NCERT CBSE Standard 12 Chemical Kinetics Chapter 4 Physical Chemistry

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Free Pdf e-Book download for IIT-JEE, CBSE, ISc, CET Physics Chemistry Maths from Professor Subhashish SKMClasses can be done at

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Download the following FREE pdf e-Books ( Chapter wise / Topic wise solutions, Written by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore )

IIT-JEE, NCERT / CBSE, I.Sc., PU, Board exam, EAMCET, BITS Chemistry Books with lots of Examples ( Free pdf download of Chemistry Books, Chapter wise / Topic wise Questions and Solutions )

Everything can be searched in the net. Someone can know and find; if he wants to. Yet information at a single place helps. In fact organized information communicates much better. For IIT results analysis, performance of Girls, perceptions and priorities of various people in various regions of India see

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IIT-JEE, NCERT / CBSE, I.Sc., PU, Board exam, EAMCET, BITS Physics Books with lots of Examples ( Free pdf download of Physics Books, Chapter wise / Topic wise Questions and Solutions )

1 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide-Ray or Geometrical Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide-Ray or Geometrical Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide-Ray or Geometrical Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Ray or Geometrical Optics. Slabs, Silvered Slab, Lenses, Silvered Lenses, Prisms, Silvered prisms are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma’s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide-Ray or Geometrical Optics by Prof. Subhashish

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IIT-JEE, NCERT / CBSE, I.Sc., PU, Board exam, EAMCET, BITS Chemistry Books with lots of Examples ( Free pdf download of Chemistry Books, Chapter wise / Topic wise Questions and Solutions )

8 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide-Stoichiometry Titration by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Stoichiometry Titration ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide-Stoichiometry Titration by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMEDK IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Stoichiometry Titrations, Heating effects in several salts, colours or colors of the precipitates, Empirical formulae calculation, Limiting reagents, Titration examples, Equivalent weight, milli-equivalent weight, What mass or moles is reacting with how much ? How much is oxidised ? How much is Reduced ? Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMEDK, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Stoichiometry Titration by Prof. Subhashish

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7 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide-Redox Reactions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Redox Reactions ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide-Redox Reactions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II AP-Chemistry IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers more than 60 examples of Redox Reactions, Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMEDK, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Redox Reactions by Prof. Subhashish

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6 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide-Electrochemistry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Electrochemistry ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide-Electrochemistry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMEDK IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Electrochemistry, Oxidation Potential, Reduction Potential, Electrode Potential, Reactivity Series, Battery, Nernst Equation, Variation of Voltage with concentration, Electrolyte, Electrolysis, Salt Bridge, Daniel Cell, Primary Cell, Secondary Cell, Galvanic Cell, Electrolytic Cell, Conductivity, Kohlrausch’s Law and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMEDK, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-ElectroChemistry by Prof. Subhashish

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5 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide-Reduction Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Reduction Methods ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide-Reduction Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMEDK IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Various kinds of Reduction Methods in Organic Chemistry. Covers Gilmann’s Reagent, Grignard Reagent, Trimethyl Silyl Iodide, Silyl Wittig Reaction, Hydrogen with Ni, Zn, Pd Palladium, Bakers Yeast, Wolf Kishner, Wilkinson’s Catalyst, Birch Reduction, Lindlar’s Catalyst, Benkeser Reduction, Reduction with HCO2H, Sodium Boro Hydride NaBH4, Veils Meier Reaction, Luche’s Reagent, Super Hydride, Sodium Cyno boro hydride, Dibal H, Adams Catalyst, Rosen Mund Reduction, Various Lithium Aluminium Hydrides, NaNH2,  and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMEDK, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chem Survival Guide-Reduction methods by Prof. Subhashish

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4 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide-Oxidation Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Oxidation Methods ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide-Oxidation Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMEDK IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Various kinds of Oxidation Methods in Organic Chemistry. Covers Sarett’s Reagent, PCC, Chromium Oxide, Osmium Oxide, Manganese Oxide, Silver oxides, Ruthenuim Oxide, Hydrogen Peroxide, Selenium dioxide, KMnO4, Jones, Julia Colonna, DCC, Corey’s, Moffats, Ley Oxidation, MPV, Fetizon, Frmy’s Salt, Elbs Persulphate Oxidation, Sodiumperiodate, Palladium Chloride, Copper Chloride, Sharpless epoxidation, and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMEDK, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chem Survival Guide-Oxidation methods by Prof. Subhashish

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3 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Bonds & Structure by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Bonds & Structures ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Bonds & Structures by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMEDK IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Various kinds of Bonds and Structures in Chemistry. Covers Sigma, Pi, Delta, Back Bonding, Coordinate or Dative Bond, Eta Bond, Hydrogen Bond, London forces, and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMEDK, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Bonds & Structure by Prof. Subhashish

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2 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Elements & Properties by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Elements & Properties ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Elements & Properties by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMEDK IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Elements & Their Properties in Chemistry. Covers the discoveries by spectral Analysis, Named after smell, places, people etc. Various compounds, tests, properties, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMEDK, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Elements & Properties by Prof. Subhashish

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1 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Empirical Formulae by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Empirical Formulae ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Empirical Formulae by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMEDK IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers various kinds of Empirical Equations in Chemistry. These equations are formed by experiments, and graph plotting. In some rare cases the Theory was developed later. Covers Slater’s rule, Shielding, Finding Electronegativity values by Allred and Rochow’s empirical formula, Moseley’s Law, Trouton’s law, Einstein-Debey equation (Dulong & Petit), Reynolds number, Raoult’s law, Variation of viscosity with temperature, Arrhenius model, Williams-Landel-Ferry model, Masuko and Magill model, Walther formula, Wright model, Seeton model, Variation of surface tension with temperature, Eotvos equation, Guggenheim-Katayama equation, Debye-Huckel-Onsager theory of conductivity of ions in dilute solutions, Liquid drop model of Nucleus, Nuclear Shell Model, Ionic character percentage of a diatomic molecule, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMEDK, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Empirical Formulae by Prof. Subhashish

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IIT-JEE, NCERT / CBSE, I.Sc., PU, Board exam, EAMCET, BITS Math Books with lots of Questions and Solutions, Examples ( Free pdf download of Math Books, Chapter wise / Topic wise Solutions )

17 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Trigonometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Trigonometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Trigonometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Trigonometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Trigonometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Trigonometry by Prof. Subhashish

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16 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-3D Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding 3D Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-3D Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers 3D Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of 3D Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-3D Geometry by Prof. Subhashish

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15 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola by Prof. Subhashish

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14 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Ellipse Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Ellipse Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Ellipse Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Ellipse Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Ellipse Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Ellipse by Prof. Subhashish

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13 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Parabola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Parabola Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Parabola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Parabola Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Parabola Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Parabola by Prof. Subhashish

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12 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Pair of Straight Lines by Prof. Subhashish

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11 ] CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Circles Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Circles Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Circles Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Circles Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Circles Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Circles by Prof. Subhashish

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10 ] CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Lines Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Straight Lines by Prof. Subhashish

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9  ] CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Complex Number by Prof. Subhashish

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8 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Quadratic Equations by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Quadratic Equations” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Quadratic Equation by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Quadratic Equations with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Quadratic Equations, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Quadratic Equation by Prof. Subhashish

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7 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Continuity and Differentiability by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Continuity & Differentiability” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Continuity and Differentiability by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Continuity and Differentiability with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Continuity and Differentiability, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Continuity & Differentiability by Prof. Subhashish

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6 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Relations and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Relations & Functions” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Relations and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Relations and Functions with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Relations and Functions, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Relations & Functions by Prof. Subhashish

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5 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Graphs and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Graphs & Functions” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Graphs and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Graphs and Functions with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Graphs and Functions, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Functions & Graphs by Prof. Subhashish

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4 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Indefinite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Indefinite Integrals & Calculus” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Indefinite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

 

1

This e-Book covers Indefinite Integrals with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Indefinite Integrals, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Indefinite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish

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3 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Area & Volume by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Area and Volume ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Area and Volume by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMEDK IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers various kinds of graphs, such as graph of Ln x, ( ln x )/x, x Ln x, floor x [ x ] , Shifting of graphs, roots of Quadratic, cubic, and other higher powers of x ( polynomials ), asymptotes, ( How to find Asymptotes ) etc. Volume by revolution and hundreds of Area problems of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMEDK, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Area & Volume by Prof. Subhashish

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2 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Definite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Definite Integrals ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Definite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMEDK IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Definite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish

This e-Book covers Definite Integrals with [ x ] greatest integer functions, { x } fraction function, Max and Min functions. Gamma function, Beta function, Integration after converting to Complex number, Leibnitz forms of Differentiating Integrals, L Hospital’s rule applied to limits with Integrals, Inequalities of Integrals, Rules / Tricks / Properties of Definite Integrals, with CBSE, COMEDK, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

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1 ]  CBSE 12 Math Survival Guide-Differential Equations by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Differential Equations ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Differential Equations by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMEDK IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Differential Equations by Prof. Subhashish

This e-Book covers all kinds of Differential equations, and methods to solve them. There is a priority checklist for the approach to be taken for solving the problems. Covers ISc, CBSE. AIEEE, IIT-JEE problems, Linear, Homogeneous, Variable separable by substitution, Exact, Reducible to exact, Bernoulli, Integrating Factors or Multiplying Factors, even Clairaut’s Differential Equations ( IIT-JEE 1999, Bihar CEE 1999 ). Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

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Various States have different names for the Engineering Entrance Exams.

CET – Common Engineering Entrance Test or Common Entrance Test is for Karnataka, Maharastra, Gujrat, Himachal Pradesh, J&K

GUJCET Exam – Gujarat Entrance Common Entrance Test – Engineering

HPCET – Himachal Pradesh Common Entrance Test

CEE – Commissionerate of Entrance Examinations Kerala. Some people say Common Entrance Exam. The exam in Kerala actually is known as KEAM – Kerala

Engineering Agriculture Medical Degree.

ASSAM CEE – Assam Combined Entrance Exam

EAMCET – Engineering and Medical Common Entrance Test

MP PET – Madhya Pradesh Pre Engineering Test. Randomly I liked lots of Physics Questions of MP-PET, as these were of very high quality / interesting.

RPET or R-PET – Rajasthan Pre Engineering Test

WBJEE or WB-JEE – West Bengal Joint Entrance Exam. The questions of these are very good / high quality.

UPSEE – Utter Pradesh State Entrance Exam

BCECEB – Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination Board. The exam name is BCECE. Some call it as Bihar Combined Engineering Entrance Exam BCEEE or

BCECE (Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination)

OJEE – Orissa Joint Entrance Exam

Tamilnadu does not have any state ( common ) entrance test. The admissions in colleges / universities are through standard 12 marks.

TNEA is a State Engineering Entrance Examination, which is conducted by Anna University. Tamil Nadu Engineering Admission.

COMEDK PGET – Consortium of Medical, Engineering and Dental Colleges of Karnataka for PG Post Graduate

NATA – National Aptitude Test in Architecture. National Institute of Advanced Studies in Architecture (NIASA) conducts this.

ISAT by IISAT – Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IISAT) Admission Test (ISAT) is a National Level Entrance Examination.

NAT – National Aptitude Test by Society for Research & Development in Education (SRDE), New Delhi

ENAT – EPSI National Admission Test. by Manipal Institute of Technology. Manipal Online Entrance Test Manipal-OET

VITEEE – VIT Engineering Entrance Exam, Vellore Institute of Technology. Conducted by VIT university

BITSAT – Birla Institute of Technology and Science Admission Test.

Punjab PET – Punjab Engineering Admission, Pre Engineering Test

ASSAM CEE – Assam Combined Entrance Exam

Tripura JEE – Tripura Joint Entrance Exam

NEE – NERIST Entrance Examination. Conducted by the North Eastern Regional Institute of Science & Technology (NERIST), Nirjuli, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh

1 ] CET CEE EAMCET JEE Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, CET, CEE, PET, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CET CEE PET EAMCET JEE Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola by Prof. Subhashish

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https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/some-points-which-i-wish-all-my-new-prospective-students-know/

SKM Logo 550 X 300

Many more free pdf e-Books are available at (such as H C Verma Concepts of Physics Solutions)

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/books-for-you-physics-maths-chemistry-free-download-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

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e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book–e-Book

If you want to sell your House, why do you have to pay 2% to a Broker or to a website ?

You can advertise for free to sell your House at free4u.info

Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay is providing a Social Service for all in Bangalore, to advertise for Free

If you want to sell your Car, why do you have to pay 2% to a Broker or to a website ?

You can advertise for free to sell your Car at free4u.info

Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay is providing a Social Service for all in Bangalore, to advertise for Free

If you are looking for Organ Donation, where do you ask ? Where do you want to put up your requirements ? Do you give costly ads ?

You can advertise or Post Classifieds for free at free4u.info

Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay is providing a Social Service for all in Bangalore, to advertise for Free. Post all kinds of Classified ads and Requirements for FREE.

If you are a Tutor, or a Shopkeeper, or a Teacher, or a Cook, or a Gardener, or a Dog Trainer ….. or something something something….. How can you afford costly ads ? Post your requirements for free at free4u.info     Advertise yourself free at free4u.info     Doing a garage sell …. Tell all for free at free4u.info

Looking for a Nanny ? You can get Nannys in free4u.info

Nannys looking for jobs ? Want children to take care ? You get the child and Parents in free4u.info

Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay is providing a Social Service for all in Bangalore, to advertise for Free. Post all kinds of Classified ads and Requirements for FREE. Following Categories and Subcategories will surely help you. This is not an exhaustive list. You can give general requirements as well. Post all your skills. Post all your needs. Looking for a job ? You can post your profile as well.

Some call this as ” Yellow Pages “. free4u.info

Some call this a FREE listing sites free4u.info

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Bike        ( Want to sell your Bike ? Want a Buyer ? Advertise for free at free4u.info )

Solutions to Chapter 4 :

Chemical Kinetics Standard 12 CBSE

Must see https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/some-points-which-i-wish-all-my-new-prospective-students-know/

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Gyan :

1 what is rate constant of a reaction

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE

Question 4.1

4.1a QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.1b QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.1c QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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Must see https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/some-points-which-i-wish-all-my-new-prospective-students-know/

🙂

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The next chapter Solution is at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/ncert-cbse-standard-12-surface-chemistry-chapter-5-physical-chemistry/
!
The previous chapter Solution is at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/ncert-cbse-standard-12-electrochemistry-chapter-3/
!
The first Chapter Solution is at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/ncert-cbse-standard-12-solid-state-chapter-1-physical-chemistry/
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Untitled

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Gyan :

2 what is reaction rate

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE

Question 4.2

4.2 QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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Gyan Question :

1 the following rate data was obtained for first

2 the following rate data was obtained for first

3 the following rate data was obtained for first

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11 Beautiful pink lips

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Gyan Question :

1a First order reaction has k

1b First order reaction has k

1c First order reaction has k

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Gyan :

1 what is meant by reaction rate

2 what is meant by reaction rate

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Do you know the reaction kinetics of the degradation of the surface material ?

4 Chele meye bosse aachhe

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Gyan :

3 What is rate law in chemical kinetics concentration dependence

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Gyan :

3 Distinguish between reaction rate and specific reaction rate

4 Distinguish between reaction rate and specific reaction rate

5 Distinguish between reaction rate and specific reaction rate

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE

Question 4.3

4.3 QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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12 Beautiful pink lips

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Gyan Question :

1 Write in brief on molecularity

2 Write in brief on molecularity

3 Write in brief on molecularity

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Gyan Question :

1a The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

1b The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

1c The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

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Gyan :

6 Explain with suitable examples molecularity

7 Explain with suitable examples molecularity

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Is it pipe snake ?

4 Pipe diye baniyeche

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Gyan :

1 Derive the equation for rate constant

2 Derive the equation for rate constant

3 Derive the equation for rate constant

4 Derive the equation for rate constant

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Gyan :

What are the expressions for half life ?

4 What is Half life formula n th order chemical reaction

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Could they have had stone cloth ?

4 Dui mohila bosse achche

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Gyan :

5 different reaction have different activation energy

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE

Question 4.4

4.4 QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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13 Beautiful reddish lips

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1 A reaction between A and B

2 A reaction between A and B

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Gyan Question :

1a The decomposition of oxalic acid

1b The decomposition of oxalic acid

1c The decomposition of oxalic acid

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Gyan :

6 What is thresold energy of chemical reaction

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE

Answer 4.4 :

4.4b QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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14 Beautiful pink lips

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Gyan Question :

1 For the reaction between nitric Oxide

2 For the reaction between nitric Oxide

3 For the reaction between nitric Oxide

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Gyan Question :

1a decomposition of sucrose into glucose and fructose

1b decomposition of sucrose into glucose and fructose

1c decomposition of sucrose into glucose and fructose

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Gyan :

7 Temeperature dependence of chemical reaction arrhenius

8 Temeperature dependence of chemical reaction arrhenius

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Two dogs guarding the building 🙂

4 Sada kukur kan dhore tan

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Gyan :

9 What is Photosensitization

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE

Question 4.5

4.5 QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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15 Beautiful pink lips

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Gyan Question :

1a For reaction rate 2.5 times when temp is oncreased

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Gyan :

1a Instantaneous rate expressions

1b Instantaneous rate expressions

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE

Question 4.6

4.6a QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.6b QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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16 Beautiful pink lips

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Gyan Question :

1a The rate constant for a second order reaction

1b The rate constant for a second order reaction

1c The rate constant for a second order reaction

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Gyan :

1 expressions for K and half life t1-2

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What is stone worry ?

5 Pa chodiye bosse aache

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Gyan :

2 Time taken to conplete various percentage of reaction

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What is stone emotions ?

5 Bust of Man sada dress

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Gyan :

3 how is t1-2 related to initial concentration

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No comments 🙂

5 Golden tera banka

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Gyan :

4 Modify the Arrhenius Equation

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE

Question 4.7 :

4.7 QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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5 Reaction Expression for rate constant

6 Reaction Expression for rate constant

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17 Beautiful pink lips

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Gyan Question :

1a Explain with an example what is meant by photo senitization

1b Explain with an example what is meant by photo senitization

1c Explain with an example what is meant by photo senitization

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE

Question 4.8 :

4.8a QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.8b QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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Gyan :

Plots of rate with respect to Concentration

7 Plots of rate vs concentration for different order reactions

8 Plots of rate vs concentration for different order reactions

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE

Question 4.9 :

4.9a QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.9b QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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Gyan :

What is Pseudo-unimolecular Reaction ?

1 what is pseudo-unimolecular reaction

2 what is pseudo-unimolecular reaction

3 what is pseudo-unimolecular reaction

4 what is pseudo-unimolecular reaction

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE

Question 4.10 :

4.10a QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.10b QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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Gyan :

5 decide on the rate of reaction

6 decide on the rate of reaction

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE

Question 4.11

4.11a QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.11b QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.11c QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.11d QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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Gyan Question :

7 Explain why the values of molecularity

8 Explain why the values of molecularity

9 Explain why the values of molecularity

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE

Question 4.12 :

4.12a QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.12b QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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Gyan Question :

1 Identify the reaction order from given k

2 Identify the reaction order from given k

3 Identify the reaction order from given k

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE ( Chemical Kinetics is not same as Chemical Equilibrium )

Question 4.13 :

4.13 QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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Gyan Question :

4 the reaction 2NO+Br2 = 2NOBr proceeds

5 the reaction 2NO+Br2 = 2NOBr proceeds

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE ( Chemical Kinetics is not same as Chemical Equilibrium )

Question 4.14 :

4.14a QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.14b QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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Gyan Question :

6 The rate constant of a reaction is 1.5 10^7 per second

7 The rate constant of a reaction is 1.5 10^7 per second

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE ( Chemical Kinetics is not same as Chemical Equilibrium )

Question 4.15 :

4.15a QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.15b QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.15c QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.15d QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.15e QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.15f QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.15g QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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20 Beautiful pink lips

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Gyan Question :

1 Ammonia and oxygen react at high temp

2 Ammonia and oxygen react at high temp

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Gyan Question :

8 one milligram of 90Sr was absorbed

9 one milligram of 90Sr was absorbed

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE ( Chemical Kinetics is not same as Chemical Equilibrium )

Question 4.16

4.16 QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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21 Beautiful pink lips

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Gyan Question :

1 Benzene diazonium chloride decomposes in water

2 Benzene diazonium chloride decomposes in water

3 Benzene diazonium chloride decomposes in water

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Gyan Question :

1 Explain the following terms on the potential energy diagram

2 Explain the following terms on the potential energy diagram

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Gyan Question :

1 The decomposition of a compound is found

2 The decomposition of a compound is found

3 The decomposition of a compound is found

4 The decomposition of a compound is found

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE ( Chemical Kinetics is not same as Chemical Equilibrium )

Question 4.17 :

4.17a QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.17b QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.17c QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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Gyan Question :

1 inversion of sucrose was studied

2 inversion of sucrose was studied

3 inversion of sucrose was studied

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22 Beautiful pink lips

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Gyan Question :

1 Why the rate of a chemical reaction do not remain

2 Why the rate of a chemical reaction do not remain

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Gyan Question :

5 Nitric Oxide reacts with Oxygen to produce

6 Nitric Oxide reacts with Oxygen to produce

7 Nitric Oxide reacts with Oxygen to produce

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE ( Chemical Kinetics is not same as Chemical Equilibrium )

Question 4.18 :

4.18a QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.18b QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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Gyan :

1 Draw schematic graph showing rate of first order reaction

2 Draw schematic graph showing rate of first order reaction

3 Draw schematic graph showing rate of first order reaction

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE ( Chemical Kinetics is not same as Chemical Equilibrium )

Question 4.19 :

4.19 QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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Gyan :

4 Rate constant k of a reaction varies with temp

5 Rate constant k of a reaction varies with temp

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE ( Chemical Kinetics is not same as Chemical Equilibrium )

Question 4.20 :

4.20a QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.20b QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.20c QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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Gyan :

6 State the role of activated complex

7 State the role of activated complex

8 State the role of activated complex

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE ( Chemical Kinetics is not same as Chemical Equilibrium )

Question 4.21 :

4.21a QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.21b QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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Gyan :

9 Following experimental data was collected

10 Following experimental data was collected

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE ( Chemical Kinetics is not same as Chemical Equilibrium )

Question 4.22 :

4.22a QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.22d QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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Gyan :

11 A first order reaction is 20% complete

12 A first order reaction is 20% complete

1 A first order reaction is

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE ( Chemical Kinetics is not same as Chemical Equilibrium )

Question 4.23 :

4.23 QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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Gyan :

2 find the two-third life of a first order reaction

3 find the two-third life of a first order reaction

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE ( Chemical Kinetics is not same as Chemical Equilibrium )

Question 4.24 :

4.24 QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.24b QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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Gyan :

4 first order reaction completes 15 percent in 20 min

5 first order reaction completes 15 percent in 20 min

6 first order reaction completes 15 percent in 20 min

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE ( Chemical Kinetics is not same as Chemical Equilibrium )

Question 4.25 :

4.25a QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.25b QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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1 Beautiful girl in white Sari

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Gyan Question :

1a Activation energy is zero

1b Activation energy is zero

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23 Beautiful pink lips

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Gyan Question :

1 Give the order of reaction with respect to

2 Give the order of reaction with respect to

3 Give the order of reaction with respect to

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE ( Chemical Kinetics is not same as Chemical Equilibrium )

Question 4.26 :

4.26 QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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2 Beautiful girl in white Sari

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Gyan Question :

1a A first order reaction is 30 percent complete

1b A first order reaction is 30 percent complete

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE ( Chemical Kinetics is not same as Chemical Equilibrium )

Question 4.27 :

4.27 QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.27b QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.27c QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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3 Beautiful girl in green Sari

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Gyan Question :

1a The rate constant of the first order decomposition

1b The rate constant of the first order decomposition

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE ( Chemical Kinetics is not same as Chemical Equilibrium )

Question 4.28 :

4.28a QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.28b QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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Gyan Question :

1 The rate reaction 2NO + Cl2

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4 Beautiful girl in yellow Sari

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Gyan Question :

1a If the decomposition of Nitrogen V oxide

1b If the decomposition of Nitrogen V oxide

1c If the decomposition of Nitrogen V oxide

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5 Is it beautiful face

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Gyan Question :

1a Reaction between nitric oxide NO and hydrogen

1b Reaction between nitric oxide NO and hydrogen

1c Reaction between nitric oxide NO and hydrogen

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18 Beautiful pink lips

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE ( Chemical Kinetics is not same as Chemical Equilibrium )

Question 4.29 :

4.29a QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.29b QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.29c QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.29d QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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Gyan Question :

1 what are photochemical reactions

2 what are photochemical reactions

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9 Beautiful pink lips

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Gyan Question :

1a First order reaction 40% complete

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NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE ( Chemical Kinetics is not same as Chemical Equilibrium )

Question 4.30 :

4.30a QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

4.30b QA Chemical Kinetics CBSE Std 12

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19 Beautiful pink lips

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Gyan Question :

1 The rate of reaction 2A+B = A2B

2 The rate of reaction 2A+B = A2B

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This is NOT any of my students 🙂

Bandor

NCERT – CBSE Std 11-12 IIT-JEE ( Chemical Kinetics is not same as Chemical Equilibrium )

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Chemical Kinetics helps us to understand how chemical reactions occur.

Chemistry, by its very nature, is concerned with change. Substances with well defined properties are converted by chemical reactions into other substances with different properties. For any chemical reaction, chemists try to find out
(a) the feasibility of a chemical reaction which can be predicted by thermodynamics ( as you know that a reaction with ΔG < 0, at constant temperature and pressure is feasible);
(b) extent to which a reaction will proceed can be determined from chemical equilibrium;
(c) speed of a reaction i.e. time taken by a reaction to reach equilibrium.

Along with feasibility and extent, it is equally important to know the rate and the factors controlling the rate of a chemical reaction for its complete understanding. For example, which parameters determine as to how rapidly food gets spoiled? How to design a rapidly setting material for dental filling? Or what controls the rate at which fuel burns in an auto engine? All these questions can be answered by the branch of chemistry, which deals with the study of reaction rates and their mechanisms, called chemical kinetics. The word kinetics is derived from the Greek word ‘kinesis’ meaning movement. Thermodynamics tells only about the feasibility of a reaction whereas chemical kinetics tells about the rate of a reaction. For example, thermodynamic data indicate that diamond shall convert to graphite but in reality the conversion rate is so slow that the change is not perceptible at all. Therefore, most people think that diamond is forever. Kinetic studies not only help us to determine the speed or rate of a chemical reaction but also describe the conditions by which the reaction rates can be altered. The factors such as concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst affect the rate of a reaction. At the macroscopic level, we are interested in amounts reacted or formed and the rates of their consumption or formation. At the molecular level, the reaction mechanisms involving orientation and energy of molecules undergoing collisions, are discussed.

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10 Beautiful pink lips

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Gyan Question :

1a Show that time required for

1b Show that time required for

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In this Unit, we shall be dealing with average and instantaneous rate of reaction and the factors affecting these. Some elementary ideas about the collision theory of reaction rates are also given. However, in order to understand all these, let us first learn about the reaction rate.

4.1 Rate of a Chemical Reaction

Some reactions such as ionic reactions occur very fast, for example, precipitation of silver chloride occurs instantaneously by mixing of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and sodium chloride. On the other hand, some reactions are very slow, for example, rusting of iron in the presence of air and moisture. Also there are reactions like inversion of cane sugar and hydrolysis of starch, which proceed with a moderate speed. Can you think of more examples from each category?

You must be knowing that speed of an automobile is expressed in terms of change in the position or distance covered by it in a certain period of time. Similarly, the speed of a reaction or the rate of a reaction can be defined as the change in concentration of a reactant or product in unit time. To be more specific, it can be expressed in terms of:
(i) the rate of decrease in concentration of any one of the reactants, or
(ii) the rate of increase in concentration of any one of the products.

Consider a hypothetical reaction, assuming that the volume of the system remains constant.
R →P

One mole of the reactant R produces one mole of the product P. If [R]1 and [P]1 are the concentrations of R and P respectively at time t1 and [R]2 and [P]2 are their concentrations at time t2 then,
Δt = t2 – t1
Δ[R] = [R]2 – [R]1
Δ [P] = [P]2 – [P]1
The square brackets in the above expressions are used to express molar concentration.
Rate of disappearance of R
=Decrease in concentration of R / Time taken       R/t ……………(4.1)
Rate of appearance of P
=Increase in concentration of P / Time taken        P/t ………………(4.2)
Since, Δ[R] is a negative quantity (as concentration of reactants is decreasing), it is multiplied with –1 to make the rate of the reaction a positive quantity.

Equations (4.1) and (4.2) given above represent the average rate of a reaction, rav.

Average rate depends upon the change in concentration of reactants or products and the time taken for that change to occur (Fig. 4.1).

Units of rate of a reaction

From equations (4.1) and (4.2), it is clear that units of rate are concentration time–1. For example, if concentration is in mol L–1 and time is in seconds then the units will be mol L-1s–1. However, in gaseous reactions, when the concentration of gases is expressed in terms of their partial pressures, then the units of the rate equation will be atm s–1.

Example 4.1
From the concentrations of C4H9Cl (butyl chloride) at different times given below, calculate the average rate of the reaction:
C4H9Cl + H2O → C4H9OH + HCl
during different intervals of time.
t/s   0   50   100   150   200   300   400   700   800

[C4H9Cl]/mol L−1 0.100    0.0905    0.0820    0.0741    0.0671    0.0549    0.0439    0.0210    0.017
Solution
We can determine the difference in concentration over different intervals of time and thus determine the average rate by dividing Δ[R] by Δt(Table 4.1).

Table 4.1: Average rates of hydrolysis of butyl chloride
[C4H9Cl]t1/ mol L-1 [C4H9Cl]t2/ mol L-1 t1/S t2/S rav×104/mol L -1S-1
= {[C4H9Cl]t2 – [C4H9Cl]t1 / (t2 – t1)} × 104
0.100 0.0905 0 50 1.90
0.0905 0.0820 50 100 1.70
0.0820 0.0741 100 150 1.58
0.0741 0.0621 150 200 1.40
0.0671 0.0549 200 300 1.22
0.0549 0.0439 300 400 1.10
0.0439 0.0335 400 500 1.04
0.0210 0.017 700 800 0.4

It can be seen (Table 4.1) that the average rate falls from 1.90 × 0-4 mol L-1s-1 to 0.4 × 10-4 = mol L-1s-1. However, average rate cannot be used to predict the rate of a reaction at a particular instant as it would be constant for the time interval for which it is calculated. So, to express the rate at a particular moment of time we determine the instantaneous rate. It is obtained when we consider the average rate at the smallest time interval say dt ( i.e. when Δt approaches zero). Hence, mathematically for an infinitesimally small dt instantaneous rate is given by
rav R/t   P/t……………………….(4.3)
As   Δt → 0   or   rinst =−d [R ]/dt= d [P ]/dt

It can be determined graphically by drawing a tangent at time t on either of the curves for concentration of R and P vs time t and calculating its slope (Fig. 4.1). So in problem 4.1, rinst at 600s for example, can be calculated by plotting concentration of butyl chloride as a function of time. A tangent is drawn that touches the curve at t = 600 s (Fig. 4.2).
The slope of this tangent gives the instantaneous rate.
So, rinst at 600 s = – 0.0165 – 0.037/800 – 400 s mol L–1 = 5.12 × 10–5 mol L–1s–1
At t = 250 s rinst = 1.22 × 10–4 mol L–1s–1
t = 350 s rinst = 1.0 × 10–4 mol L–1s–1
t = 450 s rinst = 6.4 × 10–5 mol L–1s–1
Now consider a reaction
Hg(l) + Cl2 (g) →HgCl2(s)
Where stoichiometric coefficients of the reactants and products are same, then rate of the reaction is given as Hg

Rate of reaction = – Hg/t    −Cl2/t   HgCl2/t

i.e., rate of disappearance of any of the reactants is same as the rate of appearance of the products. But in the following reaction, two moles of HI decompose to produce one mole each of H2 and I2,

2HI(g) → H2(g) + I2(g)

For expressing the rate of such a reaction where stoichiometric coefficients of reactants or products are not equal to one, rate of disappearance of any of the reactants or the rate of appearance of products is divided by their respective stoichiometric coefficients. Since rate of consumption of HI is twice the rate of formation of H2 or I2, to make them equal, the term Δ[HI] is divided by 2. The rate of this reaction is given by

Rate of reaction   1/2    HI/t    H2/t   I2/t

Similarly, for the reaction
5 Br (aq) + BrO3 (aq) + 6 H+ (aq) → 3 Br2 (aq) + 3 H2O (l)
Rate   1/5  Br/t  BrO3/t  1/6  H/t  1/3  H2O/t

For a gaseous reaction at constant temperature, concentration is directly proportional to the partial pressure of a species and hence, rate can also be expressed as rate of change in partial pressure of the reactant or the product.

Example 4.2 The decomposition of N2O5 in CCl4 at 318K has been studied by monitoring the concentration of N2O5 in the solution. Initially the concentration of N2O5 is 2.33 mol L–1 and after 184 minutes, it is reduced to 2.08 mol L–1. The reaction takes place according to the equation
2 N2O5 (g) →4 NO2 (g) + O2 (g)
Calculate the average rate of this reaction in terms of hours, minutes and seconds. What is the rate of production of NO2 during this period?
Solution
Average Rate  1/2  N2O5/t   1/2   2.08×2.33 mol L1/184 min
= 6.79 × 10 mol L /min = (6.79 × 10–4 mol L–1 min–1) × (60 min/1h)
= 4.07 × 10–2 mol L–1/h
= 6.79 × 10–4 mol L–1 × 1min/60s
= 1.13 × 10–5 mol L–1s–1
It may be remembered that

Rate 1/4    NO2/t

NO2/t    6.79 × 10–4 × 4 mol L–1 min–1 = 2.72 × 10–3 mol L–1min–1

Intext Questions
4.1 For the reaction R →P, the concentration of a reactant changes from 0.03M to 0.02M in 25 minutes. Calculate the average rate of reaction using units of time both in minutes and seconds.
4.2 In a reaction, 2A →Products, the concentration of A decreases from 0.5 mol L–1 to 0.4 mol L–1 in 10 minutes. Calculate the rate during this interval?

4.2 Factors Influencing Rate of a reaction

Rate of reaction depends upon the experimental conditions such as concentration of reactants (pressure in case of gases), temperature and catalyst.

4.2.1 Dependence of Rate on Concentration

The rate of a chemical reaction at a given temperature may depend on the concentration of one or more reactants and products. The representation of rate of reaction in terms of concentration of the reactants is known as rate law. It is also called as rate equation or rate expression.

4.2.2 Rate Expression and Rate Constant

The results in Table 4.1 clearly show that rate of a reaction decreases with the passage of time as the concentration of reactants decrease. Conversely, rates generally increase when reactant concentrations increase. So, rate of a reaction depends upon the concentration of reactants.

Consider a general reaction
aA + bB → cC + dD
where a, b, c and d are the stoichiometric coefficients of reactants and products.
The rate expression for this reaction is
Rate ∝ [A]x [B]y………………..(4.4)
where exponents x and y may or may not be equal to the stoichiometric coefficients (a and b) of the reactants. Above equation can also be written as
Rate = k [A]x [B]y………………..(4.4a)
d R/dt k A x By……………………(4.4b)

This form of equation (4.4 b) is known as differential rate equation, where k is a proportionality constant called rate constant. The equation like (4.4), which relates the rate of a reaction to concentration of reactants is called rate law or rate expression. Thus, rate law is the expression in which reaction rate is given in terms of molar concentration of reactants with each term raised to some power, which may or may not be same as the stoichiometric coefficient of the reacting species in a balanced chemical equation. For example:
2NO(g) + O2(g) → 2NO2 (g)
We can measure the rate of this reaction as a function of initial concentrations either by keeping the concentration of one of the reactants constant and changing the concentration of the other reactant or by changing the concentration of both the reactants. The following results are obtained (Table 4.2).

Table 4.2: Initial rate of formation of NO2
Experiment Initial [NO] / mol L-1 Initial [O2] / mol L-1 Initial rate of formation of NO2 / mol L-1S-1
1 0.30 0.30 0.096
2 0.60 0.30 0.384
3 0.30 0.60 0.192
4 0.60 0.60 0.768

It is obvious, after looking at the results, that when the concentration of NO is doubled and that of O2 is kept constant then the initial rate increases by a factor of four from 0.096 to 0.384 mol L–1s–1. This indicates that the rate depends upon the square of the concentration of NO. When concentration of NO is kept constant and concentration of O2 is doubled the rate also gets doubled indicating that rate depends on concentration of O2 to the first power. Hence, the rate equation for this reaction will be
Rate = k[NO] [O2]
The differential form of this rate expression is given as
d R/dt k NO2 O2

Now, we observe that for this reaction in the rate equation derived from the experimental data, the exponents of the concentration terms are the same as their stoichiometric coefficients in the balanced chemical equation.
Some other examples are given below:
Reaction              Experimental rate expression
1. CHCl3 + Cl2 →CCl4 + HCl Rate = k [CHCl3 ] [Cl2]1/2
2. CH3COOC2H5 + H2O →CH3COOH + C2H5OH       Rate = k [CH3COOC2H5]1 [H2O]°

In these reactions, the exponents of the concentration terms are not the same as their stoichiometric coefficients. Thus, we can say that:

Rate law for any reaction cannot be predicted by merely looking at the balanced chemical equation, i.e., theoretically but must be determined experimentally.

4.2.3 Order of a Reaction

In the rate equation (4.4)
Rate = k [A]x [B]y
x and y indicate how sensitive the rate is to the change in concentration of A and B. Sum of these exponents, i.e., x + y in (4.4) gives the overall order of a reaction whereas x and y represent the order with respect to the reactants A and B respectively.

Hence, the sum of powers of the concentration of the reactants in the rate law expression is called the order of that chemical reaction.

Order of a reaction can be 0, 1, 2, 3 and even a fraction. A zero order reaction means that the rate of reaction is independent of the concentration of reactants.

Example 4.3 Calculate the overall order of a reaction which
solution
has the rate expression
(a) Rate = k [A]1/2 [B]3/2
(b) Rate = k [A]3/2 [B]–1
(a) Rate = k [A]x [B]y
order = x + y
So order = 1/2 + 3/2 = 2, i.e., second order
(b) order = 3/2 + (–1) = 1/2, i.e., half order.

A balanced chemical equation never gives us a true picture of how a reaction takes place since rarely a reaction gets completed in one step. The reactions taking place in one step are called elementary reactions. When a sequence of elementary reactions (called mechanism) gives us the products, the reactions are called complex reactions.

These may be consecutive reactions (e.g., oxidation of ethane to CO2 and H2O passes through a series of intermediate steps in which alcohol, aldehyde and acid are formed), reverse reactions and side reactions (e.g., nitration of phenol yields o-nitrophenol and p-nitrophenol).

Units of rate constant

For a general reaction
aA + bB → cC + dD
Rate = k [A]x [B]y
Where x + y = n = order of the reaction

k =Rate/ [A]x [B]y
= concentration / time × 1/ concentrationn where [A] [B]
Taking SI units of concentration, mol L and time, s, the units of k for different reaction order are listed in Table 4.3

Table 4.3: Units of rate constant
Reaction Order Units of rate constant
Zero order reaction 0 mol L-1/s × 1/(mol L-1)0 = mol L-1S-1
first order reaction 1 mol L-1/s × 1/(mol L-1)1 = S-1
Second order reaction 2 mol L-1/s × 1/(mol L-1)2 = mol-1 L-1s-1

Example 4.4
Identify the reaction order from each of the following rate constants.
(i) k = 2.3 × 10–5 L mol–1 s–1
(ii) k = 3 × 10–4 s–1
Solution
(i) The unit of second order rate constant is L mol–1 s–1, therefore k = 2.3 × 10–5 L mol–1 s–1 represents a second order reaction.
(ii) The unit of a first order rate constant is s–1 therefore k = 3 × 10–4 s–1 represents a first order reaction.

4.2.4 Molecularity of a Reaction

Another property of a reaction called molecularity helps in understanding its mechanism. The number of reacting species (atoms, ions or molecules) taking part in an elementary reaction, which must collide simultaneously in order to bring about a chemical reaction is called molecularity of a reaction. The reaction can be unimolecular when one reacting species is involved, for example, decomposition of ammonium nitrite.
NH4NO2 → N2 + 2H2O

Bimolecular reactions involve simultaneous collision between two species, for example, dissociation of hydrogen iodide.
2HI → H2 + I2

Trimolecular or termolecular reactions involve simultaneous collision between three reacting species, for example,
2NO + O2 → 2NO2

The probability that more than three molecules can collide and react simultaneously is very small. Hence, the molecularity greater than three is not observed.

It is, therefore, evident that complex reactions involving more than three molecules in the stoichiometric equation must take place in more than one step.
KClO3 + 6FeSO4 + 3H2SO4 → KCl + 3Fe2(SO4)3 + 3H2O

This reaction which apparently seems to be of tenth order is actually a second order reaction. This shows that this reaction takes place in several steps. Which step controls the rate of the overall reaction? The question can be answered if we go through the mechanism of reaction, for example, chances to win the relay race competition by a team depend upon the slowest person in the team. Similarly, the overall rate of the reaction is controlled by the slowest step in a reaction called the rate determining step. Consider the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide which is catalysed by iodide ion in an alkaline medium.

The rate equation for this reaction is found to be

Rate= −d [H2 O2 ]/dt
= k [H2 O2 ][I ]

This reaction is first order with respect to both H2O2 and I. Evidences suggest that this reaction takes place in two steps

(1) H2O2 + I → H2O + IO
(2) H2O2 + IO → H2O + I + O2

Both the steps are bimolecular elementary reactions. Species IO is called as an intermediate since it is formed during the course of the reaction but not in the overall balanced equation. The first step, being slow, is the rate determining step. Thus, the rate of formation of intermediate will determine the rate of this reaction. Thus, from the discussion, till now, we conclude the following:
(i) Order of a reaction is an experimental quantity. It can be zero and even a fraction but molecularity cannot be zero or a non integer.
(ii) Order is applicable to elementary as well as complex reactions whereas molecularity is applicable only for elementary reactions. For complex reaction molecularity has no meaning.
(iii) For complex reaction, order is given by the slowest step and generally, molecularity of the slowest step is same as the order of the overall reaction.

Intext Questions
4.3 For a reaction, A + B →Product; the rate law is given by, r = k [ A]1/2 [B]2. What is the order of the reaction?
4.4 The conversion of molecules X to Y follows second order kinetics. If concentration of X is increased to three times how will it affect the rate of formation of Y ?

4.3 Integrated Rate Equations

We have already noted that the concentration dependence of rate is called differential rate equation. It is not always convenient to determine the instantaneous rate, as it is measured by determination of slope of the tangent at point ‘t’ in concentration vs time plot (Fig. 4.1). This makes it difficult to determine the rate law and hence the order of the reaction. In order to avoid this difficulty, we can integrate the differential rate equation to give a relation between directly measured experimental data, i.e., concentrations at different times and rate constant.

The integrated rate equations are different for the reactions of different reaction orders. We shall determine these equations only for zero and first order chemical reactions.

4.3.1 Zero Order Reactions

Zero order reaction means that the rate of the reaction is proportional to zero power of the concentration of reactants. Consider the reaction,
R →P
Rate = −d [R ]/dt = k [R ]°
As any quantity raised to power zero is unity
Rate = − d [R ]/dt =k ×1
d[R] = – k dt

Integrating both sides
[R] = – k t + I………………………..(4.5)
where, I is the constant of integration.
At t = 0, the concentration of the reactant R = [R]0, where [R]0 is initial concentration of the reactant.
Substituting in equation…………….. (4.5)
[R]0 = –k × 0 + I
[R]0 = I
Substituting the value of I in the equation (4.5)
[R] = -kt + [R]0………………………………..(4.6)

Comparing (4.6) with equation of a straight line, y = mx + c, if we plot [R] against t, we get a straight line (Fig. 4.3) with slope = –k and intercept equal to [R]0.

Further simplifying equation (4.6), we get the rate constant, k as

k = (R0 × R) / t…………………………………..(4.7)

Zero order reactions are relatively uncommon but they occur under special conditions. Some enzyme catalysed reactions and reactions which occur on metal surfaces are a few examples of zero order reactions. The decomposition of gaseous ammonia on a hot platinum surface is a zero order reaction at high pressure.


Rate = k [NH3]0 = k

In this reaction, platinum metal acts as a catalyst. At high pressure, the metal surface gets saturated with gas molecules. So, a further change in reaction conditions is unable to alter the amount of ammonia on the surface of the catalyst making rate of the reaction independent of its concentration. The thermal decomposition of HI on gold surface is another example of zero order reaction.

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8 Beautiful pink lips

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1a The experimental data for the reaction 2A

1b The experimental data for the reaction 2A

1c The experimental data for the reaction 2A

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4.3.2 First Order Reactions

In this class of reactions, the rate of the reaction is proportional to the first power of the concentration of the reactant R. For example,
R →P

Rate dR/dt k R

or d R/ R -kdt

Integrating this equation, we get
ln [R] = – kt + I………………………….(4.8)
Again, I is the constant of integration and its value can be determined easily.

When t = 0, R = [R]0, where [R]0 is the initial concentration of the reactant.

Therefore, equation (4.8) can be written as
ln [R]0 = –k × 0 + I
ln [R]0 = I
Substituting the value of I in equation (4.8)
ln[R] = -kt + ln[R]0…………………(4.9)
Rearranging this equation
ln R/R0 kt
or k = 1/t [R ]0 / [R] …………………(4.10)
At time t1 from equation (4.8)
*ln[R]1 = – kt1 + *ln[R]0 …………………….(4.11)
At time t2
ln[R]2 = – kt2 + ln[R]0……………………….(4.12)
where, [R]1 and [R]2 are the concentrations of the reactants at time t1 and t2 respectively.
Subtracting (4.12) from (4.11)

ln[R]1– ln[R]2 = – kt1 – (–kt2)

ln R1 / R2 k t2 t1

k 1/ t2 t1 ln R1/R2………………………(4.13)

Equation (4.9) can also be written as
ln R / R0 kt
Taking antilog of both sides
[R] = [R]0 e-kt………………….(4.14)

Comparing equation (4.9) with y = mx + c, if we plot ln [R] against t (Fig. 4.4) we get a straight line with slope = –k and intercept equal to ln [R]0

The first order rate equation (4.10) can also be written in the form
k 2.303 / t log R0/ R…………………………(4.15)

*log R0/ R kt/2.303………………………(4.15)

If we plot a graph between log [R]0/[R] vs t, (Fig. 4.5), the slope = k/2.303

Hydrogenation of ethene is an example of first order reaction.
C2H4(g) + H2 (g) → C2H6(g)
Rate = k [C2H4]

All natural and artificial radioactive decay of unstable nuclei take place by first order kinetics.

22688Ra → 2He + 22286Rn
Rate = k [Ra]
Decomposition of N2O5 and N2O are some more examples of first order reactions.

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7 Beautiful pink lips

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1a The decomposition of N2O5 follows first order kinetics

1b The decomposition of N2O5 follows first order kinetics

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Example 4.5 The initial concentration of N2O5 in the following first order reaction
N2O5(g) →2 NO2(g) + 1/2O2 (g) was 1.24 × 10–2 mol L–1 at 318 K. The concentration of N2O5 after 60 minutes was 0.20 × 10–2 mol L–1. Calculate the rate constant of the reaction at 318 K.
Solution
For a first order reaction
Log [R1] / [R2] = k(t2 − t1) / 2.303
k = 2.303 / (t2 − t1) log [R1] / [R2]
=2.303 / (t2 − t2) log 1.24 × 10-2 mol L−1 / 0.20 × 10-2 mol L−1
=2.303 / 60 log 6.2 min−1
k = 0.0304 min−1

Let us consider a typical first order gas phase reaction
A(g) → B(g) + C(g)

Let pi be the initial pressure of A and pt the total pressure at time ‘t’. Integrated rate equation for such a reaction can be derived as

Total pressure pt = pA + pB + pC (pressure units)

pA , pB , pC are the partial pressures of A, B and C, respectively. If x atm be the decrease in pressure of A at time t and one mole each of B and C is being formed, the increase in pressure of B and C will also be x atm each.
A(g)    →     B(g)   +   C(g)
At t = 0        pi 0 atm       0 atm
At t = t       (pi−x)   x atm       x atm
where, pi is the initial pressure at time t = 0.
pt = (pi – x) + x + x = pi + x
x = (pt – pi)
where, pA = pi – x = pi – (pt – pi)
= 2pi – pt
k =( 2.303 / t ) ( log pi / pA)……………………….(4.16)
= ( 2.303 / t) log (pi /2 pi − pt )

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6 Beatiful face gray eyes

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Gyan Question :

1 For the thermal decomposition of acetaldehyde

2 For the thermal decomposition of acetaldehyde

3 For the thermal decomposition of acetaldehyde

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Example 4.6
The following data were obtained during the first order thermal decomposition of N2O5 (g) at constant volume:
2N2O5 g    2N2O4g    O2
S.No.      Time / s      Total Pressure/(atm)
1.        0        0.5
2.        100         0.512
Calculate the rate constant.
Solution
Let the pressure of N2O5(g) decrease by 2x atm. As two moles of N2O5 decompose to give two moles of N2O4(g) and one mole of O2 (g), the pressure of N2O4 (g) increases by 2x atm and that of O2 (g) increases by x atm.
2N2O5g       2N2O4 O2g
Start t = 0 0.5 atm          0 atm       0 atm
At time t  (0.5 − 2x) atm     2x atm       x atm
pt = p N2O5 + pN2O4 + pO2
= (0.5 – 2x) + 2x + x = 0.5 + x
x        pt 0.5
pN2O5 = 0.5 – 2x
= 0.5 – 2 (pt – 0.5) = 1.5 – 2pt
At t = 100 s; pt = 0.512 atm
pN2O5 = 1.5 – 2 × 0.512 = 0.476 atm
Using equation (4.16)
k=2.303/t log pi/ pA = (2.303 /100s) log 0.5 / 0.476atm
=2.303/100 s× 0.0216 = 4.98 × 10−4 s −1

4.3.3 Half-Life of a Reaction

The half-life of a reaction is the time in which the concentration of a reactant is reduced to one half of its initial concentration. It is represented as t1/2.
For a zero order reaction, rate constant is given by equation 4.7.
k R0 R / t

At t t1/2, R    1/2R0

The rate constant at t1/ 2 becomes

k R0 1/2R0 / t1/2

t1/2 R0/2k

It is clear that t1/2 for a zero order reaction is directly proportional to the initial concentration of the reactants and inversely proportional to the rate constant.
For the first order reaction,
k 2.303/t log R0/ R………………………………(4.15)
at t1/2 R    R0/2…………………(4.16)

So, the above equation becomes

k 2.303/t1/2 log R0/ R/2
or
t1/2 = 2.303/k log 2
t1/2 2.303/k 0.301
t1/2 0.693 / k………………………….(4.17)

It can be seen that for a first order reaction, half-life period is constant, i.e., it is independent of initial concentration of the reacting species. The half-life of a first order equation is readily calculated from the rate constant and vice versa.

For zero order reaction t1/2 ∝ [R]0. For first order reaction t1/2 is independent of [R]0.

Example 4.7
A first order reaction is found to have a rate constant, k = 5.5 × 10-14 s-1. Find the half-life of the reaction.
solution
Half-life for a first order reaction is
t1/2 = 0.693 / k
t1/2 = 0.693 / 5.5 ×10 –14 s –1
= 1.26 × 1014s
Show that in a first order reaction, time required for completion of 99.9% is 10 times of half-life (t1/2) of the reaction.

Example 4.8
When reaction is completed 99.9%, [R]n = [R]0 – 0.999[R]0
Solution
k = 2.303 /t log [R]0/[R]
= 2.303 / t log [R]0/[R]0 − 0.999[R]0 = 2.303/t log 103
t = 6.909 / k
For half-life of the reaction
t1/2 = 0.693/k
t / t1/2 = 6.909 / k × k / 0.693 =10

Table 4.4: Integrated Rate Laws for the Reactions of Zero and First Order
Order Reaction type Differential rate law integrated rate law Straight Line plot hlf life Units of k
0 R → P d[R]/dt = -k kt = [R]0-[R] [R] vs t [R]0 / 2k conc time -1 or mol L-1 s-1
0 R → P d[R]/dt = -k[R] [R] = [R]0e-kt or kt = ln{[R]0 / [R]} ln[R] vs t ln 2/k time-1 or s-1

4.4 Pseudo First Order Reaction

The order of a reaction is sometimes altered by conditions. Consider a chemical reaction between two substances when one reactant is present in large excess. During the hydrolysis of 0.01 mol of ethyl acetate with 10 mol of water, amounts of the various constituents at the beginning (t = 0) and completion (t) of the reaction are given as under.

t = 0   0.01 mol     10 mol       0 mol       0 mol
t       0 mol 9.9 mol      0.01 mol    0.01 mol

The concentration of water does not get altered much during the course of the reaction. So, in the rate equation
Rate = k′ [CH3COOC2H5] [H2O]
the term [H2O] can be taken as constant. The equation, thus, becomes
Rate = k [CH3COOC2H5]
where k = k′ [H2O]

and the reaction behaves as first order reaction. Such reactions are called pseudo first order reactions.

Inversion of cane sugar is another pseudo first order reaction.

Rate = k [C12H22O11]

Example 4.9 Hydrolysis of methyl acetate in aqueous solution has been studied by titrating the liberated acetic acid against sodium hydroxide. The concentration of the ester at different times is given below.

t/min 0 30 60 90
C/mol L-1 0.8500 0.8004 0.7538 0.7096

Show that it follows a pseudo first order reaction, as the concentration of water remains nearly constant (55 mol L-1), during the course of the reaction. What is the value of k′ in this equation? Rate = k′ [CH3COOCH3][H2O]

Solution For pseudo first order reaction, the reaction should be first order with respect to ester when [H2O] is constant. The rate constant k for pseudo first order reaction is

k 2.303 / t log C0/C          where k k’ H2O

From the above data we note

t/min C/mol L-1 k’/min-1
0 0.8500
30 0.8004 2004 ×10-3
60 0.7538 2002 ×10-3
90 0.7096 2005 ×10-3

It can be seen that k ́ [H2O] is constant and equal to 2.004 × 10-3 min–1 and hence, it is pseudo first order reaction. We can now determine k from
k ́ [H2O] = 2.004 × 10–3 min–1
k ́ [55 mol L–1] = 2.004 × 10–3 min–1
k ́ = 3.64 × 10–5 mol–1 L min–1

Intext Questions
4.5 A first order reaction has a rate constant 1.15 × 10-3 s-1. How long will 5 g of this reactant take to reduce to 3 g?
4.6 Time required to decompose SO2Cl2 to half of its initial amount is 60 minutes. If the decomposition is a first order reaction, calculate the rate constant of the reaction.

4.5 Temperature Depndence of the rate of a reaction

Most of the chemical reactions are accelerated by increase in temperature. For example, in decomposition of N2O5, the time taken for half of the original amount of material to decompose is 12 min at 50°C, 5 h at 25°C and 10 days at 0°C. You also know that in a mixture of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and oxalic acid (H2C2O4), potassium permanganate gets decolourised faster at a higher temperature than that at a lower temperature.

It has been found that for a chemical reaction with rise in temperature by 10°, the rate constant is nearly doubled.

The temperature dependence of the rate of a chemical reaction can be accurately explained by Arrhenius equation (4.18). It was first proposed by Dutch chemist, J.H. van’t Hoff but Swedish chemist, Arrhenius provided its physical justification and interpretation .

k = A e-Ea / RT……………………….(4.18)
where A is the Arrhenius factor or the frequency factor. It is also called pre-exponential factor. It is a constant specific to a particular reaction. R is gas constant and Ea is activation energy measured in joules/mole (J mol –1).

It can be understood clearly using the following simple reaction
H2 (g) + I2 ( g ) → 2HI ( g )

According to Arrhenius, this reaction can take place only when a molecule of hydrogen and a molecule of iodine collide Intermediate to form an unstable intermediate (Fig. 4.6). It exists for a very short time and then breaks up to form two molecules of hydrogen iodide.

The energy required to form this intermediate, called activated complex (C), is known as activation energy (Ea). Fig. 4.7 is obtained by plotting potential energy vs reaction coordinate. Reaction coordinate represents the profile of energy change when reactants change into products.

Some energy is released when the complex decomposes to form products. So, the final heat of the reaction depends upon the nature of reactants and products.

All the molecules in the reacting species do not have the same kinetic energy. Since it is difficult to predict the behaviour of any one molecule with precision, Ludwig Boltzmann and James Clark Maxwell used statistics to predict the behaviour of large number of molecules. According to them, the distribution of kinetic energy may be described by plotting the fraction of molecules (NE/NT) with a given kinetic energy (E) vs kinetic energy (Fig. 4.8). Here, NE is the number of molecules with energy E and NT is total number of molecules.

The peak of the curve corresponds to the most probable kinetic energy, i.e., kinetic energy of maximum fraction of molecules. There are decreasing number of molecules with energies higher or lower than this value. When the temperature is raised, the maximum of the curve moves to the higher energy value (Fig. 4.9) and the curve broadens out, i.e., spreads to the right such that there is a greater proportion of molecules with much higher energies. The area under the curve must be constant since total probability must be one at all times. We can mark the position of Ea on Maxwell Boltzmann distribution curve (Fig. 4.9).

Increasing the temperature of the substance increases the fraction of molecules, which collide with energies greater than Ea. It is clear from the diagram that in the curve at (t + 10), the area showing the fraction of molecules having energy equal to or greater than activation energy gets doubled leading to doubling the rate of a reaction.

In the Arrhenius equation (4.18) the factor e -Ea /RT corresponds to the fraction of molecules that have kinetic energy greater than Ea. Taking natural logarithm of both sides of equation (4.18)

ln k = –Ea/RT+ ln A………………………(4.19)

The plot of ln k vs 1/T gives a straight line according to the equation (4.19) as shown in Fig. 4.10.

Thus, it has been found from Arrhenius equation (4.18) that increasing the temperature or decreasing the activation energy will result in an increase in the rate of the reaction and an exponential increase in the rate constant.


In Fig. 4.10, slope = –Ea / R and intercept = ln A. So we can calculate Ea and A using these values.

At temperature T1, equation (4.19) is

ln k1 = – Ea/RT + ln A……………………..(4.20)

At temperature T2, equation (4.19) is

ln k2 = – Ea/RT2 + ln A…………………………(4.21)

(since A is constant for a given reaction) k1 and k2 are the values of rate constants at temperatures T1 and T2 respectively.

Subtracting equation (4.20) from (4.21), we obtain

ln k2 – ln k1 = Ea/RT1 – Ea/RT2

ln k2/k1 = Ea/R [1/T1 – 1/T2]

log k2/k1 = Ea/2.303R [1/T1 – 1/T2……………………….(4.22)

log k2/k1 = Ea/2.303 R [ (T2 – T1) / T1T2]

Example 4.10 The rate constants of a reaction at 500K and 700K are 0.02s-1 and 0.07s−1 respectively. Calculate the values of Ea and A.

Solution
log k2/k1 = Ea/2.303 R [(T2 − T1) / T1T2]

log 0.07/0.02 =(Ea/ 2.303 × 8.314 JK −1mol −1)[(700 − 500)/ (700× 500)] 0.544 = Ea × 5.714 × 10-4/19.15

Ea = 0.544 × 19.15/5.714 × 10–4 = 18230.8 J

Since k = Ae-Ea/RT
0.02 = Ae-18230.8/8.314 × 500

A = 0.02/0.012 = 1.61

Example 4.11 The first order rate constant for the decomposition of ethyl iodide by the reaction
C2H5I(g) → C2H4 (g) + HI(g)
at 600K is 1.60 × 10–5 s–1. Its energy of activation is 209 kJ/mol. Calculate the rate constant of the reaction at 700K.

Solution
We know that log k2 – log k1 = Ea/2.303R[1/T1 − 1/T2]
log k2 = log k1 + Ea/2.303R[1/T1 − 1/T2]
= log (1.60 × 10−5) + 209000 J mol L−1/2.303 × 8.314 J mol L−1K−1 [1/600K − 1/700K]
log k2 = – 4.796 + 2.599 = – 2.197
k2 = 6.36 × 10–3 s–1

4.5.1 Effect of Catalyst

A catalyst is a substance which alters the rate of a reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change. For example, MnO2 catalyses the following reaction so as to increase its rate considerably.

The action of the catalyst can be explained by intermediate complex theory. According to this theory, a catalyst participates in a chemical reaction by forming temporary bonds with the reactants resulting in an intermediate complex. This has a transitory existence and decomposes to yield products and the catalyst.

It is believed that the catalyst provides an alternate pathway or reaction mechanism by reducing the activation energy between reactants and products and hence lowering the potential energy barrier as shown in Fig. 4.11.

It is clear from Arrhenius equation (4.18) that lower the value of activation energy faster will be the rate of a reaction.

A small amount of the catalyst can catalyse a large amount of reactants. A catalyst does not alter Gibbs energy, ΔG of a reaction. It catalyses the spontaneous reactions but does not catalyse non- spontaneous reactions. It is also found that a catalyst does not change the equilibrium constant of a reaction rather, it helps in attaining the equilibrium faster, that is, it catalyses the forward as well as the backward reactions to the same extent so that the equilibrium state remains same but is reached earlier.

4.6 Collision Theory of Chemical Reaction

Though Arrhenius equation is applicable under a wide range of circumstances, collision theory, which was developed by Max Trautz and William Lewis in 1916 -18, provides a greater insight into the energetic and mechanistic aspects of reactions. It is based on kinetic theory of gases. According to this theory, the reactant molecules are assumed to be hard spheres and reaction is postulated to occur when molecules collide with each other. The number of collisions per second per unit volume of the reaction mixture is known as collision frequency (Z). Another factor which affects the rate of chemical reactions is activation energy (as we have already studied). For a bimolecular elementary reaction

A + B → Products

rate of reaction can be expressed as

Rate = ZABe -Ea / RT…………………….(4.23)
where ZAB represents the collision frequency of reactants, A and B and e-Ea /RT represents the fraction of molecules with energies equal to or greater than Ea. Comparing (4.23) with Arrhenius equation, we can say that A is related to collision frequency.

Equation (4.23) predicts the value of rate constants fairly accurately for the reactions that involve atomic species or simple molecules but for complex molecules significant deviations are observed. The reason could be that all collisions do not lead to the formation of products. The collisions in which molecules collide with sufficient kinetic energy (called threshold energy*) and proper orientation, so as to facilitate breaking of bonds between reacting species and formation of new bonds to form products are called as effective collisions.

For example, formation of methanol from bromoethane depends upon the orientation of reactant molecules as shown in Fig. 4.12. The proper orientation of reactant molecules lead to bond formation whereas improper orientation makes them simply bounce back and no products are formed.

To account for effective collisions, another factor P, called the probability or steric factor is introduced. It takes into account the fact that in a collision, molecules must be properly oriented i.e.,

Rate = PZAB e-Ea/ RT

Thus, in collision theory activation energy and proper orientation of the molecules together determine the criteria for an effective collision and hence the rate of a chemical reaction.

Collision theory also has certain drawbacks as it considers atoms/ molecules to be hard spheres and ignores their structural aspect. You will study details about this theory and more on other theories in your higher classes.

Intext Question
4.7 What will be the effect of temperature on rate constant ?
4.8 The rate of the chemical reaction doubles for an increase of 10K in absolute temperature from 298K. Calculate Ea. 4.9 The activation energy for the reaction
2 HI(g) → H2 + I2(g)
is 209.5 kJ mol–1 is 209.5kJ mol -1 at 581K.Calculate the fraction of molecules of reactants having energy equal to or greater than activation energy?

Summary

Chemical kinetics is the study of chemical reactions with respect to reaction rates, effect of various variables, rearrangement of atoms and formation of intermediates. The rate of a reaction is concerned with decrease in concentration of reactants or increase in the concentration of products per unit time. It can be expressed as instantaneous rate at a particular instant of time and average rate over a large interval of time. A number of factors such as temperature, concentration of reactants, catalyst, affect the rate of a reaction. Mathematical representation of rate of a reaction is given by rate law. It has to be determined experimentally and cannot be predicted. Order of a reaction with respect to a reactant is the power of its concentration which appears in the rate law equation. The order of a reaction is the sum of all such powers of concentration of terms for different reactants. Rate constant is the proportionality factor in the rate law. Rate constant and order of a reaction can be determined from rate law or its integrated rate equation. Molecularity is defined only for an elementary reaction. Its values are limited from 1 to 3 whereas order can be 0, 1, 2, 3 or even a fraction. Molecularity and order of an elementary reaction are same.

Temperature dependence of rate constants is described by Arrhenius equation (k = Ae–Ea/RT). Ea corresponds to the activation energy and is given by the energy difference between activated complex and the reactant molecules, and A (Arrhenius factor or pre-exponential factor) corresponds to the collision frequency. The equation clearly shows that increase of temperature or lowering of Ea will lead to an increase in the rate of reaction and presence of a catalyst lowers the activation energy by providing an alternate path for the reaction. According to collision theory, another factor P called steric factor which refers to the orientation of molecules which collide, is important and contributes to effective collisions, thus, modifying the Arrhenius equation to k = PZ AB e−Ea / RT .

Exercises

4.1 From the rate expression for the following reactions, determine their order of reaction and the dimensions of the rate constants.
(i) 3NO(g) → N2O(g) Rate = k[NO]2
(ii) H2O2 (aq) + 3I (aq) + 2H+ → H2O(l) + I3 Rate = k [ H2O2][I]
(iii) CH3CHO (g)→CH4 (g) + CO(g) Rate = k[CH3CHO]3/2
(iv) C2H5Cl (g)→ C2H4 (g) + HCl (g) Rate = k [C2H5Cl]

4.2 For the reaction:
2A + B → A2B the rate = k[A][B]2 with k = 2.0 × 10–6 mol–2 L2 s–1. Calculate the initial rate of the reaction when [A] = 0.1 mol L–1, [B] = 0.2 mol L–1. Calculate the rate of reaction after [A] is reduced to 0.06 mol L–1.

4.3 The decomposition of NH3 on platinum surface is zero order reaction. What are the rates of production of N2 and H2 if k = 2.5 × 10–4 mol–1 L s–1?

4.4 The decomposition of dimethyl ether leads to the formation of CH4, H2 and CO and the reaction rate is given by
Rate = k [CH3OCH3]3/2
The rate of reaction is followed by increase in pressure in a closed vessel, so the rate can also be expressed in terms of the partial pressure of dimethyl ether, i.e.,
Rate = k(PCH3OCH3)3/2
If the pressure is measured in bar and time in minutes, then what are the units of rate and rate constants?4.5 Mention the factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction.

4.6 A reaction is second order with respect to a reactant. How is the rate of reaction affected if the concentration of the reactant is (i) doubled (ii) reduced to half ?

4.7 What is the effect of temperature on the rate constant of a reaction? How can this temperature effect on rate constant be represented quantitatively?

4.8 In a pseudo first order hydrolysis of ester in water, the following results were obtained:

t/s 0 30 60 90
[Ester]/mol L-1 0.55 0.31 0.17 0.085

(i) Calculate the average rate of reaction between the time interval 30 to 60 seconds.
(ii) Calculate the pseudo first order rate constant for the hydrolysis of ester.

4.9 A reaction is first order in A and second order in B.
(i) Write the differential rate equation.
(ii) How is the rate affected on increasing the concentration of B three times?
(iii) How is the rate affected when the concentrations of both A and B are doubled?

4.10 In a reaction between A and B, the initial rate of reaction (r0) was measured for different initial concentrations of A and B as given below:

A/mol L-1 0.20 0.20 0.40
B/mol L-1 0.30 0.10 0.05
r0/mol L-1s-1 5.07 × 105 5.07 × 10-5 1.43 × 10-4

What is the order of the reaction with respect to A and B?

4.11 The following results have been obtained during the kinetic studies of the reaction:
2A + B →C + D

Experiment [A]/mol L-1 [B]/mol L-1 initial rate of formation of D/ mol L-1 min-1
I 0.1 0.1 6.0 × 10-3
II 0.3 0.2 7.2 × 10-2
III 0.3 0.4 2.88 × 10-2
IV 0.4 0.1 2.40 × 10-2

Determine the rate law and the rate constant for the reaction.

4.12 The reaction between A and B is first order with respect to A and zero order with respect to B. Fill in the blanks in the following table:

Experiment [A]/mol L-1 [B]/mol L-1 initial rate of formation of D/ mol L-1 min-1
I 0.1 0.1 2.0 × 10-2
II 0.2 4.0 × 10-2
III 0.4 0.4
IV 0.2 2.0 × 10-2

4.13 Calculate the half-life of a first order reaction from their rate constants given below:
(i) 200 s–1 (ii) 2 min–1 (iii) 4 years–1

4.14 The half-life for radioactive decay of 14C is 5730 years. An archaeological artifact containing wood had only 80% of the 14C found in a living tree. Estimate the age of the sample.

4.15 The experimental data for decomposition of N2O5 [2N2O5 → 4NO2 + O2]in gas phase at 318K are given below:

t/s 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200
102 × [N2O5]/ mol L-1 1.63 1.36 1.14 0.93 0.78 0.64 0.53 0.43 0.35

(i) Plot [N2O5] against t.
(ii) Find the half-life period for the reaction.
(iii) Draw a graph between log[N2O5] and t.
(iv) What is the rate law ?
(v) Calculate the rate constant.
(vi) Calculate the half-life period from k and compare it with (ii).

4.16 The rate constant for a first order reaction is 60 s–1. How much time will it take to reduce the initial concentration of the reactant to its 1/16th value?

4.17 During nuclear explosion, one of the products is 90Sr with half-life of 28.1 years. If 1μg of 90Sr was absorbed in the bones of a newly born baby instead of calcium, how much of it will remain after 10 years and 60 years if it is not lost metabolically.

4.18 For a first order reaction, show that time required for 99% completion is twice the time required for the completion of 90% of reaction.

4.19 A first order reaction takes 40 min for 30% decomposition. Calculate t1/2.

4.20 For the decomposition of azoisopropane to hexane and nitrogen at 543 K, the following data are obtained.
t(sec) p(mm of Hg) 0 35.0 360 54.0 720 63.0

calculate the rate constant.

4.21 The following data were obtained during the first order thermal decomposition of SO2Cl2 at a constant volume. SO2Cl2 ( g ) → SO2 ( g ) + Cl2( g )

Experiment 1 0 0.5
2 100 0.6

Calculate the rate of the reaction when total pressure is 0.65 atm.

4.22 The rate constant for the decomposition of N2O5at various temperatures is given below:

T/°C 0 20 40 60 80 105×k/s-1 0.0787 1.70 25.7 178 2140Draw a graph between ln k and 1/T and calculate the values of A and Ea. Predict the rate constant at 30° and 50° C.

4.23 The rate constant for the decomposition of hydrocarbons is 2.418 × 10–5s–1 at 546 K. If the energy of activation is 179.9 kJ/mol, what will be the value of pre-exponential factor.

4.24 Consider a certain reaction A → Products with k = 2.0 × 10 –2s–1. Calculate the concentration of A remaining after 100 s if the initial concentration of A is 1.0 mol L–1.

4.25 Sucrose decomposes in acid solution into glucose and fructose according to the first order rate law, with t1/2 = 3.00 hours. What fraction of sample of sucrose remains after 8 hours ?

4.26 The decomposition of hydrocarbon follows the equation k = (4.5 × 1011s–1) e-28000K/T Calculate Ea.

4.27 The rate constant for the first order decomposition of H2O2 is given by the following equation: log k = 14.34 – 1.25 × 104K/T
Calculate Ea for this reaction and at what temperature will its half-period be 256 minutes?

4.28 The decomposition of A into product has value of k as 4.5 × 103 s–1 at 10° C and energy of activation 60 kJ mol–1. At what temperature would k be 1.5 × 104s–1?

4.29 The time required for 10% completion of a first order reaction at 298K is equal to that required for its 25% completion at 308K. If the value of A is 4 × 1010 s–1. Calculate k at 318K and Ea.

4.30 The rate of a reaction quadruples when the temperature changes from 293 K to 313 K. Calculate the energy of activation of the reaction assuming that it does not change with temperature.

Answers to Some Intext Questions

4.1 rav = 6.66 × 10-6 Ms–1
4.2 Rate of reaction = rate of diappearance of A = 0.005 mol litre-1min–1
4.3 Order of the reaction is 2.5
4.4 X →Y
Rate = k[X]2
The rate will increase 9 times
4.5 t = 444 s
4.6 1.925 × 10–4 s–1
4.8 Ea = 26.43 kJ mol–1
4.9 1.462 × 10–19

I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)

1. The role of a catalyst is to change ______________.

(i) gibbs energy of reaction.
(ii) enthalpy of reaction.
(iii) activation energy of reaction.
(iv) equilibrium constant.

2. In the presence of a catalyst, the heat evolved or absorbed during the reaction ___________.

(i) increases.
(ii) decreases.
(iii) remains unchanged.
(iv) may increase or decrease.

3. Activation energy of a chemical reaction can be determined by _____________.

(i) determining the rate constant at standard temperature.
(ii) determining the rate constants at two temperatures.
(iii) determining probability of collision.
(iv) using catalyst.

4. Consider Fig. 4.1 and mark the correct option.

(i) Activation energy of forward reaction is E1 + E2 and product is less stable than reactant.
(ii) Activation energy of forward reaction is E1+E2 and product is more stable than reactant.
(iii) Activation energy of both forward and backward reaction is E1+E2 and reactant is more stable than product.
(iv) Activation energy of backward reaction is E1 and product is more stable than reactant.

5. Consider a first order gas phase decomposition reaction given below :
A(g) → B(g) + C(g)

The initial pressure of the system before decomposition of A was pi. After lapse of time ‘t’, total pressure of the system increased by x units and became ‘pt’ The rate constant k for the reaction is given as _________.

(i) k = 2.303/t log (pi/pi-x)
(ii) k = 2.303/t log (pi/2pi-pt)
(iii) k = 2.303/t log (pi/2pi+pt)
(iv) k = 2.303/t log (pi/2pi+x)

6. According to Arrhenius equation rate constant k is equal to A e–Ea /RT . Which of the following options represents the graph of ln k vs 1/T ?

7. Consider the Arrhenius equation given below and mark the correct option. k = A e–Ea /RT

(i) Rate constant increases exponentially with increasing activation energy and decreasing temperature.
(ii) Rate constant decreases exponentially with increasing activation energy and decreasing temperature.
(iii) Rate constant increases exponentially with decreasing activation energy and decreasing temperature.
(iv) Rate constant increases exponentially with decreasing activation energy and increasing temperature.

8. A graph of volume of hydrogen released vs time for the reaction between zinc and dil.HCl is given in Fig. 4.2. On the basis of this mark the correct option.

(i) Average rate upto 40s is (V3 − V2)/40
(ii) Average rate upto 40 seconds is (V3 − V2)/(40 – 30)
(iii) Average rate upto 40 seconds is V3/40
(iv) Average rate upto 40 seconds is (V3 − V1)/(40 − 20)

9. Which of the following statements is not correct about order of a reaction.

(i) The order of a reaction can be a fractional number.
(ii) Order of a reaction is experimentally determined quantity.
(iii) The order of a reaction is always equal to the sum of the stoichiometric coefficients of reactants in the balanced chemical equation for a reaction.
(iv) The order of a reaction is the sum of the powers of molar concentration of the reactants in the rate law expression.

10. Consider the graph given in Fig. 4.2. Which of the following options does not show instantaneous rate of reaction at 40th second?

(i) V5 − V2 / 50 − 30
(ii) V4 − V2 / 50 − 30
(iii) V3 − V2 / 40 − 30
(iv) V3 − V1 / 40 − 20

12. Which of the following expressions is correct for the rate of reaction given below?
5Br(aq) + BrO3(aq) + 6H+(aq) → 3Br2(aq) + 3H2O(l)

(i)Δ[Br–]/Δt = 5 Δ[H+]/Δt
(ii)Δ[Br–]/Δt = 6/5 Δ[H+]/Δt
(iii)Δ[Br–]/Δt = 5/6 Δ[H+]/Δt
(iv)Δ[Br–]/Δt = 6 Δ[H+]/Δt

13. Which of the following graphs represents exothermic reaction?

(i) (a) only
(ii) (b) only
(iii) (c) only
(iv) (a) and (b)

14. Rate law for the reaction A + 2B → C is found to be Rate = k [A][B] Concentration of reactant ‘B’ is doubled, keeping the concentration of ‘A’ constant, the value of rate constant will be______.

(i) the same
(ii) doubled
(iii) quadrupled
(iv) halved

15. Which of the following statements is incorrect about the collison theory of chemical reaction?

(i) It considers reacting molecules or atoms to be hard spheres and ignores their structural features.
(ii) Number of effective collisions determines the rate of reaction.
(iii) Collision of atoms or molecules possessing sufficient threshold energy results into the product formation.
(iv) Molecules should collide with sufficient threshold energy and proper orientation for the collision to be effective.

16. A first order reaction is 50% completed in 1.26 x 1014 s. How much time would it take for 100% completion?

(i) 1.26 x 1015 s
(ii) 2.52 x 1014 s
(iii) 2.52 x 1028 s
(iv) infinite

17. Compounds ‘A’ and ‘B’ react according to the following chemical equation. A (g) + 2 B (g) → 2C (g)Concentration of either ‘A’ or ‘B’ were changed keeping the concentrations of one of the reactants constant and rates were measured as a function of initial concentration. Following results were obtained. Choose the correct option for the rate equations for this reaction.

Experiment Initial concentration of [A]/mol L–1 Initial concentration of [B]/mol L–1 Initial rate of formation of [C]/mol L–1 s–1
1. 0.30 0.30 0.10
2. 0.30 0.60 0.40
3. 0.60 0.30 0.20

(i) Rate = k [A]2 [B]
(ii) Rate = k [A] [B]2
(iii) Rate = k [A] [B]
(iv) Rate = k [A]2 [B]0

18. Which of the following statement is not correct for the catalyst?

(i) It catalyses the forward and backward reaction to the same extent.
(ii) It alters ΔG of the reaction.
(iii) It is a substance that does not change the equilibrium constant of a reaction.
(iv) It provides an alternate mechanism by reducing activation energy between reactants and products.

19. The value of rate constant of a pseudo first order reaction ____________.

(i) depends on the concentration of reactants present in small amount.
(ii) depends on the concentration of reactants present in excess.
(iii) is independent of the concentration of reactants.
(iv) depends only on temperature.

20. Consider the reaction – The concentration of both the reactants and the products varies exponentially with time. Which of the following figures correctly describes the change in concentration of reactants and products with time?

II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)

Note : In the following questions two or more options may be correct.

21. Rate law cannot be determined from balanced chemical equation if _______.

(i) reverse reaction is involved.
(ii) it is an elementary reaction.
(iii) it is a sequence of elementary reactions.
(iv) any of the reactants is in excess.

22. Which of the following statements are applicable to a balanced chemical equation of an elementary reaction?

(i) Order is same as molecularity.
(ii) Order is less than the molecularity.
(iii) Order is greater than the molecularity.
(iv) Molecularity can never be zero.

23. In any unimolecular reaction ______________.

(i) only one reacting species is involved in the rate determining step.
(ii) the order and the molecularity of slowest step are equal to one.
(iii) the molecularity of the reaction is one and order is zero.
(iv) both molecularity and order of the reaction are one.

24. For a complex reaction ______________.

(i) order of overall reaction is same as molecularity of the slowest step.
(ii) order of overall reaction is less than the molecularity of the slowest step.
(iii) order of overall reaction is greater than molecularity of the slowest step.
(iv) molecularity of the slowest step is never zero or non interger.

25. At high pressure the following reaction is zero order.

Which of the following options are correct for this reaction?

(i) Rate of reaction = Rate constant
(ii) Rate of the reaction depends on concentration of ammonia.
(iii) Rate of decomposition of ammonia will remain constant until ammonia disappears completely.
(iv) Further increase in pressure will change the rate of reaction.

26. During decomposition of an activated complex

(i) energy is always released
(ii) energy is always absorbed
(iii) energy does not change
(iv) reactants may be formed

27. According to Maxwell Boltzmann distributon of energy, __________.

(i) the fraction of molecules with most probable kinetic energy decreases at higher temperatures.
(ii) the fraction of molecules with most probable kinetic energy increases at higher temperatures.
(iii) most probable kinetic energy increases at higher temperatures.
(iv) most probable kinetic energy decreases at higher temperatures.

28. In the graph showing Maxwell Boltzman distribution of energy, ___________.

(i) area under the curve must not change with increase in temperature.
(ii) area under the curve increases with increase in temperature.
(iii) area under the curve decreases with increase in temperature.
(iv) with increase in temperature curve broadens and shifts to the right hand side.

29. Which of the following statements are in accordance with the Arrhenius equation?

(i) Rate of a reaction increases with increase in temperature.
(ii) Rate of a reaction increases with decrease in activation energy.
(iii) Rate constant decreases exponentially with increase in temperature.
(iv) Rate of reaction decreases with decrease in activation energy.

30. Mark the incorrect statements.

(i) Catalyst provides an alternative pathway to reaction mechanism.
(ii) Catalyst raises the activation energy.
(iii) Catalyst lowers the activation energy.
(iv) Catalyst alters enthalpy change of the reaction.

31. Which of the following graphs is correct for a zero order reaction?

32. Which of the following graphs is correct for a first order reaction?

III. Short Answer Type

33. State a condition under which a bimolecular reaction is kinetically first order reaction.
34. Write the rate equation for the reaction 2A + B → C if the order of the reaction is zero.
35. How can you determine the rate law of the following reaction? 2NO (g) + O2 (g) → 2NO2 (g)
36. For which type of reactions, order and molecularity have the same value?

37. In a reaction if the concentration of reactant A is tripled, the rate of reaction becomes twenty seven times. What is the order of the reaction?
38. Derive an expression to calculate time required for completion of zero order reaction.
39. For a reaction A + B → Products, the rate law is — Rate = k [A][B]3/2 Can the reaction be an elementary reaction? Explain.
40. For a certain reaction large fraction of molecules has energy more than the threshold energy, yet the rate of reaction is very slow. Why?
41. For a zero order reaction will the molecularity be equal to zero? Explain.
42. For a general reaction A → B, plot of concentration of A vs time is given in Fig. 4.3. Answer the following question on the basis of this graph.
(i) What is the order of the reaction?
(ii) What is the slope of the curve?
(iii) What are the units of rate constant?

43. The reaction between H2(g) and O2(g) is highly feasible yet allowing the gases stand at room temperature in the same vessel does not lead to the formationof water. Explain.44. Why does the rate of a reaction increase with rise in temperature?

45. Oxygen is available in plenty in air yet fuels do not burn by themselves at temperature. Explain.
46. Why is the probability of reaction with molecularity higher than threevery rare?
47. Why does the rate of any reaction generally decreases during the course of the reaction?
48. Thermodynamic feasibility of the reaction alone cannot decide the rate of the reaction. Explain with the help of one example.
49. Why in the redox titration of KMnO4 vs oxalic acid, we heat oxalic acid solution before starting the titration?
50. Why can’t molecularity of any reaction be equal to zero?
51. Why molecularity is applicable only for elementary reactions and order is applicable for elementary as well as complex reactions? 52. Why can we not determine the order of a reaction by taking into consideration the balanced chemical equation?

IV. Matching Type

Note : In the following questions match the items of Column I with appropriate item given in Column II.

53. Match the graph given in Column I with the order of reaction given in Column II. More than one item in Column I may link to the same item of Column II.

54. Match the statements given in Column I and Column II

  Column I   Column II
(i) Catalyst alters the rate of reaction (a) cannot be fraction or zero
(ii) Molecularity (b) proper orientation is not there always
(iii) Second half life of first order reaction (c) by lowering the activation energy
(iv) e–Ea/RT (d) is same as the first
(v) Energetically favourable reactions are sometimes slow (e) total probability is one
(vi) Area under the Maxwell Boltzman curve is constant (f) refers to the fraction of molecules with energy equal to or greater than activation energy

55. Match the items of Column I and Column II.
Column I Column II (i) Diamond (a) short interval of time (ii) Instantaneous rate (b) ordinarily rate of conversion is imperceptible (iii) Average rate (c) long duration of time

56. Match the items of Column I and Column II.

  Column I   Column II
(i) Mathematical expression for rate of reaction (a) rate constant
(ii) Rate of reaction for zero order reaction is equal to (b) rate law
(iii) Units of rate constant for zero order reaction is same as that of (c) order of slowest step
(iv) Order of a complex reaction is determined by (d) rate of a reaction

V. Assertion and Reason Type

Note: In the following questions a statement of assertion followed by a statement of reason is given. Choose the correct answer out of the following choices.

(i) Both assertion and reason are correct and the reason is correct explanation of assertion.
(ii) Both assertion and reason are correct but reason does not explain assertion.
(iii) Assertion is correct but reason is incorrect.
(iv) Both assertion and reason are incorrect.
(v) Assertion is incorrect but reason is correct.

57. Assertion : Order of the reaction can be zero or fractional.
Reason : We cannot determine order from balanced chemical equation.

58. Assertion : Order and molecularity are same.
Reason : Order is determined experimentally and molecularity is the sum of the stoichiometric coefficient of rate determining elementary step.

59. Assertion : The enthalpy of reaction remains constant in the presence of a catalyst.
Reason : A catalyst participating in the reaction, forms different activated complex and lowers down the activation energy but the difference in energy of reactant and product remains the same.

60. Assertion : All collision of reactant molecules lead to product formation.
Reason : Only those collisions in which molecules have correct orientation and sufficient kinetic energy lead to compound formation.

61. Assertion : Rate constants determined from Arrhenius equation are fairly accurate for simple as well as complex molecules.
Reason : Reactant molecules undergo chemical change irrespective of their orientation during collision.

VI. Long Answer Type

62. All energetically effective collisions do not result in a chemical change. Explain with the help of an example.
63. What happens to most probable kinetic energy and the energy of activation with increase in temperature?
64. Describe how does the enthalpy of reaction remain unchanged when a catalyst is used in the reaction.
65. Explain the difference between instantaneous rate of a reaction and average rate of a reaction.
66. With the help of an example explain what is meant by pseudo first order reaction.

ANSWERS

I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)

1. (iii)      2. (iii)      3. (ii)      4. (i)      5. (ii)      6. (i)      7. (iv)      8. (iii)      9. (iii)      10. (ii)      11. (i)      12. (iii)      13. (i)      14. (ii)      15. (iii)      16. (iv)      17. (ii)      18. (ii)      19. (ii)      20. (ii)

II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)

21. (i), (iii), (iv)      22. (i), (iv)      23. (i), (ii)      24. (i), (iv)       25. (i), (iii), (iv)      26. (i), (iv)      27. (i), (iii)      28. (i), (iv)      29. (i), (ii)      30. (ii), (iv)      31. (i), (iv)      32. (i), (iv)

III. Short Answer Type

33. Bimolecular reaction becomes kinetically first order when one of the reactants is in excess.
34. Rate = k [A]0[B]0 or Rate = k
35. See page no. 99 of NCERT textbook for Class XII.
36. If the reaction is an elementary reaction, order is same as molecularity.
37. Three, because rate = k [A]3
38. [R] = [R]0 – kt for completion [R] = 0 ∴ t = [R]0/k
39. During an elementary reaction, the number of atoms or ions colliding to react is referred to as molecularity. Had this been an elementary reaction the order of reaction with respect to B would have been 1, but in the given rate law it is 3/2 . This indicates that the reaction is not an elementary reaction.
40. Apart from the energy considerations, the colliding molecules should also have proper orientation for effective collision. This condition might not be getting fulfilled in the reaction.
41. No, the molecularity can never be zero or a fractional number.
42. (i) Zero (ii) –k (iii) mol L–1 s–1
43. This is because activation energy for the reaction is very high at room temperature.
44. At higher temperatures, larger fraction of colliding particles can cross the energy barrier (i.e. the activation energy), which leads to faster rate.

45. The activation energy for combustion reactions of fuels is very high at room temperature therefore they do not burn by themselves.
46. The probability of more than three molecules colliding simultaneously is very small. Hence possibility of molecularity being three is very low.
47. The rate of a reaction depends on the concentration of reactants. As the reaction progresses, reactants start getting converted to products so the concentration of reactants decreases hence the rate decreases.
48. Thermodynamically the conversion of diamond to graphite is highly feasible but this reaction is very slow because its activation energy is high.
49. The reaction between KMnO4 and oxalic acid is very slow. By raising the temperature we can enhance the rate of reaction.
50. Molecularity is the number of molecules taking part in an elementary step. For this we require at least a single molecule leading to the value of minimum molecularity of one.

51. A complex reaction proceeds through several elementary reactions. Numbers of molecules involved in each elementary reaction may be different i.e., the molecularity of each step may be different. Therefore, discussion of molecularity of overall complex reaction is meaningless. On the other hand, order of a complex reaction is determined by the slowest step in its mechanism and is not meaningless even in the case of complex reactions.

52. Balanced chemical equation often leads to incorrect order or rate law. For example the following reaction seems to be a tenth order reaction.
KClO3 + 6FeSO4 + 3H2SO4 → KCl + 3H2O + 3Fe3(SO4)3
This is actually a second order reaction. Actually the reaction is complex and occurs in several steps. The order of such reaction is determined by the slowest step in the reaction mechanism. Order is determined experimentally and is confined to the dependence of observed rate of reaction on the concentration of reactants.

IV. Matching Type

53. (i) → (a) (ii) → (b) (iii) → (b) (iv) → (a)
54. (i) → (c) (ii) → (a) (iii) → (d) (iv) → (f) (v) → (b) (vi) → (e)
55. (i) → (b) (ii) → (a) (iii) → (c)
56. (i) → (b) (ii) → (a) (iii) → (d) (iv) → (d)

V. Assertion and Reason Type

57. (ii) 58. (v) 59. (i) 60. (v) 61. (iii)

VI. Long Answer Type

62. Hint: Proper orientation of molecule should be explained in detail.
63. Hint : • Flattening of curve and shifting of maxima towards high energy value. • Area under the curve beyond the activation energy increases.
64. Hint : • Enthalpy is a state function. • Difference in energy between reactants and product is constant.
65. See NCERT textbook for Class XII.
66. See NCERT textbook for Class XII.

Lab Manual

CHEMICAL KINETICS

Rate of reaction can be measured either in terms of decrease in concentration of any one of the reactants or increase in concentration of any one of the products with time. For a hypothetical reaction, A → B

Rate of reaction = -[A]/T = [B]/T

Factors such as concentration, temperature and catalyst affect the rate of a reaction. In this unit you will learn the technique of determining the rate of a reaction and technique of studying the effect of concentration and temperature on the reaction rate.

EXPERIMENT 2.1

Aim

To study the effect of concentration and temperature variation respectively on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid.
Theory

Sodium thiosulphate reacts with hydrochloric acid and produces a colloidal solution of sulphur, which makes the solution translucent. The reaction occurs as follows:

Na2S2O3 (aq) + 2HCl (aq) → 2NaCl (aq) + H2O(l) + SO2(g) + S(s)
Ionic form of the above reaction is written as:

S2O32– (aq) + 2H+ (aq) → H2O (l) + SO2 (g) + S(s)

The property of the colloidal solution of sulphur to make the system translucent is used to study the rate of precipitation of sulphur. The rate of precipitation of sulphur increases with an increase in the concentration of the reacting species or with an increase in the temperature of the system. With an increase in the concentration, the number of molecular collisions per unit time between the reacting species increase and consequently chances of product formation increase. This results in an increase in the rate of precipitation of sulphur. Similarly, on increasing the temperature, the kinetic energy of the reacting species increases, so the number of collisions that result in the formation of products increase leading to a faster rate of reaction.

Material Required

Procedure

A. The effect of concentration on the rate of reaction

(i) Take a trough and fill half of it with water. This will serve as constant temperature bath, maintained at room temperature.
(ii) Rinse and fill the burette with 1.0 M HCl solution.
(iii) Take a 100 mL beaker and make a mark ‘X’ in the centre of the outer surface of the bottom with the help of a glass marker pencil. Fill 50 mL of 0.1M sodium thiosulphate solution in it. Place the beaker in the trough. The mark ‘X’ will be visible to the naked eye on account of the transparent nature of the system. Allow the beaker to stand in the trough for a few minutes so that it attains the temperature of the bath.
(iv) Add 1.0 mL of 1.0 M HCl solution with the help of a burette. Start the stopwatch when half the HCl solution i.e. (0.5 mL) has been transferred. Swirl the beaker while adding HCl.
(v) Record the time required for the mark ‘X’ on the bottom of the beaker to become invisible (This is considered as a stage of completion of the reaction).
(vi) Repeat the experiment by adding 2 mL, 4 mL, 8 mL and 16 mL of 1.0 M hydrochloric acid solution to fresh sodium thiosulphate solution every time and record the time required for the disappearance of the mark ‘X’ in each case separately.

B. The effect of temperature on the rate of reaction

(i) Take 50 mL of 0.1M sodium thiosulphate solution in a 100 mL beaker, on the outer surface of the bottom of which a mark ‘X’ has been made. Keep the beaker in a thermostat maintained at 30°C. Add 5 mL of 1.0 M hydrochloric acid solution with swirling. Start the stopwatch immediately when half the amount (i.e. 2.5 mL) of hydrochloric acid has been transferred.

(ii) Record the time at which the mark ‘X’ becomes invisible.
(iii) Repeat the experiment at temperatures 40°C, 50°C, 60°C and 70°C using fresh sodium thiosulphate solution each time and record the time required for the disappearance of the mark ‘X’.
(iv) Record your observations in Tables 2.1 and 2.2.
(v) Plot two graphs, one for the volume of HCl added (which determines concentration of HCl) and the time taken for the mark to become invisible and the other between temperature and the time taken for the mark to become invisible. For plotting the graph, the variation in time is plotted on x-axis and the variation in volume or temperature is plotted on y-axis.

Note : If thermostat (i.e. constant temperature bath) is not available for studying the rate of the reaction. Ordinary water bath may also be used for maintaining constant temperature but in this case heating of the bath from outside might be required for the adjustment of temperature. Water in the bath should also be stirred continuously.

Table 2.1 : Effect of concentration of HCl on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid

Amount of Na2S2O3 solution used each time = 50 mL
Concentration of Na2S2O3 solution = 0.1M, Room temperature = °C
Concentration of the HCl solution used in the reaction mixture = 1.0 M

Sl. No. Volume of HC1 added in mL Time ‘t’ in seconds for the mark ‘X’ to become invisible
1. 1.0  
2. 2.0  
3. 4.0  
4. 8.0  
5. 16.0  

Table 2.2 : The effect of temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid

Volume of sodium thiosulphate solution used each time = 50 mL
Volume of HCl used each time = 5 mL

Sl. No. Temperature of the reaction mixture/°C Time ‘t’ in seconds for the mark ‘X’ to become invisible
1. 30  
2. 40  
3. 50  
4. 60  
5. 70  

Result

Write your conclusions on the basis of data in Tables 2.1 and 2.2.
Precautions

(a) Start the stopwatch when half of the hydrochloric acid solution has been transferred to the reaction flask and stop the watch when the mark ‘X’ becomes invisible.
(b) If a constant temperature bath is not available to maintain the constant temperature, heat the water of the bath in which the beaker is kept from time to time with constant stirring, and remove the burner when the required temperature is attained.
(c) Select suitable scale for plotting the graph.

Discussion Questions

(i) The reaction under examination is as follows:

S2O32–(aq) + 2H+ (aq) → H2O (l) + SO2 (g) + S(s)

Write the conditions under which the rate law expression for this reaction can be written in the following manner.

Rate of precipitation of sulphur = k [S2O32–][H+]2

(ii) Suppose the above rate law expression for the precipitation of sulphur holds good, then on doubling the concentration of S2O32– ion and H+ ion, by how many times will the rate of the reaction increase?
(iii) Comment on the statement that for a given reaction, rate of the reaction varies but the rate constant remains constant at a particular temperature.
(iv) How does the rate constant of a reaction vary with temperature?
(v) Devise an experiment to study the dependence of rate of precipitation of sulphur upon the nature of monobasic acid for the reaction given below :
S2O32–(aq) + 2H+(aq) → H2O (l) + SO2 (g) + S(s)

(vi) Why is the stop watch/stop clock started when half of the reactant is delivered into the beaker?
(vii) The structure of S2O32– ion is described as follows:

The two sulphur atoms are marked here as (1) and (2). Which of the sulphur atoms, according to you, is precipitated as colloidal sulphur? How can you verify your answer experimentally?

(viii) What is the difference between the order and the molecularity of a reaction?
(ix) The molecularity of a reaction can’t be zero but the order can be zero? Explain.
(x) Can the order of a reaction be a fractional quantity?
(xi) Suppose the above reaction follows third order kinetics, then in what units, will the rate of the reaction and the rate constant be expressed?

EXPERIMENT 2.2
Aim

To study the effect of variation in concentration of iodide ions on the rate of reaction of iodide ions with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature.

Theory
The reaction between iodide ions and hydrogen peroxide occurs in the acidic medium and can be represented in the following manner:2I(aq) + H2O2 (l) + 2H+(aq) → I2(g) + 2H2O (l)

In this reaction, hydrogen peroxide oxidises iodide ions (I) to molecular iodine. If calculated amount of sodium thiosulphate is added in the presence of starch solution as an indicator to the above reaction mixture, the liberated iodine reacts with thiosulphate ions as fast as it is formed and is reduced back to iodide ions till all the hiosulphate ions are oxidised to tetrathionate ions.

I2(g) + 2S2O32– (aq) → S4O62–(aq) + 2I(aq)

After the complete consumption of thiosulphate ions, the concentration of iodine liberated in the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with iodide ions increases rapidly to a point where iodine forms intense blue complex with starch. The time required to consume a fixed amount of the thiosulphate ions is reproducible. Since the time for the appearance of colour is noted, the reaction is some times called a clock reaction.

Material Required

Hazard Warning : Cotact of hydrogenperoxide with combustible material may cause fire.

Procedure

(i) Take 25 mL of 3% hydrogen peroxide, 25 mL of 2.5 M H2SO4 solution, 5 mL of freshly prepared starch solution and 195 mL distilled water into a 500 mL conical flask marked as A. Stir this solution well and place it in a water bath maintained at room temperature.
(ii) Take four 250 mL conical flasks and mark them as B, C, D and E.
(iii) Take the sodium thiosulphate solution, potassium iodide solution, and distilled water in the flasks B, C and D in a proportion given in the following steps and keep the flask E for carrying out the reaction.
(iv) Take 10 mL of 0.04 M sodium thiosulphate solution, 10 mL of 0.1 M potassium iodide solution and 80 mL of distilled water in the conical flask marked B. Shake the contents of the flask well and keep it in a water bath.
(v) Take 10 mL of 0.04 M sodium thiosulphate solution, 20 mL of 0.1M potassium iodide solution and 70 mL of distilled water in the conical flask marked C. Shake the resulting solution well and place it in the same water bath in which reaction mixture of step
(iv) is kept.
(vi) Take 10 mL of 0.04 M sodium thiosulphate solution, 30 mL of 0.1 M potassium iodide solution and 60 mL of distilled water in the conical flask marked D. Shake the solution well and keep this flask also in the above water bath.
(vii) Take conical flask E. Pour 25 mL solution from flask A into it after measuring it with the help of a measuring cylinder. Now add 25 mL of solution from flask B into this flask with constant stirring. Start the stop watch when half of the solution from flask B has been transferred. Keep the flask E in a water bath to maintain the constant temperature and record the time required for the appearance of blue colour.
(viii) In exactly the same manner, repeat the experiment with the solutions of flasks C and D separately by using once again 25 mL of the solution of these flasks and 25 mL of solution from flask A. Note the time required for the appearance of blue colour in each case.
(ix) Repeat the experiment with solutions of flasks B, C and D twice and calculate the average time for the appearance of blue colour.
(x) Record your observations as given in Table 2.3.
(xi) Compare the time required for the appearance of blue colour for all the three systems and make a generalisation about the variation in the rate of the reaction with concentration of iodide ions.

Table 2.3 : Study of reaction rate between iodide ions and hydrogen peroxide in acidic medium

Sl. No. Composition of the system Time taken for appearance of the blue colour Average Time
First reading Second reading
1. 25 mL solution from flask A + 25 mL solution from flask B      
2. 25 mL solution from flask A + 25 mL solution from flask C      
3. 25 mL solution from flask A + 25 mL solution from flask D      

Result

Write your conclusions on the basis of the data recorded in Table 2.3.

Precautions
(a) Always keep the concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution less than that of potassium iodide solution.
(b) Always use freshly prepared starch solution.
(c) Use fresh samples of hydrogen peroxide and potassium iodide.
(d) Always use the same measuring cylinders for measuring solutions in two different sets of observations. If after measuring one solution, the cylinder is used for measuring another solution, clean it before using.
(e) Record the time immediately after the appearance of blue colour.

Discussion Questions

(i) Distinguish between the role of iodine and iodide ions in this experiment.
(ii) Calculate the oxidation number of sulphur in tetrathionate ion (S4O62– ). Can the oxidation number be a fractional number?
(iii) Why does iodine impart blue colour to starch?
(iv) Explore the possibility of using an oxidant other than H2O2 in this experiment.
(v) Why is the reaction given the name clock reaction?
(vi) Why should the concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution taken be always less than that of potassium iodide solution?

EXPERIMENT 2.3
Aim

To study the rate of reaction between potassium iodate (KIO3) and sodium sulphite (Na2SO3).TheoryThe reaction between KIO3 and Na2SO3 indirectly involves the formation of iodide ions, which are oxidised in acidic medium by IO3 ions to iodine. The overall reaction proceeds in the following two steps.

IO3 + 3SO32– → I + 3SO42– (1)
5I + 6H+ + IO3 → 3H2O + 3I2 (2)

The evolved iodine produces blue colour with the starch solution in a manner described in the previous experiment. This reaction like the earlier reaction is also known as ‘clock reaction’.

Material Required

Procedure

(i) Take a 250 mL conical flask and mark it as ‘A’. Transfer 25 mL of 6% potassium iodate solution, 25 mL of 2.0 M H2SO4 and 50 mL of distilled water into it and shake the content of the flask well. Keep the flask in a trough half filled with water. This serves as constant temperature bath.

(ii) Take five 250 mL conical flasks and mark these as B, C, D, E and F respectively. Take 6% sodium sulphite solution, starch solution and distilled water in flasks B, C, D and E in the proportion given in the following steps and keep flask F for carrying out the reaction.

(iii) In the conical flask marked ‘B’ take 20 mL of sodium sulphite solution, 5 mL of starch solution and 75 mL of distilled water. Shake the contents of the flask well and keep it in the water bath.

(iv) In the conical flask marked ‘C’, take 15 mL of sodium sulphite solution, 5 mL of starch solution and 80 mL of distilled water. Shake the resulting solution well and keep it in the water bath.

(v) In conical flask ‘D’, take 10 mL of sodium sulphite solution, 5 mL of starch solution and 85 mL of distilled water. Shake the solution well and place the flask in the water bath.

(vi) In conical flask ‘E’, take 5 mL of sodium sulphite solution, 5 mL of starch solution and 90 mL of distilled water. Shake the content of the flask well and keep it in the water bath.

(vii) Take conical flask ‘F’. In this flask pour 25 mL of the solution from the conical flask marked ‘A’ and add 25 mL of the solution from the conical flask marked ‘B’. Start the stop watch when half of the solution from flask B has been added. Mix these two solutions thoroughly by constant stirring and keep it in the water bath. Record the time required for the appearance of blue colour (you may use stop watch/wrist watch for noting the time).

(viii) In a similar manner, repeat the experiment with the solutions in flasks C, D and E respectively by using 25 mL of the solution as in the experiment with solution from flask B and record the time required for the appearance of blue colour in each case.(Once again care should be taken to repeat the experiment for each case twice so as to take the average time required for the appearance of blue colour in each set).

(ix) Record your observations as given in Table 2.4.
(x) From the tabulated results, find out the relationship between the time of appearance of blue colour and the variation in concentration of sodium sulphite.Note : • Total amount of solution in each flask is 100 mL • Same amount of indicator has been used.

Table 2.4 : Study of the reaction rate between potassium iodate (KIO3) and sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) in acidic medium

Sl.No. Composition of the system Time taken for appearance of the blue colour in seconds Average Times/sec. First reading Second reading 1. 25 mL solution from flask A + 25 mL solution from flask B 2. 25 mL solution from flask A + 25 mL solution from flask C 3. 25 mL solution from flask A + 25 mL solution from flask D 4. 25 mL solution from flask A + 25 mL solution from flask EResult

Write your conclusions on the basis of data recorded in Table 2.4.

Precautions

(a) As sodium sulphite is likely to be easily oxidised in air, therefore, always use its fresh solution.
(b) Keep the concentration of potassium iodate solution higher than the concentration of sodium sulphite solution.
(c) Use a freshly prepared starch solution.
(d) Start the stop watch when half of the solution from conical flask B, C, D or E is added to the conical flask F containing 25 mL solution from flask A.

Discussion Questions

(i) How would the time for the appearance of blue colour vary if the temperature of the experiment in the above case is enhanced by 10°C ?
(ii) Mention the factors that affect the rate of reaction in the present study.
(iii) Which of the acids, hydrochloric or nitric, would be suitable to make the medium acidic in this experiment? Explain your answer with reasons.
(iv) Out of the reactions (1) and (2) given below:

IO3 + 3SO32– → I + 3SO42– (1)
5I + IO3 + 6H+ → 3H2O + 3I2 (2)

which could be the rate determining reaction? What is the molecularity of the rate determining reaction?

(v) Can AsO33– be used in place of SO32– in the above reaction? Support your answer with proper reasoning.
(vi) Why is the concentration of potassium iodate solution kept higher than the concentration of sodium sulphite solution?

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The following Videos are available for you ( As of Now ). These explain tricky Physics and Mathematics Numericals.

Eventually I will try to give Videos for full course here for you.

These covers PU ( Pre University courses, school / college ) courses, IIT JEE, AIEEE ( All India Engineering Entrance Examination ) , CET ( Combined Engineering Test ), AIPMT ( All India Pre Medical Test ), ISc ( Intermediate Science / Indian School Certificate Exam ), CBSE ( Central Board Secondary Exam ), Roorkey Joint Entrance Test Questions ( Discontinued since 2002 ), APhO ( Asian Physics Olympiad ), IPhO ( International Physics Olympiad ), IMO ( International Mathematics Olympiad ) , NSEP ( National Standard Exam in Physics ), RMO ( Regional Math Olympiad , India ), INMO ( Indian National Maths Olympiad ), Irodov Solutions, Prof. H C Verma ( Concepts of Physics ) Solutions etc.

( You can see the history of Indian Participation in various Olympiads at ->
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/indian-participation-in-ipho-icho-ibo-and-astronomy-olympiad/ )

[ In each of these videos there is at-least 1 or more errors. Please tell me about those ]

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com
You should get to see all the Uploaded videos. Though we have many more study videos.

Thanks and Regards
Zookeeper ;-D Subhashish Chattopadhyay

[ I suggest you see the videos starting with 1- first then starting with 2- ….. in that sequence. ]

[ Tell your friends about this link if you liked the videos ]

In case of doubts or suggestions, Please send me email at mokshya@gmail.com

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com

Answers to -> Frequently Asked Questions ( FAQ ) [ commonly asked intelligent Questions 🙂 ]

1 ) How do I prepare for IIT ?

Ans : – See the videos made by me ( search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com
Though we have many more which have not been uploaded ). While watching the videos, take notes and try to solve the problems yourself by pausing the video. Tell me if any calculation is wrong. See the videos with 1- first then 2- and so on. Write to IAPT Kothrud, Pune office to buy ( 150 Rs approx ) the book with previous papers of NSEP ( National Standard Exam in Physics – The 1st level ), INPhO ( Indian National Physics Olympiad – 2nd level ). Prepare with these and see how much you are scoring. You can guess your ALL INDIA rank easily from NSEP, and INPhO rank. Since 1998 the IIT JEE toppers have been mostly representing India in IPhO.

2 ) Which codec and Player do I use to see the videos ?

Ans : – You can use GOM Player, or VLC Player. You have to have good speakers with filters or good earphones with filters. We have checked mostly it is OK with these. ( If you are depending only on your embedded speakers of computer /screen / keyboard then there may be extra distortions. As these speakers are often not of good Quality. Also install latest KL Codecs ) In any case reduce the volume see the board, imagine sitting in the last bench and solving the problems of your own. See if your solution differs anywhere with the scribbles on the board.

3 ) Why are you giving these ( high Quality ) lecture for free ?

Ans : Well there are lot of good things free in this world. Linux, My-SQL, Open-Office ….. Go to sourceforge and get thousands of high quality software free along with source code. Yes all officially free …. Why do you think Richard Stallman, Zimmerman, ….. etc are considered Guru philosophers ? In Punjab and Gurudwaras worldwide there are so many Langars where you get better food than Restaurants. ….. why ? Why do you have Dharmasalas and subsidized rest rooms near hospitals / Famous Temples / various places ? in Iftar party anyone can eat for free …. why ?

I am teaching since 1989 I have observed most students can do much better if they have the self motivation to solve and practice. Cheap books are available in second hand bookstalls, where you get thousands of Numericals to solve ….. but most students will like to blow their time going and coming for tuition, travel time …. TV for hours and hours watching cricket / Tennis games, playing computer games …. My free lectures are not going to make much difference in spending of unnecessary money for coaching ….. I know very well , how much people enjoy …. ! spending unnecessarily !!

Do you know that there are NO poor / needy students in Bangalore.

Sometime back I had tried to teach for IIT JEE FREE. Discussed with a few NGOs and social service guys. Arranged rooms but got only 1 student. We had informed many people in many ways to inform students …. We did not get students who are ready to learn for free. So I am sure these lectures are NOT FREE. If anyone learns from these, s/he changes and that’s the gain / benefit. This change ( due to learning ) is very costly …. Most do not want to learn ………..

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com
You will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

🙂

4 ) How can I get all your lectures ?

Ans : – Apart from my lectures there are approx 700 GB of PCM ( Phy, Chem, Math ) lectures. It takes approx 3 years of continuous download from scattered sources. I have ( 20,000 )Thousands of these. You can take ALL of them from me in an external 1 TB hard disk, instead of spending so much money and time again for downloading. These cover ( by Various Professors ) everything of Chemistry, Physics, Maths… Lot of this is from outside India … as foreigners have much wider heart than Indians ( as most of GNU / open source software have been developed by Non-Indians ). I observed the gaps in these videos, and thus I am solving IIT, APhO, Roorkey, IPhO Numericals. Videos made by me along with these videos gives a complete preparation.

Send me a mail at mokshya@gmail.com to contact me.

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com
You will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

🙂

5 ) How do you get benefited out of this ?

Ans :- If anyone learns we all will have better people in this world. I will have better “ YOU “.
🙂

6 ) Why do you call yourself a Zookeeper ?

Ans :- This is very nicely explained at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/z00keeper-why-do-i-call-myself-a-zoookeeper/

🙂

7 ) Where do you stay ?

Ans :- Presently I am in Bangalore.

🙂

8 ) If I need videos in a few topics can you make them for me ?

Ans :- We actively answers doubts at doubtpoint.
see http://skmclasses.weebly.com/doubtpoint.html
In case you appreciate our time and efforts involved in answering complicated Questions, then get Quality answers at doubtpoint.

🙂

9 ) Why did you write an article saying there are No Poor students ?

Ans :- There are lots of NGOs and others working for rural / poor children education at lower classes. While very less effort is on for std 9 till 12. Also see the answer in question number ( 3 ) above. In more than 2 decades of teaching I never met a Poor child who was seriously interested in ( higher ) studies. As I have a mind / thinking of a ” Physicist “, I go by ” Experimental Observation “.

It is not about what is being said about poor in media / TV etc, or ” what it should be ” ( ? ) …. It is about what I see happening. Also to add ( confuse ? you more )…. You must be knowing that in several states over many years now girl students have better ( by marks as well as by pass percentage ) result in std 10 / Board Exams….. well but NEVER a girl student came FIRST in IIT JEE … why ? [ The best rank by a Girl student is mostly in 2 digits, very rarely in single digit ] ????? So ????

🙂

10 ) How much do I have to study to make it to IIT ?

Ans :- My experience of Teaching for IIT JEE since 1989, tells me, Total 200 hours per subject ( PCM ) is sufficient. If you see my Maths and Physics videos, each subject is more than 200 hours. So if someone sees all the videos diligently, takes notes and remembers, …… Done.

🙂

11 ) What is EAMCET ?

Ans :- Engineering Agriculture and Medicine Common Entrance Test is conducted by JNT University Hyderabad on behalf of APSCHE. This examination is the gateway for entry into various professional courses offered in Government/Private Colleges in Andhra Pradesh.

12 ) In your videos are you covering other Exams apart from IIT ?

Ans : – Yes. See many videos made by solving problems of MPPET, Rajasthan / J&K CET, UPSEAT ( UPES Engineering Aptitude Test ), MHCET, BCECE ( Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination Board ), WB JEE etc

🙂

13 ) What is SCRA ?

Ans : – Special Class Railway Apprentice (SCRA) exam is conducted by Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) board, for about 10 seats.That translates into an astonishing ratio of 1 selection per 10,000 applicants. The SCRA scheme was started in 1927 by the British, to select a handful of most intelligent Indians to assist them in their Railway Operations, after training at their Railway’s largest workshop, i.e. Jamalpur Workshop, and for one year in United Kingdom. The selected candidates were required to appear in the Mechanical Engineering Degree Examination held by Engineering Council (London).

Thanks for your time. To become my friend in google+ ( search me as mokshya@gmail.com and send friend request )

Read http://edge.org/responses/what-scientific-concept-would-improve-everybodys-cognitive-toolkit
🙂
The following video is a must see for full CO2 cycle, plates of Earth, Geological activities, stability of weather
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oIuoNtRBG4w

🙂
Article in Nature says CO2 increase is good for the trees
http://thegwpf.org/science-news/6086-co2-is-greening-the-planet-savannahs-soon-to-be-covered-by-forests.html
🙂
http://climaterealists.com/index.php?id=9752

BBC documentary Crescent and Cross shows the 1000 years of fight between Christians and Muslims. Millions have been killed in the name of Religion. To decided whose GOD is better, and which GOD to follow. The fight continues.

Summary of Women
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yIpmML49hMU
🙂
The Virus of Faith
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scarHc8RA0g

🙂
The God delusion
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LVr9bJ8Sctk

🙂
cassiopeia facts about evolution
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K7tQIB4UdiY

Intermediate Fossil records shown and explained nicely Fossils, Genes, and Embryos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fdpMrE7BdHQ

The Rise Of Narcissism In Women
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wZHKCbHGlS0

🙂
13 type of women whom you should never court
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/relationships/man-woman/13-Women-you-should-never-court/articleshow/14637014.cms

🙂
Media teaching Misandry in India http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-M2txSbOPIo

Summary of problems with women
http://problemwithwomentoday.blogspot.in/2009/12/problem-with-women-today-what-in-hell.html

🙂
Eyeopener men ? women only exists
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ZAuqkqxk9A

🙂

Most unfortunate for men
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=73fGqUwmOPg

🙂
Each of you is an Activist in some way or other. You are trying to propagate those thoughts, ideas that you feel concerned / excited about.

Did you analyze your effectiveness ?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=61qn7S9NCOs
Culturomics can help you

😀

see how biased women are. Experimental proof. Women are happy when they see another woman is beating a man ( see how women misbehave with men )

🙂
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LlFAd4YdQks

see detailed statistics at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5lHmCN3MBMI

An eye opener in Misandry
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YiTaDS_X6CU

My sincere advice would be to be EXTREMELY careful ( and preferably away ) of girls. As girls age; statistically certain behavior in them has been observed. Most Male can NOT manage those behaviors… Domestic violence, divorce etc are rising very fast. Almost in all cases boys / males are HUGE loosers. Be extremely choosy ( and think from several angles ) before even talking to a girl.
🙂
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/save-the-male/

🙂

How women manipulate men
http://www.angryharry.com/esWomenManipulateMen.htm

Gender Biased Laws in India
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/biased-laws/

🙂

Only men are victimised
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4JA4EPRbWhQ

Men are BETTER than women
http://www.menarebetterthanwomen.com/
🙂

see http://www.youtube.com/watch?&v=T0xoKiH8JJM#!
🙂

Male Psychology http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uwxgavf2xWE

Women are more violent than men
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/women-are-more-violent-says-study-622388.html

🙂

In the year 2010, 168 men ended their lives everyday ( on average ). More husbands committed suicide than wives.
🙂

http://www.rediff.com/news/report/ncrb-stats-show-more-married-men-committing-suicide/20111028.htm

It is EXTREMELY unfortunate that media projects men as fools, women as superiors, Husbands as servants, and replaceable morons. In ad after ad worldwide from so many companies, similar msg to disintegrate the world is being bombarded. It is highly unacceptable misandry

🙂
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oq14WHkFq30

It is NOT at all funny that media shows violence against MEN. Some advertisers are trying to create a new ” Socially acceptable culture ” of slapping Men ( by modern city women ). We ( all men ) take objection to these advertisements.
We oppose this Misandry bad culture. Please share to increase awareness against Men bashing

🙂
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D8ecN2rh0uU

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scOJqyiYVtk

Think what are you doing … why are you doing ?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qp0HIF3SfI4

Every Man must know this …
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cIFmQHJEG1M

🙂
Manginas, White Knights, & Other Chivalrous Dogs
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oXQDtBT70B8

!
!
: ****__********__***
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…./……’###.,.–.,.###.’…\
….\__))####’#’###(((__/
……##### u r #####
……..### SWEET. ###
……/….#########…\
..__\…..\..######/…../
(.(.(____)….`.#.´..(____).).)

key words

_________________________________________________________________________
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Sarjapur Road Bangalore Jain International Residential School Jakkasandra Post, Kanakapura Taluk Bangalore Ryan International School, Kundanahalli, M. H. Colony, AECS Layout, Kundalahalli Gate,Bhd Hindustan Lever Ltd, Marathahalli Colony, Bangalore Ebenezer International School, Singena Agrahara Road, Via Hosur Road / A.P.M.C. Yard, Bangalore Mallya Aditi International School, Yelahanka Bangalore India International school 26/1,Chikkabellandur, Carmel Ram Post, Bangalore Ryan International School, Yelahanka, Vederapura Village, Gentiganahalli Road, Training Centre, Yelahanka Bangalore Indus International School, Billapura Cross Sarjapur, Bangalore The International School Bangalore (TISB), NAFL Valley Whitefield – Sarjapur Road, Bangalore Treamis World School, Hulimangala Post Bangalore Ryan International School, Bannerghatta road, Opp. Confident Cascade Bannergatta Main Road Bangalore International School, Geddalahalli Hennur Bagalur Road, Kothanur Post Bangalore Sarla Birla Academy Bannerghatta Jigni Road Bangalore Inventure Academy Whitefield – Sarjapur Road Bangalore Prakriya, # 70, Chikkanayakanahalli Road off Doddakannelli Sarjapur Road, Bangalore Buddhi School, 57, 3rd Main, 4th Cross RMV 2nd Stage, H.I.G Colony, Bangalore B.G.S. International Residential School Nithyananda Nagar, Kumbalagudu, Gollahalli Kengeri, Bangalore Solutions, India, IPhO, APhO, IMO, RMO, INMO, through, lectures, problems numericals Zookeeper, Subhashish, Chattopadhyay, Projectile, Latent, Heat Thermodynamics std 11 12 ISc Calculus BE BTech Differentiation Integration Mechanics Surface Tension Viscosity Accelerating Frame velocity wedge mass pulley Moment Inertia Roorkey Joint Entrance Exam CET AIEEE Irodov HCV Verma South Bangalore Intermediate Algebra Trigonometry Sexy Free Coaching study material preparation Olympiad Friction sin Modelling cos Potential tan cot Gravitation Electrostatics sec Field cosec Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola inverse string Tuition Kinetic Theory Gases Isothermal Adiabatic Isochoric Isobaric Processes Root Mean Square Differential Equation Soomrit Specific Cp Cv PV Diagram Bending Stress Strain Geostationary Satellite Entropy Coefficient Linear Expansion Alpha Beta Gamma Pendulum Conductivity Latent ice water Hydrometer Glass tube series Parallel travelling standing wave Sound Radiation stefan Boltzmann law Newton cooling cylinder Harmonic Overtone Resonance Sonometer Kunds Beat Frequency vibration tuning Fork Swimmer Young Bulk Modulus welded chamber not similar dissimilar MIT Caltech Yale pipe Magnetic Tesla Lenz LvB Vijaya Bank Enclave Apartments Bannerghatta Road Behind IIM Jayanagar J-P-Nagar Buoyant Buoyancy Rho efflux Bernoullis rare Poiseuilles Torricellis critical Terminal Reynolds Poise coalescing Laplace Ventury Hoop orifice Siphon Foucault stretched compression ball scale constant length shear poisson Ratio clock loosing time tvanausdal1 vkiledj Density Partial Pressure Humidity Leak SmartlearnwebTV Space Puncture Photon RC RLC LR Circuit Electrical Capacitor Inductance Linked Flux Wheatstone Bridge Freelanceteach Troutons Rule Van Arkel Method Overview Metallurgy Roasting Calcination Froth Floatation Purification Projected Area PET Kerala MPPET Delta Star conversion Internal Resistance Battery Trick Questions Infinite Ladder Quadratic Cubic Quartic Quintic Orissa NSEP ckt eqn mesh Folding Lenzs J&K Karnataka RMS instantaneous BCECE Maharastra MHCET RPET stepup stepdown transformer Bilekahalli UPSEAT shunt galvanometer susceptibility oscillating magnetometer pole strength Bihar Rajasthan Uttarpradesh Punjab Hariana TN Tamilnadu Andhra WB west Bengal Vacuum Diode Triode Rectifier Truth Table Thermionic emission, Radioactivity Half Life Langmiur, Child Law FCC BCC Cube Optics Lens Mirror Focus Focal Concave Convex Lux Phot Lumen Double slit Complex Integral coordinate Geometry compounds, Biochemistry, Plastic, Organic Chemistry Physical Analytical Inorganic Metallurgy, Biotechnology, Polymer Science, Rubber Technology Geology, Pharma, Veterinary Science,Food Technology, Cryogenics, Ceramics acid species IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com proton donor activation energy minimum energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reaction breaking bonds addition polymer very long molecular chain formed repeated addition reactions many unsaturated alkene molecules monomers addition polymerisation process unsaturated alkene molecules monomers add growing polymer chain one timeIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com long saturated molecular chain addition polymer addition reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reactant added IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com unsaturated molecule saturated molecule adsorption process IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com occurs gas, liquid solute surface solid rarely liquid alicyclic hydrocarbon hydrocarbon IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atoms joined together ring structure aliphatic hydrocarbon hydrocarbon IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atoms joined together straight branched chains alkali type base IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com dissolves water forming hydroxide ions OH (aq) ions alkanes homologous series IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com general formula C alkyl group alkane IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hydrogen atom removed CH alkyl groups IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com ‘R’ amount substance quantity whose unit mole Chemists amount substance IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com IITJEE counting atoms anhydrous substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com contains water molecules anion negatively charged ion atom economy atomic orbital region within atom hold two electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com opposite spins atomic proton number number protons nucleus atom 100 products masses molecular sum product desired mass molecular economy atom Chemistry average bond enthalpy average enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com place IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com breaking homolytic fission 1 molIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com type bond molecules gaseous species Avogadro constant,isotope number atoms mole carbon base species IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com proton acceptor biodegradable material substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com broken IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com naturally environment living organisms Boltzmann distribution distribution energies molecules particular temperature IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com graph bond enthalpy enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com breaking homolytic fission 1 mol bond molecules gaseous species carbanion organic ion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atom hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com negative charge carbocation organic ion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atom hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com positive charge catalyst substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com increases rate chemical reaction process cation positively charged ion cis trans isomerism special type isomerism IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com non hydrogen group skmclasses.weebly.com hydrogen atom C C=C double bond cis isomer ( Z isomer) IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com H atoms on IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon same side trans isomer E isomer H atoms carbon different bond compound substance formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com chemically bonded elements fixed ratio, usually chemical formula concentration amount solute mol IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com 1 dm 3 1000 cm solution coordinate bond shared pair electrons provided one bonding atoms called dative covalent bond covalent bond bond formed shared pair electrons cracking breaking long chained saturated hydrocarbonsIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com mixture shorter chained alkanesalkenes curly arrow symbol IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reaction mechanisms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com show movement electron Coaching ICWA Coaching CFA Coaching CFP Coaching CMAT Coaching School Tuitions CBSE School Tuitions Home Tuitions 9th STD Tuitions PUC Coaching 10th Std Tuitions College Tuitions Maths Tuitions Engineering Tuitions Accounts & Finance Tuitions MBA & BBA Coaching Microbiology & Biotech Tuitions Study Abroad GRE & SAT Coaching GMAT Coaching IELTS/TOEFL Coaching PTE Coaching proteins protonation pyridines pyrroles quinones quinolines radical reaction radicals rearrangement receptors reduction regioselectivity retro reaction rhodium ring closure ring contraction ring expansion ring opening ruthenium samarium scandium Schiff bases selenium self-assembly silicon sodium solid-phase synthesis solvent effects spectroscopy sphingolipids spiro compounds stereoselective synthesis stereoselectivity steric hindrance steroids Stille reaction substituent effects sulfates sulfonamides sulfones sulfoxides sulfur supported catalysis supramolecular tandem reaction tautomerism terpenoids thioacetals thiols tin titanium total synthesis transesterification transition metals transition states tungsten Umpolung vinylidene complexes vitamins Wacker reaction Wittig reaction ylides zeolites zinc BRST Quantization Effective field theories Field Theories Higher Dimensions Field Theories Lower Dimensions Large Extra Dimensions Lattice Quantum Field Theory Nonperturbative Effects Renormalization Group Renormalization Regularization skmclasses.weebly.com Renormalons Sigma Models Solitons Monopoles skmclasses.weebly.com Instantons Supersymmetric gauge theory Topological Field Theories 1/N Expansion Anyons Chern-Simons Theories Confinement Duality Gauge Field Theories Lattice Gauge Field Theories Scattering Amplitudes Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking Strong Coupling Expansion Topological States Matter Wilson ‘t Hooft skmclasses.weebly.comPolyakov loops Anomalies Field skmclasses.weebly.comString Theories BRST Symmetry Conformal skmclasses.weebly.com W Symmetry Discrete skmclasses.weebly.comFinite Symmetries Gauge Symmetry Global Symmetries Higher Spin Symmetry Space-Time Symmetries AdS-CFT Correspondence Black Holes String Theory Bosonic Strings Brane Dynamics Gauge Theories Conformal Field Models String Theory D-branes dS vacua string theory F-Theory Flux compactifications Gauge-gravity correspondence Holography skmclasses.weebly.comcondensed matter physics (AdS CMT) Holography skmclasses.weebly.comquark-gluon plasmas Intersecting branes models Long strings M(atrix) Theories M-Theory p-branes Penrose limit skmclasses.weebly.compp-wave background String Duality String Field Theory String theory skmclasses.weebly.comcosmic string Superstring Vacua Superstrings skmclasses.weebly.comHeterotic Strings Tachyon Condensation Topological Strings 2D Gravity Black Holes Classical Theories Gravity Higher Spin Gravity Lattice Models Gravity Models Quantum Gravity Spacetime Singularities Extended Supersymmetry Supergravity Models Superspaces Supersymmetric Effective Theories Supersymmetry skmclasses.weebly.com Duality Supersymmetry Breaking Differential skmclasses.weebly.comAlgebraic Geometry Integrable Hierarchies Non-Commutative Geometry Quantum Groups Statistical Methods Stochastic Processes Cosmology Theories beyond SM Solar skmclasses.weebly.comAtmospheric Neutrinos Thermal Field Theory Be Ansatz Boundary Quantum Field Theory Exact S-Matrix Quantum Dissipative Systems Random Systems B-Physics Beyond Standard Model Compactification skmclasses.weebly.com String Models CP violation Electromagnetic Processes skmclasses.weebly.com Properties GUT Heavy Quark Higgs Kaon LEP HERA skmclasses.weebly.com SLC Neutrino Physics Quark Masses skmclasses.weebly.comSM Parameters Rare Decays Standard Model Supersymmetric Standard Model Technicolor skmclasses.weebly.com Composite Models Chiral Lagrangians Deep Inelastic Scattering Higher Twist Effects Lattice QCD Parton Model Phase Diagram QCD Phenomenological Models QCD Quark-Gluon Plasma Resummation Sum Rules Aim Global Education Koramangala Computer Networking Training Cloud Computing Training JBOSS Training Juniper Certification Training L2 & L3 Protocol Training MCTS Training Engineering design Training CAD & CAM Training MATLAB Training PLC Training SCADA Training VLSI Design Multimedia & Design Training 2D Animation Training 3D Animation Training 4D Animation Training CorelDRAW Training VFX Training Web Technologies Training ASP.Net Training JQuery pair breaking formation covalent bond dative covalent shared pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com been provided one bonding atoms only IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com called coordinate bond dehydration elimination reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com water removed saturated molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com unsaturated molecule delocalised Electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com shared IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two atoms displacement reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reactive element displaces less reactive element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com aqueous solution latter’s ions displayed formula showing relative positioning atoms molecule skmclasses.weebly.com bonds IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com disproportionation oxidation skmclasses.weebly.com reduction element redox reaction dynamic equilibrium equilibrium IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com exists closed system IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com rate forward reaction equal IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com rate reverse reaction E/Z isomerism type stereoisomerism IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different groups attached IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon C=C double bond arranged differently space restricted rotation C=C bond electron configuration arrangement electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom electronegativity measure attraction bonded atom skmclasses.weebly.com pair electrons covalent bond electron shielding repulsion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrons different inner shells Shielding reduces net attractive force IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com positive nucleus outer shell electrons electrophile atom group atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com attracted IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron rich centre atom IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com accepts pair electrons covalent bond electrophilic addition type addition reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrophile attracted electron rich centre atom accepts pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com new covalent bond elimination reaction removal molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com saturated molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com unsaturated molecule empirical formula simplest whole number ratio atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element present compound endothermic reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com enthalpy products greater enthalpy reactants resulting heat being taken surroundings enthalpy heat content IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com stored chemical system standard enthalpy change combustion enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole substance reacts completely IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oxygen under standard conditions reactants skmclasses.weebly.com products being IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com standard states (standard) enthalpy change formation enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole compound formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com constituent elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com standard states under standard conditions (standard) enthalpy change reaction enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com accompanies reaction molar quantities expressed chemical equation under standard conditions reactants skmclasses.weebly.com products being IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com standard states enthalpy cycle diagram showing alternative routes IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reactants products IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com allows indirect determination IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com other known enthalpy changes using Hess’ law enthalpy profile diagram skmclasses.weebly.com reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com compare enthalpy reactants IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com enthalpy products esterification reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com alcohol IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carboxylic acid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com produce ester skmclasses.weebly.com water exothermic reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com enthalpy products smaller enthalpy reactants, resulting heat loss IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com surroundings fractional distillation separation components liquid mixture skmclassesfractions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com differ boiling point skmclasses.weebly.com hence chemical composition IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com distillation typically using fractionating column fragmentation process mass spectrometry IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com causes positive ion split skmclasses pieces one positive fragment ion functional group part organic molecule responsible skmclasses.weebly.com chemical reactions general formula simplest algebraic formula member homologous series. skmclasses.weebly.com example general formula alkanes giant covalent lattice dimensional structure atoms, bonded together strong covalent bonds giant ionic lattice three dimensional structure oppositely charged ions, bonded together strong ionic bonds giant metallic lattice three dimensional structure positive ions skmclasses.weebly.com delocalised electrons, bonded together strong metallic bonds greenhouse effect process IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com absorption subsequent emission infrared radiation atmospheric gases warms lower atmosphere planet’s surface group vertical column Periodic Table Elements group IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com similar chemical properties skmclasses.weebly.com atoms skmclasses.weebly.comnumber outer shell electrons Hess law reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one route skmclasses.weebly.com initial final conditions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com total enthalpy change skmclasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com route heterogeneous catalysis reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com catalyst IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com different physical state reactants; frequently, reactants IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com gases whilst catalyst solid heterolytic fission breaking covalent bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com both bonded electrons going IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one atoms, forming cation (+ ion) skmclasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com anion ion homogeneous catalysis reaction catalyst skmclasses.weebly.com reactants physical state, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com frequently aqueous gaseous state homologous series series organic compounds IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com functional group, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com successive member differing homolytic fission breaking covalent bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one bonded electrons going IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom, forming two radicals hydrated Crystalline skmclasses.weebly.com containing water molecules hydrocarbon compound hydrogen skmclasses.weebly.com carbon hydrogen bond strong dipole attraction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron deficient hydrogen atom (O H on different molecule hydrolysis reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com water aqueous hydroxide ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com breaks chemical compound skmclasses two compounds initiation first step radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com free radicals generated ultraviolet radiation intermolecular force attractive force IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com neighbouring molecules Intermolecular forces van der Waals’ forces induced dipole ces permanent dipole forces hydrogen bonds ion positively negatively charge atom covalently bonded group atoms molecular ion ionic bonding electrostatic attraction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oppositely charged ions first) ionisation energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com remove one electron IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole gaseous 2+ ions second) ionisation energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com remove one electron IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole gaseous 2+ ions successive ionisation measure energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com remove IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron Chemistry energy second ionisation energy energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one electron IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole gaseous 2+ ions isotopes Atoms skmclasses.weebly.com element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different numbers neutrons different masses le Chatelier’s principle system dynamic equilibrium subjected change position equilibrium will shift minimise change limiting reagent substance chemical reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com runs out first lone pair outer shell pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com involved chemical bonding mass nucleon number particles protons aneutrons) nucleus mechanism sequence steps showing path taken electrons reaction metallic bond electrostatic attraction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com positive metal ions adelocalised electrons molar mass substance units molar mass IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molar volume IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com mole gas. units molar volume IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com dm room temperature skmclasses.weebly.com pressure molar volume approximately 24.0 substance containing IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com many particles thereIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atoms exactly 12 g carbon isotope molecular formula number atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element molecule molecular ion M positive ion formed mass spectrometry IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecule loses electron molecule small group atoms held together covalent bonds monomer small molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com combines IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com monomers polymer nomenclature system naming compounds nucleophile atom group atoms attracted electron deficient centre atom donates pair electrons covalent bond nucleophilic substitution type substitution reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com nucleophile attracted electron deficient centre atom, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com donates pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com new covalent bond oxidation Loss electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com increase oxidation number oxidation number measure number electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom uses bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atoms another element. Oxidation numbers IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com derive d rules oxidising agent reagent IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oxidises (takes electrons from) another species percentage yield period horizontal row elements Periodic Table Elements show trends properties across period periodicity regular periodic variation properties elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atomic number position Periodic Table permanent dipole small charge difference across bond resulting IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com difference electronegativities bonded atoms permanent dipole dipole force attractive force IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com permanent dipoles neighbouring polar molecules pi bond (p bond reactive part double bond formed above skmclasses.weebly.com below plane bonded atoms sideways overlap p orbitalspolar covalent bond bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com permanent dipole polar molecule molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com overall dipole skmclasses account dipoles across bonds polymer long molecular chain built monomer units precipitation reaction formation solid solution during chemical reaction Precipitates IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two aqueous solutions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com mixed together principal quantum number n number representing relative overall energy orbital IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com increases distance nucleus sets orbitals IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com value IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com electron shells energy levels propagation two repeated radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com build up products chain reaction radical species unpaired electron rate reaction change concentration reactant product redox reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reduction skmclasses.weebly.com oxidation take IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reducing agent reagent IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reduces (adds electron to) species reduction Gain electrons decrease oxidation number yield actual amount mol product theoretical amount mol product Chemistry reflux continual boiling skmclasses.weebly.com condensing reaction mixture ensure IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com without contents flask boiling dry relative atomic mass weighted mean mass atom element compared one twelfth mass IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom carbon relative formula mass weighted mean mass formula unit compared IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one twelfth mass atom carbon relative isotopic mass mass atom isotope compared IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one twelfth mass atom carbon relative molecular mass weighted mean mass molecule compared twelfth mass atom carbon 12 repeat unit specific arrangement atom s IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com occurs structure over over again. Repeat units IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com included brackets outside IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com symbol n Salt chemical compound formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com acid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com H+ ion acid IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com been replaced metal ion another positive ion such IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com ammonium ion, NH saturated hydrocarbon IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com single bonds only shell group atomic orbitals IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com principal quantum number known main energy level simple molecular lattice three dimensional structure molecules, bonded together weak intermolecular forces skeletal formula simplified organic formula, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hydrogen atoms removed alkyl chains, leaving carbon skeleton skmclasses.weebly.com associated functional groups species particle IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com part chemical reaction specific heat capacity, c energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com raise temperature 1 g substance 1 C spectator ions Ions present part chemical reaction standard conditions pressure 100 kPa 1 atmosphere stated temperature usually 298 K (25 °C), skmclasses.weebly.com concentration 1 mol dm reactions aqueous solutions standard enthalpies enthalpystandard solution solution known concentration Standard solutions normally IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com titrations IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com determine unknown information another substance Chemistry standard state physical state substance under standard conditions 100 kPa 1 atmosphere) skmclasses.weebly.com 298 K 25 C stereoisomers Compounds skmclasses.weebly.com structural formula IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different arrangement atoms space stoichiometry molar relationship IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com relative quantities substances part reaction stratosphere second layer Earth’s atmosphere, containing ‘ozone layer’, about 10 km IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com 50 km above Earth’s surface structural formula formula showing minimal detail skmclasses.weebly.com arrangement atoms molecule structural isomers Molecules IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com molecular formula different structural arrangements atoms subshell group skmclasses.weebly.com type atomic orbitals s, p, d f within shell substitution reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom group atoms replaced different atom group atoms termination step end radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two radicals combine IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecule thermal decomposition breaking chemical substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com heat skmclasses least two chemical substances troposphere lowest layer Earth’s atmosphere extending Earth’s surface about 7 km (above poles) about 20 km above tropics unsaturated hydrocarbon hydrocarbon containing carbon carbon multiple bonds van der Waals’ forces Very weak attractive forces IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com induced dipoles neighbouring molecules volatility ease IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com liquid turns skmclasses gas Volatility increases boiling point decreases water crystallisation Water molecules IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com essential part crystalline structure absolute zero – theoretical condition concerning system at zero Kelvin IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com system does IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com emit absorb energy (all atoms rest accuracy – how close value IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com actual true value IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com see precision acid compound that, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com dissolved water pH less 7.0 compound IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com donates hydrogen ion acid anhydride compound IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two acyl groups boundIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com single oxygen atom acid dissociation constant – IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com equilibrium constant skmclasses.weebly.com dissociation weak acid actinides – fifteen chemical elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com actinium (89) skmclasses.weebly.com lawrencium (103 activated complex – structure IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com forms because collisionIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecules new bondsvIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com formed activation energy – minimum energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com must be inputIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com chemical system activity series actual yield addition reaction – within organic chemistry, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecules combineIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com larger aeration mixing air skmclasses liquid solid alkali metals metals Group 1 on periodic table alkaline earth metals – metals Group 2 on periodic table allomer substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comdifferent composition another skmclasses.weebly.comcrystalline structure allotropy elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different structures skmclasses.weebly.com therefore different forms IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com Carbon diamonds, graphite, skmclasses.weebly.com fullerene anion negatively charge ions anode – positive side dry cell battery cell aromaticity – chemical property conjugated rings IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com results unusual stability. See IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com benzene atom – chemical element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com smallest form, skmclasses.weebly.com made up neutrons skmclasses.weebly.comprotons within nucleus skmclasses.weebly.comelectrons circling nucleus atomic mass unit atomic number number representing IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com corresponds IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com number protons within nucleus atomic orbital region IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron atom may be found atomic radius average atomic mass Avogadro’s law Avogadro’s number number particles mole substance ( 6.02×10^23 ) barometer deviceIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com measure pressure atmosphere base substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com accepts proton skmclasses.weebly.com high pH; common example sodium hydroxide (NaOH biochemistry chemistry organisms boiling phase transition liquid vaporizing boiling point temperature IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com substance startsIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com boil boiling-point elevation process IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com boiling point elevated adding substance bond – attraction skmclasses.weebly.com repulsion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atoms skmclasses.weebly.com molecules IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com cornerstone Boyle’s law Brønsted-Lowrey acid chemical species IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com donates proton Brønsted–Lowry acid–base reaction Brønsted-Lowrey base – chemical species IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com accepts proton buffered solution – IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com aqueous solution consisting weak acid skmclasses.weebly.comits conjugate base weak base skmclasses.weebly.comits conjugate acid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com resists changes pH IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com strong acids basesIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com added burette (IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com buret glasswareIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com dispense specific amounts liquid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com precision necessary titration skmclasses.weebly.com resource dependent reactions example combustion catalyst chemical compoundIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com change rate IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com speed up slow down reaction,IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com regenerated at end reaction cation – positively charged ion centrifuge equipmentIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com separate substances based on density rotating tubes around centred axis cell potential force galvanic cell IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com pulls electron through reducing agentIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oxidizing agent chemical Law certain rules IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com pertain IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com laws nature skmclasses.weebly.comchemistry – examples chemical reaction – change one IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com substances skmclassesanother multiple substances colloid mixture evenly dispersed substances such IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comm milks combustion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com exothermic reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oxidant skmclasses.weebly.comfuel IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com heat skmclasses.weebly.comoften light compound – substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com made up two IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com chemically bonded elements condensation phase changeIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com gasIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com liquid conductor material IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com allows electric flow IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com freely covalent bond – chemical bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com involves sharing electrons crystal solid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com packed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ions, molecules atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com orderly fashion cuvette glasswareIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com spectroscopic experiments. usually made plastic glass quartz skmclasses.weebly.comshould be IITJEE possible deionization removal ions, skmclasses.weebly.com water’s case mineral ions such IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comsodium, iron skmclasses.weebly.comcalcium deliquescence substances IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com absorb water IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atmosphereIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com liquid solutions deposition – settling particles within solution mixture dipole electric magnetic separation charge dipole moment – polarity polar covalent bond dissolution solvation – spread ions monosacharide double bond sharing two pairs electradodes Microcentrifuge Eppendorf tube IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Coomassie Blue solution earth metal – see alkaline earth metal electrolyte solution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com conducts certain amount current skmclasses.weebly.com split categorically IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com weak skmclasses.weebly.comstrong electrolytes electrochemical cell using chemical reaction’s current electromotive force made electromagnetic radiation type wave IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com through vacuums IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comwell IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.commaterial skmclasses.weebly.comclassified IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com self-propagating wave electromagnetism fields IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electric charge skmclasses.weebly.comelectric properties IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com change way IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com particles move skmclasses.weebly.com interact electromotive force device IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com gains energy IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comelectric charges pass through electron – subatomic particle IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com net charge IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com negative electron shells – IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com orbital around atom’s nucleus fixed number electrons usually two eight electric charge measured property (coulombs) IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com determine electromagnetic interaction element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com defined IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atomic number energy – system’s abilityIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com do work enthalpy – measure total energy thermodynamic system (usually symbolized IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comH entropy – amount energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com available skmclasses.weebly.com work closed thermodynamic system usually symbolized IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com S enzyme – protein IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com speeds up catalyses reaction Empirical Formula – IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com called simplest formula gives simplest whole -number ratio atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element present compound eppendorf tube – generalized skmclasses.weebly.comtrademarked term skmclasses.weebly.com type tube; see microcentrifuge freezing – phase transitionIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com liquidIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com solid Faraday constant unit electrical charge widelyIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrochemistry skmclasses.weebly.comequalIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ~ 96,500 coulombs represents 1 mol electrons, Avogadro number electrons: 6.022 × 1023 electrons. F = 96 485.339 9(24) C/mol Faraday’s law electrolysis two part law IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Michael Faraday published about electrolysis mass substance altered at IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrode during electrolysis directly proportionalIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com quantity electricity transferred at IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrode mass IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com elemental material altered at IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrode directly proportionalIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element’s equivalent weight frequency number cyclesIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com unit time. Unit: 1 hertz = 1 cycleIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com 1 second galvanic cell battery made up electrochemical IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two different metals connected salt bridge gas particles container IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com no definite shape volume geochemistry – chemistry skmclasses.weebly.comchemical composition Earth Gibbs energy – value IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com indicates spontaneity reaction usually symbolized G Cavalier India, Kalyan Nagar halogens Group 7 Periodic Table skmclasses.weebly.comare non-metals heat energy transferredIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one systemIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com another thermal interaction jodium – Latin name halogen element iodine Joule SI I.M.S. Learning Resources Pvt. 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Narayanapura Babusahib Palya Bagalagunte Bagalur Balaji Nagar Balepet Banashankari Banashankari 1st Stage Banashankari 2nd Stage Banashankari 3rd Stage Banaswadi Banaswadi Ring Road Bangalore G.P.O Bannerghatta Bannerghatta Road Bapuji Nagar Basappa Circle Basava Nagar Basavanagudi Basaveshwara Nagar Basaveshwara Nagar 2nd Stage Basaveshwara Nagar 3rd Block Basaveshwara Nagar 3rd Stage Basaveshwara Road Bazaar Street Begur BEL Road Bellandur Bellandur Outer Ring Road Bellary Road BEML Layout Benagana Halli Bendre Nagar Benson Town Bharati Nagar Bhattara Halli Bhoopasandra Bhuvaneshwari Nagar Bidadi Bileka Halli Bilekahalli Binny Mill Road Bismillah Nagar Bommana Halli Bommanahalli Kendriya Vidyalaya Malleswaram 18th Cross Malleswaram Bangalore Bommasandra Bommasandra Industrial Area Brigade Road Brindavan Nagar Brookefield Brunton Road BTM 1st Stage BTM 2nd Stage Bull Temple Road Palace Orchards/Sadashivnagar area located north city centre IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com property prices higher brackets possibly IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com up-market residential area in Bangalore M.G. 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