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IIT-JEE, NCERT / CBSE, I.Sc., PU, Board exam, EAMCET, BITS Physics Books with lots of Examples ( Free pdf download of Physics Books, Chapter wise / Topic wise Questions and Solutions )

27 ]  CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Thermal Properties of Solids, or Thermal Properties of Material, Thermal Conductivity  etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Thermal Properties of Solids, or Thermal Properties of Material, Thermal Conductivity Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Thermal Properties of Solids, or Thermal Properties of Material, Thermal Conductivity Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Thermal Properties of Solids, or Thermal Properties of Material, Thermal Conductivity Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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26 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Buoyant Force, Buoyancy, Discussions on Layer of Liquid below the Object  etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Buoyant Force, Buoyancy, Discussions on Layer of Liquid below the Object Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Buoyant Force, Buoyancy, Discussions on Layer of Liquid below the Object Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Buoyant Force, Buoyancy, Discussions on Layer of Liquid below the Object Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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25 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Mechanical Properties of Material, Mechanical Properties of Solids, Young ‘s Modulus, Bulk Modulus, Poisson ‘s Ratio, Shear Stress, Strain, Energy Stored in elongated wire  etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Mechanical Properties of Material, Mechanical Properties of Solids, Young ‘s Modulus, Bulk Modulus, Poisson ‘s Ratio, Shear Stress, Strain, Energy Stored in elongated wire Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Mechanical Properties of Material, Mechanical Properties of Solids, Young ‘s Modulus, Bulk Modulus, Poisson ‘s Ratio, Shear Stress, Strain, Energy Stored in elongated wire Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Mechanical Properties of Material, Mechanical Properties of Solids, Young ‘s Modulus, Bulk Modulus, Poisson ‘s Ratio, Shear Stress, Strain, Energy Stored in elongated wire Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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24 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Kinetic Theory of Gases etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Kinetic Theory of Gases Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Kinetic Theory of Gases Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Kinetic Theory of Gases Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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23 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Vectors & Scalars etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Vectors & Scalars Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Vectors & Scalars Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Vectors & Scalars Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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22 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Units, Dimensions, Measurements & Errors etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide –  Units, Dimensions, Measurements & Errors Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Units, Dimensions, Measurements & Errors Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Units, Dimensions, Measurements & Errors Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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21 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Kinematics, Dynamics or Kinetics, Circular Motion & Projectile Motion etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide –  Kinematics, Dynamics or Kinetics, Circular Motion & Projectile Motion Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Kinematics, Dynamics or Kinetics, Circular Motion & Projectile Motion Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Kinematics, Dynamics or Kinetics, Circular Motion & Projectile Motion, Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-kinematics-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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20 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Measuring Speed of Light, Various Methods etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Measuring Speed of Light, Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Measuring Speed of Light, Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Measuring Speed of Light, Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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19 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Maxwell ‘s Equations, Electromagnetic Waves etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Maxwell ‘s Equations, Electromagnetic Waves by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Maxwell ‘s Equations, Electromagnetic Waves etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Maxwell ‘s Equations & Electromagnetic Waves etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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18 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetism History etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetism History by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetism History etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Magnetism History etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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17 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetic Induction, Voltage Produced etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetic Induction, Voltage Produced by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetic Induction, Voltage Produced by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Magnetic Induction, Voltage Produced etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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16 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetic Effects of Current etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetic Effects of Current by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetic Effects of Current by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Magnetic Effects of Current, Various Derivations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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15 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Capacitance Dielectrics & Circuits etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Capacitance Dielectrics & Circuits by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Capacitance Dielectrics & Circuits by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Capacitance, Trick Circuits, Combinations of Dielectrics, Various Derivations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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14 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Electrostatics & Gauss Theorem etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Electrostatics & Gauss Theorem by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Electrostatics & Gauss Theorem by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Electrostatics, Gauss Theorem, Various Derivations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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13 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Center of Mass etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Center of Mass by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Center of Mass by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Center of Mass, Various Derivations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-center-of-mass-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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12 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Work Power Energy Variable Force Leaking Bucket etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Work Power Energy Variable Force Leaking Bucket by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Work Power Energy Variable Force Leaking Bucket by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Work Power Energy Variable Force Leaking Bucket, Various Derivations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-work-power-energy-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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11 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Moment of Inertia, Solid Bodies Angular Momentum etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Moment of Inertia of Solid Bodies by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Moment of Inertia of Solid Bodies by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Moment of Inertia, Solid Bodies Angular Momentum, Rotational Energy, Derivations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-moment-of-inertia-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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10 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Circular Motion, Conical Pendulum etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Circular Motion, Conical Pendulum etc and many complicated Problems by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Circular Motion by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Circular Motion. Conical Pendulum etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-circular-motion-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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9 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Solutions to Irodov Problems, by Subhashish Sir, and Other Professors.

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8 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Electrical Circuits, Delta to Star Conversion, Current Source, Trick Circuits, Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge, Steps and Techniques of Solving Electrical Circuits etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Electrical Circuits, Delta to Star Conversion, Current Source, Trick Circuits, Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge, Steps and Techniques of Solving Electrical Circuits etc and many complicated Problems by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Gravitation by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Electrical Circuits, including Inductance & Capacitance, internal Resistance etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-electrical-circuits-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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7 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Gravitation, Contrasting Comparisons of Gravitational Potential and Electrostatic Potential, Contrasting Comparisons of Gravitational Field and Electrostatic Field, Escape Velocity, Height attended by a mass thrown at various speeds etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Gravitation, Contrasting Comparisons of Gravitational Potential and Electrostatic Potential, Contrasting Comparisons of Gravitational Field and Electrostatic Field, Escape Velocity, Height attended by a mass thrown at various speeds etc and many complicated Problems by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Gravitation by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Gravitation, Field, Potential, escape velocity etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-gravitation-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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6 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – SHM Periodic Motion, Harmonic Oscillations with Solid Objects, Approximate Simple Harmonic Motions – by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – SHM ( Simple Harmonic Motion ) and many complicated Problems by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – SHM by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of SHM Approximate Oscillations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-shm-harmonic-oscillations-or-periodic-motion-by-prof-subhashish

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5 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Sound Waves, Doppler Effect, Standing waves in Open Tube, Closed Tube, Rods or Bars by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Sound Waves, Doppler Effect, Standing waves in Open Tube, Closed Tube, Rods or Bars by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Sound Waves, Oscillations in Wires by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Sound Waves, Doppler effect, Standing waves and Propagating Waves, Oscillations in Wires, Bars, Tubes ( both Open Tube and Closed Tube ) etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. Regarding the latest developments I wrote … “ GUT [ General Unified Theory ] is being modified to introduce a 5th fundamental force, because some heavy particles have been observed at CERN and various other experiments and Producing Gravitational waves at will, without mass, Madala Bosons to explain Dark Matter ”

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4 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Radio activity and Modern Physics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Radio activity and Modern Physics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Radio activity and Modern Physics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Radioactivity and Modern Physics. LASERS, Dirac Equation, Particle Physics, Diode, Triode, Transistor, Quantum Mechanics etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide-Radio activity and Modern Physics by Prof. Subhashish

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3 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Mirrors Lenses Slabs Prisms Ray Diagram Problems – Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Mirrors Lenses Slabs Prisms Ray Diagram Problems Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Mirrors Lenses Slabs Prisms Ray Diagram Problems  Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Mirror Slab Prism Lenses Ray Diagram Problems & Solutions Optics. Silvered Slab, Silvered Lenses, Silvered prisms are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

In this eBook I wrote about my Personal Choice of, ” List of Best Experiments ” …

Michelson–Morley experiment proving there was no Aether, Moseley ‘s experiment with X-Rays to discover Protons, Jagadish chandra Bose demonstrating controlled emission / transmission and receiving of Radio waves, Casimir experiments to show Casimir forces of virtual particles, Eddington measuring bending of light, Flying atomic clocks in planes and confirming slowing down of time at high speeds, Victor Hess measured Radiation level variation at ground and high up in the atmosphere, Soviet physicist Sergey Vernov was the first to use radiosondes to perform cosmic ray readings with an instrument carried to high altitude by a balloon at heights up to 13.6 km, The proof of time dilation by Muon decay, Measurement of Space-time curvature near Earth and thereby the stress–energy tensor (which is related to the distribution and the motion of matter in space) in and near Earth , Detecting Gravitational Waves.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide-Mirrors Prisms Lens Slabs Optics by Prof. Subhashish

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2 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Wave Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Wave Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide- Wave Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Wave Optics. Slabs, Silvered Slab, Lenses, Silvered Lenses, Prisms, Silvered prisms are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide-Wave Optics by Prof. Subhashish

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1 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Ray or Geometrical Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Ray or Geometrical Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Ray or Geometrical Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Ray or Geometrical Optics. Slabs, Silvered Slab, Lenses, Silvered Lenses, Prisms, Silvered prisms are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide-Ray or Geometrical Optics by Prof. Subhashish

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Nima Arkani-Hamed has written a beautiful paper on ” The Future of Fundamental Physics “
We are too used to see ‘daily news ‘ which changes everyday. Often many of us start thinking or imagining Progress in Science and / or technology will also happen at that speed. Searching the net for future trends, every hour, actually wastes time, rather than teaching us anything. Slow long term prediction is difficult to do. These predictions does not change much. It needs very deep understanding of the present trends, to write about future.

nima AH

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IIT-JEE, NCERT / CBSE, I.Sc., PU, Board exam, EAMCET, BITS Chemistry Books with lots of Examples ( Free pdf download of Chemistry Books, Chapter wise / Topic wise Questions and Solutions )

8 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide – Stoichiometry Titration by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Stoichiometry Titration ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide – Stoichiometry Titration by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE  IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Stoichiometry Titrations, Heating effects in several salts, colours or colors of the precipitates, Empirical formulae calculation, Limiting reagents, Titration examples, Equivalent weight, milli-equivalent weight, What mass or moles is reacting with how much ? How much is oxidised ? How much is Reduced ? Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Stoichiometry Titration by Prof. Subhashish

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7 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide – Redox Reactions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Redox Reactions ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide – Redox Reactions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers more than 60 examples of Redox Reactions, Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Redox Reactions by Prof. Subhashish

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6 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide – Electrochemistry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Electrochemistry ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide – Electrochemistry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Electrochemistry, Oxidation Potential, Reduction Potential, Electrode Potential, Reactivity Series, Battery, Nernst Equation, Variation of Voltage with concentration, Electrolyte, Electrolysis, Salt Bridge, Daniel Cell, Primary Cell, Secondary Cell, Galvanic Cell, Electrolytic Cell, Conductivity, Kohlrausch ’s Law and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-ElectroChemistry by Prof. Subhashish

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5 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide – Reduction Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Reduction Methods ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide – Reduction Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE  COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Various kinds of Reduction Methods in Organic Chemistry. Covers Gilmann ’s Reagent, Grignard Reagent, Trimethyl Silyl Iodide, Silyl Wittig Reaction, Hydrogen with Ni, Zn, Pd Palladium, Bakers Yeast, Wolf Kishner, Wilkinson ’s Catalyst, Birch Reduction, Lindlar ’s Catalyst, Benkeser Reduction, Reduction with HCO2H, Sodium Boro Hydride NaBH4, Veils Meier Reaction, Luche ’s Reagent, Super Hydride, Sodium Cyno boro hydride, Dibal H, Adams Catalyst, Rosen Mund Reduction, Various Lithium Aluminium Hydrides, NaNH2,  and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chem Survival Guide-Reduction methods by Prof. Subhashish

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4 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide – Oxidation Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Oxidation Methods ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide – Oxidation Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE  COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Various kinds of Oxidation Methods in Organic Chemistry. Covers Sarett ’s Reagent, PCC, Chromium Oxide, Osmium Oxide, Manganese Oxide, Silver oxides, Ruthenium Oxide, Hydrogen Peroxide, Selenium dioxide, KMnO4, Jones, Julia Colonna, DCC, Corey ’s, Moffats, Ley Oxidation, MPV, Fetizon, Fremy ’s Salt, Elbs Persulphate Oxidation, Sodiumperiodate, Palladium Chloride, Copper Chloride, Sharpless epoxidation, and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chem Survival Guide-Oxidation methods by Prof. Subhashish

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3 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide – Bonds & Structure by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Bonds & Structures ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide – Bonds & Structures by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Various kinds of Bonds and Structures in Chemistry. Covers Sigma, Pi, Delta, Back Bonding, Coordinate or Dative Bond, Eta Bond, Hydrogen Bond, London forces, and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Bonds & Structure by Prof. Subhashish

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2 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide – Elements & Properties by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Elements & Properties ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide – Elements & Properties by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Elements & Their Properties in Chemistry. Covers the discoveries by spectral Analysis, Named after smell, places, people etc. Various compounds, tests, properties, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Elements & Properties by Prof. Subhashish

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1 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide – Empirical Formulae by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Empirical Formulae ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide – Empirical Formulae by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers various kinds of Empirical Equations in Chemistry. These equations are formed by experiments, and graph plotting. In some rare cases the Theory was developed later. Covers Slater’s rule, Shielding, Finding Electronegativity values by Allred and Rochow ’s empirical formula, Moseley’s Law, Trouton  ’s law, Einstein-Debey equation (Dulong & Petit), Reynolds number, Raoult’s law, Variation of viscosity with temperature, Arrhenius model, Williams-Landel-Ferry model, Masuko and Magill model, Walther formula, Wright model, Seeton model, Variation of surface tension with temperature, Eotvos equation, Guggenheim-Katayama equation, Debye-Huckel-Onsager theory of conductivity of ions in dilute solutions, Liquid drop model of Nucleus, Nuclear Shell Model, Ionic character percentage of a diatomic molecule, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Empirical Formulae by Prof. Subhashish

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IIT-JEE, NCERT / CBSE, I.Sc., PU, Board exam, EAMCET, BITS Math Books with lots of Questions and Solutions, Examples ( Free pdf download of Math Books, Chapter wise / Topic wise Solutions )

17 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Trigonometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Trigonometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Trigonometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Trigonometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Trigonometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Trigonometry by Prof. Subhashish

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16 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – 3D Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding 3D Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – 3D Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers 3D Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of 3D Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-3D Geometry by Prof. Subhashish

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15 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola by Prof. Subhashish

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14 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Ellipse Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Ellipse Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Ellipse Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Ellipse Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Ellipse Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Ellipse by Prof. Subhashish

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13 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Parabola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Parabola Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Parabola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Parabola Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Parabola Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal ’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Parabola by Prof. Subhashish

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12 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Pair of Straight Lines by Prof. Subhashish

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11 ] CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Circles Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Circles Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Circles Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Circles Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Circles Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Circles by Prof. Subhashish

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10 ] CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Lines Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Straight Lines by Prof. Subhashish

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9  ] CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal ’s Solutions.

CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Complex Number by Prof. Subhashish

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8 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Quadratic Equations by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Quadratic Equations” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Quadratic Equation by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Quadratic Equations with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Quadratic Equations, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Quadratic Equation by Prof. Subhashish

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7 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Continuity and Differentiability by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Continuity & Differentiability” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Continuity and Differentiability by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Continuity and Differentiability with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Continuity and Differentiability, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal ’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Continuity & Differentiability by Prof. Subhashish

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6 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Relations and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Relations & Functions” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Relations and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Relations and Functions with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Relations and Functions, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal ’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Relations & Functions by Prof. Subhashish

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5 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Graphs and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Graphs & Functions” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Graphs and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Graphs and Functions with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Graphs and Functions, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Functions & Graphs by Prof. Subhashish

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4 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Indefinite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Indefinite Integrals & Calculus” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Indefinite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

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This e-Book covers Indefinite Integrals with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Indefinite Integrals, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Indefinite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish

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3 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Area & Volume by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Area and Volume ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Area and Volume by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers various kinds of graphs, such as graph of Ln x, ( ln x )/x, x Ln x, floor x [ x ] , Shifting of graphs, roots of Quadratic, cubic, and other higher powers of x ( polynomials ), asymptotes, ( How to find Asymptotes ) etc. Volume by revolution and hundreds of Area problems of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal ’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Area & Volume by Prof. Subhashish

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2 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Definite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Definite Integrals ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Definite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Definite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish

This e-Book covers Definite Integrals with [ x ] greatest integer functions, { x } fraction function, Max and Min functions. Gamma function, Beta function, Integration after converting to Complex number, Leibnitz forms of Differentiating Integrals, L Hospital’s rule applied to limits with Integrals, Inequalities of Integrals, Rules / Tricks / Properties of Definite Integrals, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

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1 ]  CBSE 12 Math Survival Guide – Differential Equations by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Differential Equations ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Differential Equations by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Differential Equations by Prof. Subhashish

This e-Book covers all kinds of Differential equations, and methods to solve them. There is a priority checklist for the approach to be taken for solving the problems. Covers ISc, CBSE, COMED-K IIT-JEE problems, Linear, Homogeneous, Variable separable by substitution, Exact, Reducible to exact, Bernoulli, Integrating Factors or Multiplying Factors, even Clairaut’s Differential Equations ( IIT-JEE 1999, Bihar CEE 1999 ). Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal ’s Solutions.

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Various States have different names for the Engineering Entrance Exams.

CET – Common Engineering Entrance Test or Common Entrance Test is for Karnataka, Maharastra, Gujrat, Himachal Pradesh, J&K

GUJCET Exam – Gujarat Entrance Common Entrance Test – Engineering

HPCET – Himachal Pradesh Common Entrance Test

CEE – Commissionerate of Entrance Examinations Kerala. Some people say Common Entrance Exam. The exam in Kerala actually is known as KEAM – Kerala

Engineering Agriculture Medical Degree.

ASSAM CEE – Assam Combined Entrance Exam

EAMCET – Engineering and Medical Common Entrance Test

MP PET – Madhya Pradesh Pre Engineering Test. Randomly I liked lots of Physics Questions of MP-PET, as these were of very high quality / interesting.

RPET or R-PET – Rajasthan Pre Engineering Test

WBJEE or WB-JEE – West Bengal Joint Entrance Exam. The questions of these are very good / high quality.

UPSEE – Utter Pradesh State Entrance Exam

BCECEB – Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination Board. The exam name is BCECE. Some call it as Bihar Combined Engineering Entrance Exam BCEEE or

BCECE (Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination)

OJEE – Orissa Joint Entrance Exam

Tamilnadu does not have any state ( common ) entrance test. The admissions in colleges / universities are through standard 12 marks.

TNEA is a State Engineering Entrance Examination, which is conducted by Anna University. Tamil Nadu Engineering Admission.

COMEDK PGET – Consortium of Medical, Engineering and Dental Colleges of Karnataka for PG Post Graduate

NATA – National Aptitude Test in Architecture. National Institute of Advanced Studies in Architecture (NIASA) conducts this.

ISAT by IISAT – Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IISAT) Admission Test (ISAT) is a National Level Entrance Examination.

NAT – National Aptitude Test by Society for Research & Development in Education (SRDE), New Delhi

ENAT – EPSI National Admission Test. by Manipal Institute of Technology. Manipal Online Entrance Test Manipal-OET

VITEEE – VIT Engineering Entrance Exam, Vellore Institute of Technology. Conducted by VIT university

BITSAT – Birla Institute of Technology and Science Admission Test.

Punjab PET – Punjab Engineering Admission, Pre Engineering Test

ASSAM CEE – Assam Combined Entrance Exam

Tripura JEE – Tripura Joint Entrance Exam

NEE – NERIST Entrance Examination. Conducted by the North Eastern Regional Institute of Science & Technology (NERIST), Nirjuli, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh

1 ] CET CEE EAMCET JEE Math Survival Guide – Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, CET, CEE, PET, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal ’s Solutions.

CET CEE PET EAMCET JEE Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola by Prof. Subhashish

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https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/some-points-which-i-wish-all-my-new-prospective-students-know/

SKM Logo 550 X 300

Some books which are must read. I tell all my friends and students to read these

http://bioinformaticsinstitute.ru/sites/default/files/genome_the_autobiography_of_a_species_in_23_chapters_-_matt_ridley.pdf

You should read the books by Daniel Kahneman,
https://vk.com/doc23267904_175119602

 
Dan Arley.
http://www.e-reading.club/bookreader.php/138702/Ariely_-_Predictably_Irrational__The_Hidden_Forces_That_Shape_Our_Decisions.pdf

The Black Swan – by Nassim Taleb
http://shifter-magazine.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Taleb_The-Black-Swan.pdf

also
see http://stavochka.com/files/Nate_Silver_The_Signal_and_the_Noise.pdf

Nudge by Thaler and Sunstein
https://ethicslab.georgetown.edu/studio/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Richard_H._Thaler_Cass_R._Sunstein_Nudge_Impro_BookFi.org_.pdf

book which explains pricing is ” The undercover Economist “

https%3A%2F%2Fwww.u-cursos.cl%2Fingenieria%2F2008%2F2%2FIN2C1%2F2%2Fmaterial_docente%2Fbajar%3Fid_material%3D192590&usg=AFQjCNENE73B20lg0yTs8z2nAwbeRVXqHw&bvm=bv.113370389,d.c2E

or

http://ebook.stepor.com/book/the-undercover-economist-76396-pdf.html

Many more free pdf e-Books are available at ( such as H C Verma Concepts of Physics Solutions, Arihant Books, free download eBooks for IIT JEE guides, AIEEE IIT JEE advanced Chapter wise solutions, preparation materials )

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/books-for-you-physics-maths-chemistry-free-download-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

1 ] A Guide Book to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry by Peter Sykes

A_GUIDE_BOOK_TO_MECHANISM_IN_ORGANIC_CHEMISTRY

2 ] Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry – IUPAC Recommendations 2005

Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry – IUPAC Recommendations 2005

3 ] Linear Algebra For Dummies

Linear Algebra For Dummies

4 ] Calculus Workbook For Dummies

Calculus Workbook For Dummies

5 ] Differential Equations For Dummies

Differential_Equations_For_Dummies

6 ] Linear Algebra by Jim Hefferon

Linear Algebra

7 ] Mathematics – Puzzles from around the world

Mathematics—Puzzles-from-around-the-world

8 ] Graph Theory by Reinhard Diestel

Graph Theory

9 ] Electronics for Dummies

Electronics for Dummies

10 ] Electronics Projects for Dummies

Electronics Projects For Dummies

11 ] Physics For Dummies

Physics For Dummies

12 ] Physics Workbook For Dummies

Physics Workbook For Dummies

13 ] Inorganic Chemistry James E. House

Inorganic Chemistry James E. House

14 ] Inorganic Chemistry by Cox

Inorganic Chemistry by Cox

15 ] Inorganic Chemistry 5th Edition Miessler

Inorganic Chemistry 5th Edition Miessler

16 ] Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry Solomon

Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry Solomon

17 ] Illustrated Guide to Home Chemistry Experiments

Illustrated Guide to Home Chemistry Experiments

:-{D

e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book–e-Book

If you want to sell your House, why do you have to pay 2% to a Broker or to a website ?

You can advertise for free to sell your House at free4u.info

Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay is providing a Social Service for all in Bangalore, to advertise for Free

If you want to sell your Car, why do you have to pay 2% to a Broker or to a website ?

You can advertise for free to sell your Car at free4u.info

Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay is providing a Social Service for all in Bangalore, to advertise for Free

If you are looking for Organ Donation, where do you ask ? Where do you want to put up your requirements ? Do you give costly ads ?

You can advertise or Post Classifieds for free at free4u.info

Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay is providing a Social Service for all in Bangalore, to advertise for Free. Post all kinds of Classified ads and Requirements for FREE.

If you are a Tutor, or a Shopkeeper, or a Teacher, or a Cook, or a Gardener, or a Dog Trainer ….. or something something something….. How can you afford costly ads ? Post your requirements for free at free4u.info     Advertise yourself free at free4u.info     Doing a garage sell …. Tell all for free at free4u.info

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Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay is providing a Social Service for all in Bangalore, to advertise for Free. Post all kinds of Classified ads and Requirements for FREE. Following Categories and Subcategories will surely help you. This is not an exhaustive list. You can give general requirements as well. Post all your skills. Post all your needs. Looking for a job ? You can post your profile as well.

Some call this as ” Yellow Pages “. free4u.info

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Solution to Chapter 14:

Environmental Chemistry

Must see https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/some-points-which-i-wish-all-my-new-prospective-students-know/

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The first Chapter Solution is at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/ncert-cbse-standard-11-chemistry-chapter-1-some-basic-concepts-of-chemistry/
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The previous chapter Solution is at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/ncert-cbse-standard-11-chemistry-chapter-13-hydrocarbons/
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The next chapter Solution is at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/ncert-cbse-standard-12-solid-state-chapter-1-physical-chemistry/
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Untitled

🙂

7 woman Man with bird 6 angry face 6 bent face 6 computer generated skull 6 distorted female face 6 fossil fish 6 girl trying to pull the ball Vladimir-Volegov 6 pair of apes 6 walking with Umbrella 7 distorted face 7 fossil fish 7 giant fossil 7 Painting 7 Road with Chariot 7 stone face 7 wall face

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!

The first Chapter Solution is at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/ncert-cbse-standard-11-chemistry-chapter-1-some-basic-concepts-of-chemistry/
!
The previous chapter Solution is at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/ncert-cbse-standard-11-chemistry-chapter-13-hydrocarbons/
!

The next chapter Solution is at  https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/ncert-cbse-standard-12-solid-state-chapter-1-physical-chemistry/
!
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The world has achieved brilliance without wisdom, power without conscience. Ours is a world of nuclear giants and ethical infants.

You have already studied about environment in your earlier classes. Environmental studies deal with the sum of all social, economical, biological, physical and chemical interrelations with our surroundings. In this unit the focus will be on environmental chemistry. Environmental chemistry deals with the study of the origin, transport, reactions, effects and fates of chemical species in the environment. Let us discuss some important aspects of environmental chemistry.

14.1 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

Environmental pollution is the effect of undesirable changes in our surroundings that have harmful effects on plants, animals and human beings. A substance, which causes pollution, is known as pollutant. Pollutants can be solid, liquid or gaseous substances present in greater concentration than in natural abundance and are produced due to human activities or due to natural happenings. Do you know, an average human being requires nearly 12-15 times more air than the food. So, even small amounts of pollutants in the air become significant compared to similar levels present in the food. Pollutants can be degradable, like discarded vegetables which rapidly break down by natural processes. On the other hand, pollutants which are slowly degradable, remain in the environment in an unchanged form for many decades. For example, substances such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), plastic materials, heavy metals, many chemicals, nuclear wastes etc., once released into the environment are difficult to remove. These pollutants cannot be degraded by natural processes and are harmful to living organisms. In the process of environmental pollution, pollutants originate from a source and get transported by air or water or are dumped into the soil by human beings.

14.2 ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION

The atmosphere that surrounds the earth is not of the same thickness at all heights. There are concentric layers of air or regions and each layer has different density. The lowest region of atmosphere in which the human beings along with other organisms live is called troposphere. It extends up to the height of ~ 10 km from sea level. Above the troposphere, between 10 and 50 km above sea level lies stratosphere. Troposphere is a turbulent, dusty zone containing air, much water vapour and clouds. This is the region of strong air movement and cloud formation. The stratosphere, on the other hand, contains dinitrogen, dioxygen, ozone and little water vapour.

Atmospheric pollution is generally studied as tropospheric and stratospheric pollution.The presence of ozone in the stratosphere prevents about 99.5 per cent of the sun’s harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiations from reaching the earth’s surface and thereby protecting humans and other animals from its effect.

14.2.1 Tropospheric Pollution

Tropospheric pollution occurs due to the presence of undesirable solid or gaseous particles in the air. The following are the major gaseous and particulate pollutants present in the troposphere:

1. Gaseous air pollutants: These are oxides of sulphur, nitrogen and carbon, hydrogen sulphide, hydrocarbons, ozone and other oxidants.

2. Particulate pollutants: These are dust, mist, fumes, smoke, smog etc.

1. Gaseous air pollutants

(a) Oxides of Sulphur: Oxides of sulphur are produced when sulphur containing fossil fuel is burnt. The most common species, sulphur dioxide, is a gas that is poisonous to both animals and plants. It has been reported that even a low concentration of sulphur dioxide causes respiratory diseases e.g., asthma, bronchitis, emphysema in human beings. Sulphur dioxide causes irritation to the eyes, resulting in tears and redness. High concentration of SO2 leads to stiffness of flower buds which eventually fall off from plants. Uncatalysed oxidation of sulphur dioxide is slow. However, the presence of particulate matter in polluted air catalyses the oxidation of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide.

2SO2(g)+O2(g)→2SO2(g)

The reaction can also be promoted by ozone and hydrogen peroxide.

SO2(g) + O3 (g)→ SO3(g) + O2 (g)

SO2(g) +  H2O2 (l)→ H2SO4(aq)

(b) Oxides of Nitrogen: Dinitrogen and dioxygen are the main constituents of air. These gases do not react with each other at a normal temperature. At high altitudes when lightning strikes, they combine to form oxides of nitrogen. NO2 is oxidised to nitrate ion, NO3 which is washed into soil, where it serves as a fertilizer. In an automobile engine, (at high temperature) when fossil fuel is burnt, dinitrogen and dioxygen combine to yield significant quantities of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide ( NO2 ) as given below:

NO reacts instantly with oxygen to give NO2

2NO (g) + O2 (g) → 2NO2 (g)

Rate of production of NO2 is faster when nitric oxide reacts with ozone in the stratosphere.

NO (g) + O3 (g) → NO2 (g) + O2 (g)

The irritant red haze in the traffic and congested places is due to oxides of nitrogen. Higher concentrations of NO2 damage the leaves of plants and retard the rate of photosynthesis. Nitrogen dioxide is a lung irritant that can lead to an acute respiratory disease in children. It is toxic to living tissues also. Nitrogen dioxide is also harmful to various textile fibres and metals.

(c) Hydrocarbons: Hydrocarbons are composed of hydrogen and carbon only and are formed by incomplete combustion of fuel used in automobiles. Hydrocarbons are carcinogenic, i.e., they cause cancer. They harm plants by causing ageing, breakdown of tissues and shedding of leaves, flowers and twigs.

(d) Oxides of Carbon

(i ) Carbon monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the most serious air pollutants. It is a colourless and odourless gas, highly poisonous to living beings because of its ability to block the delivery of oxygen to the organs and tissues. It is produced as a result of incomplete combustion of carbon. Carbon monoxide is mainly released into the air by automobile exhaust. Other sources, which produce CO, involve incomplete combustion of coal, firewood, petrol, etc. The number of vehicles has been increasing over the years all over the world. Many vehicles are poorly maintained and several have inadequate pollution control equipments resulting in the release of greater amount of carbon monoxide and other polluting gases. Do you know why carbon monoxide is poisonous? It binds to haemoglobin to form carboxyhaemoglobin, which is about 300 times more stable than the oxygen-haemoglobin complex. In blood, when the concentration of carboxyhaemoglobin reaches about 3–4 per cent, the oxygen carrying capacity of blood is greatly reduced. This oxygen deficiency, results into headache, weak eyesight, nervousness and cardiovascular disorder. This is the reason why people are advised not to smoke. In pregnant women who have the habit of smoking the increased CO level in blood may induce premature birth, spontaneous abortions and deformed babies.

(ii) Carbon dioxide: Carbon dioxide (CO2) is released into the atmosphere by respiration, burning of fossil fuels for energy, and by decomposition of limestone during the manufacture of cement. It is also emitted during volcanic eruptions. Carbon dioxide gas is confined to troposphere only. Normally it forms about 0.03 per cent by volume of the atmosphere. With the increased use of fossil fuels, a large amount of carbon dioxide gets released into the atmosphere. Excess of CO2 in the air is removed by green plants and this maintains an appropriate level of CO2 in the atmosphere. Green plants require CO2 for photosynthesis and they, in turn, emit oxygen,thus maintaining the delicate balance. As you know, deforestation and burning of fossil fuel increases the CO2 level and disturb the balance in the atmosphere. The increased amount of CO2 in the air is mainly responsible for global warming.

Global Warming and Greenhouse Effect

About 75 % of the solar energy reaching the earth is absorbed by the earth’s surface, which increases its temperature. The rest of the heat radiates back to the atmosphere. Some of the heat is trapped  by gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, chlorofluorocarbon compounds (CFCs) and water vapour in the atmosphere. Thus, they add to the heating of the atmosphere. This causes global warming.

We all know that in cold places flowers, vegetables and fruits are grown in glass covered areas called greenhouse. Do you know that we humans also live in a greenhouse? Of course, we are not surrounded by glass but a blanket of air called the atmosphere, which has kept the temperature on earth constant for centuries. But it is now undergoing change, though slowly. Just as the glass in a greenhouse holds the sun’s warmth inside, atmosphere traps the sun’s heat near the earth’s surface and keeps it warm. This is called natural greenhouse effect because it maintains the temperature and makes the earth perfect for life. In a greenhouse, solar radiations pass through the transparent glass and heat up the soil and the plants. The warm soil and plants emit infrared radiations. Since glass is opaque to infrared radiations (thermal region), it partly reflects and partly absorbs these radiations. This mechanism keeps the energy of the sun trapped in the greenhouse. Similarly, carbon dioxide molecules also trap heat as they are transparent to sunlight but not to the heat radiation. If the amount of carbon dioxide crosses the delicate proportion of 0.03 per cent, the natural greenhouse balance may get disturbed. Carbon dioxide is the major contributor to global warming.

Besides carbon dioxide, other greenhouse gases are methane, water vapour, nitrous oxide, CFCs and ozone. Methane is produced naturally when vegetation is burnt, digested or rotted in the absence of oxygen. Large amounts of methane are released in paddy fields, coal mines, from rotting garbage dumps and by fossil fuels. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are man-made industrial chemicals used in air conditioning etc. CFCs are also damaging the ozone layer (Section 14.2.2). Nitrous oxide occurs naturally in the environment. In recent years, their quantities have increased significantly due to the use of chemical fertilizers and the burning of fossil fuels. If these trends continue, the average global temperature will increase to a level which may lead to melting of polar ice caps and flooding of low lying areas all over the earth. Increase in the global temperature increases the incidence of infectious diseases like dengue, malaria, yellow fever, sleeping sickness etc.

Think it over
What can we do to reduce the rate of global warming?
If burning of fossil fuels, cutting down forests and trees add to greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, we must find ways to use these just efficiently and judiciously. One of the simple things which we can do to reduce global warming is to minimise the use of automobiles. Depending upon the situation, one can use bicycle, public transport system, or go for carpool. We should plant more trees to increase the
green cover. Avoid burning of dry leaves, wood etc. It is illegal to smoke in public places and work places, because it is harmful not only for the one who is smoking but also for others, and therefore, we should avoid it. Many people do not understand the greenhouse effect and the global warming. We can help them by sharing the information that we have.

Acid rain

We are aware that normally rain water has a pH of 5.6 due to the presence of H+ ions formed by the reaction of rain water with carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere.

When the pH of the rain water drops below 5.6, it is called acid rain.

Acid rain refers to the ways in which acid from the atmosphere is deposited on the earth’s surface. Oxides of nitrogen and sulphur which are acidic in nature can be blown by wind along with solid particles in the atmosphere and finally settle down either on the ground as dry deposition or in water, fog and snow as wet deposition. (Fig. 14.1)

Acid rain is a byproduct of a variety of human activities that emit the oxides of sulphur and nitrogen in the atmosphere. As mentioned earlier, burning of fossil fuels (which contain sulphur and nitrogenous matter) such as coal and oil in power stations and furnaces or petrol and diesel in motor engines produce sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. SO2 and NO2 after oxidation and reaction with water are major contributors to acid rain, because polluted air usually contains particulate matter that catalyse the oxidation.

2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) + 2H2O (l) → 2H2SO4 (aq)

4NO2 (g) + O2 (g)+ 2H2O (l) → 4HNO3 (aq)

Ammonium salts are also formed and can be seen as an atmospheric haze (aerosol of fine particles). Aerosol particles of oxides or ammonium salts in rain drops result in wet deposition. SO2 is also absorbed directly on both solid and liquid ground surfaces and is thus deposited as dry-deposition.

Acid rain is harmful for agriculture, trees and plants as it dissolves and washes away nutrients needed for their growth. It causes respiratory ailments in human beings and animals. When acid rain falls and flows as ground water to reach rivers, lakes etc. it affects plants and animal life in aquatic ecosystem. It corrodes water pipes resulting in the leaching of heavy metals such as iron, lead and copper into the drinking water. Acid rain damages buildings and other structures made of stone or metal. The Taj Mahal in India has been affected by acid rain.

Activity 1
You can collect samples of water from nearby places and record their pH values. Discuss your results in the class. Let us discuss how we can help to reduce the formation of acid rain.This can be done by reducing the emission of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere. We should use less vehicles driven by fossil fuels; use less sulphur content fossil fuels for power plants and industries. We should use natural gas which is a better fuel than coal or use coal with less sulphur content. Catalytic converters must be used in cars to reduce the effect of exhaust fumes on the atmosphere. The main component of the converter is a ceramic honeycomb coated with precious metals — Pd, Pt and Rh. The exhaust gases containing unburnt fuel, CO and NOx, when pass through the converter at 573 K, are converted into CO2 and N2. We can also reduce the acidity of the soil by adding powdered limestone to neutralise the acidity of the soil. Many people do not know of acid rain and its harmful effects. We can make them aware by passing on this information and save the Nature.
Taj Mahal and Acid Rain
The air around the city of Agra, where the Taj Mahal is located, contains fairly high levels of sulphur and nitrogen oxides. It is mainly due to a large number of industries and power plants around the area. Use of poor quality of coal, kerosene and firewood as fuel for domestic purposes add up to this problem. The resulting acid rain reacts with marble, CaCO3 of Taj Mahal
(CaCO3 +H2SO4 → CaSO4 + H2O+ CO2)
causing damage to this wonderful monument that has attracted people from around the world. As a result, the monument is being slowly disfigured and the marble is getting discoloured and lustreless. The Government of India announced an action plan in early 1995 to prevent the disfiguring of this historical monument. Mathura refinery has already taken suitable measures to check the emission of toxic gases.This plan aims at clearing the air in the ‘Taj Trapezium’– an area that includes the towns of Agra, Firozabad, Mathura and Bharatpur. Under this plan more than 2000 polluting industries lying inside the trapezium would switch over to the use of natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas instead of coal or oil. A new natural gas pipeline would bring more than half a million cubic metres of natural gas a day to this area. People living in the city will also be encouraged to use liquefied petroleum gas in place of coal, kerosene or firewood. Vehicles plying on highways in the vicinity of Taj would be encouraged to use low sulphur content diesel.

2. Particulate Pollutants

Particulates pollutants are the minute solid particles or liquid droplets in air. These are present in vehicle emissions, smoke particles from fires, dust particles and ash from industries. Particulates in the atmosphere may be viable or non-viable. The viable particulates e.g., bacteria, fungi, moulds, algae etc., are minute living organisms that are dispersed in the atmosphere. Human beings are allergic to some of the fungi found in air. They can also cause plant diseases.

Non-viable particulates may be classified according to their nature and size as follows:

(a) Smoke particulates consist of solid or mixture of solid and liquid particles formed during combustion of organic matter. Examples are cigarette smoke, smoke from burning of fossil fuel, garbage and dry leaves, oil smoke etc.

(b) Dust is composed of fine solid particles (over 1μm in diameter), produced during crushing, grinding and attribution of solid materials. Sand from sand blasting, saw dust from wood works, pulverized coal, cement and fly ash from factories, dust storms etc., are some typical examples of this type of particulate emission.

(c) Mists are produced by particles of spray liquids and by condensation of vapours in air. Examples are sulphuric acid mist and herbicides and insecticides that miss their targets and travel through air and form mists.

(d) Fumes are generally obtained by the condensation of vapours during sublimation, distillation, boiling and several other chemical reactions. Generally, organic solvents, metals and metallic oxides form fume particles.

The effect of particulate pollutants are largely dependent on the particle size. Airborne particles such as dust, fumes, mist etc., are dangerous for human health. Particulate pollutants bigger than 5 microns are likely to lodge in the nasal passage, whereas particles of about 10 micron enter into lungs easily.

Lead used to be a major air pollutant emitted by vehicles. Leaded petrol used to be the primary source of air-borne lead emission in Indian cities. This problem has now been overcome by using unleaded petrol in most of the cities in India. Lead interferes with the development and maturation of red blood cells.

Smog

The word smog is derived from smoke and fog. This is the most common example of air pollution that occurs in many cities throughout the world. There are two types of smog:

(a) Classical smog occurs in cool humid climate. It is a mixture of smoke, fog and sulphur dioxide. Chemically it is a reducing mixture and so it is also called as reducing smog.

(b) Photochemical smog occurs in warm, dry and sunny climate. The main components of the photochemical smog result from the action of sunlight on unsaturated hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides produced by automobiles and factories. Photochemical smog has high concentration of oxidising agents and is, therefore, called as oxidising smog.

Formation of photochemical smog

When fossil fuels are burnt, a variety of pollutants are emitted into the earth’s troposphere. Two of the pollutants that are emitted are hydrocarbons (unburnt fuels) and nitric oxide (NO). When these pollutants build up to sufficiently high levels, a chain reaction occurs from their interaction with sunlight in which NO is converted into nitrogen dioxide (NO2). This NO2 in turn absorbs energy from sunlight and breaks up into nitric oxide and free oxygen atom (Fig. 14.2).

Oxygen atoms are very reactive and combine with the O2 in air to produce ozone.

The ozone formed in the above reaction (ii) reacts rapidly with the NO(g) formed in the reaction (i) to regenerate  NO2.NO2 is a brown gas and at sufficiently high levels can contribute to haze.

NO (g) + O3 (g) → NO2 (g) + O2 (g)            (iii)

Ozone is a toxic gas and both NO2 and O3 are strong oxidising agents and can react with the unburnt hydrocarbons in the polluted air to produce chemicals such as formaldehyde, acrolein and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN).

Effect of photochemical smog

The common components of photochemical smog are ozone, nitric oxide, acrolein, formaldehyde and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN).Photochemical smog causes serious health problems. Both ozone and PAN act as powerful eye irritants. Ozone and nitric oxide irritate the nose and throat and their high concentration causes headache, chest pain, dryness of the throat, cough and difficulty in breathing. Photochemical smog leads to cracking of rubber and extensive damage to plant life. It also causes corrosion of metals, stones, building materials, rubber and painted surfaces.

How can photochemical smog be controlled ?

Many techniques are used to control or reduce the formation of photochemical smog. If we control the primary precursors of photochemical smog, such as NO2 and hydrocarbons, the secondary precursors such as ozone and PAN, the photochemical smog will automatically be reduced. Usually catalytic converters are used in the automobiles, which prevent the release of nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbons to the atmosphere. Certain plants e.g., Pinus, Juniparus, Quercus, Pyrus and Vitis can metabolise nitrogen oxide and therefore, their plantation could help in this matter.

14.2.2 Stratospheric Pollution

Formation and Breakdown of Ozone

The upper stratosphere consists of considerable amount of ozone (O3), which protects us from the harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiations (λ 255 nm) coming from the sun. These radiations cause skin cancer (melanoma) in humans. Therefore, it is important to maintain the ozone shield.

Ozone in the stratosphere is a product of UV radiations acting on dioxygen (O2) molecules. The UV radiations split apart molecular oxygen into free oxygen (O) atoms. These oxygen atoms combine with the molecular oxygen to form ozone.

Ozone is thermodynamically unstable and decomposes to molecular oxygen. Thus, a dynamic equilibrium exists between the production and decomposition of ozone molecules. In recent years, there have been reports of the depletion of this protective ozone layer because of the presence of certain chemicals in the stratosphere. The main reason of ozone layer depletion is believed to be the release of chlorofluorocarbon compounds (CFCs), also known as freons. These compounds are nonreactive, non flammable, non toxic organic molecules and therefore used in refrigerators, air conditioners, in the production of plastic foam and by the electronic industry for cleaning computer parts etc. Once CFCs are released in the atmosphere, they mix with the normal atmospheric gases and eventually reach the stratosphere. In stratosphere, they get broken down by powerful UV radiations, releasing chlorine free radical.

The chlorine radical then react with stratospheric ozone to form chlorine monoxide radicals and molecular oxygen.

Reaction of chlorine monoxide radical with atomic oxygen produces more chlorine radicals.

The chlorine radicals are continuously regenerated and cause the breakdown of ozone. Thus, CFCs are transporting agents for
continuously generating chlorine radicals into the stratosphere and damaging the ozone layer.

The Ozone Hole

In 1980s atmospheric scientists working in Antarctica reported about depletion of ozone layer commonly known as ozone hole over the South Pole. It was found that a unique set of conditions was responsible for the ozone hole. In summer season, nitrogen dioxide and methane react with chlorine monoxide (reaction iv) and chlorine atoms (reaction v) forming chlorine sinks, preventing much ozone depletion, whereas in winter, special type of clouds called polar stratospheric clouds are formed over Antarctica. These polar stratospheric clouds provide surface on which chlorine nitrate formed (reaction iv) gets hydrolysed to form hypochlorous acid (reaction (vi)). It also reacts with hydrogen chloride produced as per reaction (v) to give molecular chlorine.

When sunlight returns to the Antarctica in the spring, the sun’s warmth breaks up the clouds and HOCl and Cl2 are photolysed by sunlight, as given in reactions (viii) and (ix).

The chlorine radicals thus formed, initiate the chain reaction for ozone depletion as described earlier.

Effects of Depletion of the Ozone Layer

With the depletion of ozone layer, more UV radiation filters into troposphere. UV radiations lead to ageing of skin, cataract, sunburn, skin cancer, killing of many phytoplanktons, damage to fish productivity etc. It has also been reported that plant proteins get easily affected by UV radiations which leads to the harmful mutation of cells. It also increases evaporation of surface water through the stomata of the leaves and decreases the moisture content of the soil. Increase in UV radiations damage paints and fibres, causing them to fade faster.

14.3 WATER POLLUTION

Water is essential for life. Without water there would be no life. We usually take water as granted for its purity, but we must ensure the quality of water. Pollution of water originates from human activities. Through different paths, pollution reaches surface or ground water. Easily identified source or place of pollution is called as point source. e.g.,municipal and industrial discharge pipes where pollutants enter the water-source. Non point sources of pollution are those where a source of pollution cannot be easily identified, e.g., agricultural run off (from farm, animals and crop-lands), acid rain, storm-water drainage (from streets, parking lots and lawns), etc. Table 14.1 lists the major water pollutants and their sources.

Table 14.1 Major Water Pollutants
Pollutant Source
Micro-organism Domastic sewage
Organic wastes Domastic sewage, animal excretes and waste, decaying animals and plants, discharge from food processing factories.
Plant nutrients Chemical fertilizers
Toxic heavy metals Industries and chemical factories
Sediments Erosion of soil by agriculture and strip mining
Pesticides Chemicals used for killing insects, fungi and weeds
Radioactive substances Mining of uranium containing minerals
Heat Water used for cooling in industries

14.3.1 Causes of Water Pollution

(i) Pathogens: The most serious water pollutants are the disease causing agents called pathogens. Pathogens include bacteria and other organisms that enter water from domestic sewage and animal excreta. Human excreta contain bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis which cause gastrointestinal diseases.

(ii) Organic wastes: The other major water pollutant is organic matter such as leaves, grass, trash etc. They pollute water as a consequence of run off. Excessive phytoplankton growth within water is also a cause of water pollution. These wastes are biodegradable. The large population of bacteria decomposes organic matter present in water.They consume oxygen dissolved in water. The amount of oxygen that water can hold in the solution is limited. In cold water, dissolved oxygen (DO) can reach a concentration up to 10 ppm (parts per million), whereas oxygen in air is about 200,000 ppm. That is why even a moderate amount of organic matter when decomposes in water can deplete the water of its dissolved oxygen. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in water is very important for aquatic life . If the concentration of dissolved oxygen of water is below 6 ppm, the growth of fish gets inhibited. Oxygen reaches water either through atmosphere or from the process of photosynthesis carried out by many aquatic green plants during day light. However, during night, photosynthesis stops but the plants continue to respire, resulting in reduction of dissolved oxygen. The dissolved oxygen is also used by microorganisms to oxidise organic matter.

If too much of organic matter is added to water, all the available oxygen is used up. This causes oxygen dependent aquatic life to die.Thus, anaerobic bacteria (which do not require oxygen) begin to break down the organic waste and produce chemicals that have a foul smell and are harmful to human health. Aerobic (oxygen requiring) bacteria degrade these organic wastes and keep the water depleted in dissolved oxygen.

Thus, the amount of oxygen required by bacteria to break down the organic matter present in a certain volume of a sample of water, is called Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD). The amount of BOD in the water is a measure of the amount of organic material in the water, in terms of how much oxygen will be required to break it down biologically. Clean water would have BOD value of less than 5 ppm whereas highly polluted water could have a BOD value of 17 ppm or more.

(iii) Chemical Pollutants: As we know that water is an excellent solvent, water soluble inorganic chemicals that include heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury, nickel etc constitute an important class of pollutants. All these metals are dangerous to humans because our body cannot excrete them. Over the time, it crosses the tolerance limit. These metals then can damage kidneys, central nervous system, liver etc. Acids (like sulphuric acid) from mine drainage and salts from many different sources including raw salt used to melt snow and ice in the colder climates (sodium and calcium chloride) are water soluble chemical pollutants.

The organic chemicals are another group of substances that are found in polluted water. Petroleum products pollute many sources of water e.g., major oil spills in oceans. Other organic substances with serious impacts are the pesticides that drift down from sprays or runoff from lands. Various industrial chemicals like polychlorinated biphenyls, (PCBs) which are used as cleansing solvent, detergents and fertilizers add to the list of water pollutants. PCBs are suspected to be carcinogenic. Nowadays most of the detergents available are biodegradable. However, their use can create other problems. The bacteria responsible for degrading biodegradable detergent feed on it and grow rapidly. While growing, they may use up all the oxygen dissolved in water. The lack of oxygen kills all other forms of aquatic life such as fish and plants. Fertilizers contain phosphates as additives. The addition of phosphates in water enhances algae growth. Such profuse growth of algae, covers the water surface and reduces the oxygen concentration in water. This leads to anaerobic conditions, commonly with accumulation of abnoxious decay and animal death. Thus, bloom-infested water inhibits the growth of other living organisms in the water body. This process in which nutrient enriched water bodies support a dense plant population, which kills animal life by depriving it of oxygen and results in subsequent loss of biodiversity is known as Eutrophication.

14.3.2 International Standards for Drinking Water

The International Standards for drinking water are given below and they must be followed.

Fluoride: For drinking purposes, water should be tested for fluoride ion concentration. Its deficiency in drinking water is harmful to man and causes diseases such as tooth decay etc. Soluble fluoride is often added to drinking water to bring its concentration upto 1 ppm or 1 mg dm–3. The F ions make the enamel on teeth much harder by converting hydroxyapatite, [3(Ca3(PO4)2.Ca(OH)2], the enamel on the surface of the teeth, into much harder fluorapatite, [3(Ca3(PO4)2.CaF2]. However, F ion concentration above 2 ppm causes brown mottling of teeth. At the same time, excess fluoride (over 10 ppm) causes harmful effect to bones and teeth, as reported from some parts of Rajasthan.

Lead: Drinking water gets contaminated with lead when lead pipes are used for transportation of water. The prescribed upper limit concentration of lead in drinking water is about 50 ppb. Lead can damage kidney, liver, reproductive system etc.

Sulphate: Excessive sulphate (>500 ppm) in drinking water causes laxative effect, otherwise at moderate levels it is harmless.

Nitrate: The maximum limit of nitrate in drinking water is 50 ppm. Excess nitrate in drinking water can cause disease such as methemoglobinemia (‘blue baby’ syndrome).Other metals: The maximum concentration of some common metals recommended in drinking water are given in Table 14.2.

Table 14.2 Maximum Prescribed Concentration of Some Metals in Drinking Water
Metal Maximum concentration (ppm or mg dm-3)
Fe 0.2
Mn 0.05
Al 0.2
Cu 3.0
Zn 5.0
Cd 0.005
Activity 2
You can visit local water sources and observe if the river/lake /tank/pond are unpolluted/slightly polluted/ moderately polluted or severely polluted by looking at water or by checking pH of water. Document the name of the river and the nearby urban or industrial site from where the pollution is generated. Inform about this to Pollution Control Board’s office set up by Government to measure pollution levels. Ensure that appropriate action is taken. You can write to the press also. Do not dump waste into a household or industrial drain which can enter directly to any water body, such as, river, pond, stream or lake. Use compost instead of chemical fertilizers in gardens. Avoid the use of pesticides like DDT, malathion etc., at home and try to use dried neem leaves to help keep insects away. Add a few crystals of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) or bleaching powder to the water tank of your house.

14.4 SOIL POLLUTION

India being an agriculture based economy gives high priority to agriculture, fisheries and livestock development. The surplus production is stored by governmental and non-governmental organisations for the lean season. The food loss during the storage also needs special attention. Have you ever seen the damages caused to the crops, food items by insects, rodents, weeds and crop diseases etc? How can we protect them? You are acquainted with some insecticides and pesticides for protection of our crops. However, these insecticides, pesticides and herbicides cause soil pollution. Hence, there is a need for their judicious use.

14.4.1 Pesticides

Prior to World War II, many naturally occurring chemicals such as nicotine (by planting tobacco plants in the crop field), were used as pest controlling substance for major crops in agricultural practices. During World War II, DDT was found to be of great use in the control of malaria and other insect-borne diseases. Therefore, after the war, DDT was put to use in agriculture to control the damages caused by insects, rodents, weeds and various crop diseases. However, due to adverse effects, its use has been banned in India.

Pesticides are basically synthetic toxic chemicals with ecological repercussions. The repeated use of the same or similar pesticides give rise to pests that are resistant to that group of pesticides thus making the pesticides ineffective. Therefore, as insect resistance of DDT increased, other organic toxins such as Aldrin and Dieldrin were introduced in the market by pesticide industry. Most of the organic toxins are water insoluble and nonbiodegradable. These high persistent toxins are, therefore, transferred from lower trophic level to higher trophic level through food chain (Fig.14.3). Over the time, the concentration of toxins in higher animals reach a level which causes serious metabolic and physiological disorders.

In response to high persistence of chlorinated organic toxins, a new series of less persistent or more bio-degradable products called organo-phosphates and carbamates have been introduced in the market. But these chemicals are severe nerve toxins and hence more harmful to humans. As a result, there are reports of some pesticides related deaths of agricultural field workers. Insects have become resistant to these insecticides also. The insecticide industry is engaged in developing new groups of insecticides. But one has to think, is this the only solution to pest menace?

These days, the pesticide industry has shifted its attention to herbicides such as sodium chlorate (NaClO3), sodium arsinite (Na3AsO3) and many others. During the first half of the last century, the shift from mechanical to chemical weed control had provided the industry with flourishing economic market. But one must remember that these are also not environment friendly.

Most herbicides are toxic to mammals but are not as persistent as organo-chlorides. These chemicals decompose in a few months. Like organo-chlorides, these too become concentrated in the food web. Some herbicides cause birth defects. Studies show that cornfields sprayed with herbicides are more prone to insect attack and plant disease than fields that are weeded manually.

Pesticides and herbicides represent only a very small portion of widespread chemical pollution. A large number of other compounds that are used regularly in chemical and industrial processes for manufacturing activities are finally released in the atmosphere in one or other form.

14.5 INDUSTRIAL WASTE

Industrial solid wastes are also sorted out as biodegradable and non-degradable wastes. Biodegradable wastes are generated by cotton mills, food processing units, paper mills, and textile factories.

Non-biodegradable wastes are generated by thermal power plants which produce fly ash; integrated iron and steel plants which produce blast furnace slag and steel melting slag. Industries manufacturing aluminium, zinc and copper produce mud and tailings. Fertilizer industries produce gypsum. Hazardous wastes such as inflammables, composite explosives or highly reactive substances are produced by industries dealing in metals, chemicals, drugs, pharmaceuticals,dyes, pesticides, rubber goods etc.

The disposal of non-degradable industrial solid wastes, if not done by a proper and suitable method, may cause serious threat to the environment. New innovations have led to different uses of waste material. Nowadays,fly ash and slag from the steel industry are utilised by the cement industry. Large quantities of toxic wastes are usually destroyed by controlled incineration, whereas small quantities are burnt along with factory garbage in open bins. Moreover, solid wastes if not managed effectively, affect the components of the environment.

Do you know about waste recycling?
• Fuel obtained from plastic waste has high octane rating. It contains no lead and is known as “green fuel”.• Due to recent developments made in chemical and textile industries, clothes will be made from recycled plastic waste. These will be available soon in the global textile market.• In India, our cities and towns face endless hours of power cut. We can also see piles of rotting garbage here and there. There is a good news that we can get rid from both these problems simultaneously. Technology has now been developed to produce electricity from the garbage. A pilot plant has been set up, where after removing ferrous metals, plastic, glass, paper etc. from garbage, it is mixed with water. It is then cultured with bacterial species for producing methane, commonly known as biogas. The remaining product is used as manure and biogas is used to produce electricity.

14.6 STRATEGIES TO CONTROL ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

After studying air, water, soil and industrial waste pollution in this unit, by now you must have started feeling the need of controlling environmental pollution: How can you save your immediate environment? Think of the steps/activities, which you would like to undertake for controlling air, water, soil and industrial waste pollution in your neighbourhood. Here, an idea about the strategies for the management of waste is given.

14.6.1 Waste Management

Solid waste is not the only waste, which you see in your household garbage box. Besides household discards, there are medical, agricultural, industrial and mining wastes. The improper disposal of wastes is one of the major causes of environmental degradation. Therefore, the management of wastes is of utmost importance.

Collection and Disposal

Domestic wastes are collected in small bins, which are then transferred to community bins by private or municipal workers. From these community bins, these are collected and carried to the disposable site. At the site, garbage is sorted out and separated into biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials. Non-biodegradable materials such as plastic, glass, metal scraps etc. are sent for recycling. Biodegradable wastes are deposited in land fills and are converted into compost.

The waste if not collected in garbage bins, finds its way into the sewers. Some of it is eaten by cattle. Non-biodegradable wastes like polythene bag, metal scraps, etc. choke the sewers and cause inconvenience. Polythene bags, if swallowed by cattle can cost their lives also.

As a normal practice, therefore, all domestic wastes should be properly collected and disposed. The poor management causes
health problems leading to epidemics due to contamination of ground water. It is specially hazardous for those who are in direct contact with the waste such as rag pickers and workers involved in waste disposal, as they are the ones who handle waste materials mostly without protective device such as gloves or water proof boots and gas masks. What can you do for them?

14.7 GREEN CHEMISTRY
14.7.1 Introduction

It is well known fact that self-sufficiency in food has been achieved in India since late 20th century by using fertilizers and pesticides and exploring improved methods of farming, good quality seeds, irrigation etc. But overexploitation of soil and excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides have resulted in the deterioration of soil, water and air.

The solution of this problem does not lie in stopping the process of development that has been set in; but to discover methods, which would help in the reduction of deterioration of the environment. Green chemistry is a way of thinking and is about utilising the existing knowledge and principles of chemistry and other sciences to reduce the adverse impact on environment. Green chemistry is a production process that would bring about minimum pollution or deterioration to the environment. The byproducts generated during a process, if not used gainfully, add to the environmental pollution. Such processes are not only environmental unfriendly but also cost-ineffective. The waste generation and its disposal both are economically unsound. Utilisation of existing knowledge base for reducing the chemical hazards along with the developmental activities is the foundation of green chemistry. Have you perceived the idea of green chemistry ? It is well known that organic solvents such as benzene, toluene, carbon tetrachloride etc., are highly toxic. One should be careful while using them.

As you know, a chemical reaction involves reactants, attacking reagents and the medium in which the reaction takes place. Extent of any reaction depends upon physical parameters like temperature, pressure and use of catalyst. In a chemical reaction, if reactants are fully converted into useful environmental friendly products by using an environment friendly medium then there would be no chemical pollutants introduced in the environment.

During a synthesis, care must be taken to choose starting materials that can be converted into end products with yield approximately upto 100 per cent. This can be achieved by arriving at optimum conditions of synthesis. It may be worthwhile to carry out synthetic reactions in aqueous medium since water has high specific heat and low volatility. Water is cost effective, noninflammable and devoid of any carcinogenic effects.

Nobel goes to  green chemist
Yves Chauvin, Institut Français du Pétrole, Rueil-Malmaison France, Robert H. Grubbs California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Pasadena, CA, USA and Richard R. Schrock Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA won the 2005 Nobel Prize in chemistry for work that reduces hazardous waste in creating new chemicals. The trio won the award for their development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis –a way to rearrange groups of atoms within molecules that the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences likened to a dance in which couples change partners. The metathesis has tremendous commercial potential in the pharmaceuticals, biotechnology and food stuffs production industries. It is also used in the development of revolutionary environmentally-friendlier polymers.This represents a great step forward for ‘green chemistry’, reducing potentially hazardous waste through smarter production. Metathesis is an example of how important application of basic science is for the benefit of man, society and the environment.

14.7.2 Green Chemistry in day-to-day Life

(i) Dry Cleaning of Clothes

Tetra chlroroethene (Cl2C=CCl2) was earlier used as solvent for dry cleaning. The compound contaminates the ground water and is also a suspected carcinogen. The process using this compound is now being replaced by a process, where liquefied carbondioxide, with a suitable detergent is used. Replacement of halogenated solvent by liquid CO2 will result in less harm to ground water.

These days hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is used for the purpose of bleaching clothes in the process of laundary, which gives better results and makes use of lesser amount of water.

(ii) Bleaching of Paper

Chlorine gas was used earlier for bleaching paper. These days, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with suitable catalyst, which promotes the bleaching action of hydrogen peroxide, is used.

(iii) Synthesis of Chemicals

Ethanal (CH3CHO) is now commercially prepared by one step oxidation of ethene in the presence of ionic catalyst in aqueous
medium with a yield of 90%.

Think it over
What is our responsibility as a human being to protect our environment?
Some concepts, if followed by an individual, contribute towards a better quality of our environment and human life. Always set up a compost tin in your garden or any other place in your home and use it to produce manure for your plants to reduce the use of fertilizers. Use a cloth bag and avoid asking for plastic carry bags when you buy groceries, vegetables or any other item. See that all newspapers, glass, aluminum and other items in your area are recycled. We might have to take little trouble to locate such dealers. We must realize that we do not have solutions for every problem but we can concentrate on issues, which we feel strongly about and can do some thing about. We should take care to put into practice whatever we preach. Always remember environment protection begins with us.

SUMMARY

Environmental chemistry plays a major role in environment. Chemical species present in the environment are either naturally occurring or generated by human activities. Environmental pollution is the effect of undesirable changes in the surrounding that have harmful effects on plants, animals and human beings. Pollutants exist in all the three states of matter. We have discussed only those pollutants, which are due to human activities, and can be controlled. Atmospheric pollution is generally studied as tropospheric and stratospheric pollution. Troposphere is the lowest region of the atmosphere (~10 km) in which man along with other organisms including plants exist. Whereas stratosphere extends above troposphere up to 50 km above sea level. Ozone layer is one of the important constituents of stratosphere. Tropospheric pollution is basically due to various oxides of sulphur, nitrogen, carbon, halogens and also due to particulate pollutants. The gaseous pollutants come down to the earth in the form of acid rain. 75% of the solar energy reaching earth is absorbed by the earth surface and rest is radiated back to the atmosphere. These gases mentioned above trap the heat which result into global warming. It is important to realise that these very gases are also responsible for the life on the earth as they trap the requisite amount of solar energy for the sustainance of life. The increase in the greenhouse gases is raising the temperature of the earth’s atmosphere which, if not checked, may eventually result in melting of polar ice caps and consequently may submerge the costal land mass. Many human activities are producing chemicals, which are responsible for the depletion of ozone layer in the stratosphere, leading to the formation of ozone hole. Through the ozone hole, ultraviolet radiations can penetrate into the earth’s atmosphere causing mutation of genes. Water is the elixir of life but the same water, if polluted by pathogens, organic wastes, toxic heavy metals, pesticides etc., will turn into poison. Therefore, one should take care to follow international standards to maintain purity levels of drinking water. Industrial wastes and excessive use of pesticides, result into pollution of land mass and water bodies. Judicious use of chemicals required for agricultural practices can lead to sustainable development. Strategies for controlling environmental pollution can be: (i) waste management i.e., reduction of the waste and proper disposal, also recycling of materials and energy, (ii) adopting methods in day-to-day life, which results in the reduction of environmental pollution. The second method is a new branch of chemistry, which is in its infancy known as green chemistry. It utilizes the existing knowledge and practices so as to bring about reduction in the production of pollutants.

EXERCISES
14.1 Define environmental chemistry.
14.2 Explain tropospheric pollution in 100 words.
14.3 Carbon monoxide gas is more dangerous than carbon dioxide gas. Why?
14.4 List gases which are responsible for greenhouse effect.
14.5 Statues and monuments in India are affected by acid rain. How?
14.6 What is smog? How is classical smog different from photochemical smogs?
14.7 Write down the reactions involved during the formation of photochemical smog.
14.8 What are the harmful effects of photochemical smog and how can they be controlled?
14.9 What are the reactions involved for ozone layer depletion in the stratosphere?
14.10 What do you mean by ozone hole? What are its consequences?
14.11 What are the major causes of water pollution? Explain.
14.12 Have you ever observed any water pollution in your area? What measures would you suggest to control it?
14.13 What do you mean by Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)?
14.14 Do you observe any soil pollution in your neighborhood? What efforts will you make for controlling the soil pollution?
14.15 What are pesticides and herbicides? Explain giving examples.
14.16 What do you mean by green chemistry? How will it help decrease environmental pollution?
14.17 What would have happened if the greenhouse gases were totally missing in the earth’s atmosphere? Discuss.
14.18 A large number of fish are suddenly found floating dead on a lake. There is no evidence of toxic dumping but you find an abundance of phytoplankton. Suggest a reason for the fish kill.
14.19 How can domestic waste be used as manure?
14.20 For your agricultural field or garden you have developed a compost producing pit. Discuss the process in the light of bad odour, flies and recycling of wastes for a good produce.

I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)

1. Which of the following gases is not a green house gas?

(i) CO
(ii) O3
(iii) CH4
(iv) H2O vapour

2. Photochemical smog occurs in warm, dry and sunny climate. One of the following is not amongst the components of photochemical smog, identify it.

(i) NO2
(ii) O3
(iii) SO2
(iv) Unsaturated hydrocarbon

3. Which of the following statements is not true about classical smog?

(i) Its main components are produced by the action of sunlight on emissions of automobiles and factories.
(ii) Produced in cold and humid climate.
(iii) It contains compounds of reducing nature.
(iv) It contains smoke, fog and sulphur dioxide.

4. Biochemical Oxygen Demand, (BOD) is a measure of organic material present in water. BOD value less than 5 ppm indicates a water sample to be __________.

(i) rich in dissolved oxygen.
(ii) poor in dissolved oxygen.
(iii) highly polluted.
(iv) not suitable for aquatic life.

5. Which of the following statements is wrong?

(i) Ozone is not responsible for green house effect.
(ii) Ozone can oxidise sulphur dioxide present in the atmosphere to sulphur trioxide.
(iii) Ozone hole is thinning of ozone layer present in stratosphere.
(iv) Ozone is produced in upper stratosphere by the action of UV rays on oxygen.

6. Sewage containing organic waste should not be disposed in water bodies because it causes major water pollution. Fishes in such a polluted water die because of

(i) Large number of mosquitoes.
(ii) Increase in the amount of dissolved oxygen.
(iii) Decrease in the amount of dissolved oxygen in water.
(iv) Clogging of gills by mud.

7. Which of the following statements about photochemical smog is wrong?

(i) It has high concentration of oxidising agents.
(ii) It has low concentration of oxidising agent.
(iii) It can be controlled by controlling the release of NO2, hydrocarbons, ozone etc.
(iv) Plantation of some plants like pinus helps in controlling photochemical smog.

8. The gaseous envelope around the earth is known as atmosphere. The lowest layer of this is extended upto 10 km from sea level, this layer is _________.

(i) Stratosphere
(ii) Troposphere
(iii) Mesosphere
(iv) Hydrosphere

9. Dinitrogen and dioxygen are main constituents of air but these do not react with each other to form oxides of nitrogen because _________.

(i) the reaction is endothermic and requires very high temperature.
(ii) the reaction can be initiated only in presence of a catalyst.
(iii) oxides of nitrogen are unstable.
(iv) N2 and O2 are unreactive.

10. The pollutants which come directly in the air from sources are called primary pollutants. Primary pollutants are sometimes converted into secondary pollutants. Which of the following belongs to secondary air pollutants?

(i) CO
(ii) Hydrocarbon
(iii) Peroxyacetyl nitrate
(iv) NO

11. Which of the following statements is correct?

(i) Ozone hole is a hole formed in stratosphere from which ozone oozes out.
(ii) Ozone hole is a hole formed in the troposphere from which ozone oozes out.
(iii) Ozone hole is thinning of ozone layer of stratosphere at some places.
(iv) Ozone hole means vanishing of ozone layer around the earth completely.

12. Which of the following practices will not come under green chemistry?

(i) If possible, making use of soap made of vegetable oils instead of using synthetic detergents.
(ii) Using H2O2 for bleaching purpose instead of using chlorine based bleaching agents.
(iii) Using bicycle for travelling small distances instead of using petrol/diesel based vehicles.
(iv) Using plastic cans for neatly storing substances.

II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)

In the following questions two or more options may be correct.

13. Which of the following conditions shows the polluted environment.

(i) pH of rain water is 5.6.
(ii) amount of carbondioxide in the atmosphere is 0.03%.
(iii) biochemical oxygen demand 10 ppm.
(iv) eutrophication.

14. Phosphate containing fertilisers cause water pollution. Addition of such compounds in water bodies causes __________.

(i) enhanced growth of algae.
(ii) decrease in amount of dissolved oxygen in water.
(iii) deposition of calcium phosphate.
(iv) increase in fish population.

15. The acids present in acid rain are _________.

(i) Peroxyacetylnitrate
(ii) H2CO3
(iii) HNO3
(iv) H2SO4

16. The consequences of global warming may be _________.

(i) increase in average temperature of the earth
(ii) melting of Himalayan Glaciers.
(iii) increased biochemical oxygen demand.
(iv) eutrophication.

III. Short Answer Type

17. Green house effect leads to global warming. Which substances are responsible for green house effect?

18. Acid rain is known to contain some acids. Name these acids and where from they come in rain?

19. Ozone is a toxic gas and is a strong oxidising agent even then its presence in the stratosphere is very important. Explain what would happen if ozone from this region is completely removed?

20. Dissolved oxygen in water is very important for aquatic life. What processes are responsible for the reduction of dissolved oxygen in water?

21. On the basis of chemical reactions involved, explain how do chlorofluorocarbons cause thinning of ozone layer in stratosphere.

22. What could be the harmful effects of improper management of industrial and domestic solid waste in a city?

23. During an educational trip, a student of botany saw a beautiful lake in a village. She collected many plants from that area. She noticed that villagers were washing clothes around the lake and at some places waste material from houses was destroying its beauty.

After few years, she visited the same lake again. She was surprised to find that the lake was covered with algae, stinking smell was coming out and its water had become unusable. Can you explain the reason for this condition of the lake?

24. What are biodegradable and non-biodegradable pollutants?

25. What are the sources of dissolved oxygen in water?

26. What is the importance of measuring BOD of a water body?

27. Why does water covered with excessive algal growth become polluted?

28. A factory was started near a village. Suddenly villagers started feeling the presence of irritating vapours in the village and cases of headache, chest pain, cough, dryness of throat and breathing problems increased. Villagers blamed the emissions from the chimney of the factory for such problems.Explain what could have happened. Give chemical reactions for the support of your explanation.

29. Oxidation of sulphur dioxide into sulphur trioxide in the absence of a catalyst is a slow process but this oxidation occurs easily in the atmosphere. Explain how does this happen. Give chemical reactions for the conversion of SO2 into SO3.

30. From where does ozone come in the photochemical smog?

31. How is ozone produced in stratosphere?

32. Ozone is a gas heavier than air. Why does ozone layer not settle down near the earth?

33. Some time ago formation of polar stratospheric clouds was reported over Antarctica. Why were these formed? What happens when such clouds break up by warmth of sunlight?

34. A person was using water supplied by Municipality. Due to shortage of water he started using underground water. He felt laxative effect. What could be the cause?

IV. Matching Type

In the following questions more than one option of Column I and Column II may match.

35. Match the terms given in Column I with the compounds given in Column II.

Column I Column II
(i) Acid rain (a) CHCl2 – CHF2
(ii) Photochemical smog (b) CO
(iii) Combination with haemoglobin (c) CO2
(iv) Depletion of ozone layer (d) SO2
(e) Unsaturated hydrocarbons

36. Match the pollutant(s) in Column I with the effect(s) in Column II.

Column I Column II
(i) Oxides of sulphur (a) Global warming
(ii) Nitrogen dioxide (b) Damage to kidney
(iii) Carbon dioxide (c) ‘Blue baby’ syndrome
(iv) Nitrate in drinking water (d) Respiratory diseases
(v) Lead (e) Red haze in traffic and congested areas

37. Match the activity given in Column I with the type of pollution created by it given in Column II.

Column I (Activity) Column II (Effect)
(i) Releasing gases to the atmosphere after burning waste material
containing sulphur.
(a) Water pollution
(ii) Using carbamates as pesticides (b) Photochemical smog, damage to plant life, corrosion to building material, induce breathing problems, water pollution
(iii) Using synthetic detergents for washing clothes (c) Damaging ozone layer
(iv) Releasing gases produced by automobiles and factories in the atmosphere. (d) May cause nerve diseases in human.
(v) Using chlorofluorocarbon compounds for cleaning computer parts (e) Classical smog, acid rain, water pollution, induce
breathing problems,
damage to buildings,
corrosion of metals.

38. Match the pollutants given in Column I with their effects given in Column II.

Column I Column II
(i) Phosphate fertilisers in water (a) BOD level of water increases
(ii) Methane in air (b) Acid rain
(iii) Synthetic detergents in water (c) Global warming
(iv) Nitrogen oxides in air (d) Eutrophication

V. Assertion and Reason Type

In the following questions a statement of Assertion (A) followed by a statement of Reason (R) is given. Choose the correct option out of the choices given below each question.

39. Assertion (A): Green house effect was observed in houses used to grow plants and these are made of green glass.
Reason (R) : Green house name has been given because glass houses are made of green glass.

(i) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(ii) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(iii) Both A and R are not correct.
(iv) A is not correct but R is correct.

40. Assertion (A) : The pH of acid rain is less than 5.6.
Reason (R) : Carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere dissolves in rain water and forms carbonic acid.

(i) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(ii) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(iii) Both A and R are not correct.
(iv) A is not correct but R is correct.

41. Assertion (A) : Photochemical smog is oxidising in nature.
Reason (R) : Photochemical smog contains NO2 and O3, which are formed during the sequence of reactions.

(i) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(ii) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(iii) Both A and R are not correct.
(iv) A is not correct but R is correct.

42. Assertion (A) : Carbon dioxide is one of the important greenhouse gases.
Reason (R) : It is largely produced by respiratory function of animals and plants.

(i) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(ii) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(iii) Both A and R are not correct.
(iv) A is not correct but R is correct.

43. Assertion (A) : Ozone is destroyed by solar radiation in upper stratosphere.
Reason (R) : Thinning of the ozone layer allows excessive UV radiations to reach the surface of earth.

(i) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(ii) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(iii) Both A and R are not correct.
(iv) A is not correct but R is correct.

44. Assertion (A) : Excessive use of chlorinated synthetic pesticides causes soil and water pollution.
Reason (R) : Such pesticides are non-biodegradable.

(i) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(ii) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(iii) Both A and R are not correct.
(iv) A is not correct but R is correct.

45. Assertion (A) : If BOD level of water in a reservoir is less than 5 ppm it is highly polluted.
Reason (R) : High biological oxygen demand means low activity of bacteria in water.

(i) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(ii) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(iii) Both A and R are not correct.
(iv) A is not correct but R is correct.

VI. Long Answer Type

46. How can you apply green chemistry for the following :

(i) to control photochemical smog.
(ii) to avoid use of halogenated solvents in drycleaning and that of chlorine in bleaching.
(iii) to reduce use of synthetic detergents.
(iv) to reduce the consumption of petrol and diesel.

47. Green plants use carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and return oxygen to the atmosphere, even then carbon dioxide is considered to be responsible for green house effect. Explain why?

48. Explain how does green house effect cause global warming.

49. A farmer was using pesticides on his farm. He used the produce of his farm as food for rearing fishes. He was told that fishes were not fit for human consumption because large amount of pesticides had accumulated in the tissues of fishes. Explain how did this happen?

50. For dry cleaning, in the place of tetrachloroethane, liquefied carbon dioxide with suitable detergent is an alternative solvent. What type of harm to the environment will be prevented by stopping use of tetrachloroethane? Will use of liquefied carbon dioxide with detergent be completely safe from the point of view of pollution? Explain.

ANSWERS

I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)

1. (i)      2. (iii)      3. (i)      4. (i)      5. (i)      6. (iii)      7. (ii)      8. (ii)      9. (i)      10. (iii)   11. (iii)      12. (iv)

II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)

13. (iii), (iv)      14. (i), (ii)      15. (ii), (iii), (iv)      16. (i), (ii)

III. Short Answer Type

17. Trapping of heat by green house gases, namely carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone and chlorofluorocarbons.

19. [Hint : Ozone prevents harmful UV radiations of the Sun from reaching to the Earth’s surface, thereby it protects life from bad effects of UV
radiations.]
21. CFC’s are stable compounds. These undergo decomposition in presence of sunlight, as shown below :

Chain reactions continue in which ozone layer is depleted.

23. [Hint : Process of eutrophication is responsible for this. Explain the effect of accumulation of phosphate from detergents and organic matter entering
into the lake along with domestic waste.]

24. Biodegradable – which are decomposed by bacteria. Non-biodegradable – which cannot be decomposed by bacteria.
25. Sources of dissolved oxygen in water
(i) Photosynthesis
(ii) Natural aeration
(iii) Mechanical aeration

26. BOD is the measure of level of pollution caused by organic biodegradable material. Low value of BOD indicates that water contains less organic matter.

IV. Matching Type

35. (i) → (c), (d) (ii) → (e), (d) (iii) → (b) (iv) → (a)
36. (i) → (d) (ii) → (e) (iii) → (a) (iv) → (c) (v) → (b)
37. (i) → (e) (ii) → (d) (iii) → (a) (iv) → (b) (v) → (c)
38. (i) → (a), (d) (ii) → (c) (iii) → (a) (iv) → (b)

V. Assertion and Reason Type

39. (iii) 40. (ii) 41. (i) 42. (ii) 43. (iv) 44. (i) 45. (iii)

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Simplified Knowledge Management Classes

Must see https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/some-points-which-i-wish-all-my-new-prospective-students-know/
🙂
Do you want to make money working at home ?
see http://skmclasses.weebly.com/jobs.html

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com

you will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

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The following Videos are available for you ( As of Now ). These explain tricky Physics and Mathematics Numericals.

Eventually I will try to give Videos for full course here for you.

These covers PU ( Pre University courses, school / college ) courses, IIT JEE, AIEEE ( All India Engineering Entrance Examination ) , CET ( Combined Engineering Test ), AIPMT ( All India Pre Medical Test ), ISc ( Intermediate Science / Indian School Certificate Exam ), CBSE ( Central Board Secondary Exam ), Roorkey Joint Entrance Test Questions ( Discontinued since 2002 ), APhO ( Asian Physics Olympiad ), IPhO ( International Physics Olympiad ), IMO ( International Mathematics Olympiad ) , NSEP ( National Standard Exam in Physics ), RMO ( Regional Math Olympiad , India ), INMO ( Indian National Maths Olympiad ), Irodov Solutions, Prof. H C Verma ( Concepts of Physics ) Solutions etc.

( You can see the history of Indian Participation in various Olympiads at ->
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/indian-participation-in-ipho-icho-ibo-and-astronomy-olympiad/ )

[ In each of these videos there is at-least 1 or more errors. Please tell me about those ]

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com
You should get to see all the Uploaded videos. Though we have many more study videos.

Thanks and Regards
Zookeeper ;-D Subhashish Chattopadhyay

[ I suggest you see the videos starting with 1- first then starting with 2- ….. in that sequence. ]

[ Tell your friends about this link if you liked the videos ]

In case of doubts or suggestions, Please send me email at mokshya@gmail.com

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com

Answers to -> Frequently Asked Questions ( FAQ ) [ commonly asked intelligent Questions 🙂 ]

1 ) How do I prepare for IIT ?

Ans : – See the videos made by me ( search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com
Though we have many more which have not been uploaded ). While watching the videos, take notes and try to solve the problems yourself by pausing the video. Tell me if any calculation is wrong. See the videos with 1- first then 2- and so on. Write to IAPT Kothrud, Pune office to buy ( 150 Rs approx ) the book with previous papers of NSEP ( National Standard Exam in Physics – The 1st level ), INPhO ( Indian National Physics Olympiad – 2nd level ). Prepare with these and see how much you are scoring. You can guess your ALL INDIA rank easily from NSEP, and INPhO rank. Since 1998 the IIT JEE toppers have been mostly representing India in IPhO.

2 ) Which codec and Player do I use to see the videos ?

Ans : – You can use GOM Player, or VLC Player. You have to have good speakers with filters or good earphones with filters. We have checked mostly it is OK with these. ( If you are depending only on your embedded speakers of computer /screen / keyboard then there may be extra distortions. As these speakers are often not of good Quality. Also install latest KL Codecs ) In any case reduce the volume see the board, imagine sitting in the last bench and solving the problems of your own. See if your solution differs anywhere with the scribbles on the board.

3 ) Why are you giving these ( high Quality ) lecture for free ?

Ans : Well there are lot of good things free in this world. Linux, My-SQL, Open-Office ….. Go to sourceforge and get thousands of high quality software free along with source code. Yes all officially free …. Why do you think Richard Stallman, Zimmerman, ….. etc are considered Guru philosophers ? In Punjab and Gurudwaras worldwide there are so many Langars where you get better food than Restaurants. ….. why ? Why do you have Dharmasalas and subsidized rest rooms near hospitals / Famous Temples / various places ? in Iftar party anyone can eat for free …. why ?

I am teaching since 1989 I have observed most students can do much better if they have the self motivation to solve and practice. Cheap books are available in second hand bookstalls, where you get thousands of Numericals to solve ….. but most students will like to blow their time going and coming for tuition, travel time …. TV for hours and hours watching cricket / Tennis games, playing computer games …. My free lectures are not going to make much difference in spending of unnecessary money for coaching ….. I know very well , how much people enjoy …. ! spending unnecessarily !!

Do you know that there are NO poor / needy students in Bangalore.

Sometime back I had tried to teach for IIT JEE FREE. Discussed with a few NGOs and social service guys. Arranged rooms but got only 1 student. We had informed many people in many ways to inform students …. We did not get students who are ready to learn for free. So I am sure these lectures are NOT FREE. If anyone learns from these, s/he changes and that’s the gain / benefit. This change ( due to learning ) is very costly …. Most do not want to learn ………..

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com
You will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

🙂

4 ) How can I get all your lectures ?

Ans : – Apart from my lectures there are approx 700 GB of PCM ( Phy, Chem, Math ) lectures. It takes approx 3 years of continuous download from scattered sources. I have ( 20,000 )Thousands of these. You can take ALL of them from me in an external 1 TB hard disk, instead of spending so much money and time again for downloading. These cover ( by Various Professors ) everything of Chemistry, Physics, Maths… Lot of this is from outside India … as foreigners have much wider heart than Indians ( as most of GNU / open source software have been developed by Non-Indians ). I observed the gaps in these videos, and thus I am solving IIT, APhO, Roorkey, IPhO Numericals. Videos made by me along with these videos gives a complete preparation.

Send me a mail at mokshya@gmail.com to contact me.

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com
You will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

🙂

5 ) How do you get benefited out of this ?

Ans :- If anyone learns we all will have better people in this world. I will have better “ YOU “.
🙂

6 ) Why do you call yourself a Zookeeper ?

Ans :- This is very nicely explained at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/z00keeper-why-do-i-call-myself-a-zoookeeper/

🙂

7 ) Where do you stay ?

Ans :- Presently I am in Bangalore.

🙂

8 ) If I need videos in a few topics can you make them for me ?

Ans :- We actively answers doubts at doubtpoint.
see http://skmclasses.weebly.com/doubtpoint.html
In case you appreciate our time and efforts involved in answering complicated Questions, then get Quality answers at doubtpoint.

🙂

9 ) Why did you write an article saying there are No Poor students ?

Ans :- There are lots of NGOs and others working for rural / poor children education at lower classes. While very less effort is on for std 9 till 12. Also see the answer in question number ( 3 ) above. In more than 2 decades of teaching I never met a Poor child who was seriously interested in ( higher ) studies. As I have a mind / thinking of a ” Physicist “, I go by ” Experimental Observation “.

It is not about what is being said about poor in media / TV etc, or ” what it should be ” ( ? ) …. It is about what I see happening. Also to add ( confuse ? you more )…. You must be knowing that in several states over many years now girl students have better ( by marks as well as by pass percentage ) result in std 10 / Board Exams….. well but NEVER a girl student came FIRST in IIT JEE … why ? [ The best rank by a Girl student is mostly in 2 digits, very rarely in single digit ] ????? So ????

🙂

10 ) How much do I have to study to make it to IIT ?

Ans :- My experience of Teaching for IIT JEE since 1989, tells me, Total 200 hours per subject ( PCM ) is sufficient. If you see my Maths and Physics videos, each subject is more than 200 hours. So if someone sees all the videos diligently, takes notes and remembers, …… Done.

🙂

11 ) What is EAMCET ?

Ans :- Engineering Agriculture and Medicine Common Entrance Test is conducted by JNT University Hyderabad on behalf of APSCHE. This examination is the gateway for entry into various professional courses offered in Government/Private Colleges in Andhra Pradesh.

12 ) In your videos are you covering other Exams apart from IIT ?

Ans : – Yes. See many videos made by solving problems of MPPET, Rajasthan / J&K CET, UPSEAT ( UPES Engineering Aptitude Test ), MHCET, BCECE ( Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination Board ), WB JEE etc

🙂

13 ) What is SCRA ?

Ans : – Special Class Railway Apprentice (SCRA) exam is conducted by Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) board, for about 10 seats.That translates into an astonishing ratio of 1 selection per 10,000 applicants. The SCRA scheme was started in 1927 by the British, to select a handful of most intelligent Indians to assist them in their Railway Operations, after training at their Railway’s largest workshop, i.e. Jamalpur Workshop, and for one year in United Kingdom. The selected candidates were required to appear in the Mechanical Engineering Degree Examination held by Engineering Council (London).

Thanks for your time. To become my friend in google+ ( search me as mokshya@gmail.com and send friend request )

Read http://edge.org/responses/what-scientific-concept-would-improve-everybodys-cognitive-toolkit
🙂
The following video is a must see for full CO2 cycle, plates of Earth, Geological activities, stability of weather
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oIuoNtRBG4w

🙂
Article in Nature says CO2 increase is good for the trees
http://thegwpf.org/science-news/6086-co2-is-greening-the-planet-savannahs-soon-to-be-covered-by-forests.html
🙂
http://climaterealists.com/index.php?id=9752

BBC documentary Crescent and Cross shows the 1000 years of fight between Christians and Muslims. Millions have been killed in the name of Religion. To decided whose GOD is better, and which GOD to follow. The fight continues.

Summary of Women

🙂
The Virus of Faith
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scarHc8RA0g

🙂
The God delusion
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LVr9bJ8Sctk

🙂
cassiopeia facts about evolution

Intermediate Fossil records shown and explained nicely Fossils, Genes, and Embryos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fdpMrE7BdHQ

The Rise Of Narcissism In Women
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wZHKCbHGlS0

🙂
13 type of women whom you should never court
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/relationships/man-woman/13-Women-you-should-never-court/articleshow/14637014.cms

🙂
Media teaching Misandry in India

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-M2txSbOPIo

Summary of problems with women
http://problemwithwomentoday.blogspot.in/2009/12/problem-with-women-today-what-in-hell.html

🙂
Eyeopener men ? women only exists
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ZAuqkqxk9A

🙂
Each of you is an Activist in some way or other. You are trying to propagate those thoughts, ideas that you feel concerned / excited about.

Did you analyze your effectiveness ?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=61qn7S9NCOs
Culturomics can help you

😀
see how biased women are. Experimental proof. Women are happy when they see another woman is beating a man ( see how women misbehave with men )

🙂
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LlFAd4YdQks

see detailed statistics at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5lHmCN3MBMI

An eye opener in Misandry
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YiTaDS_X6CU

My sincere advice would be to be EXTREMELY careful ( and preferably away ) of girls. As girls age; statistically certain behavior in them has been observed. Most Male can NOT manage those behaviors… Domestic violence, divorce etc are rising very fast. Almost in all cases boys / males are HUGE loosers. Be extremely choosy ( and think from several angles ) before even talking to a girl.
🙂
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/save-the-male/

🙂

How women manipulate men
http://www.angryharry.com/esWomenManipulateMen.htm

Gender Biased Laws in India
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/biased-laws/

🙂

Violence against Men
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MLS2E-rRynE

🙂

Only men are victimised
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4JA4EPRbWhQ

Men are BETTER than women
http://www.menarebetterthanwomen.com/
🙂

see

🙂

Male Psychology

Women are more violent than men
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/women-are-more-violent-says-study-622388.html

🙂

In the year 2010, 168 men ended their lives everyday ( on average ). More husbands committed suicide than wives.
🙂

http://www.rediff.com/news/report/ncrb-stats-show-more-married-men-committing-suicide/20111028.htm

It is EXTREMELY unfortunate that media projects men as fools, women as superiors, Husbands as servants, and replaceable morons. In ad after ad worldwide from so many companies, similar msg to disintegrate the world is being bombarded. It is highly unacceptable misandry

🙂

It is NOT at all funny that media shows violence against MEN. Some advertisers are trying to create a new ” Socially acceptable culture ” of slapping Men ( by modern city women ). We ( all men ) take objection to these advertisements.
We oppose this Misandry bad culture. Please share to increase awareness against Men bashing

🙂
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D8ecN2rh0uU

Think what are you doing … why are you doing ?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qp0HIF3SfI4

Every Man must know this …
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cIFmQHJEG1M

🙂
Manginas, White Knights, & Other Chivalrous Dogs
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oXQDtBT70B8

!
!
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key words

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International Residential School Nithyananda Nagar, Kumbalagudu, Gollahalli Kengeri, Bangalore Solutions, India, IPhO, APhO, IMO, RMO, INMO, through, lectures, problems numericals Zookeeper, Subhashish, Chattopadhyay, Projectile, Latent, Heat Thermodynamics std 11 12 ISc Calculus BE BTech Differentiation Integration Mechanics Surface Tension Viscosity Accelerating Frame velocity wedge mass pulley Moment Inertia Roorkey Joint Entrance Exam CET AIEEE Irodov HCV Verma South Bangalore Intermediate Algebra Trigonometry Sexy Free Coaching study material preparation Olympiad Friction sin Modelling cos Potential tan cot Gravitation Electrostatics sec Field cosec Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola inverse string Tuition Kinetic Theory Gases Isothermal Adiabatic Isochoric Isobaric Processes Root Mean Square Differential Equation Soomrit Specific Cp Cv PV Diagram Bending Stress Strain Geostationary Satellite Entropy Coefficient Linear Expansion Alpha Beta Gamma Pendulum Conductivity Latent ice water Hydrometer Glass tube series Parallel travelling standing wave Sound Radiation stefan Boltzmann law Newton cooling cylinder Harmonic Overtone Resonance Sonometer Kunds Beat Frequency vibration tuning Fork Swimmer Young Bulk Modulus welded chamber not similar dissimilar MIT Caltech Yale pipe Magnetic Tesla Lenz LvB Vijaya Bank Enclave Apartments Bannerghatta Road Behind IIM Jayanagar J-P-Nagar Buoyant Buoyancy Rho efflux Bernoullis rare Poiseuilles Torricellis critical Terminal Reynolds Poise coalescing Laplace Ventury Hoop orifice Siphon Foucault stretched compression ball scale constant length shear poisson Ratio clock loosing time tvanausdal1 vkiledj Density Partial Pressure Humidity Leak SmartlearnwebTV Space Puncture Photon RC RLC LR Circuit Electrical Capacitor Inductance Linked Flux Wheatstone Bridge Freelanceteach Troutons Rule Van Arkel Method Overview Metallurgy Roasting Calcination Froth Floatation Purification Projected Area PET Kerala MPPET Delta Star conversion Internal Resistance Battery Trick Questions Infinite Ladder Quadratic Cubic Quartic Quintic Orissa NSEP ckt eqn mesh Folding Lenzs J&K Karnataka RMS instantaneous BCECE Maharastra MHCET RPET stepup stepdown transformer Bilekahalli UPSEAT shunt galvanometer susceptibility oscillating magnetometer pole strength Bihar Rajasthan Uttarpradesh Punjab Hariana TN Tamilnadu Andhra WB west Bengal Vacuum Diode Triode Rectifier Truth Table Thermionic emission, Radioactivity Half Life Langmiur, Child Law FCC BCC Cube Optics Lens Mirror Focus Focal Concave Convex Lux Phot Lumen Double slit Complex Integral coordinate Geometry compounds, Biochemistry, Plastic, Organic Chemistry Physical Analytical Inorganic Metallurgy, Biotechnology, Polymer Science, Rubber Technology Geology, Pharma, Veterinary Science,Food Technology, Cryogenics, Ceramics acid species IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com proton donor activation energy minimum energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reaction breaking bonds addition polymer very long molecular chain formed repeated addition reactions many unsaturated alkene molecules monomers addition polymerisation process unsaturated alkene molecules monomers add growing polymer chain one timeIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com long saturated molecular chain addition polymer addition reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reactant added IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com unsaturated molecule saturated molecule adsorption process IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com occurs gas, liquid solute surface solid rarely liquid alicyclic hydrocarbon hydrocarbon IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atoms joined together ring structure aliphatic hydrocarbon hydrocarbon IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atoms joined together straight branched chains alkali type base IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com dissolves water forming hydroxide ions OH (aq) ions alkanes homologous series IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com general formula C alkyl group alkane IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hydrogen atom removed CH alkyl groups IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com ‘R’ amount substance quantity whose unit mole Chemists amount substance IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com IITJEE counting atoms anhydrous substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com contains water molecules anion negatively charged ion atom economy atomic orbital region within atom hold two electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com opposite spins atomic proton number number protons nucleus atom 100 products masses molecular sum product desired mass molecular economy atom Chemistry average bond enthalpy average enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com place IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com breaking homolytic fission 1 molIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com type bond molecules gaseous species Avogadro constant,isotope number atoms mole carbon base species IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com proton acceptor biodegradable material substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com broken IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com naturally environment living organisms Boltzmann distribution distribution energies molecules particular temperature IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com graph bond enthalpy enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com breaking homolytic fission 1 mol bond molecules gaseous species carbanion organic ion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atom hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com negative charge carbocation organic ion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atom hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com positive charge catalyst substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com increases rate chemical reaction process cation positively charged ion cis trans isomerism special type isomerism IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com non hydrogen group skmclasses.weebly.com hydrogen atom C C=C double bond cis isomer ( Z isomer) IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com H atoms on IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon same side trans isomer E isomer H atoms carbon different bond compound substance formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com chemically bonded elements fixed ratio, usually chemical formula concentration amount solute mol IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com 1 dm 3 1000 cm solution coordinate bond shared pair electrons provided one bonding atoms called dative covalent bond covalent bond bond formed shared pair electrons cracking breaking long chained saturated hydrocarbonsIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com mixture shorter chained alkanesalkenes curly arrow symbol IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reaction mechanisms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com show movement electron Coaching ICWA Coaching CFA Coaching CFP Coaching CMAT Coaching School Tuitions CBSE School Tuitions Home Tuitions 9th STD Tuitions PUC Coaching 10th Std Tuitions College Tuitions Maths Tuitions Engineering Tuitions Accounts & Finance Tuitions MBA & BBA Coaching Microbiology & Biotech Tuitions Study Abroad GRE & SAT Coaching GMAT Coaching IELTS/TOEFL Coaching PTE Coaching proteins protonation pyridines pyrroles quinones quinolines radical reaction radicals rearrangement receptors reduction regioselectivity retro reaction rhodium ring closure ring contraction ring expansion ring opening ruthenium samarium scandium Schiff bases selenium self-assembly silicon sodium solid-phase synthesis solvent effects spectroscopy sphingolipids spiro compounds stereoselective synthesis stereoselectivity steric hindrance steroids Stille reaction substituent effects sulfates sulfonamides sulfones sulfoxides sulfur supported catalysis supramolecular tandem reaction tautomerism terpenoids thioacetals thiols tin titanium total synthesis transesterification transition metals transition states tungsten Umpolung vinylidene complexes vitamins Wacker reaction Wittig reaction ylides zeolites zinc BRST Quantization Effective field theories Field Theories Higher Dimensions Field Theories Lower Dimensions Large Extra Dimensions Lattice Quantum Field Theory Nonperturbative Effects Renormalization Group Renormalization Regularization skmclasses.weebly.com Renormalons Sigma Models Solitons Monopoles skmclasses.weebly.com Instantons Supersymmetric gauge theory Topological Field Theories 1/N Expansion Anyons Chern-Simons Theories Confinement Duality Gauge Field Theories Lattice Gauge Field Theories Scattering Amplitudes Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking Strong Coupling Expansion Topological States Matter Wilson ‘t Hooft skmclasses.weebly.comPolyakov loops Anomalies Field skmclasses.weebly.comString Theories BRST Symmetry Conformal skmclasses.weebly.com W Symmetry Discrete skmclasses.weebly.comFinite Symmetries Gauge Symmetry Global Symmetries Higher Spin Symmetry Space-Time Symmetries AdS-CFT Correspondence Black Holes String Theory Bosonic Strings Brane Dynamics Gauge Theories Conformal Field Models String Theory D-branes dS vacua string theory F-Theory Flux compactifications Gauge-gravity correspondence Holography skmclasses.weebly.comcondensed matter physics (AdS CMT) Holography skmclasses.weebly.comquark-gluon plasmas Intersecting branes models Long strings M(atrix) Theories M-Theory p-branes Penrose limit skmclasses.weebly.compp-wave background String Duality String Field Theory String theory skmclasses.weebly.comcosmic string Superstring Vacua Superstrings skmclasses.weebly.comHeterotic Strings Tachyon Condensation Topological Strings 2D Gravity Black Holes Classical Theories Gravity Higher Spin Gravity Lattice Models Gravity Models Quantum Gravity Spacetime Singularities Extended Supersymmetry Supergravity Models Superspaces Supersymmetric Effective Theories Supersymmetry skmclasses.weebly.com Duality Supersymmetry Breaking Differential skmclasses.weebly.comAlgebraic Geometry Integrable Hierarchies Non-Commutative Geometry Quantum Groups Statistical Methods Stochastic Processes Cosmology Theories beyond SM Solar skmclasses.weebly.comAtmospheric Neutrinos Thermal Field Theory Be Ansatz Boundary Quantum Field Theory Exact S-Matrix Quantum Dissipative Systems Random Systems B-Physics Beyond Standard Model Compactification skmclasses.weebly.com String Models CP violation Electromagnetic Processes skmclasses.weebly.com Properties GUT Heavy Quark Higgs Kaon LEP HERA skmclasses.weebly.com SLC Neutrino Physics Quark Masses skmclasses.weebly.comSM Parameters Rare Decays Standard Model Supersymmetric Standard Model Technicolor skmclasses.weebly.com Composite Models Chiral Lagrangians Deep Inelastic Scattering Higher Twist Effects Lattice QCD Parton Model Phase Diagram QCD Phenomenological Models QCD Quark-Gluon Plasma Resummation Sum Rules Aim Global Education Koramangala Computer Networking Training Cloud Computing Training JBOSS Training Juniper Certification Training L2 & L3 Protocol Training MCTS Training Engineering design Training CAD & CAM Training MATLAB Training PLC Training SCADA Training VLSI Design Multimedia & Design Training 2D Animation Training 3D Animation Training 4D Animation Training CorelDRAW Training VFX Training Web Technologies Training ASP.Net Training JQuery pair breaking formation covalent bond dative covalent shared pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com been provided one bonding atoms only IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com called coordinate bond dehydration elimination reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com water removed saturated molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com unsaturated molecule delocalised Electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com shared IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two atoms displacement reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reactive element displaces less reactive element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com aqueous solution latter’s ions displayed formula showing relative positioning atoms molecule skmclasses.weebly.com bonds IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com disproportionation oxidation skmclasses.weebly.com reduction element redox reaction dynamic equilibrium equilibrium IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com exists closed system IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com rate forward reaction equal IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com rate reverse reaction E/Z isomerism type stereoisomerism IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different groups attached IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon C=C double bond arranged differently space restricted rotation C=C bond electron configuration arrangement electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom electronegativity measure attraction bonded atom skmclasses.weebly.com pair electrons covalent bond electron shielding repulsion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrons different inner shells Shielding reduces net attractive force IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com positive nucleus outer shell electrons electrophile atom group atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com attracted IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron rich centre atom IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com accepts pair electrons covalent bond electrophilic addition type addition reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrophile attracted electron rich centre atom accepts pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com new covalent bond elimination reaction removal molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com saturated molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com unsaturated molecule empirical formula simplest whole number ratio atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element present compound endothermic reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com enthalpy products greater enthalpy reactants resulting heat being taken surroundings enthalpy heat content IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com stored chemical system standard enthalpy change combustion enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole substance reacts completely IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oxygen under standard conditions reactants skmclasses.weebly.com products being IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com standard states (standard) enthalpy change formation enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole compound formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com constituent elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com standard states under standard conditions (standard) enthalpy change reaction enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com accompanies reaction molar quantities expressed chemical equation under standard conditions reactants skmclasses.weebly.com products being IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com standard states enthalpy cycle diagram showing alternative routes IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reactants products IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com allows indirect determination IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com other known enthalpy changes using Hess’ law enthalpy profile diagram skmclasses.weebly.com reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com compare enthalpy reactants IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com enthalpy products esterification reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com alcohol IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carboxylic acid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com produce ester skmclasses.weebly.com water exothermic reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com enthalpy products smaller enthalpy reactants, resulting heat loss IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com surroundings fractional distillation separation components liquid mixture skmclassesfractions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com differ boiling point skmclasses.weebly.com hence chemical composition IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com distillation typically using fractionating column fragmentation process mass spectrometry IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com causes positive ion split skmclasses pieces one positive fragment ion functional group part organic molecule responsible skmclasses.weebly.com chemical reactions general formula simplest algebraic formula member homologous series. skmclasses.weebly.com example general formula alkanes giant covalent lattice dimensional structure atoms, bonded together strong covalent bonds giant ionic lattice three dimensional structure oppositely charged ions, bonded together strong ionic bonds giant metallic lattice three dimensional structure positive ions skmclasses.weebly.com delocalised electrons, bonded together strong metallic bonds greenhouse effect process IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com absorption subsequent emission infrared radiation atmospheric gases warms lower atmosphere planet’s surface group vertical column Periodic Table Elements group IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com similar chemical properties skmclasses.weebly.com atoms skmclasses.weebly.comnumber outer shell electrons Hess law reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one route skmclasses.weebly.com initial final conditions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com total enthalpy change skmclasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com route heterogeneous catalysis reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com catalyst IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com different physical state reactants; frequently, reactants IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com gases whilst catalyst solid heterolytic fission breaking covalent bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com both bonded electrons going IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one atoms, forming cation (+ ion) skmclasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com anion ion homogeneous catalysis reaction catalyst skmclasses.weebly.com reactants physical state, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com frequently aqueous gaseous state homologous series series organic compounds IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com functional group, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com successive member differing homolytic fission breaking covalent bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one bonded electrons going IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom, forming two radicals hydrated Crystalline skmclasses.weebly.com containing water molecules hydrocarbon compound hydrogen skmclasses.weebly.com carbon hydrogen bond strong dipole attraction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron deficient hydrogen atom (O H on different molecule hydrolysis reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com water aqueous hydroxide ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com breaks chemical compound skmclasses two compounds initiation first step radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com free radicals generated ultraviolet radiation intermolecular force attractive force IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com neighbouring molecules Intermolecular forces van der Waals’ forces induced dipole ces permanent dipole forces hydrogen bonds ion positively negatively charge atom covalently bonded group atoms molecular ion ionic bonding electrostatic attraction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oppositely charged ions first) ionisation energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com remove one electron IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole gaseous 2+ ions second) ionisation energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com remove one electron IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole gaseous 2+ ions successive ionisation measure energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com remove IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron Chemistry energy second ionisation energy energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one electron IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole gaseous 2+ ions isotopes Atoms skmclasses.weebly.com element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different numbers neutrons different masses le Chatelier’s principle system dynamic equilibrium subjected change position equilibrium will shift minimise change limiting reagent substance chemical reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com runs out first lone pair outer shell pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com involved chemical bonding mass nucleon number particles protons aneutrons) nucleus mechanism sequence steps showing path taken electrons reaction metallic bond electrostatic attraction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com positive metal ions adelocalised electrons molar mass substance units molar mass IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molar volume IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com mole gas. units molar volume IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com dm room temperature skmclasses.weebly.com pressure molar volume approximately 24.0 substance containing IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com many particles thereIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atoms exactly 12 g carbon isotope molecular formula number atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element molecule molecular ion M positive ion formed mass spectrometry IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecule loses electron molecule small group atoms held together covalent bonds monomer small molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com combines IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com monomers polymer nomenclature system naming compounds nucleophile atom group atoms attracted electron deficient centre atom donates pair electrons covalent bond nucleophilic substitution type substitution reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com nucleophile attracted electron deficient centre atom, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com donates pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com new covalent bond oxidation Loss electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com increase oxidation number oxidation number measure number electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom uses bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atoms another element. Oxidation numbers IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com derive d rules oxidising agent reagent IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oxidises (takes electrons from) another species percentage yield period horizontal row elements Periodic Table Elements show trends properties across period periodicity regular periodic variation properties elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atomic number position Periodic Table permanent dipole small charge difference across bond resulting IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com difference electronegativities bonded atoms permanent dipole dipole force attractive force IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com permanent dipoles neighbouring polar molecules pi bond (p bond reactive part double bond formed above skmclasses.weebly.com below plane bonded atoms sideways overlap p orbitalspolar covalent bond bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com permanent dipole polar molecule molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com overall dipole skmclasses account dipoles across bonds polymer long molecular chain built monomer units precipitation reaction formation solid solution during chemical reaction Precipitates IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two aqueous solutions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com mixed together principal quantum number n number representing relative overall energy orbital IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com increases distance nucleus sets orbitals IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com value IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com electron shells energy levels propagation two repeated radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com build up products chain reaction radical species unpaired electron rate reaction change concentration reactant product redox reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reduction skmclasses.weebly.com oxidation take IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reducing agent reagent IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reduces (adds electron to) species reduction Gain electrons decrease oxidation number yield actual amount mol product theoretical amount mol product Chemistry reflux continual boiling skmclasses.weebly.com condensing reaction mixture ensure IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com without contents flask boiling dry relative atomic mass weighted mean mass atom element compared one twelfth mass IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom carbon relative formula mass weighted mean mass formula unit compared IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one twelfth mass atom carbon relative isotopic mass mass atom isotope compared IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one twelfth mass atom carbon relative molecular mass weighted mean mass molecule compared twelfth mass atom carbon 12 repeat unit specific arrangement atom s IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com occurs structure over over again. Repeat units IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com included brackets outside IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com symbol n Salt chemical compound formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com acid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com H+ ion acid IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com been replaced metal ion another positive ion such IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com ammonium ion, NH saturated hydrocarbon IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com single bonds only shell group atomic orbitals IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com principal quantum number known main energy level simple molecular lattice three dimensional structure molecules, bonded together weak intermolecular forces skeletal formula simplified organic formula, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hydrogen atoms removed alkyl chains, leaving carbon skeleton skmclasses.weebly.com associated functional groups species particle IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com part chemical reaction specific heat capacity, c energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com raise temperature 1 g substance 1 C spectator ions Ions present part chemical reaction standard conditions pressure 100 kPa 1 atmosphere stated temperature usually 298 K (25 °C), skmclasses.weebly.com concentration 1 mol dm reactions aqueous solutions standard enthalpies enthalpystandard solution solution known concentration Standard solutions normally IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com titrations IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com determine unknown information another substance Chemistry standard state physical state substance under standard conditions 100 kPa 1 atmosphere) skmclasses.weebly.com 298 K 25 C stereoisomers Compounds skmclasses.weebly.com structural formula IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different arrangement atoms space stoichiometry molar relationship IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com relative quantities substances part reaction stratosphere second layer Earth’s atmosphere, containing ‘ozone layer’, about 10 km IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com 50 km above Earth’s surface structural formula formula showing minimal detail skmclasses.weebly.com arrangement atoms molecule structural isomers Molecules IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com molecular formula different structural arrangements atoms subshell group skmclasses.weebly.com type atomic orbitals s, p, d f within shell substitution reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom group atoms replaced different atom group atoms termination step end radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two radicals combine IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecule thermal decomposition breaking chemical substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com heat skmclasses least two chemical substances troposphere lowest layer Earth’s atmosphere extending Earth’s surface about 7 km (above poles) about 20 km above tropics unsaturated hydrocarbon hydrocarbon containing carbon carbon multiple bonds van der Waals’ forces Very weak attractive forces IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com induced dipoles neighbouring molecules volatility ease IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com liquid turns skmclasses gas Volatility increases boiling point decreases water crystallisation Water molecules IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com essential part crystalline structure absolute zero – theoretical condition concerning system at zero Kelvin IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com system does IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com emit absorb energy (all atoms rest accuracy – how close value IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com actual true value IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com see precision acid compound that, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com dissolved water pH less 7.0 compound IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com donates hydrogen ion acid anhydride compound IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two acyl groups boundIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com single oxygen atom acid dissociation constant – IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com equilibrium constant skmclasses.weebly.com dissociation weak acid actinides – fifteen chemical elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com actinium (89) skmclasses.weebly.com lawrencium (103 activated complex – structure IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com forms because collisionIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecules new bondsvIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com formed activation energy – minimum energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com must be inputIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com chemical system activity series actual yield addition reaction – within organic chemistry, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecules combineIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com larger aeration mixing air skmclasses liquid solid alkali metals metals Group 1 on periodic table alkaline earth metals – metals Group 2 on periodic table allomer substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comdifferent composition another skmclasses.weebly.comcrystalline structure allotropy elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different structures skmclasses.weebly.com therefore different forms IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com Carbon diamonds, graphite, skmclasses.weebly.com fullerene anion negatively charge ions anode – positive side dry cell battery cell aromaticity – chemical property conjugated rings IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com results unusual stability. See IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com benzene atom – chemical element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com smallest form, skmclasses.weebly.com made up neutrons skmclasses.weebly.comprotons within nucleus skmclasses.weebly.comelectrons circling nucleus atomic mass unit atomic number number representing IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com corresponds IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com number protons within nucleus atomic orbital region IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron atom may be found atomic radius average atomic mass Avogadro’s law Avogadro’s number number particles mole substance ( 6.02×10^23 ) barometer deviceIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com measure pressure atmosphere base substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com accepts proton skmclasses.weebly.com high pH; common example sodium hydroxide (NaOH biochemistry chemistry organisms boiling phase transition liquid vaporizing boiling point temperature IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com substance startsIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com boil boiling-point elevation process IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com boiling point elevated adding substance bond – attraction skmclasses.weebly.com repulsion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atoms skmclasses.weebly.com molecules IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com cornerstone Boyle’s law Brønsted-Lowrey acid chemical species IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com donates proton Brønsted–Lowry acid–base reaction Brønsted-Lowrey base – chemical species IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com accepts proton buffered solution – IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com aqueous solution consisting weak acid skmclasses.weebly.comits conjugate base weak base skmclasses.weebly.comits conjugate acid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com resists changes pH IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com strong acids basesIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com added burette (IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com buret glasswareIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com dispense specific amounts liquid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com precision necessary titration 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105, 34th Main, 23rd Cross, Sector-A, Surya Nagar Phase-2, Anekal-Chandapura Main Road, Electronic City Chamarajpet First Main Road named Albert Victor Road 1889 future King Edward VII Englskmclasses.weebly.com renamed Alur Venkatarao Road,IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com well-known Kannada writer skmclasses.weebly.comprotagonist unification National Public School, Koramangala National Games Village Koramangala, Bangalore Kannada-speaking areas andlater shortened IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com A.V. Road. Avenue road earlier known Doddapete Infantry Road became Bhagavan Mahaveer Road 2004 Chamarajendra Park Jyothi Kendriya Vidyalaya Yelachenahalli, Kanakapura Road Bangalore IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com Cubbon Park IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Sir Mark Cubbon British Commissioner Mysore mid-19th century. Fraser Town, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com named Sir Stuart Fraser scholar tutor Maharaja Krishnaraja Wadiyar IV Pulakeshinagar. Hardinge Road old name Pampa Mahakavi Road. sometime, Cunningham Road crowded bazaar being called Sampangi Ramaswamy Temple Road Race Course Road became Devraj Urs Road National Public School, Rajajinagar 1036-A, Purandarapura, V Block, Rajajinagar, Bangalore skmclasses.weebly.comGrant Road became Vittal Mallya Road IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two Vittal Mallya Roads skmclasses bund Sampangi Tank Kanteerava Stadium Gear Innovative International School GEAR Road, Doddakannelli, Off Sarjapur Road & Outer Ring Road, Bangalore IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com built MacIver Town Shantala Nagar Assayee Road Meanee Road those names commemoration wars fought Madras New Horizon Gurukul Ring Road Marathalli, Behind New Horizon College of Engineering, Bangalore , Bangalore IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com Sappers, BGS National Public School Ramalingeshwara Cave Temple Hulimavu, Bangalore IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Presidency School (Bangalore – East) CA Site 7P1A, 2nd A Main, 3rd A cross, East of NGEF Layout, Kasturinagar, Bangalore British Army against Marathas first decade 19th century Basavanagudi, meaning temple Basava skmclasses.weebly.com big bull situated area reason behind naming area Basavanagudi extension skmclassesformed around 1900. Gandhi Bazar, earlier known merely Angadi Beedhi School Of India Anekal Road, Bannerghatta, Bangalore skmclasses formed Kumarapark came skmclasses existence 1947, year Indian Independence, whereas Jayanagar skmclasses.weebly.comRajajinagarIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com thought year later 1948 skmclasses.weebly.com orchards Bangalore Palace skmclasses developed housing colony skmclasses.weebly.comnamed Sadashivanagar 1960,IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Orchids The International School Jalahalli, Nagarbavi, Mysore Road, Sarjapur Road, BTM, Bangalore well-known freedom fighter Dakshina Kannada Karnad Sadashiva Rao BVK Iyengar Road Byappana Halli Byatarayanapura Byrasandra C.V Raman Nagar Cambridge Layout Cambridge Road Cantonment Carmelaram Castle Street Central Street Chamarajapet Shanthi Theatre South End Circle INOX Shree Garuda Swagath Mall, 4th Floor, Tilak Nagar Main Road INOX Bangalore Central-2, 5th Floor, 45th Cross Maheshwari Theater Bannerghatta Main Road Gopalan Cinemas Gopalan Innovation Mall, JP Nagar 3rd Phase Chandapura Chandra Layout Global Academy For Learning Sri Chowdeshwari Farm, Near Global Village IT Park, National Public School, HSR Layout P2/32, Sector 4, HSR Layout Bangalore Pattanagere Main Road, Rajarajeshwarinagar, Bangalore Chickpet Chikkabanavara Chikkadugodi Chikkallasandra Chikkamavalli Cholara Palya Chowdeshwari Temple Street Chunchagatta Church Street Clevelskmclasses.weebly.com Town CMH Road Coles Park Commercial Street Commissariat Road Cooke Town Corporation Circle Cottonpet Cox Town Crescent Road Cubbon Park Cubbon Road Cubbonpet Cunningham Road Dairy Circle Dasara Halli Dasarahalli Devaiah Park Devana Halli Devanahalli Devara Chikkana Halli Devara Jeevana Halli Devasandra Dharmaram College Dickenson Road Dispensary Road Dodda Banaswadi Dodda Bommasandra Dodda Kallasandra Dodda Kanna Hally Dodda Mavalli Doddaballapur Road Doddaballapura Doddana Kundi Dollars Colony Domlur Domlur 2nd Stage Domlur Ring Road Dooravani Nagar Dr. Ambedkar Veedhi Dr. DVG Road Delhi Public School, South 11 K.M., kanakapura Road Konanakunte Post, Bangalore Dr. Raj Kumar Road Dr. TCM Royan Road Ejipura Electronic City Field Marshal Cariappa Road Frazer Town Ganapathi Nagar Gandhi Bazaar Gandhi Nagar Ganga Nagar Gangadhar Chetty Road Ganigarpet Garvebhavi Palya Gavipuram Extension Gayathri Nagar Geddala Halli Geddalahalli Giri Nagar Giri Nagar 1st Phase Giri Nagar 2nd Phase GM Palya Gokula Golf Course Road Gorgunte Palya Govindaraj Nagar Green Park Extension, Guddada Halli Gundopanth Street National Public School, Indiranagar 12 A Main HAL II Stage, Bangalore H.Siddaiah Road Haines Road HAL HAL 2nd Stage HAL 3rd Stage HAL Airport Road Hampi Nagar Hanumantha Nagar Hayes Road HBR Layout Hebbal Kempapura Hebbal Ring Road Hegde Nagar Heggana Halli Hennur Hesaraghatta HKP Road HMT Layout Hongasandra Hoody Horamavu Hosakere Halli photochemistry photooxidation piperidines polyanions polycations polycycles polymers Porphyrins prostaglandins protecting groups Entrance Coaching IIT Entrance Coaching CLAT Entrance Coaching AICEE Coaching TANCET Entrance Coaching PMT Entrance Coaching Language Classes Spoken English Classes Spoken Hindi Classes Foreign Languages Coaching Spoken Kannada Classes Spoken Gujarati Classes Competitive Exams Coaching KMAT Coaching Online CAT Coaching GATE Coaching IBPS Coaching RRB Coaching Civil Services Coaching UGC Net Coaching SSB & NDA Coaching UPSC Coaching IAS Coaching TNPSC Coaching Accounts & Finance CA Training PHP & MySQL Training Spring Training Web Designing Training Administration Training VMWare Training ITIL Training SharePoint Training SAN Training Linux Administration Training Database Training Data Warehousing Training Database Testing Training HADOOP Training Oracle DBA Training SQL Server Training Programming Languages Java & J2EE Training C C++ Training Perl Programming Training Python Programming Training Shell Scripting Training Mobile Development Training Android Development Training iPhone Development Training Mobile Application Testing Training Mobile Gaming Training Mobile Application Development Training Oakridge International School Oakridge International School, Sarjapur Road, , Bangalore School of India, Bannerghatta, Bangalore Delhi Public School DPS North Campus, Yelahanka, Bangalore Jain International Residential School (JIRS), Jakkasandra Post, Bangalore Delhi Public School (DPS East), Sarjapur, Bangalore TREAMIS World School, Electronics City, Bangalore South Delhi Public School (South), Kanakapura Road, Bangalore The Deen’s Academy, Whitefield, Bangalore National Public School (NPS), Koramangala, Bangalore Royale Concorde International School, Kalyan Nagar, Bangalore Freedom International School, HSR Layout, Bangalore Air Force School Army Public School Bangalore Military School BGS International School Cambridge Public School Delhi Public School Deva Matha Central School Jain International Residential School Kendriya Vidyalaya A M C School A.S.C Public School Amara Jyothi Public School Anand Shiksha Kendra ICSE Syllabus ACTS Secondary School B Mona High School Baldwin Boys High School Baldwin Girls High School Bishop Cotton Boys School Bishop Cotton Girls School Brigade School Candor International School Cambridge Public School Cathedral High School Chinmaya Vidyalay Christ Academy Ekya School Gnan Srishti School of Excellence Gopalan National School India International School IIS Lawrence School-ICSE New Horizon Public School Notre Dame Academy Paradise Residential School Patel Public School Podar International School Prakriya Green Wisdom School Primus School Ryan International School Sishu Griha St. Francis De Sales (SFS) High School Sherwood High Sri Kumaran Childrens Home St Francis School St Johns High School St Thomas Public School St. Patricks Academy St. Peters School Vibgyor High CBSE Syllabus AECS Magnolia Maaruti Public School Amaatra Academy Amrita Vidyalayam BGS-NPS School Brigade School BRS Global Centre for Excellence Capitol Public School CMR National Public School Delhi Public School East, South, North Edify School EuroSchool Freedom International School Geethanjali Montessori Geethanjali Vidhyalaya Gitanjali International School GISB Greengrove International School Gomathy Global School Harvest International School JSS Public School Kendriya Vidyalaya KV Manipal Tattva School Mirambika School for New Age NITTE International School National Centre for Excellence NCFE National Public School New Horizon Gurukul NHG Oakridge International School Presidency School PSBB LLA Padma Seshadri Bal Bhavan Radcliffe School Ravindra Bharathi Global School Sadhguru Sainath International School SSI Sri Kumaran Childrens Home Sunrise International Residential School Sujaya School The Samhita Academy Vagdevi Vilas School Venkat International Public School VIPS Vyasa International School Zee School IGCSE Syllabus Asia Pacific World School Krupanidhi Cambridge International School Candor International 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Primary Years Programme Colegio Anglo Mexicano MEXICO Milgate Primary School, AUSTRALIA Diploma Programme Australian International School Indonesia Pejaten Campus INDONESIA Instituto Educativa Fiscomisional Celina Vivar Espinosa, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Juan de Salinas, ECUADOR Primary Years Programme Academia Moderna Charter, UNITED STATES Beacon School BRAZIL Dr. Orlando Edreira Academy, School 26, UNITED STATES Westhill Institute Carpatos Elementary Campus, MEXICO Westhill Institute, S.C. 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Atms. Educ. Institution Kogalym Secondary School ?8, RUSSIAN FEDERATION Phorms Bilingual Gymnasium, GERMANY Royal High School, UNITED STATES SIS Swiss International School Stuttgart-Fellbach, GERMANY Seedling Public School INDIA The British School of Beijing CHINA Unidad Educativa Fiscal Experimental del Milenio, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Juan de Velasco ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Tumbaco, ECUADOR École secondaire Gaétan Gervais, CANADA École secondaire Hanmer CANADA Stonehill International School American School of Bombay Mumbai Day school offering PYP MYP DP Dhirubhai Ambani International School Mumbai Day school offering DP Ecole Mondiale World School, Mumbai Day school offering DP Jamnabai Narsee School Mumbai Day school offering DP Ahmedabad International School Ahmedabad Day School offering PYP Mahatma Gandhi International School Ahmedabad Day school offering MYP Mahindra United World College of India Pune Boarding school offering DP Mercedes-Benz International School Pune American Embassy School Delhi Day school offering DP The British School, Delhi Day school offering DP Pathways World School, Gurgaon Boarding school offering PYP DP SelaQui World School, Dehra Dun Boarding school offering DP Canadian International School, Bangalore Mixed Boarding Day school offering DP International School of Bangalore, Bangalore Mixed Boarding Day school offering DP Oakridge International School Hyderabad Day school offering PYP Chinmaya International Residential School Coimbatore Boarding school offering DP Good Shepherd International School Ooty Boarding school offering DP Kodaikanal International School, Kodaikanal Boarding school offering DP Home Tuition Group teachers available small groupsstudents IB International Baccalaureate Programme, IGCSE, ISc, ICSE, CBSE Schools offering IB ( International Baccalaureate ) Programme Bangalore International School Geddalahalli Hennur Bagalur Road Kothanur Post Bengaluru India 560 077 Stonehill International School, 1st Floor, Embassy Point #150, Infantry Road Bengaluru 560 001 Stonehill International School 259/333/334/335 Tarahunise Post Jala Hobli, Bengaluru North 562157 Candor International School Begur Koppa Road, Hullahalli Off Bannerghatta Road, Near Electronic City Bangalore 560105 Greenwood High International School Bengaluru, No.8-14, Chickkawadayarapura, Near Heggondahalli Gunjur Post, Varthur Sarjapur Road, Bangalore 560087 Sarla Birla Academy, Bannerghatta, Bangalore, Canadian International School, Yelahanka, Bangalore Indus International School Billapura Cross Sarjapur Bangalore

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