hydrogen which has one proton and one neutron in its nucleus is treated with oxygen. Will the reactivity of both the isotopes be the same towards oxygen? Justify your answer.

43. Explain why HCl is a gas and HF is a liquid.

44. When the first element of the periodic table is treated with dioxygen, it gives a compound whose solid state floats on its liquid state. This compound has an ability to act as an acid as well as a base. What products will be formed when this compound undergoes autoionisation?

45. Rohan heard that instructions were given to the laboratory attendent to store a particular chemical i.e., keep it in the dark room, add some urea in it, and keep it away from dust. This chemical acts as an oxidising as well as a reducing agent in both acidic and alkaline media. This chemical is important for use in the pollution control treatment of domestic and industrial effluents.

(i) Write the name of this compound.
(ii) Explain why such precautions are taken for storing this chemical.

46. Give reasons why hydrogen resembles alkali metals?

47. Hydrogen generally forms covalent compounds. Give reason.

48. Why is the Ionisation enthalpy of hydrogen higher than that of sodium?

49. Basic principle of hydrogen economy is transportation and storage of energy in the form of liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Which property of hydrogen may be useful for this purpose? Support your answer with the chemical equation if required.

50. What is the importance of heavy water?

51. Write the Lewis structure of hydrogen peroxide.

52. An acidic solution of hydrogen peroxide behaves as an oxidising as well as reducing agent. Illustrate it with the help of a chemical equation.

53. With the help of suitable examples, explain the property of H2O2 that is responsible for its bleaching action?

54. Why is water molecule polar?

55. Why does water show high boiling point as compared to hydrogen sulphide? Give reasons for your answer.

56. Why can dilute solutions of hydrogen peroxide not be concentrated by heating. How can a concentrated solution of hydrogen peroxide be obtained?

57. Why is hydrogen peroxide stored in wax lined bottles?

58. Why does hard water not form lather with soap?

59. Phosphoric acid is preferred over sulphuric acid in preparing hydrogen peroxide from peroxides. Why?

60. How will you account for 104.5° bond angle in water?

61. Write redox reaction between fluorine and water.

62. Write two reactions to explain amphoteric nature of water.

IV. Matching Type

63. Correlate the items listed in Column I with those listed in Column II. Find out as many correlations as you can.

  Column I   Column II
(i) Synthesis gas (a) Na2[Na4(PO3)6]
(ii) Dihydrogen (b) Oxidising agent
(iii) Heavy water (c) Softening of water
(iv) Calgon (d) Reducing agent
(v) Hydrogen peroxide (e) Stoichiometric compounds of s-block elements
(vi) Salt like hydrides (f) Prolonged electrolysis of water
    (g) Zn + NaOH
    (h) Zn + dil. H2SO4
    (i) Synthesis of methanol
    (j) Mixture of CO and H2

64. Match Column I with Column II for the given properties/applications mentioned therein.

  Column I   Column II
(i) H (a) Used in the name of perhydrol.
(ii) H2 (b) Can be reduced to dihydrogen by NaH.
(iii) H2O (c) Can be used in hydroformylation of olefin.
(iv) H2O2 (d) Can be used in cutting and welding.

65. Match the terms in Column I with the relevant item in Column II.

  Column I   Column II
(i) Electrolysis of water produces (a) atomic reactor
(ii) Lithium aluminium hydride is used as (b) polar molecule
(iii) Hydrogen chloride is a (c) recombines on metal surface to generate high temperature
(iv) Heavy water is used in (d) reducing agent
(v) Atomic hydrogen (e) hydrogen and oxygen

66. Match the items in Column I with the relevant item in Column II.

  Column I   Column II
(i) Hydrogen peroxide is used as a (a) zeolite
(ii) Used in Calgon method (b) perhydrol
(iii) Permanent hardness of hard water is removed by (c) sodium hexametaphosphate
    (d) propellant

V. Assertion and Reason Type

In the following questions a statement of Assertion (A) followed by a statement of Reason (R) is given. Choose the correct option out of the options given below each question.

67. Assertion (A) : Permanent hardness of water is removed by treatment with washing soda.
Reason (R) : Washing soda reacts with soluble magnesium and calcium sulphate to form insoluble carbonates.

(i) Statements A and R both are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(ii) A is correct but R is not correct.
(iii) A and R both are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(iv) A and R both are false.

68. Assertion (A) : Some metals like platinum and palladium, can be used as storage media for hydrogen.
Reason (R) : Platinum and palladium can absorb large volumes of hydrogen.

(i) Statements A and R both are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(ii) A is correct but R is not correct.
(iii) A and R both are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(iv) A and R both are false.

VI. Long Answer Type

69. Atomic hydrogen combines with almost all elements but molecular hydrogen does not. Explain.

70. How can D2O be prepared from water? Mention the physical properties in which D2O differs from H2O. Give at least three reactions of D2O showing the exchange of hydrogen with deuterium.

71. How will you concentrate H2O2? Show differences between structures of H2O2 and H2O by drawing their spatial structures. Also mention three important uses of H2O2.

72. (i) Give a method for the manufacture of hydrogen peroxide and explain the reactions involved therein.
(ii) Illustrate oxidising, reducing and acidic properties of hydrogen peroxide with equations.

73. What mass of hydrogen peroxide will be present in 2 litres of a 5 molar solution? Calculate the mass of oxygen which will be liberated by the decomposition of 200 mL of this solution.

74. A colourless liquid ‘A’ contains H and O elements only. It decomposes slowly on exposure to light. It is stabilised by mixing urea to store in the presence of light.

(i) Suggest possible structure of A.
(ii) Write chemical equations for its decomposition reaction in light.

75. An ionic hydride of an alkali metal has significant covalent character and is almost unreactive towards oxygen and chlorine. This is used in the synthesis of other useful hydrides. Write the formula of this hydride. Write its reaction with Al2Cl6.

76. Sodium forms a crystalline ionic solid with dihydrogen. The solid is nonvolatile and non- conducting in nature. It reacts violently with water to produce dihydrogen gas. Write the formula of this compound and its reaction with water. What will happen on electrolysis of the melt of this solid.

ANSWERS

I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)

1. (ii)       2. (iv)       3. (ii)      4. (iv)      5. (iii)      6. (ii)      7. (ii)      8. (iii)      9. (ii)      10. (iii)     11. (iii)      12. (iv)       13. (ii)      14. (iv)       15. (i)      16. (iii)      17. (i)      18. (i)

II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)

19. (iii), (iv)      20. (i), (ii)      21. (i), (iii)      22. (i), (ii)      23. (iii), (iv)       24. (i), (ii)      25. (ii), (iii)       26. (i), (iv)       27. (i), (ii), (iii)

III. Short Answer Type

39. 5 volume H2O2 solution means that hydrogen peroxide contained in 1 volume of this solution will decompose to give 5 volumes of oxygen at STP i.e. if 1L of this solution is taken, then 5 L of oxygen can be produced from this at STP. Chemical equation for the decomposition of H2O2 is 2H2O2(l) → O2(g) + H2O(l).

It shows that 68 g H2O2 gives 22.7 L of O2 at STP, so 5 L oxygen will be obtained from :
.
6 8 g × 5 L/22 7L = 3400/227 g H2O2 = 14.9 g ≈ 15 g H2O2

i.e., 15 g H2O2 dissolved in 1 L solution will give 5 L oxygen or 1.5 g H2O2/100 mL solution will give 500 mL oxygen. Thus 15 g/L or 1.5% solution is known as 5V solution of H2O2.

42. [Hint : Heavy water; Bond dissociation energy of dihydrogen is less than dideuterium]

44. [Hint : H2O + H2O → H3O+ + OH]
45. (i) H2O2

IV. Matching Type

63. (i) → (i), (j) (ii) → (d), (e), (g), (h), (i) (iii) → (f) (iv) → (a), (c) (v) → (b), (d) (vi) → (e)
64. (i) → (d) (ii) → (c) (iii) → (b) (iv) → (a)
65. (i) → (e) (ii) → (d) (iii) → (b) (iv) → (a) (v) → (c)
66. (i) → (b), (d) (ii) → (c) (iii) → (a), (c)

V. Assertion and Reason Type

67. (i) 68. (i)

VI. Long Answer Type

73. 68 g, 3.2 g

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Simplified Knowledge Management Classes

Must see https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/some-points-which-i-wish-all-my-new-prospective-students-know/
🙂
Do you want to make money working at home ?
see http://skmclasses.weebly.com/jobs.html

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.weebly.com

you will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

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The following Videos are available for you ( As of Now ). These explain tricky Physics and Mathematics Numericals.

Eventually I will try to give Videos for full course here for you.

These covers PU ( Pre University courses, school / college ) courses, IIT JEE, AIEEE ( All India Engineering Entrance Examination ) , CET ( Combined Engineering Test ), AIPMT ( All India Pre Medical Test ), ISc ( Intermediate Science / Indian School Certificate Exam ), CBSE ( Central Board Secondary Exam ), Roorkey Joint Entrance Test Questions ( Discontinued since 2002 ), APhO ( Asian Physics Olympiad ), IPhO ( International Physics Olympiad ), IMO ( International Mathematics Olympiad ) , NSEP ( National Standard Exam in Physics ), RMO ( Regional Math Olympiad , India ), INMO ( Indian National Maths Olympiad ), Irodov Solutions, Prof. H C Verma ( Concepts of Physics ) Solutions etc.

( You can see the history of Indian Participation in various Olympiads at ->
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/indian-participation-in-ipho-icho-ibo-and-astronomy-olympiad/ )

[ In each of these videos there is at-least 1 or more errors. Please tell me about those ]

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.weebly.com
You should get to see all the Uploaded videos. Though we have many more study videos.

Thanks and Regards
Zookeeper ;-D Subhashish Chattopadhyay

[ I suggest you see the videos starting with 1- first then starting with 2- ….. in that sequence. ]

[ Tell your friends about this link if you liked the videos ]

In case of doubts or suggestions, Please send me email at mokshya@gmail.com

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.weebly.com

Answers to -> Frequently Asked Questions ( FAQ ) [ commonly asked intelligent Questions 🙂 ]

1 ) How do I prepare for IIT ?

Ans : – See the videos made by me ( search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.weebly.com
Though we have many more which have not been uploaded ). While watching the videos, take notes and try to solve the problems yourself by pausing the video. Tell me if any calculation is wrong. See the videos with 1- first then 2- and so on. Write to IAPT Kothrud, Pune office to buy ( 150 Rs approx ) the book with previous papers of NSEP ( National Standard Exam in Physics – The 1st level ), INPhO ( Indian National Physics Olympiad – 2nd level ). Prepare with these and see how much you are scoring. You can guess your ALL INDIA rank easily from NSEP, and INPhO rank. Since 1998 the IIT JEE toppers have been mostly representing India in IPhO.

2 ) Which codec and Player do I use to see the videos ?

Ans : – You can use GOM Player, or VLC Player. You have to have good speakers with filters or good earphones with filters. We have checked mostly it is OK with these. ( If you are depending only on your embedded speakers of computer /screen / keyboard then there may be extra distortions. As these speakers are often not of good Quality. Also install latest KL Codecs ) In any case reduce the volume see the board, imagine sitting in the last bench and solving the problems of your own. See if your solution differs anywhere with the scribbles on the board.

3 ) Why are you giving these ( high Quality ) lecture for free ?

Ans : Well there are lot of good things free in this world. Linux, My-SQL, Open-Office ….. Go to sourceforge and get thousands of high quality software free along with source code. Yes all officially free …. Why do you think Richard Stallman, Zimmerman, ….. etc are considered Guru philosophers ? In Punjab and Gurudwaras worldwide there are so many Langars where you get better food than Restaurants. ….. why ? Why do you have Dharmasalas and subsidized rest rooms near hospitals / Famous Temples / various places ? in Iftar party anyone can eat for free …. why ?

I am teaching since 1989 I have observed most students can do much better if they have the self motivation to solve and practice. Cheap books are available in second hand bookstalls, where you get thousands of Numericals to solve ….. but most students will like to blow their time going and coming for tuition, travel time …. TV for hours and hours watching cricket / Tennis games, playing computer games …. My free lectures are not going to make much difference in spending of unnecessary money for coaching ….. I know very well , how much people enjoy …. ! spending unnecessarily !!

Do you know that there are NO poor / needy students in Bangalore.

Sometime back I had tried to teach for IIT JEE FREE. Discussed with a few NGOs and social service guys. Arranged rooms but got only 1 student. We had informed many people in many ways to inform students …. We did not get students who are ready to learn for free. So I am sure these lectures are NOT FREE. If anyone learns from these, s/he changes and that’s the gain / benefit. This change ( due to learning ) is very costly …. Most do not want to learn ………..

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.weebly.com
You will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

🙂

4 ) How can I get all your lectures ?

Ans : – Apart from my lectures there are approx 700 GB of PCM ( Phy, Chem, Math ) lectures. It takes approx 3 years of continuous download from scattered sources. I have ( 20,000 )Thousands of these. You can take ALL of them from me in an external 1 TB hard disk, instead of spending so much money and time again for downloading. These cover ( by Various Professors ) everything of Chemistry, Physics, Maths… Lot of this is from outside India … as foreigners have much wider heart than Indians ( as most of GNU / open source software have been developed by Non-Indians ). I observed the gaps in these videos, and thus I am solving IIT, APhO, Roorkey, IPhO Numericals. Videos made by me along with these videos gives a complete preparation.

Send me a mail at mokshya@gmail.com to contact me.

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.weebly.com
You will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

🙂

5 ) How do you get benefited out of this ?

Ans :- If anyone learns we all will have better people in this world. I will have better “ YOU “.
🙂

6 ) Why do you call yourself a Zookeeper ?

Ans :- This is very nicely explained at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/z00keeper-why-do-i-call-myself-a-zoookeeper/

🙂

7 ) Where do you stay ?

Ans :- Presently I am in Bangalore.

🙂

8 ) If I need videos in a few topics can you make them for me ?

Ans :- We actively answers doubts at doubtpoint.
see http://skmclasses.weebly.com/doubtpoint.html
In case you appreciate our time and efforts involved in answering complicated Questions, then get Quality answers at doubtpoint.

🙂

9 ) Why did you write an article saying there are No Poor students ?

Ans :- There are lots of NGOs and others working for rural / poor children education at lower classes. While very less effort is on for std 9 till 12. Also see the answer in question number ( 3 ) above. In more than 2 decades of teaching I never met a Poor child who was seriously interested in ( higher ) studies. As I have a mind / thinking of a ” Physicist “, I go by ” Experimental Observation “.

It is not about what is being said about poor in media / TV etc, or ” what it should be ” ( ? ) …. It is about what I see happening. Also to add ( confuse ? you more )…. You must be knowing that in several states over many years now girl students have better ( by marks as well as by pass percentage ) result in std 10 / Board Exams….. well but NEVER a girl student came FIRST in IIT JEE … why ? [ The best rank by a Girl student is mostly in 2 digits, very rarely in single digit ] ????? So ????

🙂

10 ) How much do I have to study to make it to IIT ?

Ans :- My experience of Teaching for IIT JEE since 1989, tells me, Total 200 hours per subject ( PCM ) is sufficient. If you see my Maths and Physics videos, each subject is more than 200 hours. So if someone sees all the videos diligently, takes notes and remembers, …… Done.

🙂

11 ) What is EAMCET ?

Ans :- Engineering Agriculture and Medicine Common Entrance Test is conducted by JNT University Hyderabad on behalf of APSCHE. This examination is the gateway for entry into various professional courses offered in Government/Private Colleges in Andhra Pradesh.

12 ) In your videos are you covering other Exams apart from IIT ?

Ans : – Yes. See many videos made by solving problems of MPPET, Rajasthan / J&K CET, UPSEAT ( UPES Engineering Aptitude Test ), MHCET, BCECE ( Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination Board ), WB JEE etc

🙂

13 ) What is SCRA ?

Ans : – Special Class Railway Apprentice (SCRA) exam is conducted by Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) board, for about 10 seats.That translates into an astonishing ratio of 1 selection per 10,000 applicants. The SCRA scheme was started in 1927 by the British, to select a handful of most intelligent Indians to assist them in their Railway Operations, after training at their Railway’s largest workshop, i.e. Jamalpur Workshop, and for one year in United Kingdom. The selected candidates were required to appear in the Mechanical Engineering Degree Examination held by Engineering Council (London).

Thanks for your time. To become my friend in google+ ( search me as mokshya@gmail.com and send friend request )

Read http://edge.org/responses/what-scientific-concept-would-improve-everybodys-cognitive-toolkit
🙂
The following video is a must see for full CO2 cycle, plates of Earth, Geological activities, stability of weather
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oIuoNtRBG4w

🙂
Article in Nature says CO2 increase is good for the trees
http://thegwpf.org/science-news/6086-co2-is-greening-the-planet-savannahs-soon-to-be-covered-by-forests.html
🙂
http://climaterealists.com/index.php?id=9752

BBC documentary Crescent and Cross shows the 1000 years of fight between Christians and Muslims. Millions have been killed in the name of Religion. To decided whose GOD is better, and which GOD to follow. The fight continues.

Summary of Women
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yIpmML49hMU
🙂
The Virus of Faith
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scarHc8RA0g

🙂
The God delusion
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LVr9bJ8Sctk

🙂
cassiopeia facts about evolution
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K7tQIB4UdiY

Intermediate Fossil records shown and explained nicely Fossils, Genes, and Embryos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fdpMrE7BdHQ

The Rise Of Narcissism In Women
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wZHKCbHGlS0

🙂
13 type of women whom you should never court
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/relationships/man-woman/13-Women-you-should-never-court/articleshow/14637014.cms

🙂
Media teaching Misandry in India

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-M2txSbOPIo

Summary of problems with women
http://problemwithwomentoday.blogspot.in/2009/12/problem-with-women-today-what-in-hell.html

🙂
Eyeopener men ? women only exists
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ZAuqkqxk9A

🙂
Each of you is an Activist in some way or other. You are trying to propagate those thoughts, ideas that you feel concerned / excited about.

Did you analyze your effectiveness ?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=61qn7S9NCOs
Culturomics can help you

😀
see how biased women are. Experimental proof. Women are happy when they see another woman is beating a man ( see how women misbehave with men )

🙂
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LlFAd4YdQks

see detailed statistics at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5lHmCN3MBMI

An eye opener in Misandry
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YiTaDS_X6CU

My sincere advice would be to be EXTREMELY careful ( and preferably away ) of girls. As girls age; statistically certain behavior in them has been observed. Most Male can NOT manage those behaviors… Domestic violence, divorce etc are rising very fast. Almost in all cases boys / males are HUGE loosers. Be extremely choosy ( and think from several angles ) before even talking to a girl.
🙂
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/save-the-male/

🙂

How women manipulate men
http://www.angryharry.com/esWomenManipulateMen.htm

Gender Biased Laws in India
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/biased-laws/

🙂

Violence against Men
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MLS2E-rRynE

🙂

Only men are victimised
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4JA4EPRbWhQ

Men are BETTER than women
http://www.menarebetterthanwomen.com/
🙂

see
http://www.youtube.com/watch?&v=T0xoKiH8JJM#!
🙂

Male Psychology

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uwxgavf2xWE

Women are more violent than men
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/women-are-more-violent-says-study-622388.html

🙂

In the year 2010, 168 men ended their lives everyday ( on average ). More husbands committed suicide than wives.
🙂

http://www.rediff.com/news/report/ncrb-stats-show-more-married-men-committing-suicide/20111028.htm

It is EXTREMELY unfortunate that media projects men as fools, women as superiors, Husbands as servants, and replaceable morons. In ad after ad worldwide from so many companies, similar msg to disintegrate the world is being bombarded. It is highly unacceptable misandry

🙂
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oq14WHkFq30
It is NOT at all funny that media shows violence against MEN. Some advertisers are trying to create a new ” Socially acceptable culture ” of slapping Men ( by modern city women ). We ( all men ) take objection to these advertisements.
We oppose this Misandry bad culture. Please share to increase awareness against Men bashing

🙂
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D8ecN2rh0uU

Think what are you doing … why are you doing ?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qp0HIF3SfI4

Every Man must know this …
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cIFmQHJEG1M

🙂
Manginas, White Knights, & Other Chivalrous Dogs
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oXQDtBT70B8

!
!
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key words

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IIT, JEE,IITJEE, Home Tuition available small groups students IB International Baccalaureate Programme IGCSE International General Certificate Secondary Education ISc Indian School Certificate ICSE Indian Certificate of Secondary Education CBSE Central Board of Secondary Education The Schools offering IB International Baccalaureate Programme Bangalore International School Geddalahalli Hennur Bagalur Road Kothanur Post Bengaluru India 560 077 Stonehill International School, 1st Floor, Embassy Point #150, Infantry Road Bengaluru 560 001 Stonehill International School 259/333/334/335, Tarahunise Post Jala Hobli, Bengaluru North 562157 Candor International School Begur – Koppa Road, Hullahalli, Off Bannerghatta Road, Near Electronic City, Bangalore – 560105 Greenwood High International School Bengaluru No.8-14, Chickkawadayarapura, Near Heggondahalli, Gunjur Post, Varthur Sarjapur Road, Bangalore-560087 Sarla Birla Academy Bannerghatta, Bangalore, Canadian International School, Yelahanka, Bangalore Indus International School, Billapura Cross, Sarjapur Bangalore IGCSE International General Certificate of Secondary Education ) Schools of Bangalore Greenwood high international school, No.8-14, Chickkawadayarapura Gunjur Post, Varthur Sarjapur Road, Bangalore Oakridge International School, Oakridge International School, Sarjapur Road, Bangalore Edify School Electronic City 105 34th Main 23rd Cross Sector-A Surya Nagar Phase-2, Anekal-Chandapura Main Road, Electronic City Bangalore Orchids The International School Jalahalli Nagarbavi Mysore Road Sarjapur Road BTM, Bangalore Trio World School, #3/5, Kodigehalli Main Road Sahakar Nagar, Bangalore Ekya School, No.16, 6TH B Main J P Nagar 3RD Phase, Bangalore Vibgyor High school, 58/1, Thubarahallli Whitefield Road, Bangalore Vidyashilp Academy, 42/3, Shivanahalli Yelahanka, Bangalore, PRIMUS Public School, Post Box No. 21, Chikanayakanahalli Village, Off. Sarjapur Road Bangalore Jain International Residential School Jakkasandra Post, Kanakapura Taluk Bangalore Ryan International School, Kundanahalli, M. H. Colony, AECS Layout, Kundalahalli Gate,Bhd Hindustan Lever Ltd, Marathahalli Colony, Bangalore Ebenezer International School, Singena Agrahara Road, Via Hosur Road / A.P.M.C. Yard, Bangalore Mallya Aditi International School, Yelahanka Bangalore India International school 26/1,Chikkabellandur, Carmel Ram Post, Bangalore Ryan International School, Yelahanka, Vederapura Village, Gentiganahalli Road, Training Centre, Yelahanka Bangalore Indus International School, Billapura Cross Sarjapur, Bangalore The International School Bangalore (TISB), NAFL Valley Whitefield – Sarjapur Road, Bangalore Treamis World School, Hulimangala Post Bangalore Ryan International School, Bannerghatta road, Opp. Confident Cascade Bannergatta Main Road Bangalore International School, Geddalahalli Hennur Bagalur Road, Kothanur Post Bangalore Sarla Birla Academy Bannerghatta Jigni Road Bangalore Inventure Academy Whitefield – Sarjapur Road Bangalore Prakriya, # 70, Chikkanayakanahalli Road off Doddakannelli Sarjapur Road, Bangalore Buddhi School, 57, 3rd Main, 4th Cross RMV 2nd Stage, H.I.G Colony, Bangalore B.G.S. International Residential School Nithyananda Nagar, Kumbalagudu, Gollahalli Kengeri, Bangalore Solutions, India, IPhO, APhO, IMO, RMO, INMO, through, lectures, problems numericals Zookeeper, Subhashish, Chattopadhyay, Projectile, Latent, Heat Thermodynamics std 11 12 ISc Calculus BE BTech Differentiation Integration Mechanics Surface Tension Viscosity Accelerating Frame velocity wedge mass pulley Moment Inertia Roorkey Joint Entrance Exam CET AIEEE Irodov HCV Verma South Bangalore Intermediate Algebra Trigonometry Sexy Free Coaching study material preparation Olympiad Friction sin Modelling cos Potential tan cot Gravitation Electrostatics sec Field cosec Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola inverse string Tuition Kinetic Theory Gases Isothermal Adiabatic Isochoric Isobaric Processes Root Mean Square Differential Equation Soomrit Specific Cp Cv PV Diagram Bending Stress Strain Geostationary Satellite Entropy Coefficient Linear Expansion Alpha Beta Gamma Pendulum Conductivity Latent ice water Hydrometer Glass tube series Parallel travelling standing wave Sound Radiation stefan Boltzmann law Newton cooling cylinder Harmonic Overtone Resonance Sonometer Kunds Beat Frequency vibration tuning Fork Swimmer Young Bulk Modulus welded chamber not similar dissimilar MIT Caltech Yale pipe Magnetic Tesla Lenz LvB Vijaya Bank Enclave Apartments Bannerghatta Road Behind IIM Jayanagar J-P-Nagar Buoyant Buoyancy Rho efflux Bernoullis rare Poiseuilles Torricellis critical Terminal Reynolds Poise coalescing Laplace Ventury Hoop orifice Siphon Foucault stretched compression ball scale constant length shear poisson Ratio clock loosing time tvanausdal1 vkiledj Density Partial Pressure Humidity Leak SmartlearnwebTV Space Puncture Photon RC RLC LR Circuit Electrical Capacitor Inductance Linked Flux Wheatstone Bridge Freelanceteach Troutons Rule Van Arkel Method Overview Metallurgy Roasting Calcination Froth Floatation Purification Projected Area PET Kerala MPPET Delta Star conversion Internal Resistance Battery Trick Questions Infinite Ladder Quadratic Cubic Quartic Quintic Orissa NSEP ckt eqn mesh Folding Lenzs J&K Karnataka RMS instantaneous BCECE Maharastra MHCET RPET stepup stepdown transformer Bilekahalli UPSEAT shunt galvanometer susceptibility oscillating magnetometer pole strength Bihar Rajasthan Uttarpradesh Punjab Hariana TN Tamilnadu Andhra WB west Bengal Vacuum Diode Triode Rectifier Truth Table Thermionic emission, Radioactivity Half Life Langmiur, Child Law FCC BCC Cube Optics Lens Mirror Focus Focal Concave Convex Lux Phot Lumen Double slit Complex Integral coordinate Geometry compounds, Biochemistry, Plastic, Organic Chemistry Physical Analytical Inorganic Metallurgy, Biotechnology, Polymer Science, Rubber Technology Geology, Pharma, Veterinary Science,Food Technology, Cryogenics, Ceramics acid species IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com proton donor activation energy minimum energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reaction breaking bonds addition polymer very long molecular chain formed repeated addition reactions many unsaturated alkene molecules monomers addition polymerisation process unsaturated alkene molecules monomers add growing polymer chain one timeIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com long saturated molecular chain addition polymer addition reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reactant added IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com unsaturated molecule saturated molecule adsorption process IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com occurs gas, liquid solute surface solid rarely liquid alicyclic hydrocarbon hydrocarbon IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atoms joined together ring structure aliphatic hydrocarbon hydrocarbon IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atoms joined together straight branched chains alkali type base IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com dissolves water forming hydroxide ions OH (aq) ions alkanes homologous series IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com general formula C alkyl group alkane IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hydrogen atom removed CH alkyl groups IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com ‘R’ amount substance quantity whose unit mole Chemists amount substance IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com IITJEE counting atoms anhydrous substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com contains water molecules anion negatively charged ion atom economy atomic orbital region within atom hold two electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com opposite spins atomic proton number number protons nucleus atom 100 products masses molecular sum product desired mass molecular economy atom Chemistry average bond enthalpy average enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com place IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com breaking homolytic fission 1 molIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com type bond molecules gaseous species Avogadro constant,isotope number atoms mole carbon base species IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com proton acceptor biodegradable material substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com broken IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com naturally environment living organisms Boltzmann distribution distribution energies molecules particular temperature IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com graph bond enthalpy enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com breaking homolytic fission 1 mol bond molecules gaseous species carbanion organic ion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atom hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com negative charge carbocation organic ion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atom hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com positive charge catalyst substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com increases rate chemical reaction process cation positively charged ion cis trans isomerism special type isomerism IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com non hydrogen group skmclasses.weebly.com hydrogen atom C C=C double bond cis isomer ( Z isomer) IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com H atoms on IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon same side trans isomer E isomer H atoms carbon different bond compound substance formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com chemically bonded elements fixed ratio, usually chemical formula concentration amount solute mol IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com 1 dm 3 1000 cm solution coordinate bond shared pair electrons provided one bonding atoms called dative covalent bond covalent bond bond formed shared pair electrons cracking breaking long chained saturated hydrocarbonsIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com mixture shorter chained alkanesalkenes curly arrow symbol IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reaction mechanisms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com show movement electron Coaching ICWA Coaching CFA Coaching CFP Coaching CMAT Coaching School Tuitions CBSE School Tuitions Home Tuitions 9th STD Tuitions PUC Coaching 10th Std Tuitions College Tuitions Maths Tuitions Engineering Tuitions Accounts & Finance Tuitions MBA & BBA Coaching Microbiology & Biotech Tuitions Study Abroad GRE & SAT Coaching GMAT Coaching IELTS/TOEFL Coaching PTE Coaching proteins protonation pyridines pyrroles quinones quinolines radical reaction radicals rearrangement receptors reduction regioselectivity retro reaction rhodium ring closure ring contraction ring expansion ring opening ruthenium samarium scandium Schiff bases selenium self-assembly silicon sodium solid-phase synthesis solvent effects spectroscopy sphingolipids spiro compounds stereoselective synthesis stereoselectivity steric hindrance steroids Stille reaction substituent effects sulfates sulfonamides sulfones sulfoxides sulfur supported catalysis supramolecular tandem reaction tautomerism terpenoids thioacetals thiols tin titanium total synthesis transesterification transition metals transition states tungsten Umpolung vinylidene complexes vitamins Wacker reaction Wittig reaction ylides zeolites zinc BRST Quantization Effective field theories Field Theories Higher Dimensions Field Theories Lower Dimensions Large Extra Dimensions Lattice Quantum Field Theory Nonperturbative Effects Renormalization Group Renormalization Regularization skmclasses.weebly.com Renormalons Sigma Models Solitons Monopoles skmclasses.weebly.com Instantons Supersymmetric gauge theory Topological Field Theories 1/N Expansion Anyons Chern-Simons Theories Confinement Duality Gauge Field Theories Lattice Gauge Field Theories Scattering Amplitudes Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking Strong Coupling Expansion Topological States Matter Wilson ‘t Hooft skmclasses.weebly.comPolyakov loops Anomalies Field skmclasses.weebly.comString Theories BRST Symmetry Conformal skmclasses.weebly.com W Symmetry Discrete skmclasses.weebly.comFinite Symmetries Gauge Symmetry Global Symmetries Higher Spin Symmetry Space-Time Symmetries AdS-CFT Correspondence Black Holes String Theory Bosonic Strings Brane Dynamics Gauge Theories Conformal Field Models String Theory D-branes dS vacua string theory F-Theory Flux compactifications Gauge-gravity correspondence Holography skmclasses.weebly.comcondensed matter physics (AdS CMT) Holography skmclasses.weebly.comquark-gluon plasmas Intersecting branes models Long strings M(atrix) Theories M-Theory p-branes Penrose limit skmclasses.weebly.compp-wave background String Duality String Field Theory String theory skmclasses.weebly.comcosmic string Superstring Vacua Superstrings skmclasses.weebly.comHeterotic Strings Tachyon Condensation Topological Strings 2D Gravity Black Holes Classical Theories Gravity Higher Spin Gravity Lattice Models Gravity Models Quantum Gravity Spacetime Singularities Extended Supersymmetry Supergravity Models Superspaces Supersymmetric Effective Theories Supersymmetry skmclasses.weebly.com Duality Supersymmetry Breaking Differential skmclasses.weebly.comAlgebraic Geometry Integrable Hierarchies Non-Commutative Geometry Quantum Groups Statistical Methods Stochastic Processes Cosmology Theories beyond SM Solar skmclasses.weebly.comAtmospheric Neutrinos Thermal Field Theory Be Ansatz Boundary Quantum Field Theory Exact S-Matrix Quantum Dissipative Systems Random Systems B-Physics Beyond Standard Model Compactification skmclasses.weebly.com String Models CP violation Electromagnetic Processes skmclasses.weebly.com Properties GUT Heavy Quark Higgs Kaon LEP HERA skmclasses.weebly.com SLC Neutrino Physics Quark Masses skmclasses.weebly.comSM Parameters Rare Decays Standard Model Supersymmetric Standard Model Technicolor skmclasses.weebly.com Composite Models Chiral Lagrangians Deep Inelastic Scattering Higher Twist Effects Lattice QCD Parton Model Phase Diagram QCD Phenomenological Models QCD Quark-Gluon Plasma Resummation Sum Rules Aim Global Education Koramangala Computer Networking Training Cloud Computing Training JBOSS Training Juniper Certification Training L2 & L3 Protocol Training MCTS Training Engineering design Training CAD & CAM Training MATLAB Training PLC Training SCADA Training VLSI Design Multimedia & Design Training 2D Animation Training 3D Animation Training 4D Animation Training CorelDRAW Training VFX Training Web Technologies Training ASP.Net Training JQuery pair breaking formation covalent bond dative covalent shared pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com been provided one bonding atoms only IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com called coordinate bond dehydration elimination reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com water removed saturated molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com unsaturated molecule delocalised Electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com shared IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two atoms displacement reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reactive element displaces less reactive element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com aqueous solution latter’s ions displayed formula showing relative positioning atoms molecule skmclasses.weebly.com bonds IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com disproportionation oxidation skmclasses.weebly.com reduction element redox reaction dynamic equilibrium equilibrium IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com exists closed system IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com rate forward reaction equal IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com rate reverse reaction E/Z isomerism type stereoisomerism IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different groups attached IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon C=C double bond arranged differently space restricted rotation C=C bond electron configuration arrangement electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom electronegativity measure attraction bonded atom skmclasses.weebly.com pair electrons covalent bond electron shielding repulsion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrons different inner shells Shielding reduces net attractive force IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com positive nucleus outer shell electrons electrophile atom group atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com attracted IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron rich centre atom IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com accepts pair electrons covalent bond electrophilic addition type addition reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrophile attracted electron rich centre atom accepts pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com new covalent bond elimination reaction removal molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com saturated molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com unsaturated molecule empirical formula simplest whole number ratio atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element present compound endothermic reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com enthalpy products greater enthalpy reactants resulting heat being taken surroundings enthalpy heat content IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com stored chemical system standard enthalpy change combustion enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole substance reacts completely IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oxygen under standard conditions reactants skmclasses.weebly.com products being IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com standard states (standard) enthalpy change formation enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole compound formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com constituent elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com standard states under standard conditions (standard) enthalpy change reaction enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com accompanies reaction molar quantities expressed chemical equation under standard conditions reactants skmclasses.weebly.com products being IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com standard states enthalpy cycle diagram showing alternative routes IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reactants products IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com allows indirect determination IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com other known enthalpy changes using Hess’ law enthalpy profile diagram skmclasses.weebly.com reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com compare enthalpy reactants IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com enthalpy products esterification reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com alcohol IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carboxylic acid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com produce ester skmclasses.weebly.com water exothermic reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com enthalpy products smaller enthalpy reactants, resulting heat loss IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com surroundings fractional distillation separation components liquid mixture skmclassesfractions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com differ boiling point skmclasses.weebly.com hence chemical composition IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com distillation typically using fractionating column fragmentation process mass spectrometry IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com causes positive ion split skmclasses pieces one positive fragment ion functional group part organic molecule responsible skmclasses.weebly.com chemical reactions general formula simplest algebraic formula member homologous series. skmclasses.weebly.com example general formula alkanes giant covalent lattice dimensional structure atoms, bonded together strong covalent bonds giant ionic lattice three dimensional structure oppositely charged ions, bonded together strong ionic bonds giant metallic lattice three dimensional structure positive ions skmclasses.weebly.com delocalised electrons, bonded together strong metallic bonds greenhouse effect process IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com absorption subsequent emission infrared radiation atmospheric gases warms lower atmosphere planet’s surface group vertical column Periodic Table Elements group IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com similar chemical properties skmclasses.weebly.com atoms skmclasses.weebly.comnumber outer shell electrons Hess law reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one route skmclasses.weebly.com initial final conditions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com total enthalpy change skmclasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com route heterogeneous catalysis reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com catalyst IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com different physical state reactants; frequently, reactants IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com gases whilst catalyst solid heterolytic fission breaking covalent bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com both bonded electrons going IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one atoms, forming cation (+ ion) skmclasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com anion ion homogeneous catalysis reaction catalyst skmclasses.weebly.com reactants physical state, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com frequently aqueous gaseous state homologous series series organic compounds IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com functional group, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com successive member differing homolytic fission breaking covalent bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one bonded electrons going IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom, forming two radicals hydrated Crystalline skmclasses.weebly.com containing water molecules hydrocarbon compound hydrogen skmclasses.weebly.com carbon hydrogen bond strong dipole attraction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron deficient hydrogen atom (O H on different molecule hydrolysis reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com water aqueous hydroxide ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com breaks chemical compound skmclasses two compounds initiation first step radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com free radicals generated ultraviolet radiation intermolecular force attractive force IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com neighbouring molecules Intermolecular forces van der Waals’ forces induced dipole ces permanent dipole forces hydrogen bonds ion positively negatively charge atom covalently bonded group atoms molecular ion ionic bonding electrostatic attraction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oppositely charged ions first) ionisation energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com remove one electron IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole gaseous 2+ ions second) ionisation energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com remove one electron IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole gaseous 2+ ions successive ionisation measure energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com remove IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron Chemistry energy second ionisation energy energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one electron IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole gaseous 2+ ions isotopes Atoms skmclasses.weebly.com element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different numbers neutrons different masses le Chatelier’s principle system dynamic equilibrium subjected change position equilibrium will shift minimise change limiting reagent substance chemical reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com runs out first lone pair outer shell pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com involved chemical bonding mass nucleon number particles protons aneutrons) nucleus mechanism sequence steps showing path taken electrons reaction metallic bond electrostatic attraction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com positive metal ions adelocalised electrons molar mass substance units molar mass IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molar volume IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com mole gas. units molar volume IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com dm room temperature skmclasses.weebly.com pressure molar volume approximately 24.0 substance containing IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com many particles thereIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atoms exactly 12 g carbon isotope molecular formula number atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element molecule molecular ion M positive ion formed mass spectrometry IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecule loses electron molecule small group atoms held together covalent bonds monomer small molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com combines IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com monomers polymer nomenclature system naming compounds nucleophile atom group atoms attracted electron deficient centre atom donates pair electrons covalent bond nucleophilic substitution type substitution reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com nucleophile attracted electron deficient centre atom, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com donates pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com new covalent bond oxidation Loss electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com increase oxidation number oxidation number measure number electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom uses bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atoms another element. Oxidation numbers IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com derive d rules oxidising agent reagent IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oxidises (takes electrons from) another species percentage yield period horizontal row elements Periodic Table Elements show trends properties across period periodicity regular periodic variation properties elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atomic number position Periodic Table permanent dipole small charge difference across bond resulting IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com difference electronegativities bonded atoms permanent dipole dipole force attractive force IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com permanent dipoles neighbouring polar molecules pi bond (p bond reactive part double bond formed above skmclasses.weebly.com below plane bonded atoms sideways overlap p orbitalspolar covalent bond bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com permanent dipole polar molecule molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com overall dipole skmclasses account dipoles across bonds polymer long molecular chain built monomer units precipitation reaction formation solid solution during chemical reaction Precipitates IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two aqueous solutions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com mixed together principal quantum number n number representing relative overall energy orbital IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com increases distance nucleus sets orbitals IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com value IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com electron shells energy levels propagation two repeated radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com build up products chain reaction radical species unpaired electron rate reaction change concentration reactant product redox reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reduction skmclasses.weebly.com oxidation take IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reducing agent reagent IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reduces (adds electron to) species reduction Gain electrons decrease oxidation number yield actual amount mol product theoretical amount mol product Chemistry reflux continual boiling skmclasses.weebly.com condensing reaction mixture ensure IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com without contents flask boiling dry relative atomic mass weighted mean mass atom element compared one twelfth mass IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom carbon relative formula mass weighted mean mass formula unit compared IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one twelfth mass atom carbon relative isotopic mass mass atom isotope compared IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one twelfth mass atom carbon relative molecular mass weighted mean mass molecule compared twelfth mass atom carbon 12 repeat unit specific arrangement atom s IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com occurs structure over over again. Repeat units IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com included brackets outside IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com symbol n Salt chemical compound formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com acid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com H+ ion acid IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com been replaced metal ion another positive ion such IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com ammonium ion, NH saturated hydrocarbon IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com single bonds only shell group atomic orbitals IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com principal quantum number known main energy level simple molecular lattice three dimensional structure molecules, bonded together weak intermolecular forces skeletal formula simplified organic formula, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hydrogen atoms removed alkyl chains, leaving carbon skeleton skmclasses.weebly.com associated functional groups species particle IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com part chemical reaction specific heat capacity, c energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com raise temperature 1 g substance 1 C spectator ions Ions present part chemical reaction standard conditions pressure 100 kPa 1 atmosphere stated temperature usually 298 K (25 °C), skmclasses.weebly.com concentration 1 mol dm reactions aqueous solutions standard enthalpies enthalpystandard solution solution known concentration Standard solutions normally IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com titrations IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com determine unknown information another substance Chemistry standard state physical state substance under standard conditions 100 kPa 1 atmosphere) skmclasses.weebly.com 298 K 25 C stereoisomers Compounds skmclasses.weebly.com structural formula IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different arrangement atoms space stoichiometry molar relationship IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com relative quantities substances part reaction stratosphere second layer Earth’s atmosphere, containing ‘ozone layer’, about 10 km IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com 50 km above Earth’s surface structural formula formula showing minimal detail skmclasses.weebly.com arrangement atoms molecule structural isomers Molecules IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com molecular formula different structural arrangements atoms subshell group skmclasses.weebly.com type atomic orbitals s, p, d f within shell substitution reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom group atoms replaced different atom group atoms termination step end radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two radicals combine IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecule thermal decomposition breaking chemical substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com heat skmclasses least two chemical substances troposphere lowest layer Earth’s atmosphere extending Earth’s surface about 7 km (above poles) about 20 km above tropics unsaturated hydrocarbon hydrocarbon containing carbon carbon multiple bonds van der Waals’ forces Very weak attractive forces IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com induced dipoles neighbouring molecules volatility ease IITJEE 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actinium (89) skmclasses.weebly.com lawrencium (103 activated complex – structure IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com forms because collisionIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecules new bondsvIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com formed activation energy – minimum energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com must be inputIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com chemical system activity series actual yield addition reaction – within organic chemistry, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecules combineIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com larger aeration mixing air skmclasses liquid solid alkali metals metals Group 1 on periodic table alkaline earth metals – metals Group 2 on periodic table allomer substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comdifferent composition another skmclasses.weebly.comcrystalline structure allotropy elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different structures skmclasses.weebly.com therefore different forms IITJEE 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Later Sri Kumaran Children’s Home Survey No 44 – 50, Mallasandra Village Uttarahalli Hobli, Off Kanakapura Main Road, Bangalore skmclasseslocality namedIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com current DD kendra is situated known IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com JC Nagar or Jayachamarajendra Nagar Delhi Public School, North Campus Survey No. 35/A, Sathanur Village Jala Hobli, Bangalore Jayanagar IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com literally Victory City Jayanagar IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com traditionally regarded IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com southern end Bangalore South End Circle “, wherein six roadsIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different areas meet skmclasses.weebly.com historic Ashoka Pillar mark southern end city bear this fact. newer extensions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com taken away this distinctionIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Jayanagar still remains one IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com southern parts city Malleshwaram Basavanagudi Malleshwaram north Bangalore, Basavanagudi south IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com areas oldest Bangalore skmclasses.weebly.com residents IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com original inhabitants City. Malleswaram PSBB Learning Leadership Academy
# 52, Sahasra Deepika Road, Laxmipura Village, Off Bannerghatta Main Road Bangalore located actually north-west Bangalore derives IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com name IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com famous Kaadu Malleshwara temple 8th Cross in Malleshwaram, skmclasses.weebly.comGandhibazar/ DVG Road in Basavanagudi IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com popular areas in Bangalore skmclasses.weebly.comshopping during festival times. Malleswaram been homeIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com several important personalities skmclasses.weebly.cominstitutions. Bangalore’s own Nobel laureate, C.V. Raman, late Veena Doreswamy Iyengar skmclasses.weebly.com M.Chinnaswamy cricket stadium is named, academician M.P.L. Sastry, poet G.P. Rajaratnam skmclasses.weebly.com Dewan Seshadri Iyer institutions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Canara Union club Konkani-speaking people in 1930 IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com this day hosts a variety cultural activities Malleswaram Association, hub area’s sporting activity since 1929 skmclasses.weebly.com Chowdaiah Memorial hosting great names music skmclasses.weebly.comtheatre. AccordingIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com recent figures available IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Bangalore Development Authority BDA Malleswaram’s net population density is 521 personsIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hectare, Bangalore City Corporation standard is 352IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hectare Sadhashivnagar Sadashivanagar arguably IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com elite skmclasses.weebly.comexpensive neighborhood in Bangalore India fashionable among politicians, movie starsIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com millionaires afford homes “Beverly Hills Bangalore,” having IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com address in Sadashivanagar connotes high level prestige success fame Vijayanagar derivesIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com nameIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Vijayanagara empire IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com flourished in south India during 15th skmclasses.weebly.com16th centuries.Vijayanag ar East is popularly known IITJEE base skmclasses.weebly.com RPC Layout (Railway Parallel Colony Layout), since this layout is along railway track. IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com recently renamed Hampi Nagar Hampi capital Vijayanagar Empire Vijayanagar houses a large Public Library, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com is one largest in Karnataka Halasuru Halasuru formerly known IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com Ulsoor oldest neighbourhoods Indian city Bangalore predominant Tamil speaking population renowned skmclasses.weebly.com numerous temples skmclasses.weebly.comrather narrow streets skmclassesprominant areas CityIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Sanjay Nagar skmclasses.weebly.com RT Nagar, Hebbal, Vyalikaval, Yeshwanthpur, Sriramapura, Rajajinagar, Rajarajeshwarinagar, Chickpet, Chamarajpet, V V Puram, Mavalli, Hanumanthanagar, Padmanabhanagar Hosakerehalli Sarakki, BTM Layout, Domlur, Gandhinagar, Vasanthanagar, Vivek Nagar, Cox Town, Frazer Town Benson Town Bangalore Roads Many roads Bangalore had European names South Parade Road, Albert Victor Road, Hardinge Road, Grant Road several roads Bangalore derived Delhi Public School Sarjapur, Bangalore East Survey No.43/1B & 45, Sulikunte Village, Dommasandra Post, Bangalore IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com military nomenclature Mahatma Gandhi Road MG Raod called IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com South Parade Roadskmclasses.weebly.com nomenclature Independence Edify School Electronic City
105, 34th Main, 23rd Cross, Sector-A, Surya Nagar Phase-2, Anekal-Chandapura Main Road, Electronic City Chamarajpet First Main Road named Albert Victor Road 1889 future King Edward VII Englskmclasses.weebly.com renamed Alur Venkatarao Road,IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com well-known Kannada writer skmclasses.weebly.comprotagonist unification National Public School, Koramangala National Games Village Koramangala, Bangalore Kannada-speaking areas andlater shortened IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com A.V. Road. Avenue road earlier known Doddapete Infantry Road became Bhagavan Mahaveer Road 2004 Chamarajendra Park Jyothi Kendriya Vidyalaya Yelachenahalli, Kanakapura Road Bangalore IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com Cubbon Park IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Sir Mark Cubbon British Commissioner Mysore mid-19th century. Fraser Town, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com named Sir Stuart Fraser scholar tutor Maharaja Krishnaraja Wadiyar IV Pulakeshinagar. Hardinge Road old name Pampa Mahakavi Road. sometime, Cunningham Road crowded bazaar being called Sampangi Ramaswamy Temple Road Race Course Road became Devraj Urs Road National Public School, Rajajinagar 1036-A, Purandarapura, V Block, Rajajinagar, Bangalore skmclasses.weebly.comGrant Road became Vittal Mallya Road IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two Vittal Mallya Roads skmclasses bund Sampangi Tank Kanteerava Stadium Gear Innovative International School GEAR Road, Doddakannelli, Off Sarjapur Road & Outer Ring Road, Bangalore IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com built MacIver Town Shantala Nagar Assayee Road Meanee Road those names commemoration wars fought Madras New Horizon Gurukul Ring Road Marathalli, Behind New Horizon College of Engineering, Bangalore , Bangalore IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com Sappers, BGS National Public School Ramalingeshwara Cave Temple Hulimavu, Bangalore IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Presidency School (Bangalore – East) CA Site 7P1A, 2nd A Main, 3rd A cross, East of NGEF Layout, Kasturinagar, Bangalore British Army against Marathas first decade 19th century Basavanagudi, meaning temple Basava skmclasses.weebly.com big bull situated area reason behind naming area Basavanagudi extension skmclassesformed around 1900. Gandhi Bazar, earlier known merely Angadi Beedhi School Of India Anekal Road, Bannerghatta, Bangalore skmclasses formed Kumarapark came skmclasses existence 1947, year Indian Independence, whereas Jayanagar skmclasses.weebly.comRajajinagarIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com thought year later 1948 skmclasses.weebly.com orchards Bangalore Palace skmclasses developed housing colony skmclasses.weebly.comnamed Sadashivanagar 1960,IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Orchids The International School Jalahalli, Nagarbavi, Mysore Road, Sarjapur Road, BTM, Bangalore well-known freedom fighter Dakshina Kannada Karnad Sadashiva Rao BVK Iyengar Road Byappana Halli Byatarayanapura Byrasandra C.V Raman Nagar Cambridge Layout Cambridge Road Cantonment Carmelaram Castle Street Central Street Chamarajapet Shanthi Theatre South End Circle INOX Shree Garuda Swagath Mall, 4th Floor, Tilak Nagar Main Road INOX Bangalore Central-2, 5th Floor, 45th Cross Maheshwari Theater Bannerghatta Main Road Gopalan Cinemas Gopalan Innovation Mall, JP Nagar 3rd Phase Chandapura Chandra Layout Global Academy For Learning Sri Chowdeshwari Farm, Near Global Village IT Park, National Public School, HSR Layout P2/32, Sector 4, HSR Layout Bangalore Pattanagere Main Road, Rajarajeshwarinagar, Bangalore Chickpet Chikkabanavara Chikkadugodi Chikkallasandra Chikkamavalli Cholara Palya Chowdeshwari Temple Street Chunchagatta Church Street Clevelskmclasses.weebly.com Town CMH Road Coles Park Commercial Street Commissariat Road Cooke Town Corporation Circle Cottonpet Cox Town Crescent Road Cubbon Park Cubbon Road Cubbonpet Cunningham Road Dairy Circle Dasara Halli Dasarahalli Devaiah Park Devana Halli Devanahalli Devara Chikkana Halli Devara Jeevana Halli Devasandra Dharmaram College Dickenson Road Dispensary Road Dodda Banaswadi Dodda Bommasandra Dodda Kallasandra Dodda Kanna Hally Dodda Mavalli Doddaballapur Road Doddaballapura Doddana Kundi Dollars Colony Domlur Domlur 2nd Stage Domlur Ring Road Dooravani Nagar Dr. Ambedkar Veedhi Dr. DVG Road Delhi Public School, South 11 K.M., kanakapura Road Konanakunte Post, Bangalore Dr. Raj Kumar Road Dr. TCM Royan Road Ejipura Electronic City Field Marshal Cariappa Road Frazer Town Ganapathi Nagar Gandhi Bazaar Gandhi Nagar Ganga Nagar Gangadhar Chetty Road Ganigarpet Garvebhavi Palya Gavipuram Extension Gayathri Nagar Geddala Halli Geddalahalli Giri Nagar Giri Nagar 1st Phase Giri Nagar 2nd Phase GM Palya Gokula Golf Course Road Gorgunte Palya Govindaraj Nagar Green Park Extension, Guddada Halli Gundopanth Street National Public School, Indiranagar 12 A Main HAL II Stage, Bangalore H.Siddaiah Road Haines Road HAL HAL 2nd Stage HAL 3rd Stage HAL Airport Road Hampi Nagar Hanumantha Nagar Hayes Road HBR Layout Hebbal Kempapura Hebbal Ring Road Hegde Nagar Heggana Halli Hennur Hesaraghatta HKP Road HMT Layout Hongasandra Hoody Horamavu Hosakere Halli photochemistry photooxidation piperidines polyanions polycations polycycles polymers Porphyrins prostaglandins 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Training iPhone Development Training Mobile Application Testing Training Mobile Gaming Training Mobile Application Development Training Oakridge International School Oakridge International School, Sarjapur Road, , Bangalore School of India, Bannerghatta, Bangalore Delhi Public School DPS North Campus, Yelahanka, Bangalore Jain International Residential School (JIRS), Jakkasandra Post, Bangalore Delhi Public School (DPS East), Sarjapur, Bangalore TREAMIS World School, Electronics City, Bangalore South Delhi Public School (South), Kanakapura Road, Bangalore The Deen’s Academy, Whitefield, Bangalore National Public School (NPS), Koramangala, Bangalore Royale Concorde International School, Kalyan Nagar, Bangalore Freedom International School, HSR Layout, Bangalore Air Force School Army Public School Bangalore Military School BGS International School Cambridge Public School Delhi Public School Deva Matha Central School Jain International Residential School Kendriya Vidyalaya A M C School A.S.C Public School Amara Jyothi Public School Anand Shiksha Kendra ICSE Syllabus ACTS Secondary School B Mona High School Baldwin Boys High School Baldwin Girls High School Bishop Cotton Boys School Bishop Cotton Girls School Brigade School Candor International School Cambridge Public School Cathedral High School Chinmaya Vidyalay Christ Academy Ekya School Gnan Srishti School of Excellence Gopalan National School India International School IIS Lawrence School-ICSE New Horizon Public School Notre Dame Academy Paradise Residential School Patel Public School Podar International School Prakriya Green Wisdom School Primus School Ryan International School Sishu Griha St. Francis De Sales (SFS) High School Sherwood High Sri Kumaran Childrens Home St Francis School St Johns High School St Thomas Public School St. Patricks Academy St. Peters School Vibgyor High CBSE Syllabus AECS Magnolia Maaruti Public School Amaatra Academy Amrita Vidyalayam BGS-NPS School Brigade School BRS Global Centre for Excellence Capitol Public School CMR National Public School Delhi Public School East, South, North Edify School EuroSchool Freedom International School Geethanjali Montessori Geethanjali Vidhyalaya Gitanjali International School GISB Greengrove International School Gomathy Global School Harvest International School JSS Public School Kendriya Vidyalaya KV Manipal Tattva School Mirambika School for New Age NITTE International School National Centre for Excellence NCFE National Public School New Horizon Gurukul NHG Oakridge International School Presidency School PSBB LLA Padma Seshadri Bal Bhavan Radcliffe School Ravindra Bharathi Global School Sadhguru Sainath International School SSI Sri Kumaran Childrens Home Sunrise International Residential School Sujaya School The Samhita Academy Vagdevi Vilas School Venkat International Public School VIPS Vyasa International School Zee School IGCSE Syllabus Asia Pacific World School Krupanidhi Cambridge International School Candor International 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Primary Years Programme Colegio Anglo Mexicano MEXICO Milgate Primary School, AUSTRALIA Diploma Programme Australian International School Indonesia Pejaten Campus INDONESIA Instituto Educativa Fiscomisional Celina Vivar Espinosa, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Juan de Salinas, ECUADOR Primary Years Programme Academia Moderna Charter, UNITED STATES Beacon School BRAZIL Dr. Orlando Edreira Academy, School 26, UNITED STATES Westhill Institute Carpatos Elementary Campus, MEXICO Westhill Institute, S.C. 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Atms. Educ. Institution Kogalym Secondary School ?8, RUSSIAN FEDERATION Phorms Bilingual Gymnasium, GERMANY Royal High School, UNITED STATES SIS Swiss International School Stuttgart-Fellbach, GERMANY Seedling Public School INDIA The British School of Beijing CHINA Unidad Educativa Fiscal Experimental del Milenio, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Juan de Velasco ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Tumbaco, ECUADOR École secondaire Gaétan Gervais, CANADA École secondaire Hanmer CANADA Stonehill International School American School of Bombay Mumbai Day school offering PYP MYP DP Dhirubhai Ambani International School Mumbai Day school offering DP Ecole Mondiale World School, Mumbai Day school offering DP Jamnabai Narsee School Mumbai Day school offering DP Ahmedabad International School Ahmedabad Day School offering PYP Mahatma Gandhi International School Ahmedabad Day school offering MYP Mahindra United World College of India Pune Boarding school offering DP Mercedes-Benz International School Pune American Embassy School Delhi Day school offering DP The British School, Delhi Day school offering DP Pathways World School, Gurgaon Boarding school offering PYP DP SelaQui World School, Dehra Dun Boarding school offering DP Canadian International School, Bangalore Mixed Boarding Day school offering DP International School of Bangalore, Bangalore Mixed Boarding Day school offering DP Oakridge International School Hyderabad Day school offering PYP Chinmaya International Residential School Coimbatore Boarding school offering DP Good Shepherd International School Ooty Boarding school offering DP Kodaikanal International School, Kodaikanal Boarding school offering DP Home Tuition Group teachers available small groupsstudents IB International Baccalaureate Programme, IGCSE, ISc, ICSE, CBSE Schools offering IB ( International Baccalaureate ) Programme Bangalore International School Geddalahalli Hennur Bagalur Road Kothanur Post Bengaluru India 560 077 Stonehill International School, 1st Floor, Embassy Point #150, Infantry Road Bengaluru 560 001 Stonehill International School 259/333/334/335 Tarahunise Post Jala Hobli, Bengaluru North 562157 Candor International School Begur Koppa Road, Hullahalli Off Bannerghatta Road, Near Electronic City Bangalore 560105 Greenwood High International School Bengaluru, No.8-14, Chickkawadayarapura, Near Heggondahalli Gunjur Post, Varthur Sarjapur Road, Bangalore 560087 Sarla Birla Academy, Bannerghatta, Bangalore, Canadian International School, Yelahanka, Bangalore Indus International School Billapura Cross Sarjapur Bangalore

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