NCERT CBSE Standard 11 Chemistry Chapter 8 Redox Reactions SKMClasses South Bangalore Subhashish Sir

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Solutions to Chapter 8 :

Redox Reactions

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Where there is oxidation, there is always reduction – Chemistry is essentially a study of redox systems.

Chemistry deals with varieties of matter and change of one kind of matter into the other. Transformation of matter from one kind into another occurs through the various types of reactions. One important category of such reactions is Redox Reactions. A number of phenomena, both physical as well as biological, are concerned with redox reactions. These reactions find extensive use in pharmaceutical, biological, industrial, metallurgical and agricultural areas. The importance of these reactions is apparent from the fact that burning of different types of fuels for obtaining energy for domestic, transport and other commercial purposes, electrochemical processes for extraction of highly reactive metals and non-metals, manufacturing of chemical compounds like caustic soda, operation of dry and wet batteries and corrosion of metals fall within the purview of redox processes. Of late, environmental issues like Hydrogen Economy (use of liquid hydrogen as fuel) and development of ‘Ozone Hole’ have started figuring under redox phenomenon.

8.1 CLASSICAL IDEA OF REDOX REACTIONS – OXIDATION AND REDUCTION REACTIONS Originally, the term oxidation was used to describe the addition of oxygen to an element or a compound. Because of the presence of dioxygen in the atmosphere (~20%), many elements combine with it and this is the principal reason why they commonly occur on the earth in the form of their oxides. The following reactions represent oxidation processes according to the limited definition of oxidation:

2Mg(s) + O2(g) → 2MgO(s) (8.1)
S(s) + O2 (g) → SO2(g) (8.2)

In reactions (8.1) and (8.2), the elements magnesium and sulphur are oxidised on account of addition of oxygen to them. Similarly, methane is oxidised owing to the addition of oxygen to it.

CH4 (g) + 2O2 (g) → CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) (8.3)

A careful examination of reaction (8.3) in which hydrogen has been replaced by oxygen prompted chemists to reinterpret oxidation in terms of removal of hydrogen from it and, therefore, the scope of term oxidation was broadened to include the removal of hydrogen from a substance. The following illustration is another reaction where removal of hydrogen can also be cited as an oxidation reaction.

2H2S(g) + O2(g) → 2S(s) + 2H2O(l) (8.4)

As knowledge of chemists grew, it was natural to extend the term oxidation for reactions similar to (8.1 to 8.4), which do not involve oxygen but other electronegative elements. The oxidation of magnesium with fluorine, chlorine and sulphur etc. occurs according to the following reactions :

Mg(s) + F2(g) → MgF2(s) (8.5) Mg(s) + Cl2 (g) → MgCl2 (s) (8.6) Mg(s) + S(s) → MgS(s) (8.7)

Incorporating the reactions (8.5 to 8.7) within the fold of oxidation reactions encouraged chemists to consider not only the removal of hydrogen as oxidation, but also the removal of electropositive elements as oxidation. Thus the reaction :

2K4[Fe(CN)6](aq) + H2O2(aq) →2K3[Fe(CN)6](aq) + 2KOH(aq)

is interpreted as oxidation due to the removal of electropositive element potassium from potassium ferrocyanide before it changes to potassium ferricyanide. To summarise, the term ‘oxidation’ is defined as the addition of oxygen/electronegative element to a substance or removal of hydrogen electropositive element from a substance.

In the beginning, reduction was considered as removal of oxygen from a compound. However, the term reduction has been broadened these days to include removal of oxygen/electronegative element from a substance or addition of hydrogen electropositive element to a substance.

According to the definition given above, the following are the examples of reduction processes:

(removal of electronegative element, chlorine from ferric chloride)

CH2 = CH2(g) + H2(g) → H3C-CH3(g) (8.10)

(addition of hydrogen)
2HgCl2(aq) + SnCl2(aq) → Hg2Cl2(s)+SnCl4(aq) (8.11)
(addition of mercury to mercuric chloride)

In reaction (8.11) simultaneous oxidation of stannous chloride to stannic chloride is also occurring because of the addition of electronegative element chlorine to it. It was soon realised that oxidation and reduction always occur simultaneously (as will be apparent by re-examining all the equations given above), hence, the word ‘redox’ was coined for this class of chemical reactions.

Problem 8.1

In the reactions given below, identify the species undergoing oxidation and reduction:
(i) H2S(g) + Cl2(g) → 2HCl(g) + S(s)
(ii)3Fe3O4(s) + 8Al(s) → 9Fe(s) + 4Al2OM3(s)
(iii) 2Na(s) + H2(g) → 2NaH (s)

(i) H2S is oxidised because a more electronegative element, chlorine is added to hydrogen (or a more electropositive element, hydrogen has been removed from S). Chlorine is reduced due to addition of hydrogen to it.
(ii) Aluminium is oxidised because oxygen is added to it. Ferrous ferric oxide (Fe3O4) is reduced because oxygen has been removed from it.
(iii) With the careful application of the concept of electronegativity only we may infer that sodium is oxidised and hydrogen is reduced.

Reaction (iii) chosen here prompts us to think in terms of another way to define redox reactions.

We have already learnt that the reactions
2Na(s) + Cl2(g) → 2NaCl(s) (8.12)
2Na(s) + O2(g) → Na2O(s) (8.13)
2Na(s) + S(s) → Na2S(s) (8.14)
are redox reactions because in each of these reactions sodium is oxidised due to the addition of either oxygen or more electronegative element to sodium. Simultaneously, chlorine, oxygen and sulphur are reduced because to each of these, the  electropositive element sodium has been added. From our knowledge of chemical bonding we also know that sodium chloride, sodium oxide and sodium sulphide are ionic compounds and perhaps better written as Na+Cl(s), (Na+)2O2-(s), and (Na+)2S2-(s). Development of charges on the species produced suggests us to rewrite the reactions (8.12 to 8.14) in the following manner :

For convenience, each of the above processes can be considered as two separate steps, one involving the loss of electrons and the other the gain of electrons. As an illustration, we may further elaborate one of these, say, the formation of sodium chloride.
2Na(s) → 2Na+(g) + 2e
Cl2(g) + 2e → 2 Cl(g)

Each of the above steps is called a half reaction, which explicitly shows involvement of electrons. Sum of the half reactions gives the overall reaction :
2Na(s) + Cl2(g) → 2Na+Cl(s) or 2NaCl(s)

Reactions 8.12 to 8.14 suggest that half reactions that involve loss of electrons are called oxidation reactions. Similarly, the half reactions that involve gain of electrons are called reduction reactions. It may not be out of context to mention here that the new way of defining oxidation and reduction has been achieved only by establishing a correlation between the behaviour of species as per the classical idea and their interplay in electron-transfer change. In reactions (8.12 to 8.14) sodium, which is oxidised, acts as a reducing agent because it donates electron to each of the elements interacting with it and thus helps in reducing them. Chlorine, oxygen and sulphur are reduced and act as oxidising agents because these accept electrons from sodium. To summarise, we may mention that

Oxidation: Loss of electron(s) by any species.
Reduction: Gain of electron(s) by any species.
Oxidising agent : Acceptor of electron(s).
Reducing agent : Donor of electron(s).

Problem 8.2 Justify that the reaction : 2Na(s) + H2(g) → 2NaH(s) is a redox change.
Solution Since in the above reaction the compound formed is an ionic compound, which may also be represented as Na+H(s), this suggests that one half reaction in this process is :
2Na(s) → 2Na+(g) + 2e and the other half reaction is: H2(g) + 2e → 2H(g) This splitting of the reaction under examination into two half reactions automatically reveals that here sodium is oxidised and hydrogen is reduced, therefore, the complete reaction is a redox change.

8.2.1 Competitive Electron Transfer Reactions Place a strip of metallic zinc in an aqueous solution of copper nitrate as shown in Fig. 8.1, for about one hour. You may notice that the strip becomes coated with reddish metallic copper and the blue colour of the solution disappears. Formation of Zn2+ ions among the products can easily be judged when the blue colour of the solution due to Cu2+ has disappeared. If hydrogen sulphide gas is passed through the colourless solution containing Zn2+ ions, appearance of white zinc sulphide, ZnS can be seen on making the solution alkaline with ammonia.
The reaction between metallic zinc and the aqueous solution of copper nitrate is :
Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq) → Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s) (8.15)

In reaction (8.15), zinc has lost electrons to form Zn2+ and, therefore, zinc is oxidised. Evidently, now if zinc is oxidised, releasing electrons, something must be reduced, accepting the electrons lost by zinc. Copper ion is reduced by gaining electrons from the zinc. Reaction (8.15) may be rewritten as:

At this stage we may investigate the state of equilibrium for the reaction represented by equation (8.15). For this purpose, let us place a strip of metallic copper in a zinc sulphate solution. No visible reaction is noticed and attempt to detect the presence of Cu2+ ions by passing H2S gas through the solution to produce the black colour of cupric sulphide, CuS, does not succeed. Cupric sulphide has such a low solubility that this is an extremely sensitive test; yet the amount of Cu2+ formed cannot be detected. We thus conclude that the state of equilibrium for the reaction (8.15) greatly favours the products over the reactants.
Let us extend electron transfer reaction now to copper metal and silver nitrate solution in water and arrange a set-up as shown in Fig. 8.2. The solution develops blue colour due to the formation of Cu2+ ions on account of the reaction:

Here, Cu(s) is oxidised to Cu2+(aq) and Ag+(aq) is reduced to Ag(s). Equilibrium greatly favours the products Cu2+ (aq) and Ag(s).
By way of contrast, let us also compare the reaction of metallic cobalt placed in nickel sulphate solution. The reaction that occurs here is :

At equilibrium, chemical tests reveal that both Ni2+(aq) and Co2+(aq) are present at moderate concentrations. In this case, neither the reactants [Co(s) and Ni2+(aq)] nor the products [Co2+(aq) and Ni (s)] are greatly favoured.

This competition for release of electrons incidently reminds us of the competition for release of protons among acids. The similarity suggests that we might develop a table in which metals and their ions are listed on the basis of their tendency to release electrons just as we do in the case of acids to indicate the strength of the acids. As a matter of fact we have already made certain comparisons. By comparison we have come to know that zinc releases electrons to copper and copper releases electrons to silver and, therefore, the electron releasing tendency of the metals is in the order: Zn>Cu>Ag. We would love to make our list more vast and design a metal activity series or electrochemical series. The competition for electrons between various metals helps us to design a class of cells, named as Galvanic cells in which the chemical reactions become the source of electrical energy. We would study more about these cells in Class XII.


A less obvious example of electron transfer is realised when hydrogen combines with oxygen

2H2(g) + O2(g) → 2H2O(l) (8.18)

Though not simple in its approach, yet we can visualise the H atom as going from a neutral (zero) state in H2 to a positive state in H2O, the O atom goes from a zero state in O2 to a dinegative state in H2O. It is assumed that there is an electron transfer from H to O and consequently H2 is oxidised and O2 is reduced.

However, as we shall see later, the charge transfer is only partial and is perhaps better described as an electron shift rather than a complete loss of electron by H and gain by O. What has been said here with respect to equation (8.18) may be true for a good number of other reactions involving covalent compounds. Two such examples of this class of the reactions are:
H2(s) + Cl2(g) → 2HCl(g) (8.19) and,
CH4(g) + 4Cl2(g) → CCl4(l) + 4HCl(g) (8.20)

In order to keep track of electron shifts in chemical reactions involving formation of covalent compounds, a more practical method of using oxidation number has been developed. In this method, it is always assumed that there is a complete transfer of electron from a less electronegative atom to a more electonegative atom. For example, we rewrite equations (8.18 to 8.20) to show charge on each of the atoms forming part of the reaction :

It may be emphasised that the assumption of electron transfer is made for book-keeping purpose only and it will become obvious at a later stage in this unit that it leads to the simple description of redox reactions.

Oxidation number denotes the oxidation state of an element in a compound ascertained according to a set of rules formulated on the basis that electron in a covalent bond belongs entirely to more electronegative element.

It is not always possible to remember or make out easily in a compound/ion, which element is more electronegative than the other. Therefore, a set of rules has been formulated to determine the oxidation number of an element in a compound/ion. If two or more than two atoms of an element are present in the molecule/ion such as Na2S2O3Cr2O72-, the oxidation number of the atom of that element will then be the average of the oxidation number of all the atoms of that element. We may at this stage, state the rules for the calculation of oxidation number. These rules are:

1. In elements, in the free or the uncombined state, each atom bears an oxidation number of zero. Evidently each atom in H2, O2, Cl2, O3, P4, S8, Na, Mg, Al has the oxidation number zero.
2. For ions composed of only one atom, the oxidation number is equal to the charge on the ion. Thus Na+ ion has an oxidation number of +1, Mg2+ ion, +2, Fe3+ ion, +3, Clion, -1, O2-ion, -2; and so on. In their compounds all alkali metals have oxidation number of +1, and all alkaline earth metals have an oxidation number of +2. Aluminium is regarded to have an oxidation number of +3 in all its compounds.
3. The oxidation number of oxygen in most compounds is -2. However, we come across two kinds of exceptions here. One arises in the case of peroxides and superoxides, the compounds of oxygen in which oxygen atoms are directly linked to each other. While in peroxides (e.g., H2O2, Na2O2), each oxygen atom is assigned an oxidation number of -1, in superoxides (e.g., KO2, RbO2) each oxygen atom is assigned an oxidation number of -(½). The second exception appears rarely, i.e. when oxygen is bonded to fluorine. In such compounds e.g., oxygen difluoride (OF2) and dioxygen difluoride (O2F2), the oxygen is assigned an oxidation number of +2 and +1, respectively. The number assigned to oxygen will depend upon the bonding state of oxygen but this number would now be a positive figure only.
4. The oxidation number of hydrogen is +1, except when it is bonded to metals in binary compounds (that is compounds containing two elements). For example, in LiH, NaH, and CaH2, its oxidation number is -1.
5. In all its compounds, fluorine has an oxidation number of -1. Other halogens (Cl, Br, and I) also have an oxidation number of -1, when they occur as halide ions in their compounds. Chlorine, bromine and iodine when combined with oxygen, for example in oxoacids and oxoanions, have positive oxidation numbers.
6. The algebraic sum of the oxidation number of all the atoms in a compound must be zero. In polyatomic ion, the algebraic sum of all the oxidation numbers of atoms of the ion must equal the charge on the ion. Thus, the sum of oxidation number of three oxygen atoms and one carbon atom in the carbonate ion, (CO3)2- must equal -2. By the application of above rules, we can find out the oxidation number of the desired element in a molecule or in an ion. It is clear that the metallic elements have positive oxidation number and nonmetallic elements have positive or negative oxidation number. The atoms of transition elements usually display several positive oxidation states. The highest oxidation number of a representative element is the group number for the first two groups and the group number minus 10 (following the long form of periodic table) for the other groups. Thus, it implies that the highest value of oxidation number exhibited by an atom of an element generally increases across the period in the periodic table. In the third period, the highest value of oxidationnumber changes from 1 to 7 as indicated below in the compounds of the elements.

A term that is often used interchangeably with the oxidation number is the oxidation state. Thus in CO2, the oxidation state of carbon is +4, that is also its oxidation number and similarly the oxidation state as well as oxidation number of oxygen is -2. This implies that the oxidation number denotes the oxidation state of an element in a compound.

Group 1 2 13 14 15 16 17
Element Na Mg Al Si P S Cl
Compound NaCl MgSO4 AlF3 SiCl4 P4O10 SF6 HClO4
Higher oxidation number state of the group element +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7

The oxidation number state of a metal in a compound is sometimes presented according to the notation given by German chemist, Alfred Stock. It is popularly known as Stock notation. According to this, the oxidation number is expressed by putting a Roman numeral representing the oxidation number in parenthesis after the symbol of the metal in the molecular formula. Thus aurous chloride and auric chloride are written as Au(I)Cl and Au(III)Cl3. Similarly, stannous chloride and stannic chloride are written as Sn(II)Cl2 and Sn(IV)Cl4. This change in oxidation number implies change in oxidation state, which in turn helps to identify whether the species is present in oxidised form or reduced form. Thus, Hg2(I)Cl2 is the reduced form of Hg(II) Cl2.

Problem 8.3 Using Stock notation, represent the following compounds :HAuCl4, Tl2O, FeO, Fe2O3, CuI, CuO, MnO and MnO2.

Solution By applying various rules of calculating the oxidation number of the desired element in a compound, the oxidation number of each metallic element in its compound is as follows:
HAuCl4 → Au has 3
Tl2O → Tl has 1
FeO → Fe has 2
Fe2O3 → Fe has 3
CuI → Cu has 1 CuO → Cu has 2
MnO → Mn has 2
MnO2 → Mn has 4

Therefore, these compounds may be represented as:
HAu(III)Cl4, Tl2(I)O, Fe(II)O, Fe2(III)O3, Cu(I)I, Cu(II)O, Mn(II)O, Mn(IV)O2.

The idea of oxidation number has been invariably applied to define oxidation, reduction, oxidising agent (oxidant), reducing agent (reductant) and the redox reaction. To summarise, we may say that:
Oxidation: An increase in the oxidation number of the element in the given substance.
Reduction: A decrease in the oxidation number of the element in the given substance.
Oxidising agent: A reagent which can increase the oxidation number of an element in a given substance. These reagents are called as oxidants also.
Reducing agent: A reagent which lowers the oxidation number of an element in a given substance. These reagents are also called as reductants.
Redox reactions: Reactions which involve change in oxidation number of the interacting species.

Problem 8.4 Justify that the reaction:
2Cu2O(s) + Cu2S(s) → 6Cu(s) + SO2(g) is a redox reaction. Identify the species oxidised/reduced, which acts as an oxidant and which acts as a reductant.


Let us assign oxidation number to each of the species in the reaction under examination. This results into:

We therefore, conclude that in this reaction copper is reduced from +1 state to zero oxidation state and sulphur is oxidised from -2 state to +4 state. The above reaction is thus a redox reaction. Further, Cu2O helps sulphur in Cu2S to increase its oxidation number, therefore, Cu(I) is an oxidant; and sulphur of Cu2S helps copper both in Cu2S itself and Cu2O to decrease its oxidation number; therefore, sulphur of Cu2S is reductant.

8.3.1 Types of Redox Reactions

1. Combination reactions
A combination reaction may be denoted in the manner:
A + B → C
Either A and B or both A and B must be in the elemental form for such a reaction to be a redox reaction. All combustion reactions, which make use of elemental dioxygen, as well as other reactions involving elements other than dioxygen, are redox reactions. Some important examples of this category are:

2. Decomposition reactions
Decomposition reactions are the opposite of combination reactions. Precisely, a decomposition reaction leads to the breakdown of a compound into two or more components at least one of which must be in the elemental state. Examples of this class of reactions are:

It may carefully be noted that there is no change in the oxidation number of hydrogen in methane under combination reactions and that of potassium in potassium chlorate in reaction (8.28). This may also be noted here that all decomposition reactions are not redox reactions. For example, decomposition of calcium carbonate is not a redox reaction.

3. Displacement reactions In a displacement reaction, an ion (or an atom) in a compound is replaced by an ion (or an atom) of another element. It may be denoted as: X + YZ → XZ + Y Displacement reactions fit into two categories: metal displacement and non-metal displacement.

(a) Metal displacement:

A metal in a compound can be displaced by another metal in the uncombined state. We have already discussed about this class of the reactions under section 8.2.1. Metal displacement reactions find many applications in metallurgical processes in which pure metals are obtained from their compounds in ores. A few such examples are:

In each case, the reducing metal is a better reducing agent than the one that is being reduced which evidently shows more capability to lose electrons as compared to the one that is reduced.
(b) Non-metal displacement: The non-metal displacement redox reactions include hydrogen displacement and a rarely occurring reaction involving oxygen displacement. All alkali metals and some alkaline earth metals (Ca, Sr, and Ba) which are very good reductants, will displace hydrogen from cold water.

Less active metals such as magnesium and iron react with steam to produce dihydrogen gas:

Many metals, including those which do not react with cold water, are capable of displacing hydrogen from acids. Dihydrogen from acids may even be produced by such metals which do not react with steam. Cadmium and tin are the examples of such metals. A few examples for the displacement of hydrogen from acids are:

Reactions (8.37 to 8.39) are used to prepare dihydrogen gas in the laboratory. Here, the reactivity of metals is reflected in the rate of hydrogen gas evolution, which is the slowest for the least active metal Fe, and the fastest for the most reactive metal, Mg. Very less active metals, which may occur in the native state such as silver (Ag), and gold (Au) do not react even with hydrochloric acid.

In section (8.2.1) we have already discussed that the metals – zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) through tendency to lose electrons show their reducing activity in theorder Zn> Cu>Ag. Like metals, activity series also exists for the halogens. The power of these elements as oxidising agents decreases as we move down from fluorine to iodine in group 17 of the periodic table. This implies that fluorine is so reactive that it can replace chloride, bromide and iodide ions in solution. In fact, fluorine is so reactive that it attacks water and displaces the oxygen of water :

It is for this reason that the displacement reactions of chlorine, bromine and iodine using fluorine are not generally carried out in aqueous solution. On the other hand, chlorine can displace bromide and iodide ions in an aqueous solution as shown below:

As Br2 and I2 are coloured and dissolve in CCl4, can easily be identified from the colour of the solution. The above reactions can be written in ionic form as:

Reactions (8.41) and (8.42) form the basis of identifying Br and I in the laboratory through the test popularly known as ‘Layer Test’. It may not be out of place to mention here that bromine likewise can displace iodide ion in solution:

The halogen displacement reactions have a direct industrial application. The recovery of halogens from their halides requires an oxidation process, which is represented by:

2X → X2 + 2e (8.44)

here X denotes a halogen element. Whereas chemical means are available to oxidise Cl, Br and I, as fluorine is the strongest oxidising agent; there is no way to convert F ions to F2 by chemical means. The only way to achieve F2 from F is to oxidise electrolytically, the details of which you will study at a later stage.

4. Disproportionation reactions

Disproportionation reactions are a special type of redox reactions. In a disproportionation reaction an element in one oxidation state is simultaneously oxidised and reduced. One of the reacting substances in a disproportionation reaction always contains an element that can exist in at least three oxidation states. The element in the form of reacting substance is in the intermediate oxidation state; and both higher and lower oxidation states of that element are formed in the reaction. The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is a familiar example of the reaction, where oxygen experiences disproportionation. Here the oxygen of peroxide, which is present in -1 state, is converted to zero oxidation state in O2 and decreases to -2 oxidation state in H2O. Phosphorous, sulphur and chlorine undergo disproportionation in the alkaline medium as shown below :

The reaction (8.48) describes the formation of household bleaching agents. The hypochlorite ion (ClO) formed in the reaction oxidises the colour-bearing stains of the substances to colourless compounds.

It is of interest to mention here that whereas bromine and iodine follow the same trend as exhibited by chlorine in reaction (8.48), fluorine shows deviation from this behaviour when it reacts with alkali. The reaction that takes place in the case of fluorine is as follows:

2F2(g) + 2OH<(aq) → 2 F(aq) + OF2(g) + H2O(l) (8.49)

(It is to be noted with care that fluorine in reaction (8.49) will undoubtedly attack water to produce some oxygen also). This departure shown by fluorine is not surprising for us as we know the limitation of fluorine that, being the most electronegative element, it cannot exhibit any positive oxidation state. This means that among halogens, fluorine does not show a disproportionation tendency.

Problem 8.5 Which of the following species, do not show disproportionation reaction and why ?
ClO, ClO2, ClO3, and ClO4
Also write reaction for each of the species that disproportionates.


Among the oxoanions of chlorine listed above, ClO4 does not disproportionate because in this oxoanion chlorine is present in its highest oxidation state that is, +7. The disproportionation reactions for the other three oxoanions of chlorine are as follows:

Problem 8.6 Suggest a scheme of classification of the following redox reactions
(a) N2(g) + O2(g) → 2NO(g)
(b) 2Pb(NO3)2(s) → 2PbO(s) + 2NO2(g) +½O2 (g)
(c) NaH(s) + H2O(l) → NaOH(aq) + H2 (g)
(d) 2NO2(g) + 2OH(aq) → NO2(aq) + NO3(aq)+H2O(l)


In reaction (a), the compound nitric oxide is formed by the combination of the elemental substances, nitrogen and oxygen; therefore, this is an example of combination redox reactions. The reaction (b) involves the breaking down of lead nitrate into three components; therefore, this is categorised under decomposition redox reaction. In reaction (c), hydrogen of water has been displaced by hydride ion into dihydrogen gas. Therefore, this may be called as displacement redox reaction. The reaction (d) involves disproportionation of NO2 (+4 state) into NO2 (+3 state) and NO3(+5 state). Therefore reaction (d) is an example of disproportionation redox reaction.

The Paradox of Fractional Oxidation Number
Sometimes, we come across with certain compounds in which the oxidation number of a particular element in the compound is in fraction. Examples are: C3O2 [where oxidation number of carbon is (4/3)], Br3O8 [where oxidation number of bromine is (16/3)] and Na2S4O6 (where oxidation number of sulphur is 2.5). We know that the idea of fractional oxidation number is unconvincing to us, because electrons are never shared/transferred in fraction. Actually this fractional oxidation state is the average oxidation state of the element under examination and the structural parameters reveal that the element for whom fractional oxidation state is realised is present in different oxidation states. Structure of the species C3O2, Br3O8 and S4O6-2 reveal the following bonding situations:
The element marked with asterisk in each species is exhibiting the different oxidation state (oxidation number) from rest of the atoms of the same element in each of the species. This reveals that in C3O2, two carbon atoms are present in +2 oxidation state each, whereas the third one is present in zero oxidation state and the average is 4/3. However, the realistic picture is +2 for two terminal carbons and zero for the middle carbon. Likewise in Br3O8, each of the two terminal bromine atoms are present in +6 oxidation state and the middle bromine is present in +4 oxidation state. Once again the average, that is different from reality, is 16/3. In the same fashion, in the species S4O62-, each of the two extreme sulphurs exhibits oxidation state of +5 and the two middle sulphurs as zero. The average of four oxidation numbers of sulphurs of the S4O62- is 2.5, whereas the reality being + 5,0,0 and +5 oxidation number respectively for each sulphur.We may thus, in general, conclude that the idea of fractional oxidation state should be taken with care and the reality is revealed by the structures only. Further, whenever we come across with fractional oxidation state of any particular element in any species, we must understand that this is the average oxidation number only. In reality (revealed by structures only), the element in that particular species is present in more than one whole number oxidation states. Fe3O4, Mn3O4, Pb3O4 are some of the other examples of the compounds, which are mixed oxides, where we come across with fractional oxidation states of the metal atom. However, the oxidation states may be in fraction as in O2+ and O2 where it is +½ and -½ respectively.

Problem 8.7 Why do the following reactions proceed differently ?
Pb3O4 + 8HCl → 3PbCl2 + Cl2 + 4H2O and Pb3O4 + 4HNO3 → 2Pb(NO3)2 + PbO2 + 2H2O


Pb3O4 is actually a stoichiometric mixture of 2 mol of PbO and 1 mol of PbO2. In PbO2, lead is present in +4 oxidation state, whereas the stable oxidation state of lead in PbO is +2. PbO2 thus can act as an oxidant (oxidising agent) and, therefore, can oxidise Cl ion of HCl into chlorine. We may also keep in mind that PbO is a basic oxide. Therefore, the reaction

Pb3O4 + 8HCl → 3PbCl2 + Cl2 + 4H2O
can be splitted into two reactions namely:

Since HNO3 itself is an oxidising agent therefore, it is unlikely that the reaction may occur between PbO2 and HNO3. However, the acid-base reaction occurs between PbO and HNO3 as:

2PbO + 4HNO3→ 2Pb(NO3)2 + 2H2O

It is the passive nature of PbO2 against HNO3 that makes the reaction different from the one that follows with HCl.

8.3.2 Balancing of Redox Reactions

Two methods are used to balance chemical equations for redox processes. One of these methods is based on the change in the oxidation number of reducing agent and the oxidising agent and the other method is based on splitting the redox reaction into two half reactions – one involving oxidation and the other involving reduction. Both these methods are in use and the choice of their use rests with the individual using them.

(a) Oxidation Number Method: In writing equations for oxidation-reduction reactions, just as for other reactions, the compositions and formulas must be known for the substances that react and for the products that are formed. The oxidation number method is now best illustrated in the following steps:

Step 1: Write the correct formula for each reactant and product.
Step 2: Identify atoms which undergo change in oxidation number in the reaction by assigning the oxidation number to all elements in the reaction.
Step 3: Calculate the increase or decrease in the oxidation number per atom and for the entire molecule/ion in which it occurs. If these are not equal then multiply by suitable coefficients so that these become equal. (If you realise that two substances are reduced and nothing is oxidised or vice-versa, something is wrong. Either the formulas of reactants or products are wrong or the oxidation numbers have not been assigned properly).

Step 4: Ascertain the involvement of ions if the reaction is taking place in water, add H+ or OH ions to the expression on the appropriate side so that the total ionic charges of reactants and products are equal. If the reaction is carried out in acidic solution, use H+ ions in the equation; if in basic solution, use OH ions.

Step 5 : Make the numbers of hydrogen atoms in the expression on the two sides equal by adding water (H2O) molecules to the reactants or products. Now, also check the number of oxygen atoms. If there are the same number of oxygen atoms in the reactants and products, the equation then represents the balanced redox reaction.
Let us now explain the steps involved in the method with the help of a few problems given below:

Problem 8.8 Write the net ionic equation for the reaction of potassium dichromate(VI), K2Cr2O7 with sodium sulphite, Na2SO3, in an acid solution to give chromium(III) ion and the sulphate ion.

Step 1: The skeletal ionic equation is:
Cr2O72-(aq)+ SO32-(aq)→ Cr3+(aq) + SO42-(aq) Step 2: Assign oxidation numbers for Cr and S

This indicates that the dichromate ion is the oxidant and the sulphite ion is the reductant.
Step 3: Calculate the increase and decrease of oxidation number, and make them equal:

Step 4: As the reaction occurs in the acidic medium, and further the ionic charges are not equal on both the sides, add 8H+ on the left to make ionic charges equal
Cr2O72-(aq) + 3SO32-(aq)+ 8H+→ 2Cr3+(aq)+ 3SO42-(aq)
Step 5: Finally, count the hydrogen atoms, and add appropriate number of water molecules (i.e., 4H2O) on the right to achieve balanced redox change. Cr2O72-(aq) + 3SO32-(aq)+ 8H+(aq) → 2Cr3+(aq) + 3SO42-(aq) +4H2O(l)

Problem 8.9
Permanganate ion reacts with bromide ion in basic medium to give manganese dioxide and bromate ion. Write the balanced ionic equation for the reaction.

Step 1 : The skeletal ionic equation is : MnO4(aq) + Br(aq) → MnO2(s) + BrO3(aq)
Step 2 : Assign oxidation numbers for Mn and Br the oxident and bromide ion is the reductant.
Step 3: Calculate the increase and decrease of oxidation number, and make the increase equal to the decrease.

Step 4: As the reaction occurs in the basic medium, and the ionic charges are not equal on both sides, add 2 OH ions on the right to make ionic charges equal.
2MnO4(aq) + Br(aq) → 2MnO2(s) + BrO3(aq) + 2OH(aq)
Step 5: Finally, count the hydrogen atoms and add appropriate number of water molecules (i.e. one H2O molecule) on the left side to achieve balanced redox change.
2MnO4(aq) + Br(aq) + H2O(l) → 2MnO2(s)+BrO3(aq)+2OH(aq)
(b) Half Reaction Method:
In this method, the two half equations are balanced separately and then added together to give balanced equation. Suppose we are to balance the equation showing the oxidation of Fe2+ ions to Fe3+ ions by dichromate ions (Cr2O7)2- in acidic medium, wherein, Cr2O72- ions are reduced to Cr3+ ions. The following steps are involved in this task.

Step 1: Produce unbalanced equation for the reaction in ionic form :
Fe2+(aq) + Cr2O72-(aq) → Fe3+(aq) + Cr3+(aq) (8.50)

Step 2: Separate the equation into half-reactions:

Step 3: Balance the atoms other than O and H in each half reaction individually. Here the oxidation half reaction is already balanced with respect to Fe atoms. For the reduction half reaction, we multiply the Cr3+ by 2 to balance Cr atoms.
Cr2O72-(aq) → 2 Cr3+(aq) (8.53)

Step 4: For reactions occurring in acidic medium, add H2O to balance O atoms and H+ to balance H atoms. Thus, we get :

Cr2O72- (aq) + 14H+ (aq) → 2 Cr3+(aq) + 7H2O (l)(8.54)

Step 5: Add electrons to one side of the half reaction to balance the charges. If need be, make the number of electrons equal in the two half reactions by multiplying one or both half reactions by appropriate coefficients. The oxidation half reaction is thus rewritten to balance the charge:
Fe2+ (aq) → Fe3+ (aq) + e (8.55)

Now in the reduction half reaction there are net twelve positive charges on the left hand side and only six positive charges on the right hand side. Therefore, we add six electrons on the left side.
Cr2O72-(aq) + 14H+ (aq) + 6e → 2Cr3+(aq) + 7H2O (l) (8.56)

To equalise the number of electrons in both the half reactions, we multiply the oxidation half reaction by 6 and write as :

6Fe2+ (aq) → 6Fe3+(aq) + 6e (8.57)

Step 6: We add the two half reactions to achieve the overall reaction and cancel the electrons on each side. This gives the net ionic equation as :
6Fe2+(aq) + Cr2O72-(aq) + 14H+(aq) → 6 Fe3+(aq) + 2Cr3+(aq) + 7H2O(l) (8.58)
Step 7: Verify that the equation contains the same type and number of atoms and the same charges on both sides of the equation. This last check reveals that the equation is fully balanced with respect to number of atoms and the charges. For the reaction in a basic medium, first balance the atoms as is done in acidic medium. Then for each H+ion, add an equal number of OH ions to both sides of the equation. Where H+ and OH appear on the same side of the equation, combine these to give H2O. Problem 8.10 Permanganate(VII) ion, MnO4 in basic solution oxidises iodide ion, I to produce molecular iodine (I2) and manganese (IV) oxide (MnO2). Write a balanced ionic equation to represent this redox reaction. Solution Step 1: First we write the skeletal ionic equation, which is
MnO4(aq) + I(aq) → MnO2(s) + I2(s)

Step 2: The two half-reactions are:

Step 3: To balance the I atoms in the oxidation half reaction, we rewrite it as:
2I(aq) → I2(s) Step 4:
To balance the O atoms in the reduction half reaction, we add two water molecules on the right:
MnO4(aq) → MnO2(s) + 2H2O(l)
To balance the H atoms, we add four H+ ions on the left:
MnO4(aq) + 4H+(aq) → MnO2(s) + 2H2O (l)

As the reaction takes place in a basic solution, therefore, for four H+ ions, we add four OH ions to both sides of the equation:

MnO4(aq) + 4H+ (aq) + 4OH(aq) →MnO2 (s) + 2H2O(l) + 4OH (aq) Replacing the H+ and OH ions with water, the resultant equation is: MnO4(aq) + 2H2O (l) → MnO2(s) + 4OH (aq)

Step 5 : In this step we balance the charges of the two half-reactions in the manner depicted as:
2I(aq) → I2 (s) + 2e MnO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) + 3e → MnO2(s)+ 4OH(aq)
Now to equalise the number of electrons, we multiply the oxidation half-reaction by 3 and the reduction half-reaction by 2.
6I(aq) → 3I2(s) + 6e 2 MnO4 (aq) + 4H2O (l) +6e → 2MnO2(s) + 8OH (aq)

Step 6: Add two half-reactions to obtain the net reactions after cancelling electrons on both sides. 6I(aq) + 2MnO4(aq) + 4H2O(l) → 3I2(s) + 2MnO2(s) +8OH(aq)

Step 7: A final verification shows that the equation is balanced in respect of the number of atoms and charges on both sides.

8.3.3 Redox Reactions as the Basis for Titrations In acid-base systems we come across with a titration method for finding out the strength of one solution against the other using a pH sensitive indicator. Similarly, in redox systems, the titration method can be adopted to determine the strength of a reductant/oxidant using a redox sensitive indicator. The usage of indicators in redox titration is illustrated below:

(i) In one situation, the reagent itself is intensely coloured, e.g., permanganate ion, MnO4. Here MnO4 acts as the self indicator. The visible end point in this case is achieved after the last of the reductant (Fe2+ or C2O42-) is oxidised and the first lasting tinge of pink colour appears at MnO4 concentration as low as 10-6 mol dm-3 (10-6 mol L-1). This ensures a minimal ‘overshoot’ in colour beyond the equivalence point, the point where the reductant and the oxidant are equal in terms of their mole stoichiometry.

(ii) If there is no dramatic auto-colour change (as with MnO4 titration), there are indicators which are oxidised immediately after the last bit of the reactant is consumed, producing a dramatic colour change. The best example is afforded by Cr2O72-, which is not a self-indicator, but oxidises the indicator substance diphenylamine just after the equivalence point to produce an intense blue colour, thus signalling the end point.
(iii) There is yet another method which is interesting and quite common. Its use is restricted to those reagents which are able to oxidise I ions, say, for example, Cu(II): 2Cu2+(aq) + 4I(aq) → Cu2I2(s) + I2(aq) (8.59)
This method relies on the facts that iodine itself gives an intense blue colour with starch and has a very specific reaction with thiosulphate ions (S2O32-), which too is a redox reaction:

I2(aq) + 2S2O32-(aq)→2I(aq) + S4O62-(aq) (8.60)

I2, though insoluble in water, remains in solution containing KI as KI3. On addition of starch after the liberation of iodine from the reaction of Cu2+ ions on iodide ions, an intense blue colour appears. This colour disappears as soon as the iodine is consumed by the thiosulphate ions. Thus, the end-point can easily be tracked and the rest is the stoichiometric calculation only.

8.3.4 Limitations of Concept of Oxidation Number As you have observed in the above discussion, the concept of redox processes has been evolving with time. This process of evolution is continuing. In fact, in recent past the oxidation process is visualised as a decrease in electron density and reduction process as an increase in electron density around the atom(s) involved in the reaction.

8.4 REDOX REACTIONS AND ELECTRODE PROCESSES The experiment corresponding to reaction (8.15), can also be observed if zinc rod is dipped in copper sulphate solution. The redox reaction takes place and during the reaction, zinc is oxidised to zinc ions and copper ions are reduced to metallic copper due to direct transfer of electrons from zinc to copper ion. During this reaction heat is also evolved. Now we modify the experiment in such a manner that for the same redox reaction transfer of electrons takes place indirectly. This necessitates the separation of zinc metal from copper sulphate solution. We take copper sulphate solution in a beaker and put a copper strip or rod in it. We also take zinc sulphate solution in another beaker and put a zinc rod or strip in it. Now reaction takes place in either of the beakers and at the interface of the metal and its salt solution in each beaker both the reduced and oxidized forms of the same species are present. These represent the species in the reduction and oxidation half reactions. A redox couple is defined as having together the oxidized and reduced forms of a substance taking part in an oxidation or reduction half reaction.

This is represented by separating the oxidised form from the reduced form by a vertical line or a slash representing an interface (e.g. solid/solution). For example in this experiment the two redox couples are represented as Zn2+/Zn and Cu2+/Cu. In both cases, oxidised form is put before the reduced form. Now we put the beaker containing copper sulphate solution and the beaker containing zinc sulphate solution side by side (Fig. 8.3). We connect solutions in two beakers by a salt bridge (a U-tube containing a solution of potassium chloride or ammonium nitrate usually solidified by boiling with agar agar and later cooling to a jelly like substance). This provides an electric contact between the two solutions without allowing them to mix with each other. The zinc and copper rods are connected by a metallic wire with a provision for an ammeter and a switch. The set-up as shown in Fig.8.3 is known as Daniel cell. When the switch is in the off position, no reaction takes place in either of the beakers and no current flows through the metallic wire. As soon as the switch is in the on position, we make the following observations:

1. The transfer of electrons now does not take place directly from Zn to Cu2+ but through the metallic wire connecting the two rods as is apparent from the arrow which indicates the flow of current.

2. The electricity from solution in one beaker to solution in the other beaker flows by the migration of ions through the salt bridge. We know that the flow of current is possible only if there is a potential difference between the copper and zinc rods known as electrodes here.

The potential associated with each electrode is known as electrode potential. If the concentration of each species taking part in the electrode reaction is unity (if any gas appears in the electrode reaction, it is confined to 1 atmospheric pressure) and further the reaction is carried out at 298K, then the potential of each electrode is said to be the Standard Electrode Potential. By convention, the standard electrode potential (EΘ) of hydrogen electrode is 0.00 volts. The electrode potential value for each electrode process is a measure of the relative tendency of the active species in the process to remain in the oxidised/reduced form. A negative EΘ means that the redox couple is a stronger reducing agent than the H+/H2 couple. A positive EΘ means that the redox couple is a weaker reducing agent than the H+/H2 couple. The standard electrode potentials are very important and we can get a lot of other useful information from them. The values of standard electrode potentials for some selected electrode processes (reduction reactions) are given in Table 8.1. You will learn more about electrode reactions and cells in Class XII.


Redox reactions form an important class of reactions in which oxidation and reduction occur simultaneously. Three tier conceptualisation viz, classical, electronic and oxidation number, which is usually available in the texts, has been presented in detail. Oxidation, reduction, oxidising agent (oxidant) and reducing agent (reductant) have been viewed according to each conceptualisation. Oxidation numbers are assigned in accordance with a consistent set of rules. Oxidation number and ion-electron method both are useful means in writing equations for the redox reactions. Redox reactions are classified into four categories: combination, decomposition displacement and disproportionation reactions. The concept of redox couple and electrode processes is introduced here. The redox reactions find wide applications in the study of electrode processes and cells.


8.1 Assign oxidation number to the underlined elements in each of the following species:

8.2 What are the oxidation number of the underlined elements in each of the following and how do you rationalise your results ?

8.3 Justify that the following reactions are redox reactions:
(a) CuO(s) + H2(g) → Cu(s) + H2O(g)
(b) Fe2O3(s) + 3CO(g) → 2Fe(s) + 3CO2(g)
(c) 4BCl3(g) + 3LiAlH4(s) → 2B2H6(g) + 3LiCl(s) + 3AlCl3 (s)
(d) 2K(s) + F2(g) → 2K+F (s)
(e) 4NH3(g) + 5O2(g) → 4NO(g) + 6H2O(g)

8.4 Fluorine reacts with ice and results in the change:
H2O(s) + F2(g) → HF(g) + HOF(g) Justify that this reaction is a redox reaction.

8.5 Calculate the oxidation number of sulphur, chromium and nitrogen in H2SO5, Cr2O72- and NO3.

Suggest structure of these compounds. Count for the fallacy.

8.6 Write formulas for the following compounds:
(a) Mercury(II) chloride
(b) Nickel(II) sulphate
(c) Tin(IV) oxide
(d) Thallium(I) sulphate
(e) Iron(III) sulphate (f) Chromium(III) oxide

8.7 Suggest a list of the substances where carbon can exhibit oxidation states from -4 to +4 and nitrogen from -3 to +5.

8.8 While sulphur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide can act as oxidising as well as reducing agents in their reactions, ozone and nitric acid act only as oxidants. Why ?
8.9 Consider the reactions:
(a) 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l) → C6H12O6(aq) + 6O2(g)
(b) O3(g) + H2O2(l) → H2O(l) + 2O2(g)
Why it is more appropriate to write these reactions as :
(a) 6CO2(g) + 12H2O(l) → C6H12O6(aq) + 6H2O(l) + 6O2(g)
(b) O3(g) + H2O2 (l) → H2O(l) + O2(g) + O2(g)
Also suggest a technique to investigate the path of the above (a) and (b) redox reactions.

8.10 The compound AgF2 is unstable compound. However, if formed, the compound acts as a very strong oxidising agent. Why ?
8.11 Whenever a reaction between an oxidising agent and a reducing agent is carried out, a compound of lower oxidation state is formed if the reducing agent is in excess and a compound of higher oxidation state is formed if the oxidising agent is in excess. Justify this statement giving three illustrations.
8.12 How do you count for the following observations ?
(a) Though alkaline potassium permanganate and acidic potassium permanganate both are used as oxidants, yet in the manufacture of benzoic acid from toluene we use alcoholic potassium permanganate as an oxidant. Why ? Write a balanced redox equation for the reaction.
(b) When concentrated sulphuric acid is added to an inorganic mixture containing chloride, we get colourless pungent smelling gas HCl, but if the mixture contains bromide then we get red vapour of bromine. Why ?

8.13 Identify the substance oxidised reduced, oxidising agent and reducing agent for each of the following reactions:
(a) 2AgBr(s) + C6H6O2(aq) → 2Ag(s) + 2HBr (aq) + C6H4O2(aq)
(b) HCHO(l) + 2[Ag (NH3)2]+(aq) + 3OH(aq) → 2Ag(s) + HCOO(aq) + 4NH3(aq) + 2H2O(l)
(c) HCHO (l) + 2Cu2+(aq) + 5OH(aq) → Cu2O(s) + HCOO(aq) + 3H2O(l)
(d) N2H4(l) + 2H2O2(l) → N2(g) + 4H2O(l)
(e) Pb(s) + PbO2(s) + 2H2SO4(aq) → 2PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)

8.14 Consider the reactions :
2S2O32-(aq) + I2(s) → S4O62-(aq) + 2I(aq) S2O32-(aq) + 2Br2(l) + 5H2O(l) → 2SO42-(aq) + 4Br(aq) + 10H+(aq)
Why does the same reductant, thiosulphate react differently with iodine and bromine ?

8.15 Justify giving reactions that among halogens, fluorine is the best oxidant and among hydrohalic compounds, hydroiodic acid is the best reductant.
8.16 Why does the following reaction occur ?
XeO64- (aq) + 2F (aq) + 6H+(aq) → XeO3(g)+ F2(g) + 3H2O(l)

What conclusion about the compound Na4XeO6 (of which XeO64- is a part) can be drawn from the reaction.

8.17 Consider the reactions:
(a) H3PO2(aq) + 4AgNO3(aq) + 2H2O(l) → H3PO4(aq) + 4Ag(s) + 4HNO3(aq)
(b) H3PO2(aq) + 2CuSO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) → H3PO4(aq) + 2Cu(s) + H2SO4(aq)
(c) C6H5CHO(l) + 2[Ag(NH3)2]+(aq) + 3OH(aq) → C6H5COO(aq) + 2Ag(s) + 4NH3(aq) + 2H2O(l)
(d) C6H5CHO(l) + 2Cu2+(aq) + 5OH(aq) → No change observed.

What inference do you draw about the behaviour of Ag+ and Cu2+ from these reactions ?

8.18 Balance the following redox reactions by ion – electron method :
(a) MnO4(aq) + I (aq) → MnO2(s) + I2(s) (in basic medium)
(b) MnO4(aq) + SO2 (g) → Mn2+ (aq) + HSO4 (aq) (in acidic solution)
(c) H2O2 (aq) + Fe2+ (aq) → Fe3+ (aq) + H2O (l) (in acidic solution)
(d) Cr2O72- + SO2(g) → Cr3+ (aq) + SO42- (aq) (in acidic solution)

8.19 Balance the following equations in basic medium by ion-electron method and oxidation number methods and identify the oxidising agent and the reducing agent.
(a) P4(s) + OH(aq) → PH3(g) + HPO2 (aq)
(b) N2H4(l) + ClO3(aq) → NO(g) + Cl(g)
(c) Cl2O7 (g) + H2O2(aq) → ClO2(aq) + O2(g) + H+

8.20 What sorts of informations can you draw from the following reaction ?
(CN)2(g) + 2OH(aq) → CN(aq) + CNO(aq) + H2O(l)

8.21 The Mn3+ ion is unstable in solution and undergoes disproportionation to give Mn2+, MnO2, and H+ ion. Write a balanced ionic equation for the reaction.
8.22 Consider the elements : Cs, Ne, I and F (a) Identify the element that exhibits only negative oxidation state. (b) Identify the element that exhibits only postive oxidation state. (c) Identify the element that exhibits both positive and negative oxidation states. (d) Identify the element which exhibits neither the negative nor does the positive oxidation state.
8.23 Chlorine is used to purify drinking water. Excess of chlorine is harmful. The excess of chlorine is removed by treating with sulphur dioxide. Present a balanced equation for this redox change taking place in water.
8.24 Refer to the periodic table given in your book and now answer the following questions:
(a) Select the possible non metals that can show disproportionation reaction. (b) Select three metals that can show disproportionation reaction.

8.25 In Ostwald’s process for the manufacture of nitric acid, the first step involves the oxidation of ammonia gas by oxygen gas to give nitric oxide gas and steam. What is the maximum weight of nitric oxide that can be obtained starting only with 10.00 g. of ammonia and 20.00 g of oxygen ?

8.26 Using the standard electrode potentials given in the Table 8.1, predict if the reaction between the following is feasible: (a) Fe3+(aq) and I(aq) (b) Ag+(aq) and Cu(s) (c) Fe3+ (aq) and Cu(s) (d) Ag(s) and Fe3+(aq) (e) Br2(aq) and Fe2+(aq).
8.27 Predict the products of electrolysis in each of the following: (i) An aqueous solution of AgNO3 with silver electrodes (ii) An aqueous solution AgNO3 with platinum electrodes (iii) A dilute solution of H2SO4 with platinum electrodes (iv) An aqueous solution of CuCl2 with platinum electrodes.
8.28 Arrange the following metals in the order in which they displace each other from the solution of their salts. Al, Cu, Fe, Mg and Zn.
8.29 Given the standard electrode potentials, K+/K = -2.93V, Ag+/Ag = 0.80V, Hg2+/Hg = 0.79V Mg2+/Mg = -2.37V. Cr3+/Cr = -0.74V arrange these metals in their increasing order of reducing power.
8.30 Depict the galvanic cell in which the reaction Zn(s) + 2Ag+(aq) → Zn2+(aq) +2Ag(s) takes place, Further show:
(i) which of the electrode is negatively charged,
(ii) the carriers of the current in the cell, and
(iii) individual reaction at each electrode

Answer to Some Selected Problems

8.25 15 g

I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)

1. Which of the following is not an example of redox reaction?

(i) CuO + H2 -> Cu + H2O
(ii) Fe2O3 + 3CO -> 2Fe + 3CO2
(iii) 2K + F2 -> 2KF
(iv) BaCl2 + H2SO4 -> BaSO4 + 2HCl

2. The more positive the value of EΘ, the greater is the tendency of the species to get reduced. Using the standard electrode potential of redox couples given below find out which of the following is the strongest oxidising agent.

EΘ values: Fe3+/Fe2+ = + 0.77; I2(s)/I = + 0.54;
Cu2+/Cu = + 0.34; Ag+/Ag = + 0.80V

(i) Fe3+
(ii) I2(s)
(iii) Cu2+
(iv) Ag+

3. EΘ values of some redox couples are given below. On the basis of these values choose the correct option.

EΘ values : Br2/Br = + 1.90; Ag+ /Ag(s) = + 0.80
Cu2+/Cu(s) = + 0.34; I2(s)/I = + 0.54

(i) Cu will reduce Br
(ii) Cu will reduce Ag
(iii) Cu will reduce I
(iv) Cu will reduce Br2

4. Using the standard electrode potential, find out the pair between which redox reaction is not feasible.

EΘ values : Fe3+/Fe2+ = + 0.77; I2/I = + 0.54;
Cu2+/Cu = + 0.34; Ag+/Ag = + 0.80 V

(i) Fe3+ and I
(ii) Ag+ and Cu
(iii) Fe3+ and Cu
(iv) Ag and Fe3+

5. Thiosulphate reacts differently with iodine and bromine in the reactions given below: 2S2O32– + I2 → S4O62– + 2I
S2O32– + 2Br2 + 5H2O → 2SO42– + 2Br + 10H+
Which of the following statements justifies the above dual behaviour of thiosulphate?

(i) Bromine is a stronger oxidant than iodine.
(ii) Bromine is a weaker oxidant than iodine.
(iii) Thiosulphate undergoes oxidation by bromine and reduction by iodine in these reactions.
(iv) Bromine undergoes oxidation and iodine undergoes reduction in these reactions.

6. The oxidation number of an element in a compound is evaluated on the basis of certain  rules. Which of the following rules is not correct in this respect?

(i) The oxidation number of hydrogen is always +1.
(ii) The algebraic sum of all the oxidation numbers in a compound is zero.
(iii) An element in the free or the uncombined state bears oxidation number zero.
(iv) In all its compounds, the oxidation number of fluorine is – 1.

7. In which of the following compounds, an element exhibits two different oxidation states.

(i) NH2OH
(ii) NH4NO3
(iii) N2H4
(iv) N3H

8. Which of the following arrangements represent increasing oxidation number of the central atom?

(i) CrO2 , ClO3 , CrO42–, MnO4
(ii) ClO3, CrO42– , MnO4 , CrO2
(iii) CrO2 , ClO3 , MnO4 , CrO42–
(iv) CrO42–, MnO4 , CrO2 , ClO3

9. The largest oxidation number exhibited by an element depends on its outer electronic configuration. With which of the following outer electronic configurations the element will exhibit largest oxidation number?

(i) 3d14s2
(ii) 3d34s2
(iii) 3d54s1
(iv) 3d54s2

10. Identify disproportionation reaction

(i) CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O
(ii) CH4 + 4Cl2 → CCl4 + 4HCl
(iii) 2F2 + 2OH → 2F + OF2 + H2O
(iv) 2NO2 + 2OH → NO2 + NO3 + H2O

11. Which of the following elements does not show disproportionation tendency?

(i) Cl
(ii) Br
(iii) F
(iv) I

II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)

In the following questions two or more options may be correct.

12. Which of the following statement(s) is/are not true about the following decomposition reaction.
2KClO3 → 2KCl + 3O2

(i) Potassium is undergoing oxidation
(ii) Chlorine is undergoing oxidation
(iii) Oxygen is reduced
(iv) None of the species are undergoing oxidation or reduction

13. Identify the correct statement (s) in relation to the following reaction:
Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + H2

(i) Zinc is acting as an oxidant
(ii) Chlorine is acting as a reductant
(iii) Hydrogen ion is acting as an oxidant
(iv) Zinc is acting as a reductant

14. The exhibition of various oxidation states by an element is also related to the outer orbital electronic configuration of its atom. Atom(s) having which of the following outermost electronic configurations will exhibit more than one oxidation state in its compounds.

(i) 3s1
(ii) 3d14s2
(iii) 3d24s2
(iv) 3s23p3

15. Identify the correct statements with reference to the given reaction
P4 + 3OH + 3H2O → PH3 + 3H2PO2

(i) Phosphorus is undergoing reduction only.
(ii) Phosphorus is undergoing oxidation only.
(iii) Phosphorus is undergoing oxidation as well as reduction.
(iv) Hydrogen is undergoing neither oxidation nor reduction.

16. Which of the following electrodes will act as anodes, when connected to Standard  Hydrogen Electrode?

(i) Al/Al3+ EΘ = –1.66
(ii) Fe/Fe2+ EΘ = – 0.44
(iii) Cu/Cu2+ EΘ = + 0.34
(iv) F2(g)/2F(aq) EΘ = + 2.87

III. Short Answer Type

17. The reaction
Cl2(g) + 2OH(aq) → ClO(aq) + Cl(aq) + H2O (l)
represents the process of bleaching. Identify and name the species that bleaches the substances due to its oxidising action.

18. MnO42– undergoes disproportionation reaction in acidic medium but MnO4 does not. Give reason.

19. PbO and PbO2 react with HCl according to following chemical equations :
2PbO + 4HCl → 2PbCl2 + 2H2O
PbO2 + 4HCl → PbCl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O

Why do these compounds differ in their reactivity?

20. Nitric acid is an oxidising agent and reacts with PbO but it does not react with PbO2. Explain why?
21. Write balanced chemical equation for the following reactions:

(i) Permanganate ion (MnO4) reacts with sulphur dioxide gas in acidic medium to produce Mn2+ and hydrogensulphate ion.(Balance by ion electron method)
(ii) Reaction of liquid hydrazine (N2H4) with chlorate ion (ClO3) in basic medium produces nitric oxide gas and chloride ion in gaseous state.(Balance by oxidation number method)
(iii) Dichlorine heptaoxide (Cl2O7) in gaseous state combines with an aqueous solution of  hydrogen peroxide in acidic medium to give chlorite ion (ClO2) and oxygen gas.(Balance by ion electron method)

22. Calculate the oxidation number of phosphorus in the following species.
(a) HPO32– and (b) PO43–

23. Calculate the oxidation number of each sulphur atom in the following compounds:

(a) Na2S2O3
(b) Na2S4O6
(c) Na2SO3
(d) Na2SO4

24. Balance the following equations by the oxidation number method.

(i) Fe2+ + H+ + Cr2O72– → Cr3+ + Fe3+ + H2O
(ii) I2 + NO3 → NO2 + IO3
(iii) I2 + S2O32– → I + S4O62–
(iv) MnO2 + C2O42– → Mn2+ + CO2

25. Identify the redox reactions out of the following reactions and identify the oxidising and reducing agents in them.

(i) 3HCl(aq) + HNO3(aq) → Cl2(g) + NOCl (g) + 2H2O (l)
(ii) HgCl2(aq) + 2KI (aq) → HgI2(s) + 2KCl (aq)

(iv) PCl3 (l) + 3H2O (l) → 3HCl (aq) + H3PO3 (aq)
(v) 4NH3 + 3O2 (g) → 2N2 (g) + 6H2O (g)

26. Balance the following ionic equations

(i) Cr2O72– + H+ + I → Cr3+ + I2 + H2O
(ii) Cr2O72– + Fe2+ + H+ → Cr3+ + Fe3+ + H2O
(iii) MnO4 + SO32– + H+ → Mn2+ + SO42– + H2O (iv) MnO4 + H+ + Br → Mn2+ + Br2 + H2O

IV. Matching Type

27. Match Column I with Column II for the oxidation states of the central atoms.

Column I
Column II
(i) Cr2O72- (a) + 3
(ii) MnO4 (b) + 4
(iii) VO3 (c) + 5
(iv) FeF63– (d) +6
(e) + 7

28. Match the items in Column I with relevant items in Column II.

Column I
Column II
(i) Ions having positive charge (a) +7
(ii) The sum of oxidation number of all atoms in a neutral molecule (b) –1
(iii) Oxidation number of hydrogen ion (H+) (c) +1
(iv) Oxidation number of fluorine in NaF (d) 0
(v) Ions having negative charge (e) Cation
(f) Anion

V. Assertion and Reason Type

In the following questions a statement of assertion (A) followed by a statement of reason (R) is given. Choose the correct option out of the choices given below each question.

29. Assertion (A) : Among halogens fluorine is the best oxidant.
Reason (R) : Fluorine is the most electronegative atom.

(i) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(ii) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(iii) A is true but R is false.
(iv) Both A and R are false.

30. Assertion (A): In the reaction between potassium permanganate and potassium iodide, permanganate ions act as oxidising agent.
Reason (R) : Oxidation state of manganese changes from +2 to +7 during the reaction.

(i) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(ii) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(iii) A is true but R is false.
(iv) Both A and R are false.

31. Assertion (A) : The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to form water and oxygen is an example of disproportionation reaction.
Reason (R) : The oxygen of peroxide is in –1 oxidation state and it is converted to zero oxidation state in O2 and –2 oxidation state in H2O.

(i) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(ii) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(iii) A is true but R is false.
(iv) Both A and R are false.

32. Assertion (A) : Redox couple is the combination of oxidised and reduced form of a substance involved in an oxidation or reduction half cell.
Reason (R) : In the representation EΘFe3+/ Fe2+ and EΘCu2+ / Cu , Fe3+/ Fe2+ and Cu2+ / Cu are redox couples.

(i) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(ii) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(iii) A is true but R is false.
(iv) Both A and R are false.

VI. Long Answer Type

33. Explain redox reactions on the basis of electron transfer. Give suitable examples.

34. On the basis of standard electrode potential values, suggest which of the following reactions would take place? (Consult the book for EΘ value).

(i) Cu + Zn2+ → Cu2+ + Zn
(ii) Mg + Fe2+ → Mg2+ + Fe
(iii) Br2 + 2Cl → Cl2 + 2Br
(iv) Fe + Cd2+ → Cd + Fe2+

35. Why does fluorine not show disporportionation reaction?
36. Write redox couples involved in the reactions (i) to (iv) given in question 34.
37. Find out the oxidation number of chlorine in the following compounds and arrange them in increasing order of oxidation number of chlorine.

NaClO4, NaClO3, NaClO, KClO2, Cl2O7, ClO3, Cl2O, NaCl, Cl2, ClO2.
Which oxidation state is not present in any of the above compounds?

38. Which method can be used to find out strength of reductant/oxidant in a solution? Explain with an example.


I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)

1. (iv)      2. (iv)      3. (iv)       4. (iv)      5. (i)      6. (i)      7. (ii)      8. (i)      9. (iv)      10. (iv)      11. (iii)

II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)

12. (i), (iv)      13. (iii), (iv)      14. (iii), (iv)      15. (iii), (iv)      16. (i), (ii)

III. Short Answer Type

17. Hypochloriteion

18. In MnO4 , Mn is in the highest oxidation state i.e. +7. Therefore, it does not undergo disproportionation. MnO42– undergoes disproportionation as follows : 3MnO42– + 4H+ → 2MnO4 + MnO2 + 2H2O

19. 2PbO + 4HCl → 2PbCl2 + 2H2O (Acid base reaction) PbO2 + 4HCl → PbCl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O (Redox reaction) (Hint : Note the oxidation number of lead in the oxides)

20. PbO is a basic oxide and simple acid base reaction takes place between PbO and HNO3. On the other hand in PbO2 lead is in + 4 oxidation state and cannot be oxidised further. Therefore no reaction takes place. Thus, PbO2 is passive, only PbO reacts with HNO3. 2PbO + 4HNO3 → 2Pb (NO3)2 + 2H2O (Acid base reaction)

22. (a) +3,      (b) +5 23. (a) +2      (b) +5, 0, 0, +5      (c) +4
(d) +6
Justification : Write Lewis structure of each ion then assign electron pair shared between atoms of different electronegativity to more electronegative atom and distribute the electron pair shared between atoms of same element equally. Now count the number of electrons possessed by each atom. Find out the difference in number of electrons possessed by neutral atom and that possessed by atom in the compound. This difference is the oxidation number. If atom present in the compound possesses more electrons than the neutral atom, the oxidation number is negative. If it possesses less electrons then oxidation number is positive.

(i) Lewis structure of S2O42– can be written as follows :

Electron pair shared between sulphur and oxygen is assigned to oxygen atoms because of more electronegativity of oxygen. Thus each sulphur atom is deficient of two electrons with respect to neutral sulphur atom hence, each sulphur atom is in +2 oxidation state. Each oxygen atom gets two excess electrons hence, it is in –2 oxidation state. Lewis structure of S4O62– can be written as follows :

To find out oxidation state of each atom we distribute electrons of electron pair shared between two sulphur atoms equally (i.e. one electron is assigned to each sulphur atom). Both the electrons of electron pair shared between sulphur and oxygen atom are assigned to oxygen as oxygen is more electronegative. Thus we find that each of the central sulphur atoms obtain six electrons. This number is same as that in the outer shell of neutral sulphur atom hence oxidation state of central sulphur atoms is zero. Each of the sulphur atoms attached to oxygen atoms obtain only one electron as its share. This number is less by five electrons in comparison to the neutral sulphur atom. So, outer sulphur atoms are in +5 oxidation state. Therefore average oxidation state of sulphur atoms is :

(5 + 0 + 0 + 5)/4 = 10/4 = 2.5

By using the formula we obtain average oxidation state of the particular type of atoms. Real oxidation state can be obtained only by writing the complete structural formula. Similarly we can see that each oxygen atom is in – 2 oxidation state.

In the same way one can find out the oxidation state of each atom in SO32– and SO42– ions. Oxidation state of metal atoms will be +1 as these will lose one electron in each case.

IV. Matching Type

27. (i) → (d) (ii) → (e) (iii) → (c) (iv) → (a)
28. (i)→ (e) (ii) → (d) (iii) → (c) (iv) → (b) (v) → (f)

V. Assertion and Reason Type

29. (ii) 30. (iii) 31. (i) 32. (ii)

Some Useful Links


THE oxidation and reduction reactions in aqueous solutions involve the transfer of electrons from one species to another. In the oxidation of a substance electron(s) is (are) transfered from the species and in reduction, electron(s) is (are) gained by the species. Oxidation and reduction reactions occur simultaneously. A reaction, which involves simultaneous oxidation and reduction, is called a redox reaction. The titrations involving redox reaction are called redox titrations. You know that in acid-base titrations, indicators which are sensitive to pH change are employed to note the end point. Similarly, in redox titrations there is a change in oxidation potential of the system. The indicators used in redox reactions are sensitive to change in oxidation potential. The ideal oxidation-reduction indicators have an oxidation potential intermediate between the values for the solution being titrated and the titrant and these show sharp readily detectable colour change.


To determine the concentration/molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a 0.1 M standard solution of oxalic acid.


In the present experiment, potassium permanganate acts as a powerful oxidising agent. Although KMnO4 acts as an oxidising agent in alkaline medium also, for quantitative analysis mostly acidic medium is used. The oxidising action of KMnO4 in the acidic medium can be represented by the following equation:

MnO4 + 8H+ +5e → Mn2+ + 4H2O

The acid used in this titration is dilute sulphuric acid. Nitric acid is not used as it is itself an oxidising agent and hydrochloric acid is usually avoided because it reacts with KMnO4 according to the equation given below to produce chlorine and chlorine which is also an oxidising agent in the aqueous solution.

2KMnO4 + 16 HCl → 2KCl + 2 MnCl2 + 5Cl2 + 8 H2O

Since, oxalic acid acts as a reducing agent, it can be titrated against potassium permanganate in the acidic medium according to the following equation:

Reactions of oxalic acid

A. Chemical equations


B. Ionic equation

Reduction half reaction : MnO4 + 5e + 8H+ → Mn2+ + 4H2O] x 2
Oxidation half reaction : C2O4 → 2CO2 + 2e ] x 5
2 MnO4 + 5C2O42– + 16H+ → 2Mn2+ + 10CO2 + 8H2O

In these equations, MnO4 is reduced to Mn2+ and C2O42– is oxidised to CO2. The oxidation number of carbon in C2O42– changes from +3 to +4.

In these titrations, potassium permanganate acts as a selfindicator. Initially colour of potassium permanganate is discharged due to its reduction by oxalic acid. After complete consumption of oxalate ions, the end point is indicated by the appearance of a light pink colour produced by the addition of a little excess of
unreacted potassium permanganate. Further, during the titration of oxalic acid against potassium permanganate, warming of oxalic acid solution (50°–60°C) along with dilute H2SO4 is required. This is essential because the reaction takes place at higher temperature. During the titration, first manganous sulphate is formed which acts as a catalyst for the reduction of KMnO4 by oxalic acid. Therefore, in the beginning the reaction rate is slow and as the reaction proceeds, the rate of the reaction increases.

Material Required


A. Preparation of 0.1 M standard solution of oxalic acid Prepare 0.1M oxalic acid solution as mentioned in experiment 2.1(Unit 2, Class XI, Laboratory Manual)

B. Titration of oxalic acid solution against potassium permanganate solution

(i) Rinse and fill a clean burette with potassium permanganate solution. Remove the air bubble, if any, from the nozzle of the burette by releasing some solution through it. The burette used in the permanganate titration must have a glass stop
cock as rubber is attacked by permanganate ions.

(ii) Take 10 mL of 0.1 M oxalic acid solution in a conical flask and add half of the test tube full ( 5 mL) of 1.0 M H2SO4 to it to prevent the formation of any precipitate of manganese dioxide during the course of the titration.

(iii) Heat the oxalic acid solution upto 50°– 60°C before titrating it with potassium permanganate solution taken in the burette. To increase the visibility of the colour change, place the conical flask containing the solution to be titrated over a white glazed tile kept below the nozzle of the vertically fitted burette.

(iv) Note the initial reading of the volume of permanganate solution in the burette and add it in small volumes to the hot oxalic acid solution while swirling the contents of the flask gently. The violet colour of permanganate solution is discharged on reaction with oxalic acid. The end point is indicated by the appearance of permanent light pink colour due to a slight excess of permanganate solution.

(v) Repeat the titration till three concordant readings are obtained. Since the solution of KMnO4 is of dark colour, the upper meniscus should be considered for noting the burette readings.

(vi) Record the readings as shown in observation Table 6.1 and calculate the strength of potassium permanganate solution in mols/litre.

Table 6.1 : Titration of potassium permanganate solution against standard oxalic acid solution



(i) The strength of the unknown solution in terms of molarity may be determined by the following equation.
a1M1V1 = a2M2V2 (6.1)

For oxalic acid vs potassium permanganate titration:

a1 = 2, (the number of electrons lost per formula unit of oxalic acid in a balanced equation of half cell reaction)
a2 = 5, (the number of electrons gained per formula unit of potassium permanganate in the balanced equation of half cell reaction)

M1 and M2 are the molarities of oxalic acid and potassium permanganate solutions used in the titration.

V1 and V2 are the volumes of oxalic acid and potassium permanganate solutions.

On putting the value of a1 and a2 in equation 6.1 we get
Oxalic acid      KMnO4
2M1V1    =    5M2V2
M2 = 2M1V1/5V2 ……..(6.2)

We can calculate the molarity of potassium permanganate solution by using equation 6.2. Strength of the solution is given by the following equation:

Strength = Molarity x Molar mass

(i) Molarity of KMnO4 solution is _______.
(ii) Strength of KMnO4 solution is _______.


(a) Always rinse the burette and the pipette with the solutions to be taken in them.
(b) Never rinse the conical flask with the experimental solutions.
(c) Remove the air gaps if any, from the burette.
(d) Never forget to remove the funnel from the burette before noting the initial reading of the burette.
(e) No drop of the liquid should hang at the tip of the burette at the end point and while noting reading.
(f) Always read the upper meniscus for recording the burette reading in the case of all coloured solutions.
(g) Never use pipette and burette with a broken nozzle.
(h) Lower end of the pipette should always remain dipped in the liquid while sucking the liquid.
(i) Do not blow out the last drop of the solution from the jet end of the pipette.
(j) The strength of the solution must be calculated up to the fourth decimal place.
(k) Do not forget to heat the mixture of oxalic acid and H2SO4 solutions between 50°–60° C while titrating it against potassium permanganate.

Discussion Questions

(i) What specific name is given to the permanganate titrations?
(ii) Which indicator is used in the permanganate titration?
(iii) Why is a burette with pinch-cock regulator not used for the permanganate titration ?
(iv) Why do we heat oxalic acid solution containing sulphuric acid up to 50–60°C in the permanganate titration?

To determine the concentration/molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against standard solution of ferrous ammonium sulphate.

Like oxalic acid, ferrous ammonium sulphate also acts as a reducing agent in the titration against potassium permanganate. The reaction which takes place is given below :

(a) Chemical equation

Reduction half reaction : 2KMnO4 + 3H2SO4 → K2SO4 + 2MnSO4 + 3H2O + 5[O]
Oxidation half reaction : 2FeSO4(NH4)2SO4 . 6H2O + H2SO4 + [O] → Fe2(SO4)3 +                                                                                                2(NH4)2SO4 + 13H2O] x 5
2KMnO4 + 8H2SO4 + 10FeSO4(NH4)2SO4 . 6H2O → K2SO4 + 2MnSO4 + 5Fe2(SO4)3 +                                                                                                     10(NH4)2SO4 + 68H2O

(b) Ionic equation
Reduction half reaction : MnO4– + 5e + 8H+ → Mn2+ + 4H2O
Oxidation half reaction : Fe2+ → Fe3+ + e] x 5
MnO4 + 5Fe2+ + 8H+ → Mn2+ + 5Fe3+ + 4H2O

The oxidation number of iron in Mohr’s salt is +2. Iron is oxidised during the reaction and its oxidation number changes from +2 to +3. In this titration heating of ferrous ammonium sulphate solution is not required because reaction rate is very high even at room temperature. Also, at high temperatures, ferrous ions may be oxidised to ferric ions by oxygen of air and error may be introduced in the experiment.

Material Required


A. Preparation of 0.05 M, standard solution of ferrous ammonium sulphate

(Molar mass of FeSO4(NH4)2SO4 . 6H2O = 392 g mol–1).
(i) Weigh 4.9000 g of ferrous ammonium sulphate and transfer it into a 250 mL measuring flask through a funnel.
(ii) Transfer the solid sticking to the funnel with the help of distilled water into the flask and add dilute H2SO4 into the flask drop wise to get the clear solution.
(iii) Shake the flask till the substance dissolves and make the solution upto the mark.

B. Titration of ferrous ammonium sulphate against potassium permanganate solution

(i) Rinse and fill the clean burette with potassium permanganate solution. Remove air bubbles if any, from the burette tip by releasing some solution through it.
(ii) Take 10 mL of 0.05 M ferrous ammonium sulphate solution in a conical flask and add half test tube (≈ 5 mL) full of (1.0 M) H2SO4 to it.
(iii) Titrate the above solution with potassium permanganate solution till the colour of the solution changes to permanent pink. Swirl the content of the flask during the titration.
(iv) Repeat the titration, until three concordant readings are obtained.
(v) Record the readings as shown in observation Table 6.2 and calculate the strength of potassium permanganate solution in mols/litre.

Table 6.2 : Titration of potassium permanganate solution against standard ferrous ammonium sulphate solution



The strength of unknown solution in terms of molarity may be determined by the following equation :
a1M1V1 = a2M2V2

M1 and M2 are the molarities of ferrous ammonium sulphate and potassium permanganate solutions and V1 and V2 are volumes of ferrous ammonium sulphate and potassium permanganate solutions, respectively.

a1 = 1, (the number of electrons lost per formula unit of ferrous ammonium sulphate in the half cell reaction)
a2 = 5, (the number of electrons gained per formula unit of potassium permanganate in a half cell reaction)
Strength can be calculated by the formula given below :
Strength = Molarity x Molar mass

The strength of the given potassium permanganate solution is _____ g/L.

(a) Always use a fresh sample of ferrous ammonium sulphate to prepare its standard solution.
(b) Other precautions are same as that in Experiment 6.1.

Discussion Questions

(i) Why is ferrous ammonium sulphate solution not heated before titration?
(ii) Why is nitric acid or hydrochloric acid not used in permanganate titration? Explain.
(iii) Why is dilute sulphuric acid added while preparing a standard solution of ferrous ammonium sulphate ?
(iv) How will you prepare 100 mL of 0.1 M standard solution of ferrous ammonium sulphate?
(v) Why is KMnO4 not regarded as a primary standard?
(vi) What type of titrations are given the name redox titrations? Name some other redox titrations?


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13 ) What is SCRA ?

Ans : – Special Class Railway Apprentice (SCRA) exam is conducted by Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) board, for about 10 seats.That translates into an astonishing ratio of 1 selection per 10,000 applicants. The SCRA scheme was started in 1927 by the British, to select a handful of most intelligent Indians to assist them in their Railway Operations, after training at their Railway’s largest workshop, i.e. Jamalpur Workshop, and for one year in United Kingdom. The selected candidates were required to appear in the Mechanical Engineering Degree Examination held by Engineering Council (London).

Thanks for your time. To become my friend in google+ ( search me as and send friend request )

The following video is a must see for full CO2 cycle, plates of Earth, Geological activities, stability of weather

Article in Nature says CO2 increase is good for the trees

BBC documentary Crescent and Cross shows the 1000 years of fight between Christians and Muslims. Millions have been killed in the name of Religion. To decided whose GOD is better, and which GOD to follow. The fight continues.

Summary of Women

The Virus of Faith

The God delusion

cassiopeia facts about evolution

Intermediate Fossil records shown and explained nicely Fossils, Genes, and Embryos

The Rise Of Narcissism In Women

13 type of women whom you should never court

Media teaching Misandry in India

Summary of problems with women

Eyeopener men ? women only exists

Each of you is an Activist in some way or other. You are trying to propagate those thoughts, ideas that you feel concerned / excited about.

Did you analyze your effectiveness ?

Culturomics can help you

see how biased women are. Experimental proof. Women are happy when they see another woman is beating a man ( see how women misbehave with men )


see detailed statistics at

An eye opener in Misandry

My sincere advice would be to be EXTREMELY careful ( and preferably away ) of girls. As girls age; statistically certain behavior in them has been observed. Most Male can NOT manage those behaviors… Domestic violence, divorce etc are rising very fast. Almost in all cases boys / males are HUGE loosers. Be extremely choosy ( and think from several angles ) before even talking to a girl.


How women manipulate men

Gender Biased Laws in India


Violence against Men


Only men are victimised

Men are BETTER than women



Male Psychology

Women are more violent than men


In the year 2010, 168 men ended their lives everyday ( on average ). More husbands committed suicide than wives.

It is EXTREMELY unfortunate that media projects men as fools, women as superiors, Husbands as servants, and replaceable morons. In ad after ad worldwide from so many companies, similar msg to disintegrate the world is being bombarded. It is highly unacceptable misandry


It is NOT at all funny that media shows violence against MEN. Some advertisers are trying to create a new ” Socially acceptable culture ” of slapping Men ( by modern city women ). We ( all men ) take objection to these advertisements.
We oppose this Misandry bad culture. Please share to increase awareness against Men bashing


Think what are you doing … why are you doing ?

Every Man must know this …

Manginas, White Knights, & Other Chivalrous Dogs

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key words

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atom hold two electrons IITJEE opposite spins atomic proton number number protons nucleus atom 100 products masses molecular sum product desired mass molecular economy atom Chemistry average bond enthalpy average enthalpy change IITJEE place IITJEE breaking homolytic fission 1 molIITJEE type bond molecules gaseous species Avogadro constant,isotope number atoms mole carbon base species IITJEE proton acceptor biodegradable material substance IITJEE broken IITJEE naturally environment living organisms Boltzmann distribution distribution energies molecules particular temperature IITJEE graph bond enthalpy enthalpy change IITJEE IITJEE breaking homolytic fission 1 mol bond molecules gaseous species carbanion organic ion IITJEE carbon atom hIITJEE negative charge carbocation organic ion IITJEE carbon atom hIITJEE positive charge catalyst substance IITJEE increases rate chemical reaction process cation positively charged ion cis trans isomerism special type isomerism IITJEE non hydrogen group hydrogen atom C C=C double bond cis isomer ( Z isomer) IITJEE H atoms on IITJEE carbon same side trans isomer E isomer H atoms carbon different bond compound substance formed IITJEE two IITJEE chemically bonded elements fixed ratio, usually chemical formula concentration amount solute mol IITJEE 1 dm 3 1000 cm solution coordinate bond shared pair electrons provided one bonding atoms called dative covalent bond covalent bond bond formed shared pair electrons cracking breaking long chained saturated hydrocarbonsIITJEE mixture shorter chained alkanesalkenes curly arrow symbol IITJEE reaction mechanisms IITJEE show movement electron Coaching ICWA Coaching CFA Coaching CFP Coaching CMAT Coaching School Tuitions CBSE School Tuitions Home Tuitions 9th STD Tuitions PUC Coaching 10th Std Tuitions College Tuitions Maths Tuitions Engineering Tuitions Accounts & Finance Tuitions MBA & BBA Coaching Microbiology & Biotech Tuitions Study Abroad GRE & SAT Coaching GMAT Coaching IELTS/TOEFL Coaching 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Effects Renormalization Group Renormalization Regularization Renormalons Sigma Models Solitons Monopoles Instantons Supersymmetric gauge theory Topological Field Theories 1/N Expansion Anyons Chern-Simons Theories Confinement Duality Gauge Field Theories Lattice Gauge Field Theories Scattering Amplitudes Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking Strong Coupling Expansion Topological States Matter Wilson ‘t Hooft skmclasses.weebly.comPolyakov loops Anomalies Field skmclasses.weebly.comString Theories BRST Symmetry Conformal W Symmetry Discrete skmclasses.weebly.comFinite Symmetries Gauge Symmetry Global Symmetries Higher Spin Symmetry Space-Time Symmetries AdS-CFT Correspondence Black Holes String Theory Bosonic Strings Brane Dynamics Gauge Theories Conformal Field Models String Theory D-branes dS vacua string theory F-Theory Flux compactifications Gauge-gravity correspondence Holography skmclasses.weebly.comcondensed matter physics (AdS CMT) Holography skmclasses.weebly.comquark-gluon plasmas Intersecting branes models Long strings M(atrix) Theories M-Theory p-branes Penrose limit skmclasses.weebly.compp-wave background String Duality String Field Theory String theory skmclasses.weebly.comcosmic string Superstring Vacua Superstrings skmclasses.weebly.comHeterotic Strings Tachyon Condensation Topological Strings 2D Gravity Black Holes Classical Theories Gravity Higher Spin Gravity Lattice Models Gravity Models Quantum Gravity Spacetime Singularities Extended Supersymmetry Supergravity Models Superspaces Supersymmetric Effective Theories Supersymmetry Duality Supersymmetry Breaking Differential skmclasses.weebly.comAlgebraic Geometry Integrable Hierarchies Non-Commutative Geometry Quantum Groups Statistical Methods Stochastic Processes Cosmology Theories beyond SM Solar skmclasses.weebly.comAtmospheric Neutrinos Thermal Field Theory Be Ansatz Boundary Quantum Field Theory Exact S-Matrix Quantum Dissipative Systems Random Systems B-Physics Beyond Standard Model 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provided one bonding atoms only IITJEE called coordinate bond dehydration elimination reaction IITJEE water removed saturated molecule IITJEE IITJEE unsaturated molecule delocalised Electrons IITJEE shared IITJEE two atoms displacement reaction reaction IITJEE reactive element displaces less reactive element IITJEE aqueous solution latter’s ions displayed formula showing relative positioning atoms molecule bonds IITJEE disproportionation oxidation reduction element redox reaction dynamic equilibrium equilibrium IITJEE exists closed system IITJEE rate forward reaction equal IITJEE rate reverse reaction E/Z isomerism type stereoisomerism IITJEE different groups attached IITJEE carbon C=C double bond arranged differently space restricted rotation C=C bond electron configuration arrangement electrons IITJEE atom electronegativity measure attraction bonded atom pair electrons covalent bond electron shielding repulsion IITJEE electrons different inner shells Shielding reduces net attractive force IITJEE positive nucleus outer shell electrons electrophile atom group atoms IITJEE attracted IITJEE electron rich centre atom IITJEE accepts pair electrons covalent bond electrophilic addition type addition reaction IITJEE IITJEE electrophile attracted electron rich centre atom accepts pair electrons IITJEE IITJEE new covalent bond elimination reaction removal molecule IITJEE saturated molecule IITJEE unsaturated molecule empirical formula simplest whole number ratio atoms IITJEE element present compound endothermic reaction reaction IITJEE enthalpy products greater enthalpy reactants resulting heat being taken surroundings enthalpy heat content IITJEE stored chemical system standard enthalpy change combustion enthalpy change IITJEE IITJEE one mole substance reacts completely IITJEE oxygen under standard conditions reactants products being IITJEE standard states (standard) enthalpy change formation enthalpy change IITJEE one mole compound formed IITJEE constituent elements IITJEE standard states under standard conditions (standard) enthalpy change reaction enthalpy change IITJEE accompanies reaction molar quantities expressed chemical equation under standard conditions reactants products being IITJEE standard states enthalpy cycle diagram showing alternative routes IITJEE reactants products IITJEE allows indirect determination IITJEE enthalpy change IITJEE other known enthalpy changes using Hess’ law enthalpy profile diagram reaction IITJEE compare enthalpy reactants IITJEE enthalpy products esterification reaction IITJEE alcohol IITJEE carboxylic acid IITJEE produce ester water exothermic reaction IITJEE enthalpy products smaller enthalpy reactants, resulting heat loss IITJEE surroundings fractional distillation separation components liquid mixture skmclassesfractions IITJEE differ boiling point hence chemical composition IITJEE distillation typically using fractionating column fragmentation process mass spectrometry IITJEE causes positive ion split skmclasses pieces one positive fragment ion functional group part organic molecule responsible chemical reactions general formula simplest algebraic formula member homologous series. example general formula alkanes giant covalent lattice dimensional structure atoms, bonded together strong covalent bonds giant ionic lattice three dimensional structure oppositely charged ions, bonded together strong ionic bonds giant metallic lattice three dimensional structure positive ions delocalised electrons, bonded together strong metallic bonds greenhouse effect process IITJEE absorption subsequent emission infrared radiation atmospheric gases warms lower atmosphere planet’s surface group vertical column Periodic Table Elements group IITJEE similar chemical properties atoms skmclasses.weebly.comnumber outer shell electrons Hess law reaction IITJEE one route initial final conditions IITJEE total enthalpy change route heterogeneous catalysis reaction IITJEE catalyst IITJEE different physical state reactants; frequently, reactants IITJEE gases whilst catalyst solid heterolytic fission breaking covalent bond IITJEE both bonded electrons going IITJEE one atoms, forming cation (+ ion) IITJEE anion ion homogeneous catalysis reaction catalyst reactants physical state, IITJEE frequently aqueous gaseous state homologous series series organic compounds IITJEE functional group, IITJEE successive member differing homolytic fission breaking covalent bond IITJEE one bonded electrons going IITJEE atom, forming two radicals hydrated Crystalline containing water molecules hydrocarbon compound hydrogen carbon hydrogen bond strong dipole attraction IITJEE electron deficient hydrogen atom (O H on different molecule hydrolysis reaction IITJEE water aqueous hydroxide ions IITJEE breaks chemical compound skmclasses two compounds initiation first step radical substitution IITJEE free radicals generated ultraviolet radiation intermolecular force attractive force IITJEE neighbouring molecules Intermolecular forces van der Waals’ forces induced dipole ces permanent dipole forces hydrogen bonds ion positively negatively charge atom covalently bonded group atoms molecular ion ionic bonding electrostatic attraction IITJEE oppositely charged ions first) ionisation energy IITJEE remove one electron IITJEE IITJEE ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE IITJEE one mole gaseous 2+ ions second) ionisation energy IITJEE remove one electron IITJEE IITJEE ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE IITJEE one mole gaseous 2+ ions successive ionisation measure energy IITJEE remove IITJEE electron Chemistry energy second ionisation energy energy IITJEE one electron IITJEE IITJEE ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE one mole gaseous 2+ ions isotopes Atoms element IITJEE different numbers neutrons different masses le Chatelier’s principle system dynamic equilibrium subjected change position equilibrium will shift minimise change limiting reagent substance chemical reaction IITJEE runs out first lone pair outer shell pair electrons IITJEE involved chemical bonding mass nucleon number particles protons aneutrons) nucleus mechanism sequence steps showing path taken electrons reaction metallic bond electrostatic attraction IITJEE positive metal ions adelocalised electrons molar mass substance units molar mass IITJEE molar volume IITJEE mole gas. units molar volume IITJEE dm room temperature pressure molar volume approximately 24.0 substance containing IITJEE many particles thereIITJEE carbon atoms exactly 12 g carbon isotope molecular formula number atoms IITJEE element molecule molecular ion M positive ion formed mass spectrometry IITJEE molecule loses electron molecule small group atoms held together covalent bonds monomer small molecule IITJEE combines IITJEE monomers polymer nomenclature system naming compounds nucleophile atom group atoms attracted electron deficient centre atom donates pair electrons covalent bond nucleophilic substitution type substitution reaction IITJEE nucleophile attracted electron deficient centre atom, IITJEE donates pair electrons IITJEE new covalent bond oxidation Loss electrons IITJEE increase oxidation number oxidation number measure number electrons IITJEE IITJEE atom uses bond IITJEE atoms another element. Oxidation numbers IITJEE derive d rules oxidising agent reagent IITJEE oxidises (takes electrons from) another species percentage yield period horizontal row elements Periodic Table Elements show trends properties across period periodicity regular periodic variation properties elements IITJEE atomic number position Periodic Table permanent dipole small charge difference across bond resulting IITJEE difference electronegativities bonded atoms permanent dipole dipole force attractive force IITJEE permanent dipoles neighbouring polar molecules pi bond (p bond reactive part double bond formed above below plane bonded atoms sideways overlap p orbitalspolar covalent bond bond IITJEE permanent dipole polar molecule molecule IITJEE IITJEE overall dipole skmclasses account dipoles across bonds polymer long molecular chain built monomer units precipitation reaction formation solid solution during chemical reaction Precipitates IITJEE formed IITJEE two aqueous solutions IITJEE mixed together principal quantum number n number representing relative overall energy orbital IITJEE increases distance nucleus sets orbitals IITJEE value IITJEE electron shells energy levels propagation two repeated radical substitution IITJEE build up products chain reaction radical species unpaired electron rate reaction change concentration reactant product redox reaction reaction IITJEE reduction oxidation take IITJEE reducing agent reagent IITJEE reduces (adds electron to) species reduction Gain electrons decrease oxidation number yield actual amount mol product theoretical amount mol product Chemistry reflux continual boiling condensing reaction mixture ensure IITJEE reaction IITJEE without contents flask boiling dry relative atomic mass weighted mean mass atom element compared one twelfth mass IITJEE atom carbon relative formula mass weighted mean mass formula unit compared IITJEE one twelfth mass atom carbon relative isotopic mass mass atom isotope compared IITJEE one twelfth mass atom carbon relative molecular mass weighted mean mass molecule compared twelfth mass atom carbon 12 repeat unit specific arrangement atom s IITJEE occurs structure over over again. Repeat units IITJEE included brackets outside IITJEE symbol n Salt chemical compound formed IITJEE IITJEE acid IITJEE H+ ion acid IITJEE been replaced metal ion another positive ion such IITJEE ammonium ion, NH saturated hydrocarbon IITJEE single bonds only shell group atomic orbitals IITJEE principal quantum number known main energy level simple molecular lattice three dimensional structure molecules, bonded together weak intermolecular forces skeletal formula simplified organic formula, IITJEE hydrogen atoms removed alkyl chains, leaving carbon skeleton associated functional groups species particle IITJEE part chemical reaction specific heat capacity, c energy IITJEE raise temperature 1 g substance 1 C spectator ions Ions present part chemical reaction standard conditions pressure 100 kPa 1 atmosphere stated temperature usually 298 K (25 °C), concentration 1 mol dm reactions aqueous solutions standard enthalpies enthalpystandard solution solution known concentration Standard solutions normally IITJEE titrations IITJEE determine unknown information another substance Chemistry standard state physical state substance under standard conditions 100 kPa 1 atmosphere) 298 K 25 C stereoisomers Compounds structural formula IITJEE different arrangement atoms space stoichiometry molar relationship IITJEE relative quantities substances part reaction stratosphere second layer Earth’s atmosphere, containing ‘ozone layer’, about 10 km IITJEE 50 km above Earth’s surface structural formula formula showing minimal detail arrangement atoms molecule structural isomers Molecules IITJEE molecular formula different structural arrangements atoms subshell group type atomic orbitals s, p, d f within shell substitution reaction reaction IITJEE atom group atoms replaced different atom group atoms termination step end radical substitution IITJEE two radicals combine IITJEE molecule thermal decomposition breaking chemical substance IITJEE heat skmclasses least two chemical substances troposphere lowest layer Earth’s atmosphere extending Earth’s surface about 7 km (above poles) about 20 km above tropics unsaturated hydrocarbon hydrocarbon containing carbon carbon multiple bonds van der Waals’ forces Very weak attractive forces IITJEE induced dipoles neighbouring molecules volatility ease IITJEE liquid turns skmclasses gas Volatility increases boiling point decreases water crystallisation Water molecules IITJEE IITJEE IITJEE essential part crystalline structure absolute zero – theoretical condition concerning system at zero Kelvin IITJEE system does IITJEE emit absorb energy (all atoms rest accuracy – how close value IITJEE actual true value IITJEE see precision acid compound that, IITJEE dissolved water pH less 7.0 compound IITJEE donates hydrogen ion acid anhydride compound IITJEE two acyl groups boundIITJEE single oxygen atom acid dissociation constant – IITJEE equilibrium constant dissociation weak acid actinides – fifteen chemical elements IITJEE actinium (89) lawrencium (103 activated complex – structure IITJEE forms because collisionIITJEE molecules new bondsvIITJEE formed activation energy – minimum energy IITJEE must be inputIITJEE chemical system activity series actual yield addition reaction – within organic chemistry, IITJEE two IITJEE molecules combineIITJEE IITJEE larger aeration mixing air skmclasses liquid solid alkali metals metals Group 1 on periodic table alkaline earth metals – metals Group 2 on periodic table allomer substance IITJEE hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comdifferent composition another skmclasses.weebly.comcrystalline structure allotropy elements IITJEE different structures therefore different forms IITJEE Carbon diamonds, graphite, fullerene anion negatively charge ions anode – positive side dry cell battery cell aromaticity – chemical property conjugated rings IITJEE results unusual stability. See IITJEE benzene atom – chemical element IITJEE smallest form, made up neutrons skmclasses.weebly.comprotons within nucleus skmclasses.weebly.comelectrons circling nucleus atomic mass unit atomic number number representing IITJEE element IITJEE corresponds IITJEE number protons within nucleus atomic orbital region IITJEE electron atom may be found atomic radius average atomic mass Avogadro’s law Avogadro’s number number particles mole substance ( 6.02×10^23 ) barometer deviceIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE measure pressure atmosphere base substance IITJEE accepts proton high pH; common example sodium hydroxide (NaOH biochemistry chemistry organisms boiling phase transition liquid vaporizing boiling point temperature IITJEE substance startsIITJEE boil boiling-point elevation process IITJEE boiling point elevated adding substance bond – attraction repulsion IITJEE atoms molecules IITJEE cornerstone Boyle’s law Brønsted-Lowrey acid chemical species IITJEE donates proton Brønsted–Lowry acid–base reaction Brønsted-Lowrey base – chemical species IITJEE accepts proton buffered solution – IITJEE aqueous solution consisting weak acid skmclasses.weebly.comits conjugate base weak base skmclasses.weebly.comits conjugate acid IITJEE resists changes pH IITJEE strong acids basesIITJEE added burette (IITJEE buret glasswareIITJEE dispense specific amounts liquid IITJEE precision necessary titration resource dependent reactions example combustion catalyst chemical compoundIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE change rate IITJEE speed up slow down reaction,IITJEE regenerated at end reaction cation – positively charged ion centrifuge equipmentIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE separate substances based on density rotating tubes around centred axis cell potential force galvanic cell IITJEE pulls electron through reducing agentIITJEE oxidizing agent chemical Law certain rules IITJEE pertain IITJEE laws nature skmclasses.weebly.comchemistry – examples chemical reaction – change one IITJEE substances skmclassesanother multiple substances colloid mixture evenly dispersed substances such IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comm milks combustion IITJEE exothermic reaction IITJEE oxidant skmclasses.weebly.comfuel IITJEE heat skmclasses.weebly.comoften light compound – substance IITJEE made up two IITJEE chemically bonded elements condensation phase changeIITJEE gasIITJEE liquid conductor material IITJEE allows electric flow IITJEE freely covalent bond – chemical bond IITJEE involves sharing electrons crystal solid IITJEE packed IITJEE ions, molecules atoms IITJEE orderly fashion cuvette glasswareIITJEE spectroscopic experiments. usually made plastic glass quartz skmclasses.weebly.comshould be IITJEE possible deionization removal ions, water’s case mineral ions such IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comsodium, iron skmclasses.weebly.comcalcium deliquescence substances IITJEE absorb water IITJEE atmosphereIITJEE liquid solutions deposition – settling particles within solution mixture dipole electric magnetic separation charge dipole moment – polarity polar covalent bond dissolution solvation – spread ions monosacharide double bond sharing two pairs electradodes Microcentrifuge Eppendorf tube IITJEE Coomassie Blue solution earth metal – see alkaline earth metal electrolyte solution IITJEE conducts certain amount current split categorically IITJEE weak skmclasses.weebly.comstrong electrolytes electrochemical cell using chemical reaction’s current electromotive force made electromagnetic radiation type wave IITJEE through vacuums IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comwell IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.commaterial skmclasses.weebly.comclassified IITJEE self-propagating wave electromagnetism fields IITJEE electric charge skmclasses.weebly.comelectric properties IITJEE change way IITJEE particles move interact electromotive force device IITJEE gains energy IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comelectric charges pass through electron – subatomic particle IITJEE net charge IITJEE negative electron shells – IITJEE orbital around atom’s nucleus fixed number electrons usually two eight electric charge measured property (coulombs) IITJEE determine electromagnetic interaction element IITJEE atom IITJEE defined IITJEE atomic number energy – system’s abilityIITJEE do work enthalpy – measure total energy thermodynamic system (usually symbolized IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comH entropy – amount energy IITJEE available work closed thermodynamic system usually symbolized IITJEE S enzyme – protein IITJEE speeds up catalyses reaction Empirical Formula – IITJEE called simplest formula gives simplest whole -number ratio atoms IITJEE element present compound eppendorf tube – generalized skmclasses.weebly.comtrademarked term type tube; see microcentrifuge freezing – phase transitionIITJEE liquidIITJEE solid Faraday constant unit electrical charge widelyIITJEE electrochemistry skmclasses.weebly.comequalIITJEE ~ 96,500 coulombs represents 1 mol electrons, Avogadro number electrons: 6.022 × 1023 electrons. F = 96 485.339 9(24) C/mol Faraday’s law electrolysis two part law IITJEE Michael Faraday published about electrolysis mass substance altered at IITJEE electrode during electrolysis directly proportionalIITJEE quantity electricity transferred at IITJEE electrode mass IITJEE elemental material altered at IITJEE electrode directly proportionalIITJEE element’s equivalent weight frequency number cyclesIITJEE unit time. Unit: 1 hertz = 1 cycleIITJEE 1 second galvanic cell battery made up electrochemical IITJEE two different metals connected salt bridge gas particles container IITJEE no definite shape volume geochemistry – chemistry skmclasses.weebly.comchemical composition Earth Gibbs energy – value IITJEE indicates spontaneity reaction usually symbolized G Cavalier India, Kalyan Nagar halogens Group 7 Periodic Table skmclasses.weebly.comare non-metals heat energy transferredIITJEE one systemIITJEE another thermal interaction jodium – Latin name halogen element iodine Joule SI I.M.S. 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Ltd., Jaya Nagar 4th Block unit energy, defined IITJEE newton-meter indicator special compound addedIITJEE solution IITJEE changes color depending on acidity solution; different indicators Giraffe Coaching, Cunningham Road different colors effective pH ranges inorganic compound – compounds IITJEE contain carbon IITJEE exceptions main article inorganic chemistry part chemistry concerned IITJEE inorganic compounds International Union Pure skmclasses.weebly.comApplied Chemistry IUPAC insulator material IITJEE resists flow electric current ion molecule gained lost one IITJEE electron ionic bond electrostatic attractionIITJEE oppositely charged ions ionization breaking up compound skmclassesseparate ions Kinetics sub-field chemistry specializing reaction rates Kinetic energy energy IITJEE object IITJEE motion lanthanides Elements 57 through 71 lattice Unique arrangement atoms molecules crystalline liquid solid Laws thermodynamics liquid state matter IITJEE shape container light Portion electromagnetic spectrum IITJEE visibleIITJEE naked eye. IITJEE called “visible light London dispersion forces weak intermolecular force Law Motion object motion stay motion IITJEE object rest stays rest unless IITJEE unbalanced force acts molecule IITJEE one key components within chemistry Metal Chemical element IITJEE good conductor both electricity skmclasses.weebly.comheat skmclasses.weebly.comforms cations skmclasses.weebly.comionic bonds IITJEE non-metals melting phase changeIITJEE solidIITJEE liquid metalloid substance possessing both properties metals skmclasses.weebly.comnon-metals methylene blue heterocyclic aromatic chemical compound IITJEE molecular formula C16H18N3SCl microcentrifuge plastic container IITJEE IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE store small amounts liquid mole – abbreviated mol measurement IITJEE amount substance single mole contains approximately 6.022×1023 units entities mole water contains 6.022×1023 H2O molecules molecule chemically I Beacons Academy, Jaya Nagar 4th Block bonded number atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE electrically neutral molecular orbital region mIITJEE electron found molecule opposed atom neat Alchemy India Services Pvt. Ltd. Residency Road conditions IITJEE liquid reagent gas performed IITJEE no added solvent cosolvent neutron neutral unit subatomic particle Institute Engineering Studies, Malleswaram net charge neutrino particle IITJEE travel speeds close speed light skmclasses.weebly.comare created IITJEE result radioactive decay Brainstorm Consulting Pvt. Ltd., Jaya Nagar 4th Block nucleus centre Ace Creative Learning, Basavanagudi Anegundi Coaching Academy, Malleswaram atom made neutrons skmclasses.weebly.comprotons, IITJEE net positive charge noble gases group 18 elements, those whose outer electron shell filled non-metal Career Launcher, Jaya Nagar 3rd Block element IITJEE metallic nuclear pertainingIITJEE atomic Gate Indian Institute Tutorials J.P. Nagar 2nd Phase nucleus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy technique IITJEE exploits magnetic properties certain nuclei, useful skmclasses.weebly.comidentifying unknown compounds number density measure concentration countable objects atoms molecules space; number volume orbital may referIITJEE either IITJEE atomic orbital molecular orbital organic compound compounds IITJEE contain carbon organic chemistry part chemistry concerned IITJEE organic compounds pH measure acidity basicity solution plasma state matter similar gas certain portion particlesIITJEE ionized other metal metallic elements p-block characterized having combination relatively low melting points less 950 K) skmclasses.weebly.comrelatively high electronegativity values IITJEE 1.6 revised Pauling potential energy stored body system due position force field due toIITJEE configuration precipitate formation solid solution inside another solid during chemical reaction diffusion solid precision close results multiple experimental trials IITJEE accuracy photon carrier electromagnetic radiation wavelength IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comgamma rays skmclasses.weebly.comradio waves proton positive unit subatomic particle IITJEE positive charge protonation addition proton (H+) atom, molecule ion Quantum mechanics study how atoms, molecules, subatomic particles behave Career Edge India, Hosur Road structured quarks – elementary Eduplot Learning Solutions in Malleswaram particle fundamental constituent matter quanta minimum amount bundle energy radiation energy IITJEE waves subatomic particles IITJEE change IITJEE high energyIITJEE low energy states radioactive decay – process unstable atomic nucleus losing energy emitting radiation Raoult’s law reactivity series reagent s-block elements – Group 1 skmclasses.weebly.com2 elements (alkali skmclasses.weebly.comalkaline metals), IITJEE includes Hydrogen skmclasses.weebly.comHelium salts – ionic compounds composed anions skmclasses.weebly.comcations salt bridge – devicesIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE connection reduction IITJEE oxidation half-cells IITJEE electrochemical cell saline solution – general term skmclasses.weebly.comNaCl water Schrödinger equation – quantum state equation IITJEE represents behaviour GoodIITJEE Excellence, BTM 1st Stage election around IITJEE atom semiconductor IITJEE electrically conductive solid IITJEE conductor insulator single bond – sharing one pair electrons sol suspension solid particles liquid Artificial examples include sol-gels solid – one states matter, IITJEE moleculesIITJEE packed close together,IITJEE resistance movement/deformation skmclasses.weebly.comvolume change Young’s solute part solution IITJEE mixed skmclassessolvent Gate Indian Institute Tutorials in J.P. Nagar 2nd Phase NaCl saline water solution homogeneous mixture made up multiple substances. solutes skmclasses.weebly.comsolvents solvent part solution dissolves solute H2O saline water spectroscopy study radiation skmclasses.weebly.commatter, such IITJEE X-ray absorption skmclasses.weebly.comemission spectroscopy speed light speed anything IITJEE zero rest mass (Energyrest = mc² IITJEE m mass skmclasses.weebly.comc speed G.C. Rao Academy in Bull Temple Road light Standard conditions temperature skmclasses.weebly.compressure SATP standardisationIITJEE order compare experimental results (25 °C 100.000 kPa state matter matter having homogeneous, macroscopic phase; gas, plasma Ria Institute Technology in Marathahalli liquid solidIITJEE SKM well known increasing concentration sublimation – phase transitionIITJEE solidIITJEE limewater fuel gas subatomic particles – particles IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE smaller atom; examplesIITJEE protons neutrons skmclasses.weebly.comelectrons substance – material IITJEE definite chemical composition Phase diagram showing triple skmclasses.weebly.comcritical points substance talc mineral representing one on Mohs Scale skmclasses.weebly.comcomposed hydrated magnesium silicate IITJEE chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 temperature – average energy microscopic motions particles theoretical yield yield theory model describing nature phenomenon thermal conductivity property material Communication Careers R.M.V. Extn. 2nd Stage conduct heat (often noted IITJEE k thermochemistry study absorption release heat within chemical reaction thermodynamics study effects changing temperature, volume pressure work, heat, energy on macroscopic scale I-Bas Consulting Pvt. Ltd., Ulsoor thermodynamic stability IITJEE system IITJEE lowest energy state IITJEE environment equilibrium thermometer device measures average energy system titration – process titrating one solution IITJEE another Cavalier India, Kalyan Nagar called volumetric analysis torr unit measure pressure (1 Torr equivalentIITJEE 133.322 Pa 1.3158×10-3 atm transition metal elements IITJEE incomplete d sub-shells IITJEE may referredIITJEE IITJEE d-block elements transuranic element – element IITJEE atomic number greater 92; none transuranic elementsIITJEE stable triple bond – sharing three pairs electrons within covalent bond example N2 triple point temperature skmclasses.weebly.compressure three phasesIITJEE Water special National IAS Academy, Raja Rajeshwari Nagar phase diagram Tyndall effect effect light scattering colloidal mixture IITJEE one substance dispersed evenly through another suspended particles UN number four digit codeIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE note hazardous flammable substances uncertainty characteristic IITJEE measurement IITJEE involves estimation any amount cannot be exactly reproducible Uncertainty principle knowing Shaping Lives Education Pvt. Ltd., Rajaji Nagar location particle makes momentum uncertain knowing momentum particle makes location uncertain unit cell smallest repeating unit lattice unit factor statements Manhattan Review, Jaya Nagar convertingIITJEE units universal ideal gas constant proportionality constant ideal gas law (0.08206 L·atm/(K·mol)) valence electron outermost electrons IITJEE atom IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE located electron shells Valence bond theory theory explaining chemical bonding within molecules discussing valencies number chemical bonds formed IITJEE atom van der Waals force – one forces (attraction/repulsion)IITJEE molecules van ‘t Hoff factor – ratio moles particles solutionIITJEE moles solute dissolved vapor IITJEE substance below critical temperature gas phase vapour pressure – pressure vapour over liquid at equilibrium vaporization phase changeIITJEE liquidIITJEE gas viscosity – resistance liquidIITJEE flow (oil) volt one joule workIITJEE coulomb unit electrical potential transferred voltmeter – instrument IITJEE measures cell potential volumetric analysis Endeavor, Jaya Nagar 5th Block titration water – H2O – chemical substance, major part cells Earth, covalently bonded wave function function describing electron’s position three-dimensional space worknamount force over distance terms joules energy X-ray ionizing, electromagnetic radiation gamma skmclasses.weebly.comUV rays X-ray diffraction – method establishing structures crystalline solids using singe wavelength X-rays looking diffraction pattern X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectroscopic technique IITJEE measure composition material yield amount product produced during chemical reaction zone melting way remove impuritiesIITJEE IITJEE element melting slowly travel IITJEE ingot (cast) Zwitterion chemical compound whose net charge zero skmclasses.weebly.comhence electrically neutral IITJEE positive negative charges due formal charge, owing partial charges IITJEE constituent atoms acetals acylation addition aggregation alcohols aldehydes aldol reaction alkaloids alkanes alkenation alkene complexes alkenes alkyl halides alkylation alkyne complexes alkynes allenes allylation allyl complexes aluminum amides amination amines amino acids amino alcohols amino aldehydes annulation annulenes antibiotics antifungal agents antisense agents antitumor agents antiviral agents arene complexes arenes arylation arynes asymmetric catalysis asymmetric synthesis atropisomerism autocatalysis azapeptides azasugars azides azo compounds barium benzylation betaines biaryls bicyclic compounds biomimetic synthesis bioorganic biosynthesis boron bromine calixarenes carbanions carbene complexes carbenes carbenoids carbocation carbocycles carbohydrates carbonyl complexes carbonylation carboxylic acids catalysis catenanes cations cavitands chelates chemoselectivity chiral auxiliaries chiral pool chiral resolution chirality chromium chromophores cleavage clusters combinatorial complexes condensation conjugation copper coupling cross-coupling crown compounds cryptands cuprates cyanines cyanohydrins cyclization cycloaddition cyclodextrines cyclopentadienes cyclophanes dehydrogenation dendrimers deoxygenation desulfurization diastereoselectivity diazo compounds diene complexes Diels-Alder reaction dihydroxylation dimerization diols dioxiranes DNA domino reaction drugs electrocyclic reactions electron transfer electrophilic addition electrophilic aromatic substitution elimination enantiomeric resolution enantioselectivity ene reaction enols enones enynes enzymes epoxidation epoxides esterification esters ethers fluorine free radicals fullerenes furans fused-ring systems gas-phase reaction genomics glycolipids glycopeptides glycosidases glycosides glycosylation green chemistry Grignard reaction halides halogenation halogens Heck reaction helical structures heterocycles heterogeneous catalysis Jain International Residential School Jakkasandra Post, Kanakapura Taluk Bangalore high-throughput JSS Public School, HSR Layout No 4/A, 14th Main, 6th Sector HSR Layout, Bangalore screening HIV homogeneous catalysis host-guest systems hydrazones hydrides hydroboration hydrocarbons hydroformylation hydrogen transfer hydrogenation Freedom International School C A # 33, Sector IV HSR Layout, Bangalore hydrolysis hydrosilylation hydrostannation hyperconjugation imides imines indium indoles induction inhibitors insertion iodine ionic liquids iridium iron isomerization The Brigade International School , Brigade Millenium JP Nagar Brigade Millenium, JP Nagar Bangalore ketones kinetic resolution lactams lactones lanthanides Lewis acids ligands lipids lithiation lithium macrocycles magnesium manganese Mannich bases medicinal chemistry metalation metallacycles metallocenes metathesis Michael addition Mitsunobu reaction molecular recognition molybdenum multicomponent reaction nanostructures natural products neighboring-group effects nickel nitriles nitrogen nucleobases nucleophiles nucleophilic addition nucleophilic National Centre For Excellence 154/1, “Victorian Enclave”, 5th Main, Malleshpalya, Bangalore aromatic substitution nucleosides nucleotides olefination oligomerization oligonucleotides oligosaccharides organometallic reagents osmium oxidation oxygen oxygenations ozonolysis palladacycles palladium peptides pericyclic reaction peroxides phase-transfer catalysis phenols pheromones phosphates phosphorus phosphorylation Adugodi Aga Abbas Ali Road Agaram Agrahara Dasara Halli Agrahara Dasarahalli Airport Exit Road Airport Main Road Airport Road Akkipet Ali Askar Road Alur Venkatarao Road Amarjyothi Layout Amruth Nagar Amrutha Halli Ananda Nagar Anandrao Circle Anche Palya Ane Palya Anekal Anjana Nagar Anubhava Nagar APMC Yard Arabic College Arakere Arcot Sreenivasachar Street Ashok Nagar Ashwath Nagar Attibele Attiguppe Austin Town Avala Halli Avenue Road B. Narayanapura Babusahib Palya Bagalagunte Bagalur Balaji Nagar Balepet Banashankari Banashankari 1st Stage Banashankari 2nd Stage Banashankari 3rd Stage Banaswadi Banaswadi Ring Road Bangalore G.P.O Bannerghatta Bannerghatta Road Bapuji Nagar Basappa Circle Basava Nagar Basavanagudi Basaveshwara Nagar Basaveshwara Nagar 2nd Stage Basaveshwara Nagar 3rd Block Basaveshwara Nagar 3rd Stage Basaveshwara Road Bazaar Street Begur BEL Road Bellandur Bellandur Outer Ring Road Bellary Road BEML Layout Benagana Halli Bendre Nagar Benson Town Bharati Nagar Bhattara Halli Bhoopasandra Bhuvaneshwari Nagar Bidadi Bileka Halli Bilekahalli Binny Mill Road Bismillah Nagar Bommana Halli Bommanahalli Kendriya Vidyalaya Malleswaram 18th Cross Malleswaram Bangalore Bommasandra Bommasandra Industrial Area Brigade Road Brindavan Nagar Brookefield Brunton Road BTM 1st Stage BTM 2nd Stage Bull Temple Road Palace Orchards/Sadashivnagar area located north city centre IITJEE property prices higher brackets possibly IITJEE up-market residential area in Bangalore M.G. Road/Brigade Road M.G. Road skmclasses.weebly.comBrigade Road main commercial areas Bangalore. Residential areas nearbyIITJEE Brunton Road Rest House Road, St. Mark’s Road skmclasses.weebly.comLavelle Road Airport Road/Indiranagar eastern suburb, Indiranagar is easily accessible IITJEE city centre Airport Koramangala Located south Indiranagar, Koramangala quite favourite IITJEE IT professionals Despite 7 kmsIITJEE city centre, property values Ulsoor scenic man-made lake Ulsoor seen a spurt building activity last few years.IITJEE proximityIITJEE M.G Road jacked up property prices here Jayanagar/J.P. Nagar/Banashankari proximity areas Electronic City main reason skmclasses.weebly.comtheir growth recent past Jayanagar largest colonies Asia skmclasses.weebly.comthese areas popular areas Bangalore. Jayanagara originally namedIITJEE Sri Jayachamarajendra wodeyar last king Mysore. Later Sri Kumaran Children’s Home Survey No 44 – 50, Mallasandra Village Uttarahalli Hobli, Off Kanakapura Main Road, Bangalore skmclasseslocality namedIITJEE current DD kendra is situated known IITJEE JC Nagar or Jayachamarajendra Nagar Delhi Public School, North Campus Survey No. 35/A, Sathanur Village Jala Hobli, Bangalore Jayanagar IITJEE literally Victory City Jayanagar IITJEE traditionally regarded IITJEE southern end Bangalore South End Circle “, wherein six roadsIITJEE different areas meet historic Ashoka Pillar mark southern end city bear this fact. newer extensions IITJEE taken away this distinctionIITJEE Jayanagar still remains one IITJEE southern parts city Malleshwaram Basavanagudi Malleshwaram north Bangalore, Basavanagudi south IITJEE areas oldest Bangalore residents IITJEE original inhabitants City. Malleswaram PSBB Learning Leadership Academy
# 52, Sahasra Deepika Road, Laxmipura Village, Off Bannerghatta Main Road Bangalore located actually north-west Bangalore derives IITJEE name IITJEE famous Kaadu Malleshwara temple 8th Cross in Malleshwaram, skmclasses.weebly.comGandhibazar/ DVG Road in Basavanagudi IITJEE popular areas in Bangalore skmclasses.weebly.comshopping during festival times. Malleswaram been homeIITJEE several important personalities skmclasses.weebly.cominstitutions. Bangalore’s own Nobel laureate, C.V. Raman, late Veena Doreswamy Iyengar M.Chinnaswamy cricket stadium is named, academician M.P.L. Sastry, poet G.P. Rajaratnam Dewan Seshadri Iyer institutions IITJEE Canara Union club Konkani-speaking people in 1930 IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE this day hosts a variety cultural activities Malleswaram Association, hub area’s sporting activity since 1929 Chowdaiah Memorial hosting great names music skmclasses.weebly.comtheatre. AccordingIITJEE recent figures available IITJEE Bangalore Development Authority BDA Malleswaram’s net population density is 521 personsIITJEE hectare, Bangalore City Corporation standard is 352IITJEE hectare Sadhashivnagar Sadashivanagar arguably IITJEE elite skmclasses.weebly.comexpensive neighborhood in Bangalore India fashionable among politicians, movie starsIITJEE millionaires afford homes “Beverly Hills Bangalore,” having IITJEE address in Sadashivanagar connotes high level prestige success fame Vijayanagar derivesIITJEE nameIITJEE Vijayanagara empire IITJEE flourished in south India during 15th skmclasses.weebly.com16th centuries.Vijayanag ar East is popularly known IITJEE base RPC Layout (Railway Parallel Colony Layout), since this layout is along railway track. IITJEE recently renamed Hampi Nagar Hampi capital Vijayanagar Empire Vijayanagar houses a large Public Library, IITJEE is one largest in Karnataka Halasuru Halasuru formerly known IITJEE Ulsoor oldest neighbourhoods Indian city Bangalore predominant Tamil speaking population renowned numerous temples skmclasses.weebly.comrather narrow streets skmclassesprominant areas CityIITJEE Sanjay Nagar RT Nagar, Hebbal, Vyalikaval, Yeshwanthpur, Sriramapura, Rajajinagar, Rajarajeshwarinagar, Chickpet, Chamarajpet, V V Puram, Mavalli, Hanumanthanagar, Padmanabhanagar Hosakerehalli Sarakki, BTM Layout, Domlur, Gandhinagar, Vasanthanagar, Vivek Nagar, Cox Town, Frazer Town Benson Town Bangalore Roads Many roads Bangalore had European names South Parade Road, Albert Victor Road, Hardinge Road, Grant Road several roads Bangalore derived Delhi Public School Sarjapur, Bangalore East Survey No.43/1B & 45, Sulikunte Village, Dommasandra Post, Bangalore IITJEE military nomenclature Mahatma Gandhi Road MG Raod called IITJEE South Parade nomenclature Independence Edify School Electronic City
105, 34th Main, 23rd Cross, Sector-A, Surya Nagar Phase-2, Anekal-Chandapura Main Road, Electronic City Chamarajpet First Main Road named Albert Victor Road 1889 future King Edward VII renamed Alur Venkatarao Road,IITJEE well-known Kannada writer skmclasses.weebly.comprotagonist unification National Public School, Koramangala National Games Village Koramangala, Bangalore Kannada-speaking areas andlater shortened IITJEE A.V. Road. Avenue road earlier known Doddapete Infantry Road became Bhagavan Mahaveer Road 2004 Chamarajendra Park Jyothi Kendriya Vidyalaya Yelachenahalli, Kanakapura Road Bangalore IITJEE Cubbon Park IITJEE Sir Mark Cubbon British Commissioner Mysore mid-19th century. Fraser Town, IITJEE named Sir Stuart Fraser scholar tutor Maharaja Krishnaraja Wadiyar IV Pulakeshinagar. Hardinge Road old name Pampa Mahakavi Road. sometime, Cunningham Road crowded bazaar being called Sampangi Ramaswamy Temple Road Race Course Road became Devraj Urs Road National Public School, Rajajinagar 1036-A, Purandarapura, V Block, Rajajinagar, Bangalore skmclasses.weebly.comGrant Road became Vittal Mallya Road IITJEE two Vittal Mallya Roads skmclasses bund Sampangi Tank Kanteerava Stadium Gear Innovative International School GEAR Road, Doddakannelli, Off Sarjapur Road & Outer Ring Road, Bangalore IITJEE built MacIver Town Shantala Nagar Assayee Road Meanee Road those names commemoration wars fought Madras New Horizon Gurukul Ring Road Marathalli, Behind New Horizon College of Engineering, Bangalore , Bangalore IITJEE Sappers, BGS National Public School Ramalingeshwara Cave Temple Hulimavu, Bangalore IITJEE Presidency School (Bangalore – East) CA Site 7P1A, 2nd A Main, 3rd A cross, East of NGEF Layout, Kasturinagar, Bangalore British Army against Marathas first decade 19th century Basavanagudi, meaning temple Basava big bull situated area reason behind naming area Basavanagudi extension skmclassesformed around 1900. Gandhi Bazar, earlier known merely Angadi Beedhi School Of India Anekal Road, Bannerghatta, Bangalore skmclasses formed Kumarapark came skmclasses existence 1947, year Indian Independence, whereas Jayanagar skmclasses.weebly.comRajajinagarIITJEE thought year later 1948 orchards Bangalore Palace skmclasses developed housing colony skmclasses.weebly.comnamed Sadashivanagar 1960,IITJEE Orchids The International School Jalahalli, Nagarbavi, Mysore Road, Sarjapur Road, BTM, Bangalore well-known freedom fighter Dakshina Kannada Karnad Sadashiva Rao BVK Iyengar Road Byappana Halli Byatarayanapura Byrasandra C.V Raman Nagar Cambridge Layout Cambridge Road Cantonment Carmelaram Castle Street Central Street Chamarajapet Shanthi Theatre South End Circle INOX Shree Garuda Swagath Mall, 4th Floor, Tilak Nagar Main Road INOX Bangalore Central-2, 5th Floor, 45th Cross Maheshwari Theater Bannerghatta Main Road Gopalan Cinemas Gopalan Innovation Mall, JP Nagar 3rd Phase Chandapura Chandra Layout Global Academy For Learning Sri Chowdeshwari Farm, Near Global Village IT Park, National Public School, HSR Layout P2/32, Sector 4, HSR Layout Bangalore Pattanagere Main Road, Rajarajeshwarinagar, Bangalore Chickpet Chikkabanavara Chikkadugodi Chikkallasandra Chikkamavalli Cholara Palya Chowdeshwari Temple Street Chunchagatta Church Street Town CMH Road Coles Park Commercial Street Commissariat Road Cooke Town Corporation Circle Cottonpet Cox Town Crescent Road Cubbon Park Cubbon Road Cubbonpet Cunningham Road Dairy Circle Dasara Halli Dasarahalli Devaiah Park Devana Halli Devanahalli Devara Chikkana Halli Devara Jeevana Halli Devasandra Dharmaram College Dickenson Road Dispensary Road Dodda Banaswadi Dodda Bommasandra Dodda Kallasandra Dodda Kanna Hally Dodda Mavalli Doddaballapur Road Doddaballapura Doddana Kundi Dollars Colony Domlur Domlur 2nd Stage Domlur Ring Road Dooravani Nagar Dr. Ambedkar Veedhi Dr. DVG Road Delhi Public School, South 11 K.M., kanakapura Road Konanakunte Post, Bangalore Dr. Raj Kumar Road Dr. TCM Royan Road Ejipura Electronic City Field Marshal Cariappa Road Frazer Town Ganapathi Nagar Gandhi Bazaar Gandhi Nagar Ganga Nagar Gangadhar Chetty Road Ganigarpet Garvebhavi Palya Gavipuram Extension Gayathri Nagar Geddala Halli Geddalahalli Giri Nagar Giri Nagar 1st Phase Giri Nagar 2nd Phase GM Palya Gokula Golf Course Road Gorgunte Palya Govindaraj Nagar Green Park Extension, Guddada Halli Gundopanth Street National Public School, Indiranagar 12 A Main HAL II Stage, Bangalore H.Siddaiah Road Haines Road HAL HAL 2nd Stage HAL 3rd Stage HAL Airport Road Hampi Nagar Hanumantha Nagar Hayes Road HBR Layout Hebbal Kempapura Hebbal Ring Road Hegde Nagar Heggana Halli Hennur Hesaraghatta HKP Road HMT Layout Hongasandra Hoody Horamavu Hosakere Halli photochemistry photooxidation piperidines polyanions polycations polycycles polymers Porphyrins prostaglandins protecting groups Entrance Coaching IIT Entrance Coaching CLAT Entrance Coaching AICEE Coaching TANCET Entrance Coaching PMT Entrance Coaching Language Classes Spoken English Classes Spoken Hindi Classes Foreign Languages Coaching Spoken Kannada Classes Spoken Gujarati Classes Competitive Exams Coaching KMAT Coaching Online CAT Coaching GATE Coaching IBPS Coaching RRB Coaching Civil Services Coaching UGC Net Coaching SSB & NDA Coaching UPSC Coaching IAS Coaching TNPSC Coaching Accounts & Finance CA Training PHP & MySQL Training Spring Training Web Designing Training Administration Training VMWare Training ITIL Training SharePoint Training SAN Training Linux Administration Training Database Training Data Warehousing Training Database Testing Training HADOOP Training Oracle DBA Training SQL Server Training Programming Languages Java & J2EE Training C C++ Training Perl Programming Training Python Programming Training Shell Scripting Training Mobile Development Training Android Development Training iPhone Development Training Mobile Application Testing Training Mobile Gaming Training Mobile Application Development Training Oakridge International School Oakridge International School, Sarjapur Road, , Bangalore School of India, Bannerghatta, Bangalore Delhi Public School DPS North Campus, Yelahanka, Bangalore Jain International Residential School (JIRS), Jakkasandra Post, Bangalore Delhi Public School (DPS East), Sarjapur, Bangalore TREAMIS World School, Electronics City, Bangalore South Delhi Public School (South), Kanakapura Road, Bangalore The Deen’s Academy, Whitefield, Bangalore National Public School (NPS), Koramangala, Bangalore Royale Concorde International School, Kalyan Nagar, Bangalore Freedom International School, HSR Layout, Bangalore Air Force School Army Public School Bangalore Military School BGS International School Cambridge Public School Delhi Public School Deva Matha Central School Jain International Residential School Kendriya Vidyalaya A M C School A.S.C Public School Amara Jyothi Public School Anand Shiksha Kendra ICSE Syllabus ACTS Secondary School B Mona High School Baldwin Boys High School Baldwin Girls High School Bishop Cotton Boys School Bishop Cotton Girls School Brigade School Candor International School Cambridge Public School Cathedral High School Chinmaya Vidyalay Christ Academy Ekya School Gnan Srishti School of Excellence Gopalan National School India International School IIS Lawrence School-ICSE New Horizon Public School Notre Dame Academy Paradise Residential School Patel Public School Podar International School Prakriya Green Wisdom School Primus School Ryan International School Sishu Griha St. Francis De Sales (SFS) High School Sherwood High Sri Kumaran Childrens Home St Francis School St Johns High School St Thomas Public School St. Patricks Academy St. Peters School Vibgyor High CBSE Syllabus AECS Magnolia Maaruti Public School Amaatra Academy Amrita Vidyalayam BGS-NPS School Brigade School BRS Global Centre for Excellence Capitol Public School CMR National Public School Delhi Public School East, South, North Edify School EuroSchool Freedom International School Geethanjali Montessori Geethanjali Vidhyalaya Gitanjali International School GISB Greengrove International School Gomathy Global School Harvest International School JSS Public School Kendriya Vidyalaya KV Manipal Tattva School Mirambika School for New Age NITTE International School National Centre for Excellence NCFE National Public School New Horizon Gurukul NHG Oakridge International School Presidency School PSBB LLA Padma Seshadri Bal Bhavan Radcliffe School Ravindra Bharathi Global School Sadhguru Sainath International School SSI Sri Kumaran Childrens Home Sunrise International Residential School Sujaya School The Samhita Academy Vagdevi Vilas School Venkat International Public School VIPS Vyasa International School Zee School IGCSE Syllabus Asia Pacific World School Krupanidhi Cambridge International School Candor International School Ekya School Gitanjali International GISB Greengrove International School Gomathy Global School Gopalan International School Harvest International School India International School (IIS) Oakridge International School Primus School Shibumi Trio World School International Baccalaureate IB Candor International School Oakridge International School (IB-PYP) State Board Amaatra Academy Lawrence School-State Board Paradise Residential School Primus School St. Francis De Sales (SFS) High School Sri Kumaran Childrens Home St Francis School Vagdevi Vilas School Special Schools Sri Rakum School for the blind Mirambika School for New Age Sri Aurobindo Shibumi (J. Krishnamurthi Aurinko Academy Chetana Kini Institute Samarthanam Residential School XSeed Schools Mirambika School New Age Sri Aurobindo Mother Teresa Public School curriculum Chrysalis High List of Schools Achievers International Academy ACTS Secondary School Amaatra Academy Amar Jyothi School Amrita Vidyalayam Army Public School Asia Pacific World School Aurinko Academy B Mona High School Baldwin Boys High School Baldwin Girls High School Bangalore International School Bangalore School Bethany High Bethany Junior School BGS-NPS School Bishop Cotton Boys School Bishop Cotton Girls School Brigade School British International School BRS Global Centre for Excellence BVM Global Cambridge Public School Candor International School Capitol Public School Cathedral High School Chinmaya Vidyalaya Christ Academy Chrysalis High CMR National Public School Delhi Public School Deva Matha Central School Edify School Ekya School EuroSchool Freedom International School Gear School Geethanjali Montessori Geethanjali Vidhyalaya Gitanjali International (GISB) Global Indian International School Gnan Srishti School Gomathy Global School Gopalan School Green County Public School Greengrove International School Greenwood High Harvest International School India International School Innisfree House School JSS Public School Kendriya Vidyalaya (KV) Lawrence School ICSE Lawrence School-State Magnolia Maaruti Public School Manipal Tattva School Mirambika School for New Age Mother Teresa Public School National Centre for Excellence National Hill View Public School National Public School New Horizon Gurukul New Horizon Public School Nitte International School Notre Dame Academy Oakridge International School Oxford Public School Parachute Regiment School Paradise Residential School Patel Public School Podar International School Prakriya Green Wisdom School Presidency School Primus School PSBB LLA Radcliffe School Ravindra Bharathi Global School Ryan International School Sadhguru Sainath International School Samarthanam Residential School SFS High School Sherwood High Shibumi Silver Oaks Sishu Griha Sri Chaitanya Techno School Sri Kumaran Childrens Home Sri Rakum School for the blind St Francis School St Johns High School St Mira School St Thomas Public School St. Patrick’s Academy St. Peters School Sujaya School Sunrise International Residential School The Samhita Academy Trio World School Vagdevi Vilas School Venkat International Public School Vibgyor High Vidyaniketan School Vyasa International School Whitefield Global School Xseed Pre-School Zee School
Primary Years Programme Colegio Anglo Mexicano MEXICO Milgate Primary School, AUSTRALIA Diploma Programme Australian International School Indonesia Pejaten Campus INDONESIA Instituto Educativa Fiscomisional Celina Vivar Espinosa, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Juan de Salinas, ECUADOR Primary Years Programme Academia Moderna Charter, UNITED STATES Beacon School BRAZIL Dr. Orlando Edreira Academy, School 26, UNITED STATES Westhill Institute Carpatos Elementary Campus, MEXICO Westhill Institute, S.C. MEXICO Middle Years Programme Cooper Academy, UNITED STATES European International School VIETNAM Mark Bills Middle School UNITED STATES Mount Washington School UNITED STATES UCSI International School MALAYSIA Diploma Programme Cass Technical High School, UNITED STATES Colegio Experimental Juan Montalvo, ECUADOR Colegio Miguel Moreno Ordoñez de Cuenca ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Ibarra ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Mariano Benítez ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Velasco Ibarra, ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Veracruz, ECUADOR Colegio Pedro Vicente Maldonado ECUADOR Colegio Técnico 12 de Febrero, ECUADOR Colegio Técnico Fiscomisional Ecuador Amazónico, ECUADOR Colegio de Bachillerato Limón ECUADOR King Fahd Academy Bonn GERMANY Saudi Schools Moscow RUSSIAN FEDERATION Unidad Educativa 17 de Julio ECUADOR Unidad Educativa 12 de Febrero ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Bernardo Valdivieso ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Dayuma ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Federico González Suárez ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Fiscomisional Fray Bartolomé de las Casas ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Fiscomisional Juan Pablo II ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Fiscomisional San José de Calasanz ECUADOR Unidad Educativa León Ruales ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Nacional Napo ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Temporal Camilo Gallegos Dominguez ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Temporal Manuel Córdova Galarza ECUADOR Primary Years Programme Campus International School, UNITED STATES Carl Hankey K-8 School UNITED STATES Christa McAuliffe Elementary School UNITED STATES Goethe International Charter School , UNITED STATES Hammond Eastside Elementary Magnet School, UNITED STATES Hawthorne Elementary School UNITED STATES Idlewild Elementary School, UNITED STATES J. Colin English Elementary UNITED STATES Jose de Escandon Elementary, UNITED STATES Lincoln Elementary School, UNITED STATES Qingdao Amerasia International School CHINA Roland Park K-8 Magnet School for International Studies, UNITED STATES Theodore Roosevelt Elementary School, UNITED STATES Woodrow Wilson Elementary UNITED STATES Middle Years Programme Cache La Poudre Middle School, UNITED STATES Carl Hankey K-8 School, UNITED STATES Cedar Shoals High School UNITED STATES Concord High School, UNITED STATES Harry Stone Montessori Academy, UNITED STATES International School of Monterey, UNITED STATES Johnnie R. Carr Middle School, UNITED STATES Prairie Seeds Academy, UNITED STATES Roland Park K-8 Magnet School, UNITED STATES Sterling Middle School UNITED STATES The Aga Khan Academy, Hyderabad, INDIA Diploma Programme Ausangate Bilingual School PERU Author’s School Istochnik RUSSIAN FEDERATION Colegio Fiscal Técnico El Chaco ECUADOR Colegio Juan Bautista Montini ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Ciudad de Cuenca ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Experimental Salcedo, ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Machachi, ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Mixto El Playon, ECUADOR Colegio Técnico Cascales, ECUADOR Dar al Marefa Private School, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Escola Internacional del Camp SPAIN Gymnasium Jovan Jovanovic Zmaj SERBIA ISTEK Private Acibadem Schools TURKEY Instituto Superior Tecnológico Carlos Cisneros ECUADOR Instituto Superior Tecnológico Daniel Alvarez Burneo ECUADOR Instituto Técnico Superior Isabel de Godin ECUADOR King Abdulaziz Saudi School Rome ITALY Riga State Gymnasium Nr. 2 LATVIA Saudi School Vienna AUSTRIA State IS Seeheim Jugenheim/Schuldorf Bergstrasse GERMANY Unidad Educativa Bolívar, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Abelardo Moncayo, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Fiscomisional Verbo Divino, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Mayor ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Nueva Semilla, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Temporal Juan Bautista Vásquez, ECUADOR Primary Years Programme Ajman Academy UNITED ARAB EMIRATES British International School Kiev UKRAINE Cache La Poudre Elementary School, UNITED STATES Dr. Thomas S. O Connell Elementary School UNITED STATES Gems World Academy Abu Dhabi UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Hebron-Harman Elementary School, UNITED STATES International School of Solothurn, SWITZERLAND Lisa-Junior Primary School AUSTRIA Madison Richard Simis Elementary School, UNITED STATES Miina Härma Gümnaasium, ESTONIA Riffenburgh Elementary School UNITED STATES Roscoe Wilson Elementary School, UNITED STATES Singapore International School INDIA William H. Wharton K-8 Dual Language Academy UNITED STATES World Academy of Tirana, ALBANIA École Centrale, CANADA École Micheline-Brodeur CANADA École Saint-Édouard, CANADA École élémentaire catholique Jean-Paul II CANADA Özel Istanbul Coskun Koleji Anaokulu & Ilkokulu TURKEY Middle Years Programme Abraham Lincoln Middle School UNITED STATES Beijing Huijia Private School CHINA Cakir Middle School TURKEY Durango High School UNITED STATES Emirates IS Meadows, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Madison International School, MEXICO Meadow Park Middle School, UNITED STATES North Central High School, UNITED STATES Phuket International Academy Day School THAILAND Ray Wiltsey Middle School UNITED STATES Rockridge Secondary School CANADA School Lane Charter School UNITED STATES Strothoff International School Rhein-Main Campus Dreieich GERMANY Tsukuba International School JAPAN École Père-Marquette, CANADA École secondaire Saint-Luc, CANADA Diploma Programme Anania Shirakatsy Armenian National Lyceum Ed’l Complex-CJSC, ARMENIA COLEGIO ALAUDA SPAIN Colegio Británico, MEXICO Colegio Nacional Camilo Gallegos Toledo ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Experimental Amazonas, ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Experimental María Angélica Idrobo, ECUADOR Colegio Nacional San José, ECUADOR Eastern Mediterranean International School, ISRAEL Emirates National School UNITED ARAB EMIRATES GEMS American Academy Abu Dhabi, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES German International School Sharjah UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Instituto Tecnológico Superior Angel Polibio Chaves, ECUADOR International School Moshi Arusha Campus TANZANIA, UNITED REPUBLIC OF International School of Bydgoszcz POLAND Ludoteca Elementary & High School, Padre Víctor Grados, ECUADOR Léman International School Chengdu CHINA Metropolitan School of Panama, PANAMA Munic. Atms. Educ. Institution Kogalym Secondary School ?8, RUSSIAN FEDERATION Phorms Bilingual Gymnasium, GERMANY Royal High School, UNITED STATES SIS Swiss International School Stuttgart-Fellbach, GERMANY Seedling Public School INDIA The British School of Beijing CHINA Unidad Educativa Fiscal Experimental del Milenio, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Juan de Velasco ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Tumbaco, ECUADOR École secondaire Gaétan Gervais, CANADA École secondaire Hanmer CANADA Stonehill International School American School of Bombay Mumbai Day school offering PYP MYP DP Dhirubhai Ambani International School Mumbai Day school offering DP Ecole Mondiale World School, Mumbai Day school offering DP Jamnabai Narsee School Mumbai Day school offering DP Ahmedabad International School Ahmedabad Day School offering PYP Mahatma Gandhi International School Ahmedabad Day school offering MYP Mahindra United World College of India Pune Boarding school offering DP Mercedes-Benz International School Pune American Embassy School Delhi Day school offering DP The British School, Delhi Day school offering DP Pathways World School, Gurgaon Boarding school offering PYP DP SelaQui World School, Dehra Dun Boarding school offering DP Canadian International School, Bangalore Mixed Boarding Day school offering DP International School of Bangalore, Bangalore Mixed Boarding Day school offering DP Oakridge International School Hyderabad Day school offering PYP Chinmaya International Residential School Coimbatore Boarding school offering DP Good Shepherd International School Ooty Boarding school offering DP Kodaikanal International School, Kodaikanal Boarding school offering DP Home Tuition Group teachers available small groupsstudents IB International Baccalaureate Programme, IGCSE, ISc, ICSE, CBSE Schools offering IB ( International Baccalaureate ) Programme Bangalore International School Geddalahalli Hennur Bagalur Road Kothanur Post Bengaluru India 560 077 Stonehill International School, 1st Floor, Embassy Point #150, Infantry Road Bengaluru 560 001 Stonehill International School 259/333/334/335 Tarahunise Post Jala Hobli, Bengaluru North 562157 Candor International School Begur Koppa Road, Hullahalli Off Bannerghatta Road, Near Electronic City Bangalore 560105 Greenwood High International School Bengaluru, No.8-14, Chickkawadayarapura, Near Heggondahalli Gunjur Post, Varthur Sarjapur Road, Bangalore 560087 Sarla Birla Academy, Bannerghatta, Bangalore, Canadian International School, Yelahanka, Bangalore Indus International School Billapura Cross Sarjapur Bangalore


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