NCERT CBSE Standard 12 Electrochemistry Chapter 3 Batteries SKMClasses South Bangalore Subhashish Sir

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Chemistry Physics Mathematics personal tuitions ( also Home Tuitions / Coaching by Home Tutor with personal Attention ) are available in the Bannerghatta Road IIM ( south Bangalore ) region.

Contact mokshya@gmail.com

Prof. Subhashish and others are teaching ISEET Chemistry, Maths, Physics, AIEEE/IIT-JEE, CET and PU courses

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Students staying in J P Nagar, Bommanahalli, Nayak Layout, Poornima Nagar, Aradhana Layout, Shreyas Colony, Devarachikkahalli, Rukmaiah Layout, Viswapriya Nagar, Akshayanagar, Omkar Nagar, BTM, Shanthiniketan Layout, Madivala, Teacher’s Colony, Hogasandra, MICO Layout, Fortis Hospital, Anjanadri Layout, Apollo Hospital, Royal Lake Front, Royal Residency, Jayanagar, Vijaya Enclave, Sundaram Shetty Nagar, Duo Heights, Arekere, Begur Road, L&T South city, Dollar colony, Brigade Millennium, Kumaraswami Layout, Jarganahalli, Bendre Nagar, Srinidhi Layout, Mysore Bank Colony, Ramaiah Garden, Nobo Nagar, Adigas Restaurant Bannerghatta Road, Shankranthi Layout, Sarvabhouma Nagar, BTS Layout, Ayyappa Temple Shoba Apartments, Anugraha Layout, Neo Layout, Mahaveer Rhyolities, Akshaya Nagar, DLF Extention, new Dollar Colony,   etc can easily access this.

The schools and Institutions near by are Mitra Academy, St Pauls – Presidency School and College, Clarence High School, PSBB, Ryan International School, Sarala Birla Academy, BGS NPS,Brigade school, Shantiniketan, MG Infant, Deeksha Hosur Road, Nightingles English Highschool, Sri Venkateshwara Education Society, Oxford Engineering College, Lorven International Institute, Hill Top School, Karnataka Govt. High School, Christ Academy Hulahalli Koppa Road, Salonee School, Royal Convent School, St Francis School, Teresa Public School, Maaruthi Magnolia etc.

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Download the following FREE pdf e-Books ( Chapter wise / Topic wise solutions, Written by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore )

IIT-JEE, NCERT / CBSE, I.Sc., PU, Board exam, EAMCET, BITS Chemistry Books with lots of Examples ( Free pdf download of Chemistry Books, Chapter wise / Topic wise Questions and Solutions )

8 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide-Stoichiometry Titration by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Stoichiometry Titration ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide-Stoichiometry Titration by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Stoichiometry Titrations, Heating effects in several salts, colours or colors of the precipitates, Empirical formulae calculation, Limiting reagents, Titration examples, Equivalent weight, milli-equivalent weight, What mass or moles is reacting with how much ? How much is oxidised ? How much is Reduced ? Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Stoichiometry Titration by Prof. Subhashish

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7 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide-Redox Reactions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Redox Reactions ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide-Redox Reactions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers more than 60 examples of Redox Reactions, Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, CEE, COMED-K IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Redox Reactions by Prof. Subhashish

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6 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide-Electrochemistry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Electrochemistry ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide-Electrochemistry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Electrochemistry, Oxidation Potential, Reduction Potential, Electrode Potential, Reactivity Series, Battery, Nernst Equation, Variation of Voltage with concentration, Electrolyte, Electrolysis, Salt Bridge, Daniel Cell, Primary Cell, Secondary Cell, Galvanic Cell, Electrolytic Cell, Conductivity, Kohlrausch’s Law and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-ElectroChemistry by Prof. Subhashish

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5 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide-Reduction Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Reduction Methods ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide-Reduction Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Various kinds of Reduction Methods in Organic Chemistry. Covers Gilmann’s Reagent, Grignard Reagent, Trimethyl Silyl Iodide, Silyl Wittig Reaction, Hydrogen with Ni, Zn, Pd Palladium, Bakers Yeast, Wolf Kishner, Wilkinson’s Catalyst, Birch Reduction, Lindlar’s Catalyst, Benkeser Reduction, Reduction with HCO2H, Sodium Boro Hydride NaBH4, Veils Meier Reaction, Luche’s Reagent, Super Hydride, Sodium Cyno boro hydride, Dibal H, Adams Catalyst, Rosen Mund Reduction, Various Lithium Aluminium Hydrides, NaNH2,  and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chem Survival Guide-Reduction methods by Prof. Subhashish

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4 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide-Oxidation Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Oxidation Methods ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide-Oxidation Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Various kinds of Oxidation Methods in Organic Chemistry. Covers Sarett’s Reagent, PCC, Chromium Oxide, Osmium Oxide, Manganese Oxide, Silver oxides, Ruthenuim Oxide, Hydrogen Peroxide, Selenium dioxide, KMnO4, Jones, Julia Colonna, DCC, Corey’s, Moffats, Ley Oxidation, MPV, Fetizon, Frmy’s Salt, Elbs Persulphate Oxidation, Sodiumperiodate, Palladium Chloride, Copper Chloride, Sharpless epoxidation, and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chem Survival Guide-Oxidation methods by Prof. Subhashish

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3 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Bonds & Structure by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Bonds & Structures ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Bonds & Structures by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Various kinds of Bonds and Structures in Chemistry. Covers Sigma, Pi, Delta, Back Bonding, Coordinate or Dative Bond, Eta Bond, Hydrogen Bond, London forces, and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, CEE, COMED-K IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Bonds & Structure by Prof. Subhashish

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2 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Elements & Properties by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Elements & Properties ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Elements & Properties by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Elements & Their Properties in Chemistry. Covers the discoveries by spectral Analysis, Named after smell, places, people etc. Various compounds, tests, properties, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, CEE, COMED-K IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Elements & Properties by Prof. Subhashish

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1 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Empirical Formulae by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Empirical Formulae ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Empirical Formulae by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers various kinds of Empirical Equations in Chemistry. These equations are formed by experiments, and graph plotting. In some rare cases the Theory was developed later. Covers Slater’s rule, Shielding, Finding Electronegativity values by Allred and Rochow’s empirical formula, Moseley’s Law, Trouton’s law, Einstein-Debey equation (Dulong & Petit), Reynolds number, Raoult’s law, Variation of viscosity with temperature, Arrhenius model, Williams-Landel-Ferry model, Masuko and Magill model, Walther formula, Wright model, Seeton model, Variation of surface tension with temperature, Eotvos equation, Guggenheim-Katayama equation, Debye-Huckel-Onsager theory of conductivity of ions in dilute solutions, Liquid drop model of Nucleus, Nuclear Shell Model, Ionic character percentage of a diatomic molecule, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Empirical Formulae by Prof. Subhashish

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IIT-JEE, NCERT / CBSE, I.Sc., PU, Board exam, EAMCET, BITS Math Books with lots of Questions and Solutions, Examples ( Free pdf download of Math Books, Chapter wise / Topic wise Solutions )

11 ] CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Circles Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Circles Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Circles Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Circles Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Circles Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Circles by Prof. Subhashish

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10 ] CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Lines Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Straight Lines by Prof. Subhashish

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9  ] CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Complex Number by Prof. Subhashish

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8 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Quadratic Equations by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Quadratic Equations” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Quadratic Equation by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Quadratic Equations with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Quadratic Equations, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Quadratic Equation by Prof. Subhashish

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7 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Continuity and Differentiability by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Continuity & Differentiability” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Continuity and Differentiability by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Continuity and Differentiability with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Continuity and Differentiability, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Continuity & Differentiability by Prof. Subhashish

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6 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Relations and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Relations & Functions” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Relations and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Relations and Functions with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Relations and Functions, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Relations & Functions by Prof. Subhashish

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5 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Graphs and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Graphs & Functions” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Graphs and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Graphs and Functions with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Graphs and Functions, with CBSE, CET, CEE, COMED-K IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Functions & Graphs by Prof. Subhashish

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4 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Indefinite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Indefinite Integrals & Calculus” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Indefinite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

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This e-Book covers Indefinite Integrals with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Indefinite Integrals, with CBSE, CEE, COMED-K IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Indefinite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish

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3 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Area & Volume by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Area and Volume ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Area and Volume by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers various kinds of graphs, such as graph of Ln x, ( ln x )/x, x Ln x, floor x [ x ] , Shifting of graphs, roots of Quadratic, cubic, and other higher powers of x ( polynomials ), asymptotes, ( How to find Asymptotes ) etc. Volume by revolution and hundreds of Area problems of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, CEE, COMED-K IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Area & Volume by Prof. Subhashish

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2 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Definite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Definite Integrals ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Definite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Definite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish

This e-Book covers Definite Integrals with [ x ] greatest integer functions, { x } fraction function, Max and Min functions. Gamma function, Beta function, Integration after converting to Complex number, Leibnitz forms of Differentiating Integrals, L Hospital’s rule applied to limits with Integrals, Inequalities of Integrals, Rules / Tricks / Properties of Definite Integrals, with CBSE, CET CEE COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

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1 ]  CBSE 12 Math Survival Guide-Differential Equations by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Differential Equations ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Differential Equations by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Differential Equations by Prof. Subhashish

This e-Book covers all kinds of Differential equations, and methods to solve them. There is a priority checklist for the approach to be taken for solving the problems. Covers ISc, CBSE. CET CEE COMED-K, IIT-JEE problems, Linear, Homogeneous, Variable separable by substitution, Exact, Reducible to exact, Bernoulli, Integrating Factors or Multiplying Factors, even Clairaut’s Differential Equations ( IIT-JEE 1999, Bihar CEE 1999 ). Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

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https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/some-points-which-i-wish-all-my-new-prospective-students-know/

SKM Logo 550 X 300

Many more free pdf e-Books are available at (such as H C Verma Concepts of Physics Solutions)

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/books-for-you-physics-maths-chemistry-free-download-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

1 ] A Guide Book to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry by Peter Sykes

A_GUIDE_BOOK_TO_MECHANISM_IN_ORGANIC_CHEMISTRY

2 ] Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry – IUPAC Recommendations 2005

Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry – IUPAC Recommendations 2005

3 ] Linear Algebra For Dummies

Linear Algebra For Dummies

4 ] Calculus Workbook For Dummies

Calculus Workbook For Dummies

5 ] Differential Equations For Dummies

Differential_Equations_For_Dummies

6 ] Linear Algebra by Jim Hefferon

Linear Algebra

7 ] Mathematics – Puzzles from around the world

Mathematics—Puzzles-from-around-the-world

8 ] Graph Theory by Reinhard Diestel

Graph Theory

9 ] Electronics for Dummies

Electronics for Dummies

10 ] Electronics Projects for Dummies

Electronics Projects For Dummies

11 ] Physics For Dummies

Physics For Dummies

12 ] Physics Workbook For Dummies

Physics Workbook For Dummies

13 ] Inorganic Chemistry James E. House

Inorganic Chemistry James E. House

14 ] Inorganic Chemistry by Cox

Inorganic Chemistry by Cox

15 ] Inorganic Chemistry 5th Edition Miessler

Inorganic Chemistry 5th Edition Miessler

16 ] Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry Solomon

Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry Solomon

17 ] Illustrated Guide to Home Chemistry Experiments

Illustrated Guide to Home Chemistry Experiments

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e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book–e-Book

If you want to sell your House, why do you have to pay 2% to a Broker or to a website ?

You can advertise for free to sell your House at free4u.info

Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay is providing a Social Service for all in Bangalore, to advertise for Free

If you want to sell your Car, why do you have to pay 2% to a Broker or to a website ?

You can advertise for free to sell your Car at free4u.info

Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay is providing a Social Service for all in Bangalore, to advertise for Free

If you are looking for Organ Donation, where do you ask ? Where do you want to put up your requirements ? Do you give costly ads ?

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Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay is providing a Social Service for all in Bangalore, to advertise for Free. Post all kinds of Classified ads and Requirements for FREE.

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Books

Physical Chemistry

1 ) Physical Chemistry in Brief by Prof. Ing. Anatol Malijevsk´y for IIT JEE Standard 11 – 12 CBSE ISc

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!127&authkey=!AD5bjH_tNghTUmc&ithint=file%2cpdf

General Chemistry

1 ) The Basics of General, Organic and Biological Chemistry for IIT JEE Standard 11 – 12 CBSE

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!128&authkey=!APxe3jx3n0sXA-Y&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

2 ) General Chemistry Principles, Patterns and Applications for IIT JEE Standard 11 – 12 CBSE

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!129&authkey=!AHRN_tCwVTQI7Qs&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)
search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com
you will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/accolades-and-appreciations-received-from-students-and-parents/

3 ) The Golden Book of Chemistry Experiments

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!141&authkey=!AAm7njVkiJYADx4&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

Organic Chemistry

1 ) Introduction to Organic Chemistry by William Brown, Thomas Poon for IIT JEE Standard 11 – 12 CBSE

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!130&authkey=!AAYnaEs33stgacM&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/iit-jee-3d-geometry-solutions/

:-)

2 ) Organic Chemistry By Robert Hoffman for IIT JEE Standard 11 – 12 CBSE

org-chem-hoffman-2

:-)

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/differential-equation-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

3 ) Art of Problem Solving in Organic Chemistry, The, Second Edition – Alonso-Amelot, Miguel for IIT JEE Standard 11 – 12 CBSE

https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/iit-jee-algebra/

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!138&authkey=!AMlVb0DFPmYJOEQ&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

4 ) Wade Organic Chemistry

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!140&authkey=!AEx0scl1DhJMTgM&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

Wade Organic Chemistry Solutions

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!139&authkey=!AJYboYtZ8QLvAR8&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/differentiation-problems-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Inorganic Chemistry

1 ) Inorganic Chemistry by James E. House for IIT JEE Standard 11 – 12 CBSE

https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/iit-jee-optics/

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!131&authkey=!AMhnm5CvB8z7KSM&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/binomial-theorem-problems-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/iit-jee-calculus/

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/center-of-mass-problems-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

2 ) Inorganic Chemistry Miessler for IIT JEE Standard 11 – 12 CBSE

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!136&authkey=!AKWVPi3dF7Yc0lY&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/iit-jee-complex-number/

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/complex-number-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/iit-jee-determinant-and-matrices/

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/circular-motion-problems-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes/

https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/iit-jee-electromagnetics/

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/combinatorics-permutation-combination-for-iit-jee-cbse/

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Physics Books & Solutions

Prof. H C Verma Concepts of Physics Part 1 Solutions

Chapter 1 Solutions to Basic Concepts Introduction to Physics Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!142&authkey=!AJr-WDGc2ZqP4y8&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/circular-motion-problems-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes/

Chapter 2 Physics and Mathematics Vectors Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!143&authkey=!AJUz8RCe3WsCI3s&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/electromagnetic-induction-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 3 Rest and Motion Kinematics Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!146&authkey=!ALSq-Own29RH6mg&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/complex-number-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 4 The Forces Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!145&authkey=!ABjAoQ0FA-uY5uQ&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/complex-number-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 5 Newton’s Laws of Motion Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!147&authkey=!ACRHSj2u2bbi-OI&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/center-of-mass-problems-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 6 Friction Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!148&authkey=!ANMz41RbxQXVM20&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/differential-equation-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 7 Circular Motion Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!149&authkey=!AF6-2o5MlBZJf40&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/binomial-theorem-problems-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 8 Work and Energy Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!153&authkey=!AEQMmG-ld94zFFE&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/cbse-standard-12-chemistry-polymers-chapter-15-ncert/

Chapter 9 Center of Mass, Linear Momentum, Collision Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!150&authkey=!AIcASU-Cp4T6eQE&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/differentiation-problems-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 10 Rotational Mechanics Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!151&authkey=!ALV4MIEmISx_ldc&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/cbse-standard-11-chemistry-chapter-1-some-basic-concepts-of-chemistry-ncert/

Chapter 11 Gravitation Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!152&authkey=!ALT9D-uph04bMEg&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/differential-equation-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 12 Simple Harmonic Motion Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!157&authkey=!ALQxDCUxYOwSBQg&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/home-tuition-for-iit-jee-at-koromangala-hsr-layout-lt-south-city-brigade-south-bangalore/

Chapter 13 Fluid Mechanics Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!154&authkey=!AMVxtUyLQZmKZJw&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/books-for-you-physics-maths-chemistry-free-download-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 14 Some Mechanical Properties of Matter Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!155&authkey=!AIuMBepU2AxsFRE&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/accolades-and-appreciations-received-from-students-and-parents/

Chapter 15 Wave Motion and Waves on a String Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!156&authkey=!AOA-830PFYrmk8w&ithint=file%2cpdf

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com
you will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

Chapter 16 Sound Waves Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!159&authkey=!APnaynx0aptGCwE&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/combinatorics-permutation-combination-for-iit-jee-cbse/

Chapter 17 Light Waves Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!158&authkey=!AM66-M2Yx_UXX0s&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/circular-motion-problems-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes/

Chapter 18 Geometrical Optics Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!164&authkey=!AHiCw-8XLc4ZTeE&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/electromagnetic-induction-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 19 Optical Instruments Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!160&authkey=!AGFubhgboP1EdHY&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/complex-number-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 20 Dispersion and Spectra Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!161&authkey=!AGMd8Va_aT46q9U&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/complex-number-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 21 Speed of Light Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!162&authkey=!AKRvIq_gLa4gsVQ&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/center-of-mass-problems-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 22 Photometry Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!163&authkey=!AC2AJWeKPy2S8wQ&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/differential-equation-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Prof. H C Verma Concepts of Physics Part 2 Solutions

Chapter 23 Heat and Temperature Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!165&authkey=!ADz7Ca3PtNrImcY&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/binomial-theorem-problems-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 24 Kinetic Theory of Gases Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!167&authkey=!AHllEX_cahNBUnQ&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/cbse-standard-12-chemistry-polymers-chapter-15-ncert/

Chapter 25 Calorimetry Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!166&authkey=!ALUbGfqQ–0vpfw&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/differentiation-problems-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 26 Laws of Thermodynamics Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!168&authkey=!ADFDQpD4SxGeiQs&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/cbse-standard-11-chemistry-chapter-1-some-basic-concepts-of-chemistry-ncert/

Chapter 27 Specific Heat Capacities of Gases Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!169&authkey=!AFgvvQPH0OH_qKM&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/differential-equation-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 28 Heat Transfer Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!172&authkey=!AI8_CkYtiK3Udg0&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/home-tuition-for-iit-jee-at-koromangala-hsr-layout-lt-south-city-brigade-south-bangalore/

Chapter 29 Electric Field and Potential Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!170&authkey=!ACjYnzLCLJrByA0&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/books-for-you-physics-maths-chemistry-free-download-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 30 Gauss’s Law Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!171&authkey=!AB3HJm7pdtefdR0&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/accolades-and-appreciations-received-from-students-and-parents/

Chapter 31 Capacitors Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!174&authkey=!AMKQzcoPPh0VX0g&ithint=file%2cpdf

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com
you will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

Chapter 32 Electric Current in Conductors Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!175&authkey=!AFElmEfB1ENf3Rk&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/combinatorics-permutation-combination-for-iit-jee-cbse/

Chapter 33 Thermal and Chemical Effects of Electric Current Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!173&authkey=!ALSARNyRKd1PP60&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/circular-motion-problems-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes/

Chapter 34 Magnetic Field Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!176&authkey=!AOaQG7m2REDyYEs&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/electromagnetic-induction-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 35 Magnetic Field due to a Current Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!177&authkey=!ABFJW3LZ9AShz7M&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/complex-number-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 36 Permanent Magnets Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!178&authkey=!AB8RBTZhquBcfvo&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/complex-number-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 37 Magnetic Properties of Matter Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!179&authkey=!AGNP05GRY6rPaPE&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/center-of-mass-problems-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 38 Electromagnetic Induction Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!183&authkey=!ABOJGazgiYkV-PU&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/differential-equation-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 39 Alternating Current Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!180&authkey=!ABMa1mk_0r5On1Y&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/binomial-theorem-problems-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 40 Electromagnetic Waves Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!181&authkey=!AF17YFaiUhTym20&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/cbse-standard-12-chemistry-polymers-chapter-15-ncert/

Chapter 41 Electric Current through Gases Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!182&authkey=!AGnofTnP9W7Dfd0&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/differentiation-problems-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 42 Photo Electric Effect and Wave Particle Duality Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!184&authkey=!AE_ozS0v9djYNUg&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/cbse-standard-11-chemistry-chapter-1-some-basic-concepts-of-chemistry-ncert/

Chapter 43 Bohr’s Model and Physics of the Atom Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!186&authkey=!AEJvJJP2QcsYlaY&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/differential-equation-for-iit-jee-cbse-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 44 X Rays Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!185&authkey=!AIcyLjsZeu1B0DA&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/home-tuition-for-iit-jee-at-koromangala-hsr-layout-lt-south-city-brigade-south-bangalore/

Chapter 45 Semiconductors and Semi Conductor Devices Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!187&authkey=!AIMGnyc0qk7fMng&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/books-for-you-physics-maths-chemistry-free-download-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

Chapter 46 The Nucleus Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!188&authkey=!AOlAD4a9Q5DcUzs&ithint=file%2cpdf

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com
you will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

Chapter 47 Special Theory of Relativity Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!144&authkey=!APAD9EJ–skSUbs&ithint=file%2cpdf

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/accolades-and-appreciations-received-from-students-and-parents/

Concepts of Physics By Prof. H C Verma Solutions are above

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Physics Books

1 ) A Guide to Physics Problems Part 1 – Mechanics, Relativity, and Electrodynamics – Cahn S., Nadgorny B

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!194&authkey=!AKeUoSKoK-AAEaA&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

2 ) A Guide to Physics Problems. Part 2. Thermodynamics, Statistical Physics, and Quantum Mechanics -S.Cahn, B.Nadgorny

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!193&authkey=!AF9_vRvuwzMWfY4&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

3 ) Essential Physics by Frank Firk

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!198&authkey=!AEtKSfPh9QiHilA&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

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The following Videos are available for you ( As of Now ). These explain tricky Physics and Mathematics Numericals.

Eventually I will try to give Videos for full course here for you.

These covers PU ( Pre University courses, school / college ) courses, IIT JEE, AIEEE ( All India Engineering Entrance Examination ) , CET ( Combined Engineering Test ), AIPMT ( All India Pre Medical Test ), ISc ( Intermediate Science / Indian School Certificate Exam ), CBSE ( Central Board Secondary Exam ), Roorkey Joint Entrance Test Questions ( Discontinued since 2002 ), APhO ( Asian Physics Olympiad ), IPhO ( International Physics Olympiad ), IMO ( International Mathematics Olympiad ) , NSEP ( National Standard Exam in Physics ), RMO ( Regional Math Olympiad , India ), INMO ( Indian National Maths Olympiad ), Irodov Solutions, Prof. H C Verma ( Concepts of Physics ) Solutions etc.

( You can see the history of Indian Participation in various Olympiads at ->
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/indian-participation-in-ipho-icho-ibo-and-astronomy-olympiad/ )

[ In each of these videos there is at-least 1 or more errors. Please tell me about those ]

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com
You should get to see all the Uploaded videos. Though we have many more study videos.

Thanks and Regards
Zookeeper ;-D Subhashish Chattopadhyay

[ I suggest you see the videos starting with 1- first then starting with 2- ….. in that sequence. ]

[ Tell your friends about this link if you liked the videos ]

In case of doubts or suggestions, Please send me email at mokshya@gmail.com

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com

Science Books

1 ) A History Of Science ( Volume 1 )

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!190&authkey=!AEADVBie76jTLvc&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

2 ) A History Of Science ( Volume 2 )

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!191&authkey=!AOfPUpLySQ6sUbs&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

3 ) A History Of Science ( Volume 3 )

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!192&authkey=!ADgodYZuRFWy4i8&ithint=file%2cpdf

4 ) A History Of Science ( Volume 4 )

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!189&authkey=!AOrpQNPF9KxpLp4&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

Answers to -> Frequently Asked Questions ( FAQ ) [ commonly asked intelligent Questions:-) ]

1 ) How do I prepare for IIT ?

Ans : – See the videos made by me ( search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com
Though we have many more which have not been uploaded ). While watching the videos, take notes and try to solve the problems yourself by pausing the video. Tell me if any calculation is wrong. See the videos with 1- first then 2- and so on. Write to IAPT Kothrud, Pune office to buy ( 150 Rs approx ) the book with previous papers of NSEP ( National Standard Exam in Physics – The 1st level ), INPhO ( Indian National Physics Olympiad – 2nd level ). Prepare with these and see how much you are scoring. You can guess your ALL INDIA rank easily from NSEP, and INPhO rank. Since 1998 the IIT JEE toppers have been mostly representing India in IPhO.

Physics Book – Conservation Laws by Benjamin Crowell

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!195&authkey=!AEXwIG5yfqqYKlA&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

Thevenin and Norton Theorems in Electrical Circuit Analysis

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!196&authkey=!AMu9BogJNWPMNZw&ithint=file%2cppt

:-)

2 ) Which codec and Player do I use to see the videos ?

Ans : – You can use GOM Player, or VLC Player. You have to have good speakers with filters or good earphones with filters. We have checked mostly it is OK with these. ( If you are depending only on your embedded speakers of computer /screen / keyboard then there may be extra distortions. As these speakers are often not of good Quality. Also install latest KL Codecs ) In any case reduce the volume see the board, imagine sitting in the last bench and solving the problems of your own. See if your solution differs anywhere with the scribbles on the board.

Electricity and Magnetism by Benjamin Crowell

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!197&authkey=!ABPqnDILDrs0Qms&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

3 ) Why are you giving these ( high Quality ) lecture for free ?

Ans : Well there are lot of good things free in this world. Linux, My-SQL, Open-Office ….. Go to sourceforge and get thousands of high quality software free along with source code. Yes all officially free …. Why do you think Richard Stallman, Zimmerman, ….. etc are considered Guru philosophers ? In Punjab and Gurudwaras worldwide there are so many Langars where you get better food than Restaurants. ….. why ? Why do you have Dharmasalas and subsidized rest rooms near hospitals / Famous Temples / various places ? in Iftar party anyone can eat for free …. why ?

I am teaching for 24 years now and observed most students can do much better if they have the self motivation to solve and practice. Cheap books are available in second hand bookstalls, where you get thousands of Numericals to solve ….. but most students will like to blow their time going and coming for tuition, travel time …. TV for hours and hours watching cricket / Tennis games, playing computer games …. My free lectures are not going to make much difference in spending of unnecessary money for coaching ….. I know very well , how much people enjoy …. ! spending unnecessarily !!

Do you know that there are NO poor / needy students in Bangalore.

Sometime back I had tried to teach for IIT JEE FREE. Discussed with a few NGOs and social service guys. Arranged rooms but got only 1 student. We had informed many people in many ways to inform students …. We did not get students who are ready to learn for free. So I am sure these lectures are NOT FREE. If anyone learns from these, s/he changes and that’s the gain / benefit. This change ( due to learning ) is very costly …. Most do not want to learn ………..

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com
You will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

:-)

A Good Physics Equation Sheet

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!202&authkey=!ACVXa18OO4soDV4&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

Electronics Books

1 ) Electronics for Dummies

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!200&authkey=!ABfgzeipIokmbJY&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

2 ) Electronic Projects for Dummies

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!199&authkey=!AOez9swnne0X2zM&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

3 ) Flexible Electronics

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!201&authkey=!APD5gF2qVunbNOI&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

4 ) How can I get all your lectures ?

Ans : – Apart from my lectures there are approx 700 GB of PCM ( Phy, Chem, Math ) lectures. It takes approx 3 years of continuous download from scattered sources. I have ( 20,000 )Thousands of these. You can take ALL of them from me in an external 1 TB hard disk, instead of spending so much money and time again for downloading. These cover ( by Various Professors ) everything of Chemistry, Physics, Maths… Lot of this is from outside India … as foreigners have much wider heart than Indians ( as most of GNU / open source software have been developed by Non-Indians ). I observed the gaps in these videos, and thus I am solving IIT, APhO, Roorkey, IPhO Numericals. Videos made by me along with these videos gives a complete preparation.

Send me a mail at mokshya@gmail.com to contact me.

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com
You will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

:-)

Electromagnetics by Herbert Neff

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!204&authkey=!AAqkBqUDNS5FZiI&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

5 ) How do you get benefited out of this ?

Ans :- If anyone learns we all will have better people in this world. I will have better “ YOU “.
:-)

Modern Revolutions in Physics by Benjamin Crowell

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!203&authkey=!ANqWHy4GV-727-k&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

6 ) Why do you call yourself a Zookeeper ?

Ans :- This is very nicely explained at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/z00keeper-why-do-i-call-myself-a-zoookeeper/

:-)

Newtonian Physics by Benjamin Crowell

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!205&authkey=!AK0NQoDn-dqO-tg&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

7 ) Where do you stay ?

Ans :- Presently I am in Bangalore.

:-)

Optics by Benjamin Crowell

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!206&authkey=!AA5vF6gAYug1t9c&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

8 ) If I need videos in a few topics can you make them for me ?

Ans :- Yes. You have to discuss the urgency with me. If I am convinced I will surely make these quickly for you and give you and ALL. I teach both Maths and Physics. So anything in these 2 subjects are welcome.

:-)

Physics for Dummies

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!208&authkey=!AJOu0Kt19IWwvTc&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

9 ) Why did you write an article saying there are No Poor students ?

Ans :- There are lots of NGOs and others working for rural / poor children education at lower classes. While very less effort is on for std 9 till 12. Also see the answer in question number ( 3 ) above. In last 20 years of teaching I never met a Poor child who was seriously interested in ( higher ) studies. As I have a mind / thinking of a ” Physicist “, I go by ” Experimental Observation “.

It is not about what is being said about poor in media / TV etc, or ” what it should be ” ( ? ) …. It is about what I see happening. Also to add ( confuse ? you more )…. You must be knowing that in several states over many years now girl students have better ( by marks as well as by pass percentage ) result in std 10 / Board Exams….. well but NEVER a girl student came FIRST in IIT JEE … why ? [ The best rank by a Girl student is mostly in 2 digits, very rarely in single digit ] ????? So ????

:-)

Physics Workbook for Dummies

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!207&authkey=!AA5lHncgFo68jy0&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

10 ) How much do I have to study to make it to IIT ?

Ans :- My experience of Teaching for IIT JEE since last 20 years, tells me, Total 200 hours per subject ( PCM ) is sufficient. If you see my Maths and Physics videos, each subject is more than 200 hours. So if someone sees all the videos diligently, takes notes and remembers, …… Done.

:-)

Physics for Scientists and Engineers

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!209&authkey=!AAUpcv8cgfqURdo&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

11 ) What is EAMCET ?

Ans :- Engineering Agriculture and Medicine Common Entrance Test is conducted by JNT University Hyderabad on behalf of APSCHE. This examination is the gateway for entry into various professional courses offered in Government/Private Colleges in Andhra Pradesh.

Physics Newtons Laws of Motion

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!210&authkey=!APR8w3bt0VY9HOk&ithint=file%2cpdf

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12 ) In your videos are you covering other Exams apart from IIT ?

Ans : – Yes. See many videos made by solving problems of MPPET, Rajasthan / J&K CET, UPSEAT ( UPES Engineering Aptitude Test ), MHCET, BCECE ( Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination Board ), WB JEE etc

:-)

SINGAPORE JUNIOR PHYSICS OLYMPIAD SPECIAL ROUND SAMPLE QUESTIONS

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!211&authkey=!AMw9SDTicRKOM5I&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

13 ) What is SCRA ?

Ans : – Special Class Railway Apprentice (SCRA) exam is conducted by Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) board, for about 10 seats.That translates into an astonishing ratio of 1 selection per 10,000 applicants. The SCRA scheme was started in 1927 by the British, to select a handful of most intelligent Indians to assist them in their Railway Operations, after training at their Railway’s largest workshop, i.e. Jamalpur Workshop, and for one year in United Kingdom. The selected candidates were required to appear in the Mechanical Engineering Degree Exmination held by Engineering Council (London).

Thanks for your time. To become my friend in google+ ( search me as mokshya@gmail.com and send friend request )

Read http://edge.org/responses/what-scientific-concept-would-improve-everybodys-cognitive-toolkit

:-)

Variation of Vapour Pressure with temperature Clausius Clapeyron Equation

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!212&authkey=!ABdpLVngdrQnDjg&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

Temperature-Sea Levels-CO2-etc always have been fluctuating over ages-Global Warming

:-)
The following video is a must see for full CO2 cycle, plates of Earth, Geological activities, stability of weather
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oIuoNtRBG4w

:-)

Article in Nature says CO2 increase is good for the trees
http://thegwpf.org/science-news/6086-co2-is-greening-the-planet-savannahs-soon-to-be-covered-by-forests.html
:-)
http://climaterealists.com/index.php?id=9752

Vibration and Waves by Benjamin Crowell

https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=2B92F809BA617279!213&authkey=!AJvPwzZMhhmYgfw&ithint=file%2cpdf

:-)

BBC documentary Crescent and Cross shows the 1000 years of fight between Christians and Muslims. Millions have been killed in the name of Religion. To decided whose GOD is better, and which GOD to follow. The fight continues.

Summary of Women
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yIpmML49hMU
:-)
The Virus of Faith
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scarHc8RA0g

:-)
The God delusion
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LVr9bJ8Sctk

:-)
cassiopeia facts about evolution
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K7tQIB4UdiY

Intermediate Fossil records shown and explained nicely Fossils, Genes, and Embryos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fdpMrE7BdHQ

The Rise Of Narcissism In Women
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wZHKCbHGlS0

:-)
13 type of women whom you should never court
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/relationships/man-woman/13-Women-you-should-never-court/articleshow/14637014.cms

:-)
Media teaching Misandry in India http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-M2txSbOPIo

Summary of problems with women
http://problemwithwomentoday.blogspot.in/2009/12/problem-with-women-today-what-in-hell.html


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4V62rjMNL7A

:-)
Eyeopener men ? women only exists
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ZAuqkqxk9A

:-)

Most unfortunate for men
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=73fGqUwmOPg

Miracles for Sale
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iuP5uOI7Xwc

:-)
The Enemies of Reason
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0CyMglakWoo

:-)
Each of you is an Activist in some way or other. You are trying to propagate those thoughts, ideas that you feel concerned / excited about.

Did you analyze your effectiveness ?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=61qn7S9NCOs

Culturomics can help you

😀
:-)
Why some temples become ” FAMOUS ” ? How you can be manipulated ? Luck for others ?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O4mN33w5Ftw

see how biased women are. Experimental proof. Women are happy when they see another woman is beating a man ( see how women misbehave with men )

:-)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LlFAd4YdQks

see detailed statistics at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5lHmCN3MBMI

An eye opener in Misandry
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YiTaDS_X6CU

My sincere advice would be to be EXTREMELY careful ( and preferably away ) of girls. As girls age; statistically certain behavior in them has been observed. Most Male can NOT manage those behaviors… Domestic violence, divorce etc are rising very fast. Almost in all cases boys / males are HUGE loosers. Be extremely choosy ( and think from several angles ) before even talking to a girl.
:-)
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/save-the-male/

:-)

How women manipulate men
http://www.angryharry.com/esWomenManipulateMen.htm

Gender Biased Laws in India
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/biased-laws/

:-)

Violence against Men
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MLS2E-rRynE

:-)

Only men are victimised
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4JA4EPRbWhQ

Men are BETTER than women
http://www.menarebetterthanwomen.com/
:-)

see http://www.youtube.com/watch?&v=T0xoKiH8JJM#!
:-)

Male Psychology http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uwxgavf2xWE

Women are more violent than men
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/women-are-more-violent-says-study-622388.html

Misandry in Media
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j7U0r7vIrgM

:-)

In the year 2010, 168 men ended their lives everyday ( on average ). More husbands committed suicide than wives.
:-)

http://www.rediff.com/news/report/ncrb-stats-show-more-married-men-committing-suicide/20111028.htm

It is EXTREMELY unfortunate that media projects men as fools, women as superiors, Husbands as servants, and replaceable morons. In ad after ad worldwide from so many companies, similar msg to disintegrate the world is being bombarded. It is highly unacceptable misandry

:-)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oq14WHkFq30

It is NOT at all funny that media shows violence against MEN. Some advertisers are trying to create a new ” Socially acceptable culture ” of slapping Men ( by modern city women ). We ( all men ) take objection to these advertisements.
We oppose this Misandry bad culture. Please share to increase awareness against Men bashing

:-)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D8ecN2rh0uU

Are you a nice person ? Just shout Wooooooooo , Eyye Eyye and enjoy to see someone in trouble ….


Extension of Milgram Experiments – In a Mob also people become cruel step by step –

:-)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scOJqyiYVtk

Think what are you doing … why are you doing ?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qp0HIF3SfI4

Every Man must know this …
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cIFmQHJEG1M

:-)
Manginas, White Knights, & Other Chivalrous Dogs
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oXQDtBT70B8

!

Solutions to Chapter 3 :

Must see https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/some-points-which-i-wish-all-my-new-prospective-students-know/

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1 Periodic table showing ionization energies in colour contrast

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1 Ostwald's dilution law

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The next chapter Solution is at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/ncert-cbse-standard-12-chemical-kinetics-chapter-4-physical-chemistry/
!
The previous chapter Solution is at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/ncert-cbse-standard-12-solutions-chapter-2-physical-chemistry/
!
The first Chapter Solution is at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/ncert-cbse-standard-12-solid-state-chapter-1-physical-chemistry/
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Untitled

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Gyan Question :

Determine the standard potential of the Cu2+/Cu+ cell from two other standard cell potentials.
Eº(Cu2+/Cu) = +0.340V and Eº(Cu+/Cu) = +0.522 V.

Since Hess’ Law allows us to add Gibbs energies for the reactions to arrive at the Gibbs energy of the desired reaction, we should go via Gibbs energies.  Convert our standard potentials into Gibbs energies, perform the addition and then convert back to a standard potential.

The two reactions that will occur are:

1 Copper disproportionate reaction

We cannot simply add the electrode potentials in this case because, the final reaction is still a half-reaction.

 If the final reaction is a complete cell reaction, with no electrons remaining, then we can skip to just adding the cell potentials because the factor ν would be the same in all equations and hence, cancel out.

1a Copper disproportionate reaction

1d K of Copper disproportion

small

Discuss Disproportion of Iron

1c Discuss Fe+2 disproportion

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3 0.01 M solution of HCN has specific resistance equivalent conductance

4 0.01 M solution of HCN has specific resistance equivalent conductance

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3 Motu Kalo

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1 Difference between Electrolytic and Galvanic cell

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2 Faraday's Law of electrolysis

3 Faraday's Law of electrolysis

4 Faraday's Law of electrolysis

5 Faraday's Law of electrolysis

6 Faraday's Law of electrolysis

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2 Electronegativity highlighted with colour contrast

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2 Buro bose aache

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1 Electrical and Molecular conductivity

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2 Kather Hanti

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2 Cell constant

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2 kemon sob bodo bodo

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2 Important conditions for the cell to be reversible

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3 Effect of dilution on conductivity

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2 Sada Mundu

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4 Migration of Ions

5 Migration of Ions

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3 Black sculpture

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6 Transport Number or Transference number

7 Transport Number or Transference number

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3 kemon antke pode gache

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Gyan Question

1 Hg2+ + Ag reaction is it feasible

So Reaction not feasible as E(cell) is negative

2 find entropy change water to ice

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1 Kohlrausch's Law

2 Kohlrausch's Law

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Gyan Question :

Q : What is carborundum ? Does it conduct electricity ?

Ans :

Silicon carbide, also known as carborundum, is a compound of silicon and carbon with chemical formula SiC. It occurs in nature as the extremely rare mineral moissanite. Silicon carbide powder has been mass-produced since 1893 for use as an abrasive.

Grains of silicon carbide can be bonded together by sintering to form very hard ceramics that are widely used in applications requiring high endurance, such as car brakes, car clutches and ceramic plates in bulletproof vests. Electronic applications of silicon carbide as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and detectors in early radios were first demonstrated around 1907, and today SiC is widely used in high-temperature/high-voltage semiconductor electronics.

1 Carborundum

🙂

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The next chapter Solution is at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/ncert-cbse-standard-12-chemical-kinetics-chapter-4-physical-chemistry/
!
The previous chapter Solution is at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/ncert-cbse-standard-12-solutions-chapter-2-physical-chemistry/
!
The first Chapter Solution is at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/ncert-cbse-standard-12-solid-state-chapter-1-physical-chemistry/
🙂
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3 Relative tendencies of electrodes to liberate electrons

4 Relative tendencies of electrodes to liberate electrons

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1 Gadi du dike jachche

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5 Role of salt bridge

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1 Trisul niye

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6 Calculate the Ecell of Zn Cu Daniell cell

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1 ki ki sob pode aache

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7 Calculate Ecell of Zn Pb cell

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1 Park sculpture

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8 Ecell of Cu Zn cell

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23 fossil human

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9 Ecell of Cu Ag cell

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19 fossil

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10 Ecell of Ag Cu cell

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19 Painting

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1 Displacement of metals

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19 Romancing in yellow leaves

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1 Negative to positive electrode potential redox reaction series

1 Periodic trend in Electrode potential-4

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2 Electrochemical series

Hydrogen ( H ) is in the middle

3 Electrochemical series

4 Electrochemical series

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20 fossil insect

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5 Reaction of metals with acids

6 Reaction of metals with acids

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21 fossil spiral

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7 Secondary cell

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22 distorted face

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1 Electrochemistry gyan

2 Electrochemistry gyan

3 Electrochemistry gyan

4 Electrochemistry gyan

5 Electrochemistry gyan

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22 fossil trynosourous

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Chemical reactions can be used to produce electrical energy, conversely, electrical energy can be used to carry out chemical reactions that do not proceed spontaneously.

Electrochemistry is the study of production of electricity from energy released during spontaneous chemical reactions and the use of electrical energy to bring about non-spontaneous chemical transformations. The subject is of importance both for theoretical and practical considerations. A large number of metals, sodium hydroxide, chlorine, fluorine and many other chemicals are produced by electrochemical methods. Batteries and fuel cells convert chemical energy into electrical energy and are used on a large scale in various instruments and devices. The reactions carried out electrochemically can be energy efficient and less polluting. Therefore, study of electrochemistry is important for creating new technologies that are ecofriendly. The transmission of sensory signals through cells to brain and vice versa and communication between the cells are known to have electrochemical origin. Electrochemistry, is therefore, a very vast and interdisciplinary subject. In this Unit, we will cover only some of its important elementary aspects.

3.1 Electrochemical Cells
In Class XI, Unit 8, we had studied the construction and functioning of Daniell cell (Fig. 3.1). This cell converts the chemical energy liberated during the redox reaction
Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq) → Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s)…………………… (3.1)
to electrical energy and has an electrical potential equal to 1.1 V when concentration of Zn2+ and Cu2+ ions is unity ( 1 mol dm–3)*. Such a device is called a galvanic or a voltaic cell.

If an external opposite potential is applied [Fig. 3.2(a)] and increased slowly, we find that the reaction continues to take place till the opposing voltage reaches the value 1.1 V [Fig. 3.2(b)] when, the reaction stops altogether and no current flows through the cell. Any further increase in the external potential again starts the reaction but in the opposite direction [Fig. 3.2(c)]. It now functions as an electrolytic cell, a device for using electrical energy to carry non-spontaneous chemical reactions. Both types of cells are quite important and we shall study some of their salient features in the following pages.

3.2 Galvanic Cells

As mentioned earlier (Class XI, Unit 8 ) a galvanic cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy of a spontaneous redox reaction into electrical energy. In this device the Gibbs energy of the spontaneous redox reaction is converted into electrical work which may be used for running a motor or other electrical gadgets like heater, fan, geyser, etc.
Daniell cell discussed earlier is one such cell in which the following redox reaction occurs.
Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq)→Zn2+(aq)+Cu(s)
This reaction is a combination of two half reactions whose addition gives the overall cell reaction:
(i) Cu2+ + 2e→ Cu(s) (reduction half reaction……..(3.2)
(ii)Zn(s) → Zn2+ + 2e (oxidation half reaction)…….(3.3)
These reactions occur in two different portions of the Daniell cell. The reduction half reaction occurs on the copper electrode while the oxidation half reaction occurs on the zinc electrode. These two portions of the cell are also called half-cells or redox couples. The copper electrode may be called the reduction half cell and the zinc electrode, the oxidation half-cell.

We can construct innumerable number of galvanic cells on the pattern of Daniell cell by taking combinations of different half-cells. Each half- cell consists of a metallic electrode dipped into an electrolyte. The two half-cells are connected by a metallic wire through a voltmeter and a switch externally. The electrolytes of the two half-cells are connected internally through a salt bridge as shown in Fig. 3.1. Sometimes, both the electrodes dip in the same electrolyte solution and in such cases we don’t require a salt bridge.

At each electrode-electrolyte interface there is a tendency of metal ions from the solution to deposit on the metal electrode trying to make it positively charged. At the same time, metal atoms of the electrode have a tendency to go into the solution as ions and leave behind the electrons at the electrode trying to make it negatively charged. At equilibrium, there is a separation of charges and depending on the tendencies of the two opposing reactions, the electrode may be positively or negatively charged with respect to the solution. A potential difference develops between the electrode and the electrolyte which is called electrode potential. When the concentrations of all the species involved in a half-cell is unity then the electrode potential is known as standard electrode potential. According to IUPAC convention, standard reduction potentials are now called standard electrode potentials. In a galvanic cell, the half-cell in which oxidation takes place is called anode and it has a negative potential with respect to the solution. The other half-cell in which reduction takes place is called cathode and it has a positive potential with respect to the solution. Thus, there exists a potential difference between the two electrodes and as soon as the switch is in the on position the electrons flow from negative electrode to positive electrode. The direction of current flow is opposite to that of electron flow.

The potential difference between the two electrodes of a galvanic cell is called the cell potential and is measured in volts. The cell potential is the difference between the electrode potentials (reduction potentials) of the cathode and anode. It is called the cell electromotive force (emf) of the cell when no current is drawn through the cell. It is now an accepted convention that we keep the anode on the left and the cathode on the right while representing the galvanic cell. A galvanic cell is generally represented by putting a vertical line between metal and electrolyte solution and putting a double vertical line between the two electrolytes connected by a salt bridge. Under this convention the emf of the cell is positive and is given by the potential of the half-cell on the right hand side minus the potential of the half-cell on the left hand side i.e.

Ecell = Eright − Eleft
This is illustrated by the following example:
Cell reaction:
Cu(s) + 2Ag+ (aq) → Cu2+(aq) + 2Ag(s)………..(3.4)
Half- cell reactions:
Cathode(reduction): 2Ag+(aq) +2e → 2Ag(s)……….(3.5)
Anode (oxidation): Cu(s)→Cu2+(aq) + 2e…………(3.6)
It can be seen that the sum of (3.5) and (3.6) leads to overall reaction (3.4) in the cell and that silver electrode acts as a cathode and copper electrode acts as an anode. The cell can be represented as:
and we have Ecell=Eright − Eleft = EAg+⎥Ag − ECu2+⎥Cu………(3.7)

3.2.1 Measurement of Electrode potential

The potential of individual half-cell cannot be measured. We can measure only the difference between the two half-cell potentials that gives the emf of the cell. If we arbitrarily choose the potential of one electrode (half- cell) then that of the other can be determined with respect to this. According to convention, a half-cell called standard hydrogen electrode (Fig.3.3) represented by Pt(s)⎥ H2(g)⎥ H+(aq), is assigned a zero potential at all temperatures corresponding to the reaction
H+(aq) + e → 1/2 H2(g)

The standard hydrogen electrode consists of a platinum electrode coated with platinum black. The electrode is dipped in an acidic solution and pure hydrogen gas is bubbled through it. The concentration of both the reduced and oxidised forms of hydrogen is maintained at unity (Fig. 3.3). This implies that the pressure of hydrogen gas is one bar and the concentration of hydrogen ion in the solution is one molar.

At 298 K the emf of the cell, standard hydrogen electrode ⎜⎜second half-cellconstructed by taking standard hydrogen electrode as anode (reference half-cell) and the other half-cell as cathode, gives the reduction potential of the other half-cell. If the concentrations of the oxidised and the reduced forms of the species in the right hand half-cell are unity, then the cell potential is equal to standard electrode potential,EΘR of the given half-cell.
EΘ = EΘR − EΘL
As EΘL for standard hydrogen electrode is zero.
EΘ = EΘR − 0 = EΘL

The measured emf of the cell :
Pt(s) ⎥ H2(g, 1 bar) ⎥ H+ (aq, 1 M) ⎜⎜ Cu2+ (aq, 1 M)⎥ Cu
is 0.34 V and it is also the value for the standard electrode potential of the half-cell corresponding to the reaction :
Cu2+ (aq, 1M) + 2 e→ Cu(s)
Similarly, the measured emf of the cell :
Pt(s) ⎥ H2(g, 1 bar) ⎥ H+ (aq, 1 M) ⎜⎜ Zn2+ (aq, 1M) ⎜ Zn
is -0.76 V corresponding to the standard electrode potential of the half-cell reaction:
Zn2+ (aq, 1 M) + 2e → Zn(s)

The positive value of the standard electrode potential in the first case indicates that Cu2+ ions get reduced more easily than H+ ions. The reverse process cannot occur, that is, hydrogen ions cannot oxidise Cu (or alternatively we can say that hydrogen gas can reduce copper ion) under the standard conditions described above. Thus, Cu does not dissolve in HCl. In nitric acid it is oxidised by nitrate ion and not by hydrogen ion. The negative value of the standard electrode potential in the second case indicates that hydrogen ions can oxidise zinc (or zinc can reduce hydrogen ions).

In view of this convention, the half reaction for the Daniell cell in Fig. 3.1 can be written as:
Left electrode : Zn(s) → Zn2+ (aq, 1 M) + 2 e
Right electrode: Cu2+ (aq, 1 M) + 2 e→ Cu(s)
The overall reaction of the cell is the sum of above two reactions and we obtain the equation:
Zn(s) + Cu2+ (aq) → Zn2+ (aq) + Cu(s)
Emf of the cell = E°cell = E°R – E°L
= 0.34V – (– 0.76)V = 1.10 V

Sometimes metals like platinum or gold are used as inert electrodes. They do not participate in the reaction but provide their surface for oxidation or reduction reactions and for the conduction of electrons. For example, Pt is used in the following half-cells:
Hydrogen electrode: Pt(s)|H2(g)| H+(aq)
With half-cell reaction: H+ (aq)+ e → 1⁄2 H2(g)
Bromine electrode: Pt(s)|Br2(aq)| Br(aq)
With half-cell reaction: 1⁄2 Br2(aq) + e → Br(aq)

The standard electrode potentials are very important and we can extract a lot of useful information from them. The values of standard electrode potentials for some selected half-cell reduction reactions are given in Table 3.1. If the standard electrode potential of an electrode is greater than zero then its reduced form is more stable compared to hydrogen gas. Similarly, if the standard electrode potential is negative then hydrogen gas is more stable than the reduced form of the species. It can be seen that the standard electrode potential for fluorine is the highest in the Table indicating that fluorine gas (F2) has the maximum
tendency to get reduced to fluoride ions (F) and therefore fluorine gas is the strongest oxidising agent and fluoride ion is the weakest reducing agent. Lithium has the lowest electrode potential indicating that lithium ion is the weakest oxidising agent while lithium metal is the most powerful reducing agent in an aqueous solution. It may be seen that as we go from top to bottom in Table 3.1 the standard electrode potential decreases and with this, decreases the oxidising power of the species on the left and increases the reducing power of the species on the right hand side of the reaction. Electrochemical cells are extensively used for determining the pH of solutions, solubility product, equilibrium constant and other thermodynamic properties and for potentiometric titrations.

Intext Questions
3.1 How would you determine the standard electrode potential of the system Mg2+|Mg?
3.2 Can you store copper sulphate solutions in a zinc pot?
3.3 Consult the table of standard electrode potentials and suggest three substances that can oxidise ferrous ions under suitable conditions.

3.3 Nernst Equation

We have assumed in the previous section that the concentration of all the species involved in the electrode reaction is unity. This need not be always true. Nernst showed that for the electrode reaction:
Mn+(aq) + ne → M(s)
the electrode potential at any concentration measured with respect to standard hydrogen electrode can be represented by:
E(Mn+/ M )= EΘ(Mn+/ M) – RT/nF ln [M]/[Mn+]
but concentration of solid M is taken as unity and we have
E(Mn+/M) = EΘ(Mn+/M) − RT/nF ln 1/[Mn+]………(3.8)
EΘ(Mn+/M) has already been defined, R is gas constant (8.314 JK mol –1), F is Faraday constant (96487 C mol–1), T is temperature in kelvin and [Mn+] is the concentration of the species, Mn+.

In Daniell cell, the electrode potential for any given concentration of Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions, we write
For Cathode:
E(Cu2+/ Cu) = EΘ(Cu2+/ Cu ) – RT/2F ln 1/[Cu2+ (aq)]……….(3.9)

For Anode:
E(Zn2+/ Zn) = EΘ(Zn2+/ Zn ) – RT/2F ln 1/[Znsup>2+ (aq)]……….(3.10)

The cell potential, E(cell) = E(Cu2+ /Cu) – E( Zn2+ / Zn )
=EΘ(Cu2+/Cu (aq) -RT/2F ln 1/[Cu2+ (aq)] – EΘ(Zn2+/Cu (aq) -RT/2F ln 1/[Zn2+ (aq)]
=EΘ(Cu2+/Cu (aq) – EΘ(Zn2+/Cu (aq) – RT/2F ln 1/[Cu2+ (aq)]- ln 1/[Zn2+ (aq)]
E(cell) = EΘ(cell) − RT/2F ln[Zn2+]/[Cu2+]………….(3.11)

It can be seen that E(cell) depends on the concentration of both Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions. It increases with increase in the concentration of Cu2+ ions and decrease in the concentration of Zn2+ ions.

By converting the natural logarithm in Eq. (3.11) to the base 10 and substituting the values of R, F and T = 298 K, it reduces to

E(cell) = EΘ(cell) –0.059/2 log [Zn2+]/[Cu2+]……………(3.12)

We should use the same number of electrons (n) for both the electrodes and thus for the following cell

Ni(s)⎥ Ni2+(aq) ⎥⎥ Ag+(aq)⎥ Ag
The cell reaction is Ni(s) + 2Ag+(aq) → Ni2+(aq) + 2Ag(s)
The Nernst equation can be written as
E(cell) = EΘ(cell) – RT/2F ln [Ni2+]/[Ag+]2

and for a general electrochemical reaction of the type:

Nernst equation can be written as:
E(cell)= EΘ(cell) – RT/nF 1nQ
=EΘ(cell) −RT/nF ln ([C]c[D]d)/[A]c[B]d)

= EΘ( cell ) – RT/nF ln ([C]c[D]d)/([A]a[B]b)……(3.13)

Example 3.1
Represent the cell in which the following reaction takes place
Mg(s) + 2Ag+(0.0001M) → Mg2+(0.130M) + 2Ag(s)

Calculate its E(cell) if EΘ( cell ) = 3.17 V.
solution
The cell can be written as Mg⎥Mg2+(0.130M)⎥⎥Ag+(0.0001M)⎥Ag
E(cell) = EΘ( cell ) – RT/nF ln [Mg 2+]/[Ag +]2
=3.17 V − 0.059V/2 log 0.130/(0.0001)2 = 3.17 V − 0.21 V = 2.96 V.

3.3.1 Equilibrium Constant from Nernst Equation

If the circuit in Daniell cell (Fig. 3.1) is closed then we note that the reaction
Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq) → Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s)………………….(3.1)

takes place and as time passes, the concentration of Zn2+ keeps on increasing while the concentration of Cu2+ keeps on decreasing. At the same time voltage of the cell as read on the voltmeter keeps on decreasing. After some time, we shall note that there is no change in the concentration of Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions and at the same time, voltmeter gives zero reading. This indicates that equilibrium has been attained. In this situation the Nernst equation may be written as:

E(cell) = 0 = EΘ(cell) − 2.303RT/2F log [Zn2+]/[Cu2+]
or EΘ(cell) = 2.303RT/2F log [Zn2+]/[Cu2+]

But at equilibrium,
[Zn2+]/[Cu2+] = Kc for the reaction 3.1
and at T = 298K the above equation can be written as
EΘ(cell) = 0.059V/2 log KC =1.1V (EΘ(cell) = 1.1V)
log KC = (1.1V × 2)/0.059V = 37.288
KC = 21037 at 298K.
In general,
EΘ(cell) =2.303RT/nF log KC………………….(3.14)
Thus, Eq. (3.14) gives a relationship between equilibrium constant of the reaction and standard potential of the cell in which that reaction takes place. Thus, equilibrium constants of the reaction, difficult to measure otherwise, can be calculated from the corresponding E value of the cell.

Example 3.2 Calculate the equilibrium constant of the reaction:
Cu(s) + 2Ag+(aq) → Cu2+(aq) + 2Ag(s)
E ( cell ) = 0.46 V
Solution EΘ(cell) = 0.059 V/2 log KC = 0.46V or
log KC = 0.46 V × 2/0.059V = 15.6
KC = 3.92 × 1015

3.3.2 Electro- chemical Cell and Gibbs Energy of the Reaction

Electrical work done in one second is equal to electrical potential multiplied by total charge passed. If we want to obtain maximum work from a galvanic cell then charge has to be passed reversibly. The reversible work done by a galvanic cell is equal to decrease in its Gibbs energy and therefore, if the emf of the cell is E and nF is the amount of charge passed and ΔrG is the Gibbs energy of the reaction, then
ΔrG = -nFE(cell)………………………….(3.15)

It may be remembered that E(cell) is an intensive parameter but ΔrG is an extensive thermodynamic property and the value depends on n. Thus, if we write the reaction
Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq) → Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s)………………………………(3.1)
ΔrG = -2FE(cell)

but when we write the reaction
2 Zn(s) + 2Cu2+(aq) → 2 Zn2+(aq) + 2Cu(s)
ΔrG = -4FE(cell)

If the concentration of all the reacting species is unity, then E(cell)
= EΘ(cell) and we have
ΔrGΘ = -nFEΘ(cell)…………………………(3.16)
Thus, from the measurement of E ( cell ) we can obtain an important thermodynamic quantity, ΔrG , standard Gibbs energy of the reaction. From the latter we can calculate equilibrium constant by the equation:
ΔrGΘ = -RT ln K.

Example 3.3 The standard electrode potential for Daniell cell is 1.1V. Calculate the standard Gibbs energy for the reaction:
Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq) → Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s)
Solution ΔrGΘ = – nFEΔ(cell)
n in the above equation is 2, F = 96487 C mol –1 and E( cell ) = 1.1 V
Therefore, ΔrGΘ = – 2 × 1.1V × 96487 C mol –1
= –21227 J mol–1
= –21.227 kJ mol–1

Intext Questions
3.4 Calculate the potential of hydrogen electrode in contact with a solution whose pH is 10.
3.5 Calculate the emf of the cell in which the following reaction takes place
Ni(s) + 2Ag+ (0.002 M) → Ni2+ (0.160 M) + 2Ag(s)
Given that EΘ(Cell) = 1.05 V
3.6 The cell in which the following reaction occurs:
2Fe3+ ( aq ) + 2I ( aq ) → 2Fe2 + ( aq ) + I2 ( s ) has Ecell = 0.236 V at 298 K. Calculate the standard Gibbs energy and the equilibrium constant of the cell reaction.

3.4 Conductance of Electrolytic Solutions

It is necessary to define a few terms before we consider the subject of conductance of electricity through electrolytic solutions. The electrical resistance is represented by the symbol ‘R’ and it is measured in ohm (Ω) which in terms of SI base units is equal to (kg m2)/(s3 A2). It can be measured with the help of a Wheatstone bridge with which you are familiar from your study of physics. The electrical resistance of any object is directly proportional to its length, l, and inversely proportional to its area of cross section, A. That is,
R ∝ l/A or R = ρ l/A
The constant of proportionality, ρ (Greek, rho), is called resistivity (specific resistance). Its SI units are ohm metre (Ω m) and quite often its submultiple, ohm centimetre (Ω cm) is also used. IUPAC recommends the use of the term resistivity over specific resistance and hence in the rest of the book we shall use the term resistivity. Physically, the resistivity for a substance is its resistance when it is one metre long and its area of cross section is one m2. It can be seen that:
1 Ω m = 100 Ω cm or 1 Ω cm = 0.01 Ω m
The inverse of resistance, R, is called conductance, G, and we have the relation:
G = 1/R = A/ ρl = k A/l …………………………………..(3.18)
The SI unit of conductance is siemens, represented by the symbol ‘S’ and is equal to ohm–1 (also known as mho) or Ω–1. The inverse of resistivity, called conductivity (specific conductance) is represented by the symbol, κ (Greek, kappa). IUPAC has recommended the use of term conductivity over specific conductance and hence we shall use the term conductivity in the rest of the book. The SI units of conductivity are S m–1 but quite often, κ is expressed in S cm–1. Conductivity of a material in S m–1 is its conductance when it is 1 m long and its area of cross section is 1 m2. It may be noted that 1 S cm–1 = 100 S m–1.

Table 3.2 The values of Conductivity of some Selected Materials at 298.15 K
Material Conductivity / S m-1 Material Conductivity / S m-1
Conductors   Aqueous solutions  
Sodium 2.1×103 Pure water 3.5×10-5
Copper 5.9×103 0.1 M HCl 3.91
Silver 6.2×103 0.1 M KCl 0.14
Gold 4.5×103 0.1 M NaCl 0.12
Iron 1.0×103 0.1 M HAc 0.047
Graphite 1.2×103 0.01 M KCl 0.016
Insulators   Semiconductors  
Glass 1.0×10-16 CuO 1×10-7
Teflon 1.0×10-18 Si 1.5×10-2
    Ge 2.0

It can be seen from Table 3.2 that the magnitude of conductivity varies a great deal and depends on the nature of the material. It also depends on the temperature and pressure at which the measurements are made. Materials are classified into conductors, insulators and semiconductors depending on the magnitude of their conductivity. Metals and their alloys have very large conductivity and are known as conductors. Certain non-metals like carbon-black, graphite and some organic polymers* are also electronically conducting. Substances like glass, ceramics, etc., having very low conductivity are known as insulators. Substances like silicon, doped silicon and gallium arsenide having conductivity between conductors and insulators are called semiconductors and are important electronic materials. Certain materials called superconductors by definition have zero resistivity or infinite conductivity. Earlier, only metals and their alloys at very low temperatures (0 to 15 K) were known to behave as superconductors, but nowadays a number of ceramic materials and mixed oxides are also known to show superconductivity at temperatures as high as 150 K.
Electrical conductance through metals is called metallic or electronic conductance and is due to the movement of electrons. The electronic conductance depends on
(i) the nature and structure of the metal
(ii) the number of valence electrons per atom
(iii) temperature (it decreases with increase of temperature).
As the electrons enter at one end and go out through the other end, the composition of the metallic conductor remains unchanged. The mechanism of conductance through semiconductors is more complex.

We already know (Class XI, Unit 7) that even very pure water has small amounts of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions (~10–7M) which lend it very low conductivity (3.5 × 10–5 S m–1). When electrolytes are dissolved in water, they furnish their own ions in the solution hence its conductivity also increases. The conductance of electricity by ions present in the solutions is called electrolytic or ionic conductance. The conductivity of electrolytic (ionic) solutions depends on:
(i) the nature of the electrolyte added
(ii) size of the ions produced and their solvation
(iii) the nature of the solvent and its viscosity
(iv) concentration of the electrolyte
(v) temperature (it increases with the increase of temperature).
Passage of direct current through ionic solution over a prolonged period can lead to change in its composition due to electrochemical reactions (Section 3.4.1).

3.4.1 Measurement of the Conductivity of Ionic Solutions

We know that accurate measurement of an unknown resistance can be performed on a Wheatstone bridge. However, for measuring the resistance of an ionic solution we face two problems. Firstly, passing direct current (DC) changes the composition of the solution. Secondly, a solution cannot be connected to the bridge like a metallic wire or other solid conductor. The first difficulty is resolved by using an alternating current (AC) source of power. The second problem is solved by using a specially designed vessel called conductivity cell. It is available in several designs and two simple ones are shown in Fig. 3.4.

Basically it consists of two platinum electrodes coated with platinum black (finely divided metallic Pt is deposited on the electrodes electrochemically). These have area of cross section equal to ‘A’ and are separated by distance ‘l’. Therefore, solution confined between these electrodes is a column of length l and area of cross section A. The resistance of such a column of solution is then given by the equation:

R = Ρ l/A = l/ κ A

The quantity l/A is called cell constant denoted by the symbol, G*. It depends on the distance between the electrodes and their area of cross-section and has the dimension of length–1 and can be calculated if we know l and A. Measurement of l and A is not only inconvenient but also unreliable. The cell constant is usually determined by measuring the resistance of the cell containing a solution whose conductivity is already known. For this purpose, we generally use KCl solutions whose conductivity is known accurately at various concentrations (Table 3.3) and at different temperatures. The cell constant, G*, is then given by the equation:

G* = l/A =R κ …………………………(3.18)

Table 3.3 Conductivity and molar conductivity of KCl solution 298.15 K
  Conductivity Molar Conductivity
mol L-1 mol L-3 S cm-1 S m-1 S cm2-1 S m2-1
1.000 1000 0.1113 11.13 111.3 111.3×10-4
0.100 100.0 0.0129 1.29 129.0 129.0×10-4
0.010 10.00 0.00141 0.141 141.0 141.0×10-4

Once the cell constant is determined, we can use it for measuring the resistance or conductivity of any solution. The set up for the measurement of the resistance is shown in Fig. 3.5.

It consists of two resistances R3 and R4, a variable resistance R1 and the conductivity cell having the unknown resistance R 2 . The Wheatstone bridge is fed by an oscillator O (a source of a.c. power in the audio frequency range 550 to 5000 cycles per second). P is a suitable detector (a headphone or other electronic device) and the bridge is balanced when no current passes through the detector. Under these conditions:
Unknown resistance R2 = R1 R 4/R3 ……………………………(3.19)

These days, inexpensive conductivity meters are available which can directly read the conductance or resistance of the solution in the conductivity cell. Once the cell constant and the resistance of the solution in the cell is determined, the conductivity of the solution is given by the equation:
κ = cell constant/R = G*/R……………………………….(3.20)
The conductivity of solutions of different electrolytes in the same solvent and at a given temperature differs due to charge and size of the ions in which they dissociate, the concentration of ions or ease with which the ions move under a potential gradient. It, therefore, becomes necessary to define a physically more meaningful quantity called molar conductivity denoted by the symbol Λm (Greek, lambda). It is related to the conductivity of the solution by the equation:
Molar conductivity =Λm = κ/c………………………..(3.21)
In the above equation, if κ is expressed in S m–1 and the concentration, c in mol m–3 then the units of Λm are in S m2 mol–1. It may be noted that:
1 mol m–3 = 1000(L/m3) × molarity (mol/L), and hence

Λm(S m 2 mol-1 ) = κ (S m −1 ) / 1000 L m −3 × molarity (mol L−1 )

If we use S cm–1 as the units for κ and mol cm–3, the units of concentration, then the units for Ëm are S cm2 mol–1. It can be calculated by using the equation:
Lm (S cm 2 mol −1 ) = κ (S cm −1 ) × 1000 (cm3/L)
molarity (mol/L)

Both type of units are used in literature and are related to each other by the equations:
1 S m2mol–1 = 104 S cm2mol–1 or
1 S cm2mol–1 =10–4 S m2mol–1.

Example 3.4 Resistance of a conductivity cell filled with 0.1 mol L–1 KCl solution is 100Ω. If the resistance of the same cell when filled with 0.02 mol L–1 KCl solution is 520 Ω, calculate the conductivity and molar conductivity of 0.02 mol L–1 KCl solution. The conductivity of 0.1 mol L–1 KCl solution is 1.29 S/m.
Solution The cell constant is given by the equation:
Cell constant = G* = conductivity × resistance
= 1.29 S/m × 100Ω = 129 m–1 = 1.29 cm–1
Conductivity of 0.02 mol L–1 KCl solution = cell constant / resistance
=G*/R = 129 m –1 /520Ω = 0.248 S m–1
Concentration = 0.02 mol L–1
= 1000 × 0.02 mol m–3
= 20 mol m–3
Molar conductivity = Λm = κ/c
= 248 × 10 –3 S m –1 / 20 mol m –3
= 124 × 10–4 S m2mol–1
Alternatively, κ = 1.29 cm-1 / 520 Ω
= 0.248 × 10–2 S cm–1
and Λ m= κ × 1000 cm3 L–1 molarity–1
= 0.248 × 10-2 S cm-1 1000 cm3L-1/ 0.02 mol L-1
= 124 S cm2 mol-1

Example 3.5
The electrical resistance of a column of 0.05 mol L–1 NaOH solution of diameter 1 cm and length 50 cm is 5.55 × 103 ohm. Calculate its resistivity, conductivity and molar conductivity.
Solution
A = π r2 = 3.14 × 0.52 cm2 = 0.785 cm2 = 0.785 × 10–4 m2
l = 50 cm = 0.5 m
R = ρl/A or ρ = RA/l = 5.55 ×103ρ×0.785 cm2/50 cm = 87.135 ρ cm
Conductivity = κ = 1/ρ = (1/87.135) S cm -1
=0.01148 S cm-1

Molar conductivity, Λm = (κ × 1000 ) / c cm3L-1
= 0.01148 S cm -1 × 1000 cm 3 L-1 / 0.05 mol L−1
= 229.6 S cm2 mol–1
If we want to calculate the values of different quantities in terms of ‘m’ instead of ‘cm’,
ρ = RA / l
= 5.55 × 103 Ω × 0.785 × 10-4 m2 /0.5 m
= 87.135 ×10–2 Ω m
κ = 1/ρ = 100 / 87.137 Ωm =1.148 S m
and Λm = κ/c = 1.148 S m−1
=229.6 × 10-4 S mol−1.

3.4.2 Variation of Conductivity and Molar Conductivity with Concentration

Both conductivity and molar conductivity change with the concentration of the electrolyte. Conductivity always decreases with decrease in concentration both, for weak and strong electrolytes. This can be explained by the fact that the number of ions per unit volume that carry the current in a solution decreases on dilution. The conductivity of a solution at any given concentration is the conductance of one unit volume of solution kept between two platinum electrodes with unit area of cross section and at a distance of unit length. This is clear from the equation:

G = κA /l = κ (both A and l are unity in their appropriate units in m or cm)

Molar conductivity of a solution at a given concentration is the conductance of the volume V of solution containing one mole of electrolyte kept between two electrodes with area of cross section A and distance of unit length. Therefore,
Λm = κA /l =κ
Since l = 1 and A = V ( volume containing 1 mole of electrolyte)
Λm = κ V………………………………..(3.22)
Molar conductivity increases with decrease in concentration. This is because the total volume, V, of solution containing one mole of electrolyte also increases. It has been found that decrease in κ on dilution of a solution is more than compensated by increase in its volume. Physically, it means that at a given concentration, Λm can be defined as the conductance of the electrolytic solution kept between the electrodes of a conductivity cell at unit distance but having area of cross section large enough to accommodate sufficient volume of solution that contains one mole of the electrolyte. When concentration approaches zero, the molar conductivity is known as limiting molar conductivity and is represented by the symbol Ë°m. The variation in Λm with concentration is different (Fig. 3.6) for strong and weak electrolytes.

Strong Electrolytes

For strong electrolytes, Λ increases slowly with dilution and can be represented by the equation:
Λm = Ë°m – A c 1⁄2…………………….(3.23)

It can be seen that if we plot (Fig. 3.12) Λm against c1/2, we obtain a straight line with intercept equal to Ë°m and slope equal to ‘–A’. The value of the constant ‘A’ for a given solvent and temperature depends on the type of electrolyte i.e., the charges on the cation and anion produced on the dissociation of the electrolyte in the solution. Thus, NaCl, CaCl2, MgSO4 are known as 1-1, 2-1 and 2- 2 electrolytes respectively. All electrolytes of a particular type have the same value for ‘A’.

Example 3.6
The molar conductivity of KCl solutions at different concentrations at 298 K are given below:
c/mol L–1           Λm/S cm2 mol
0.000198          148.61
0.000309          148.29
0.000521          147.81
0.000989          147.09
Show that a plot between Ë°m and c1/2 is a straight line. Determine the values of Ë°m and A for KCl.
Solution
Taking the square root of concentration we obtain:
c1/2/(mol L-1)1/2          λm/S cm2mol−1
0.01407          148.61
0.01758          148.29
0.02283          148.81
0.03145          148.09
A plot of Λm( y-axis) and c1/2 (x-axis) is shown in (Fig. 3.7). It can be seen that it is nearly a straight line. From the intercept (c1/2 = 0),

we find that Ë°m= 150.0 S cm2 mol–1 and A = – slope = 87.46 S cm2 mol–1/(mol/L–1)1/2.

Kohlrausch examined Ë°m values for a number of strong electrolytes and observed certain regularities. He noted that the difference in Ë°m of the electrolytes NaX and KX for any X is nearly constant. For example at 298 K:
Ë°m(KCl) − Ë°m(NaCl) =
Ë°m(KBr) − Ë°m(NaBr) =
Ë°m(KI) − Ë°m(NaI) ≅ 23.4 S cm2 mol−1
and similarly it was found that
Ë°m(NaBr) − Ë°m(NaCI) = Ë°m(KBr) − Ë°m(KCl) ≅ 1.8 S cm2 mol−1

On the basis of the above observations he enunciated Kohlrausch law of independent migration of ions. The law states that limiting molar conductivity of an electrolyte can be represented as the sum of the individual contributions of the anion and cation of the electrolyte. Thus, if λNa+ and λ Cl are limiting molar conductivity of the sodium and chloride ions respectively, then the limiting molar conductivity for sodium chloride is given by the equation:

Ë°m(NaCl) = λ°Na+ + λ°Cl……………(3.24)

In general, if an electrolyte on dissociation gives v+ cations and v anions then its limiting molar conductivity is given by:

Ë°m = ν+ λ°+ + ν λ°…………………..(3.25)

Here, λ°+ and λ° are the limiting molar conductivities of the cation and anion respectively. The values of λ° for some cations and anions at 298 K are given in Table 3.4.

Table 3.4 Limiting molar conductivity for some ions in water at 298 K
Ion λ° /(S cm2mol−1) Ion λ° /(S cm2mol−1)
H+ 349.0 OH 199.1
Na+ 50.1 Cl 76.3
K+ 73.5 Br 78.1
Ca2+ 119.0 CH3Coo 40.9
Mg2+ 106.0 SO42- 169.0

Weak electrolytes

Weak electrolytes like acetic acid have lower degree of dissociation at higher concentrations and hence for such electrolytes, the change in Λm with dilution is due to increase in the degree of dissociation and consequently the number of ions in total volume of solution that contains 1 mol of electrolyte. In such cases Ëm increases steeply (Fig. 3.12) on dilution, especially near lower concentrations. Therefore, Ë°m cannot be obtained by extrapolation of Λm to zero concentration. At infinite dilution (i.e., concentration c → zero) electrolyte dissociates completely (α =1), but at such low concentration the conductivity of the solution is so low that it cannot be measured accurately. Therefore, Ë°m for weak electrolytes is obtained by using Kohlrausch law of independent migration of ions (Example 3.8). At any concentration c, if α is the degree of dissociation then it can be approximated to the ratio of molar conductivity Ë°m at the concentration c to limiting molar conductivity, Ë°m. Thus we have:
α = Λm / Λm……………………..(3.26)

But we know that for a weak electrolyte like acetic acid (Class XI, Unit 7),

Ka =c α2/(1 − α) =c Λ2mm°2(1 − (Λm/Λ°m)) =c Λ2m/ Λ°m(Λ°m − Λ°m)…………………(3.27)

Applications of Kohlrausch law

Using Kohlrausch law of independent migration of ions, it is possible to calculate Ë°m for any electrolyte from the λo of individual ions. Moreover, for weak electrolytes like acetic acid it is possible to determine the value of its dissociation constant once we know the Ë°m and Λm at a given concentration c.\

Example 3.7
Calculate Ë°m for CaCl2 and MgSO4 from the data given in Table 3.4.
Solution
We know from Kohlrausch law that
Λm(CaCl) = λ°Ca2+ + 2λ°Cl = 119.0 S cm2 mol–1 + 2(76.3) S cm2 mol–1
= (119.0 + 152.6) S cm2 mol–1
= 271.6 S cm2 mol–1
Λm(MgSO4) = λ°Mg2+ + 2λ°SO2−4 = 106.0 S cm2 mol–1 + 160.0 S cm2 mol–1
= 266 S cm2 mol–1 .

Example 3.8
Ë°m for NaCl, HCl and NaAc are 126.4, 425.9 and 91.0 S cm2 mol–1 respectively. Calculate Λ° for HAc.
Solution
Λ°(HAc) =λ°H++ λ°Ac = λ°H+ + λ°Cl +λ°Na+ − λ°Cl − λ°Na+
=Λ°(HCl) + Λ°(NaAc) − Λ°(NaCl)
= (425.9 + 91.0 – 126.4 ) S cm2 mol –1
= 390.5 S cm2 mol–1 .

Example 3.9
The conductivity of 0.001028 mol L–1 acetic acid is 4.95 × 10–5 S cm–1 . Calculate its dissociation constant if Ë°m for acetic acid is 390.5 S cm2 mol–1.
Solution
Λm = κ/c =4.95×10−5 S cm−1/0.001028 mol L−1 × 1000cm−1/ L =48.15 cm2 mol−1
α = Λm/Λ°m =48.15 S cm2 mol−1/390.5 S cm 2 mol−1 = 0.1233
Κ = cα2/(1- α) 0.001028 mol L−1× (0.1233)2/ 1- 0.1233 = 1.78 ×10−5 mol L−1

Intext Questions
3.7 Why does the conductivity of a solution decrease with dilution?
3.8 Suggest a way to determine the Λ°m value of water.
3.9 The molar conductivity of 0.025 mol L–1 methanoic acid is 46.1 S cm2 mol–1. Calculate its degree of dissociation and dissociation constant. Given λ°(H+)
= 349.6 S cm2 mol–1 and λ°(HCOO) = 54.6 S cm2 mol–1

3.5 Electrolytic Cells and Electrolysis

In an electrolytic cell external source of voltage is used to bring about a chemical reaction. The electrochemical processes are of great importance in the laboratory and the chemical industry. One of the simplest electrolytic cell consists of two copper strips dipping in an aqueous solution of copper sulphate. If a DC voltage is applied to the two electrodes, then Cu2+ ions discharge at the cathode (negatively charged) and the following reaction takes place:
Cu2+(aq) + 2e → Cu (s)……………………………….(3.28)
Copper metal is deposited on the cathode. At the anode, copper is converted into Cu2+ ions by the reaction:
Cu(s) → Cu2+(s) + 2e………………………………….(3.29)
Thus copper is dissolved (oxidised) at anode and deposited (reduced) at cathode. This is the basis for an industrial process in which impure copper is converted into copper of high purity. The impure copper is made an anode that dissolves on passing current and pure copper is deposited at the cathode. Many metals like Na, Mg, Al, etc. are produced on large scale by electrochemical reduction of their respective cations where no suitable chemical reducing agents are available for this purpose.
Sodium and magnesium metals are produced by the electrolysis of their fused chlorides and aluminium is produced (Class XII, Unit 6) by electrolysis of aluminium oxide in presence of cryolite.

Quantitative Aspects of Electrolysis

Michael Faraday was the first scientist who described the quantitative aspects of electrolysis. Now Faraday’s laws also flow from what has been discussed earlier.

Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis

After his extensive investigations on electrolysis of solutions and melts of electrolytes, Faraday published his results during 1833-34 in the form of the following well known Faraday’s two laws of electrolysis:

1. First Law

The amount of chemical reaction which occurs at any electrode during electrolysis by a current is proportional to the quantity of electricity passed through the electrolyte (solution or melt).

2. Second Law

The amounts of different substances liberated by the same quantity of electricity passing through the electrolytic solution are proportional to their chemical equivalent weights (Atomic Mass of Metal ÷ Number of electrons required to reduce the cation).

There were no constant current sources available during Faraday’s times. The general practice was to put a coulometer (a standard electrolytic cell) for determining the quantity of electricity passed from the amount of metal (generally silver or copper) deposited or consumed. However, coulometers are now obsolete and we now have constant current (I) sources available and the quantity of electricity Q, passed is given by
Q = It

Q is in coloumbs when I is in ampere and t is in second.

The amount of electricity (or charge) required for oxidation or reduction depends on the stoichiometry of the electrode reaction. For example, in the reaction:
Ag +(aq) + e– → Ag(s)…………………………..(3.30)
One mole of the electron is required for the reduction of one mole of silver ions. We know that charge on one electron is equal to 1.6021× 10–19C. Therefore, the charge on one mole of electrons is equal to:
NA × 1.6021 × 10–19 C = 6.02 × 1023 mol–1 × 1.6021 × 10–19
NA × 1.6021 × 10–19 C = 96487 C mol–1

This quantity of electricity is called Faraday and is represented by the symbol F.

For approximate calculations we use 1F ≅ 96500 mol−1.
For the electrode reactions:
Mg2+(l) + 2e→ Mg(s)……………………………..(3.31)
Al3+ (l) + 3e→ Al(s)………………………(3.32)

It is obvious that one mole of Mg2+ and Al3+ require 2 mol of electrons (2F) and 3 mol of electrons (3F) respectively. The charge passed through the electrolytic cell during electrolysis is equal to the product of current in amperes and time in seconds. In commercial production of metals, current as high as 50,000 amperes are used that amounts to about 0.518 F per second.

Example 3.10
A solution of CuSO4 is electrolysed for 10 minutes with a current of 1.5 amperes. What is the mass of copper deposited at the cathode?
t = 600 s charge = current × time = 1.5 A × 600 s = 900 C
Solution
According to the reaction:
Cu2+(aq) + 2e= Cu(s)
We require 2F or 2 × 96487 C to deposit 1 mol or 63 g of Cu.
For 900 C, the mass of Cu deposited = (63 g mol–1 × 900 C)/(2 × 96487 C mol–1) = 0.2938 g.

3.5.1 Products of Electrolysis

Products of electrolysis depend on the nature of material being electrolysed and the type of electrodes being used. If the electrode is inert (e.g., platinum or gold), it does not participate in the chemical reaction and acts only as source or sink for electrons. On the other hand, if the electrode is reactive, it participates in the electrode reaction. Thus, the products of electrolysis may be different for reactive and inert electrodes.The products of electrolysis depend on the different oxidising and reducing species present in the electrolytic cell and their standard electrode potentials. Moreover, some of the electrochemical processes although feasible, are so slow kinetically that at lower voltages these don’t seem to take place and extra potential (called overpotential) has to be applied, which makes such process more difficult to occur.

For example, if we use molten NaCl, the products of electrolysis are sodium metal and Cl2 gas. Here we have only one cation (Na+) which is reduced at the cathode (Na+ + e → Na) and one anion (Cl) which is oxidised at the anode (Cl→ 1⁄2Cl2+e ) . During the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride solution, the products are NaOH, Cl2 and H2. In this case besides Na+ and Cl ions we also have H+ and OH ions along with the solvent molecules, H2O.

At the cathode there is competition between the following reduction reactions:
Na+ (aq) + e → Na (s)          EΘ(Cell) =−2.71V
H+ (aq) + e → 1/2H2 (g)         EΘ(Cell)=−0.00V

The reaction with higher value of EΘ is preferred and, therefore, the reaction at the cathode during electrolysis is:
H+ (aq) + e → 1/2H2(aq)………………………….(3.33)
but H (aq) is produced by the dissociation of H2O, i.e.,
H2O (l ) → H+ (aq) + OH (aq)…………………………(3.34)
Therefore, the net reaction at the cathode may be written as the sum of (3.33) and (3.34) and we have
H2O (l ) + e → 1⁄2H2(g) + OH
At the anode the following oxidation reactions are possible:
Cl (aq) → 1⁄2 Cl2 (g) + e    ( cell ) = 1.36 V……………………..(3.36)
2H2O (l )→ O2 (g) + 4H+(aq) + 4e    E( cell ) = 1.23 V………………………(3.37)

The reaction at anode with lower value of EΘ is preferred and therefore, water should get oxidised in preference to Cl (aq). However, on account of overpotential of oxygen, reaction (3.36) is preferred. Thus, the net reactions may be summarised as:
Cathode: H2O(l ) + e → 1⁄2 H2(g) + OH (aq)
Anode: Cl (aq) → 1⁄2 Cl2(g) + e
Net reaction:
NaCl(aq) + H2O(l ) → Na+(aq) + OH(aq) + 1⁄2H2(g) + 1⁄2Cl2(g)

The standard electrode potentials are replaced by electrode potentials given by Nernst equation (Eq. 3.8) to take into account the concentration effects. During the electrolysis of sulphuric acid, the following processes are possible at the anode:
2H2O(l )→ O2(g) + 4H+(aq) + 4e    ETheta;( cell ) = +1.23 V,……………………….(3.38)
2SO42– (aq) → S2O82– (aq) + 2e    EΘ ( cell ) = 1.96 V………………(3.39)
For dilute sulphuric acid, reaction (3.38) is preferred but at higher concentrations of H2SO4 process, reaction (3.39) is preferred.

Intext Questions
3.10 If a current of 0.5 ampere flows through a metallic wire for 2 hours, then how many electrons would flow through the wire?
3.11 Suggest a list of metals that are extracted electrolytically.
3.12 Consider the reaction:
Cr2O72– + 14H+ + 6e → 2Cr3+ + 8H2O
What is the quantity of electricity in coulombs needed to reduce 1 mol of Cr2O72–?

3.6 Batteries

Any battery (actually it may have one or more than one cell connected in series) or cell that we use as a source of electrical energy is basically a galvanic cell where the chemical energy of the redox reaction is converted into electrical energy. However, for a battery to be of practical use it should be reasonably light, compact and its voltage should not vary appreciably during its use. There are mainly two types of batteries.

3.6.1 Primary Batteries

In the primary batteries, the reaction occurs only once and after use over a period of time battery becomes dead and cannot be reused again. The most familiar example of this type is the dry cell (known as Leclanche cell after its discoverer) which is used commonly in our transistors and clocks. The cell consists of a zinc container that also acts as anode and the cathode is a carbon (graphite) rod surrounded by powdered manganese dioxide and carbon (Fig.3.8). The space between the electrodes is filled by a moist paste of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and zinc chloride (ZnCl2). The electrode reactions are complex, but they can be written approximately as follows :

Anode:
Zn(s) → Zn2+ + 2e
Cathode:
MnO2 + NH4++ e→ MnO(OH) + NH3
In the reaction at cathode, manganese is reduced from the + 4 oxidation state to the +3 state. Ammonia produced in the reaction forms a complex with Zn2+ to give [ Zn (NH3)4]2+. The cell has a potential of nearly 1.5 V.

Mercury cell, (Fig. 3.9) suitable for low current devices like hearing aids, watches, etc. consists of zinc – mercury amalgam as anode and a paste of HgO and carbon as the cathode. The electrolyte is a paste of KOH and ZnO. The electrode reactions for the cell are given below:

Anode: Zn(Hg) + 2OH→ ZnO(s) + H2O + 2e
Cathode: HgO + H2O + 2e→ Hg(l ) + 2OH
The overall reaction is represented by
Zn(Hg) + HgO(s)→ ZnO(s) + Hg(l )
The cell potential is approximately 1.35 V and remains constant during its life as the overall reaction does not involve any ion in solution whose concentration can change during its life time.

3.6.2 Secondary Batteries
A secondary cell after use can be recharged by passing current through it in the opposite direction so that it can be used again. A good secondary cell can undergo a large number of discharging and charging cycles. The most important secondary cell is the lead storage battery (Fig. 3.10) commonly used in automobiles and invertors. It consists of a lead anode and a grid of lead packed with lead dioxide (PbO2 ) as cathode. A 38% solution of sulphuric acid is used as an electrolyte.
The cell reactions when the battery is in use are given below:

Anode: Pb(s) + SO42–(aq) → PbSO4(s) + 2e
Cathode: PbO2(s) + SO42–(aq) + 4H+(aq) + 2e → PbSO4 (s) + 2H2O (l )
i.e., overall cell reaction consisting of cathode and anode reactions is:
Pb(s)+PbO2(s)+2H2SO4(aq)→ 2PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)
On charging the battery the reaction is reversed and PbSO4(s) on anode and cathode is converted into Pb and PbO2, respectively.

Another important secondary cell is the nickel- cadmium cell (Fig. 3.11) which has longer life than the lead storage cell but more expensive to manufacture. We shall not go into details of working of the cell and the electrode reactions during charging and discharging.

The overall reaction during discharge is:
Cd (s)+2Ni(OH)3 (s) → CdO (s) +2Ni(OH)2 (s) +H2O(l )

3.7 Fuel cell

Production of electricity by thermal plants is not a very efficient method and is a major source of pollution. In such plants, the chemical energy (heat of combustion) of fossil fuels (coal, gas or oil) is first used for converting water into high pressure steam. This is then used to run a turbine to produce electricity. We know that a galvanic cell directly converts chemical energy into electricity and is highly efficient. It is now possible to make such cells in which reactants are fed continuously to the electrodes and products are removed
continuously from the electrolyte compartment. Galvanic cells that are designed to convert the energy of combustion of fuels like hydrogen, methane, methanol, etc. directly into electrical energy are called fuel cells.

One of the most successful fuel cells uses the reaction of hydrogen with oxygen to form water (Fig. 3.12). The cell was used for providing electrical power in the Apollo space programme. The water vapours produced during the reaction were condensed and added to the drinking water supply for the astronauts. In the cell, hydrogen and oxygen are bubbled through porous carbon electrodes into concentrated aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. Catalysts like finely divided platinum or palladium metal are incorporated into the electrodes for increasing the rate of electrode reactions. The electrode reactions are given below:
Cathode: O2(g) + 2H2O(l ) + 4e→ 4OH(aq)
Anode: 2H2 (g) + 4OH(aq)→ 4H2O(l) + 4e

Overall reaction being:
2H2(g) + O2(g)→ 2 H2O(l )
The cell runs continuously as long as the reactants are supplied. Fuel cells produce electricity with an efficiency of about 70 % compared to thermal plants whose efficiency is about 40%. There has been tremendous progress in the development of new electrode materials, better catalysts and electrolytes for increasing the efficiency of fuel cells. These have been used in automobiles on an experimental basis. Fuel cells are pollution free and in view of their future importance, a variety of fuel cells have been fabricated and tried.

3.8 Corrosion

Corrosion slowly coats the surfaces of metallic objects with oxides or other salts of the metal. The rusting of iron, tarnishing of silver, development of green coating on copper and bronze are some of the examples of corrosion. It causes enormous damage to buildings, bridges, ships and to all objects made of metals especially that of iron. We lose crores of rupees every year on account of corrosion.

In corrosion, a metal is oxidised by loss of electrons to oxygen and formation of oxides. Corrosion of iron (commonly known as rusting) occurs in presence of water and air. The chemistry of corrosion is quite complex but it may be considered essentially as an electrochemical phenomenon. At a particular spot (Fig. 3.13) of an object made of iron, oxidation takes place and that spot behaves as anode and we can write the reaction
Anode: 2 Fe (s)→ 2 Fe2+ + 4 e     EΘ (Fe2+/Fe) = – 0.44 V
Electrons released at anodic spot move through the metal and go to another spot on the metal and reduce oxygen in presence of H+ (which is believed to be available from H2CO3 formed due to dissolution of carbon dioxide from air into water. Hydrogen ion in water may also be available due to dissolution of other acidic oxides from the atmosphere). This spot behaves as cathode with the reaction
Cathode: O2(g) + 4 H+(aq) + 4 e→ 2H2O (l ) EΘ H+ | O2 | H2O = 1.23 V
The overall reaction being:
2Fe(s)+O2(g) + 4H+(aq)→ 2Fe2+ (aq)+ 2 H2O (l )
EΘ(cell) =1.67 V

The ferrous ions are further oxidised by atmospheric oxygen to ferric ions which come out as rust in the form of hydrated ferric oxide
(Fe2O3. x H2O) and with further production of hydrogen ions.

Prevention of corrosion is of prime importance. It not only saves money but also helps in preventing accidents such as a bridge collapse or failure of a key component due to corrosion. One of the simplest methods of preventing corrosion is to prevent the surface of the metallic object to come in contact with atmosphere. This can be done by covering the surface with paint or by some chemicals (e.g. bisphenol). Another simple method is to cover the surface by other metals (Sn, Zn, etc.) that are inert or react to save the object. An electrochemical method is to provide a sacrificial electrode of another metal (like Mg, Zn, etc.) which corrodes itself but saves the object.

Intext Questions
3.13 Write the chemistry of recharging the lead storage battery, highlighting all the materials that are involved during recharging.
3.14 Suggest two materials other than hydrogen that can be used as fuels in fuel cells.
3.15 Explain how rusting of iron is envisaged as setting up of an electrochemical cell.

The Hydrogen Economy

At present the main source of energy that is driving our economy is fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas. As more people on the planet aspire to improve their standard of living, their energy requirement will increase. In fact, the per capita consumption of energy used is a measure of development. Of course, it is assumed that energy is used for productive purpose and not merely wasted. We are already aware that carbon dioxide produced by the combustion of fossil fuels is resulting in the ‘Greenhouse Effect’. This is leading to a rise in the temperature of the Earth’s surface, causing polar ice to melt and ocean levels to rise. This will flood low-lying areas along the coast and some island nations such as Maldives face total submergence. In order to avoid such a catastrope, we need to limit our use of carbonaceous fuels. Hydrogen provides an ideal alternative as its combustion results in water only. Hydrogen production must come from splitting water using solar energy. Therefore, hydrogen can be used as a renewable and non polluting source of energy. This is the vision of the Hydrogen Economy. Both the production of hydrogen by electrolysis of water and hydrogen combustion in a fuel cell will be important in the future. And both these technologies are based on electrochemical principles.

Summary
An electrochemical cell consists of two metallic electrodes dipping in electrolytic solution(s). Thus an important component of the electrochemical cell is the ionic conductor or electrolyte. Electrochemical cells are of two types. In galvanic cell, the chemical energy of a spontaneous redox reaction is converted into electrical work, whereas in an electrolytic cell, electrical energy is used to carry out a non-spontaneous redox reaction. The standard electrode potential for any electrode dipping in an appropriate solution is defined with respect to standard electrode potential of hydrogen electrode taken as zero. The standard potential of the cell can be obtained by taking the difference of the standard potentials of cathode and anode ( EΘ ( cell ) = EΘcathode – EΘanode . The standard potential of the cells are related to standard Gibbs energy (ÄrGΘ = –nF ETheta; ( cell ) and equilibrium constant (ÄrGΘ = – RT ln K) of the reaction taking place in the cell. Concentration dependence of the potentials of the electrodes and the cells are given by Nernst equation.

The conductivity, κ, of an electrolytic solution depends on the concentration of the electrolyte, nature of solvent and temperature. Molar conductivity, Ëm, is defined by = κ /c where c is the concentration. Conductivity decreases but molar conductivity increases with decrease in concentration. It increases slowly with decrease in concentration for strong electrolytes while the increase is very steep for weak electrolytes in very dilute solutions. Kohlrausch found that molar conductivity at infinite dilution, for an electrolyte is sum of the contribution of the molar conductivity of the ions in which it dissociates. It is known as law of independent migration of ions and has many applications. Ions conduct electricity through the solution but oxidation and reduction of the ions take place at the electrodes in an electrochemical cell. Batteries and fuel cells are very useful forms of galvanic cell. Corrosion of metals is essentially an electrochemical phenomenon. Electrochemical principles are relevant to the Hydrogen Economy.

Exercises
3.1 Arrange the following metals in the order in which they displace each other from the solution of their salts.
Al, Cu, Fe, Mg and Zn.
3.2 Given the standard electrode potentials,
K+/K = –2.93V, Ag+/Ag = 0.80V,
Hg2+/Hg = 0.79V
Mg2+/Mg = –2.37 V, Cr3+/Cr = – 0.74V
Arrange these metals in their increasing order of reducing power.

3.3 Depict the galvanic cell in which the reaction Zn(s)+2Ag+(aq) →Zn2+(aq)+2Ag(s)
takes place. Further show:
(i) Which of the electrode is negatively charged?
(ii) The carriers of the current in the cell.
(iii) Individual reaction at each electrode.

3.4 Calculate the standard cell potentials of galvanic cell in which the following reactions
take place:
(i) 2Cr(s) + 3Cd2+(aq)→ 2Cr3+(aq) + 3Cd
(ii) Fe2+(aq) + Ag+(aq) → Fe3+(aq) + Ag(s)
Calculate the ΔrGΘ and equilibrium constant of the reactions.

3.5 Write the Nernst equation and emf of the following cells at 298 K:
(i) Mg(s)|Mg2+(0.001M)||Cu2+(0.0001 M)|Cu(s)
(ii) Fe(s)|Fe2+(0.001M)|| H+(1M)|H2(g)(1bar)| Pt(s)
(iii) Sn(s)|Sn2+(0.050 M)||H+(0.020 M)|H2(g) (1 bar)|Pt(s)
(iv) Pt(s)|Br2(l )|Br(0.010 M)||H+(0.030 M)| H2(g) (1 bar)|Pt(s).

3.6 In the button cells widely used in watches and other devices the following reaction takes place:
Zn(s) + Ag2O(s) + H2O(l ) → Zn2+(aq) + 2Ag(s) + 2OH(aq)
Determine ΔrG&Theta and E for the reaction.

3.7 Define conductivity and molar conductivity for the solution of an electrolyte. Discuss their variation with concentration.

3.8 The conductivity of 0.20 M solution of KCl at 298 K is 0.0248 S cm–1. Calculate its molar conductivity.

3.9 The resistance of a conductivity cell containing 0.001M KCl solution at 298 K is 1500 Ω. What is the cell constant if conductivity of 0.001M KCl solution at 298K is 0.146 × 10–3 S cm–1.

3.10 The conductivity of sodium chloride at 298 K has been determined at different concentrations and the results are given below:
Concentration/M    0.001    0.010    0.020    0.050   0.100
102 × κ/S m-11.237    11.85    23.15    55.53    106.74
Calculate Λm for all concentrations and draw a plot between Λm and c1⁄2. Find the
value of Λ°m .

3.11 Conductivity of 0.00241 M acetic acid is 7.896 × 10–5 S cm–1. Calculate its molar0
conductivity and if Λ°m for acetic acid is 390.5 S cm2 mol–1, what is its dissociation
constant?

3.12 How much charge is required for the following reductions:
(i) 1 mol of Al3+ to Al.
(ii) 1 mol of Cu2+ to Cu.
(iii) 1 mol of MnO4 to Mn2+.

3.13 How much electricity in terms of Faraday is required to produce
(i) 20.0 g of Ca from molten CaCl2.
(ii) 40.0 g of Al from molten Al2O3.

3.14 How much electricity is required in coulomb for the oxidation of
(i) 1 mol of H2O to O2.
(ii) 1 mol of FeO to Fe2O3.

3.15 A solution of Ni(NO3)2 is electrolysed between platinum electrodes using a current of 5 amperes for 20 minutes. What mass of Ni is deposited at the cathode?

3.16 Three electrolytic cells A,B,C containing solutions of ZnSO4, AgNO3 and CuSO4,
respectively are connected in series. A steady current of 1.5 amperes was passed through them until 1.45 g of silver deposited at the cathode of cell B. How long did the current flow? What mass of copper and zinc were deposited?

3.17 Using the standard electrode potentials given in Table 3.1, predict if the reaction between the following is feasible:
(i) Fe3+(aq) and I(aq)
(ii) Ag+ (aq) and Cu(s)
(iii) Fe3+ (aq) and Br (aq)
(iv) Ag(s) and Fe 3+
(v) Br2 (aq) and Fe2+(aq)

3.18 Predict the products of electrolysis in each of the following:
(i) An aqueous solution of AgNO3 with silver electrodes.
(ii) An aqueous solution of AgNO3 with platinum electrodes.
(iii) A dilute solution of H2SO4 with platinum electrodes.
(iv) An aqueous solution of CuCl2 with platinum electrodes.

Answers to Some Intext Questions
3.5 E(cell) = 0.91 V
3.6 ΔrGΘ = −45.54 kJ mol −1 , Kc = 9.62 ×107
3.9 0.114, 3.67 ×10–4 mol L–1

I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)

1. Which cell will measure standard electrode potential of copper electrode?

2. Electrode potential for Mg electrode varies according to the equation

EMg2+|Mg = EΘMg2+|Mg – 0.059/2 log(1/[Mg2+] . The graph of EMg2+|Mg vs log [Mg2+] is

3. Which of the following statement is correct?

(i) Ecell and ΔrG of cell reaction both are extensive properties.
(ii) Ecell and ΔrG of cell reaction both are intensive properties.
(iii) Ecell is an intensive property while ΔrG of cell reaction is an extensive property.
(iv) Ecell is an extensive property while ΔrG of cell reaction is an intensive property.

4. The difference between the electrode potentials of two electrodes when no current is drawn through the cell is called ___________.

(i) Cell potential
(ii) Cell emf
(iii) Potential difference
(iv) Cell voltage

5. Which of the following statement is not correct about an inert electrode in a cell?

(i) It does not participate in the cell reaction.
(ii) It provides surface either for oxidation or for reduction reaction.
(iii) It provides surface for conduction of electrons.
(iv) It provides surface for redox reaction.

6. An electrochemical cell can behave like an electrolytic cell when ____________.

(i) Ecell = 0
(ii) Ecell > Eext
(iii) Eext > Ecell
(iv) Ecell = Eext

7. Which of the statements about solutions of electrolytes is not correct?

(i) Conductivity of solution depends upon size of ions.
(ii) Conductivity depends upon viscosiy of solution.
(iii) Conductivity does not depend upon solvation of ions present in solution.
(iv) Conductivity of solution increases with temperature.

8. Using the data given below find out the strongest reducing agent.

EVCr2O72–/Cr3+ = 1.33V
EVCl2/Cl = 1.36V
EVMnO4/Mn2+ = 1.51V
EVCr3+/Cr = – 0.74V

(i) Cl
(ii) Cr
(iii) Cr3+
(iv) Mn2+

9. Use the data given in Q.8 and find out which of the following is the strongest oxidising agent.

(i) Cl
(ii) Mn2+
(iii) MnO4
(iv) Cr3+

10. Using the data given in Q.8 find out in which option the order of reducing power is correct.

(i) Cr3+ < Cl < Mn2+ < Cr
(ii) Mn2+ < Cl < Cr3+ < Cr
(iii) Cr3+ < Cl < Cr2O72– < MnO4
(iv) Mn2+ < Cr3+ < Cl < Cr

11. Use the data given in Q.8 and find out the most stable ion in its reduced form.

(i) Cl
(ii) Cr3+
(iii) Cr
(iv) Mn2+

12. Use the data of Q.8 and find out the most stable oxidised species.

(i) Cr3+
(ii) MnO4
(iii) Cr2O72–
(iv) Mn2+

13. The quantity of charge required to obtain one mole of aluminium from Al2O3 is ___________.

(i) 1F
(ii) 6F
(iii) 3F
(iv) 2F

14. The cell constant of a conductivity cell _____________.

(i) changes with change of electrolyte.
(ii) changes with change of concentration of electrolyte.
(iii) changes with temperature of electrolyte.
(iv) remains constant for a cell.

15. While charging the lead storage battery ______________.

(i) PbSO4 anode is reduced to Pb.
(ii) PbSO4 cathode is reduced to Pb.
(iii) PbSO4 cathode is oxidised to Pb.
(iv) PbSO4 anode is oxidised to PbO2.

16. Λ0m (NH4OH) is equal to ______________.

(i) Λ0m(NH4OH) + Λ0m(NH4Cl) – Λ0(HCl)
(ii) Λ0m(NH4Cl) + Λ0m(NaOH) – Λ0(NaCl)
(iii) Λ0m(NH4Cl) + Λ0m(NaCl) – Λ0(NaOH)
(iv) Λ0m(NaOH) + Λ0m(NaCl) – Λ0m(NH4Cl)

17. In the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride solution which of the half cell reaction will occur at anode?

(i) Na+ (aq) + e → Na(s); ECellΘ = –2.71V
(ii) 2H2O (l) → O2 (g) + 4H+ (aq) + 4e ; ECellΘ = 1.23V
(iii) H+ (aq) + e → 1/2 H2 (g); ECellΘ = 0.00 V
(iv) Cl (aq) → 1/2 Cl2 (g) + e ; ECellΘ = 1.36 V

II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)

Note : In the following questions two or more than two options may be correct.

18. The positive value of the standard electrode potential of Cu2+/Cu indicates that ____________.

(i) this redox couple is a stronger reducing agent than the H+/H2 couple.
(ii) this redox couple is a stronger oxidising agent than H+/H2.
(iii) Cu can displace H2 from acid.
(iv) Cu cannot displace H2 from acid.

19. ECellΘ for some half cell reactions are given below. On the basis of these mark the correct answer.

(a) H+ (aq) + e → 1/2H2 (g) ; ECellΘ = 0.00V
(b) 2H2O (l) → O2 (g) + 4H+ (aq) + 4e ; ECellΘ = 1.23V
(c) 2SO42– (aq) → S2O82– (aq) + 2e ; ECellΘ = 1.96 V

(i) In dilute sulphuric acid solution, hydrogen will be reduced at cathode.
(ii) In concentrated sulphuric acid solution, water will be oxidised at anode.
(iii) In dilute sulphuric acid solution, water will be oxidised at anode.
(iv) In dilute sulphuric acid solution, SO42– ion will be oxidised to tetrathionate ion at anode.

20. ECellΘ 1.1V for Daniel cell. Which of the following expressions are correct description of state of equilibrium in this cell?

(i) 1.1 = Kc
(ii) 2.303RT/2F logKc =1.1
(iii) log Kc = 2.2/0.059
(iv) log Kc = 1.1

21. Conductivity of an electrolytic solution depends on ____________.

(i) nature of electrolyte.
(ii) concentration of electrolyte.
(iii) power of AC source.
(iv) distance between the electrodes.

22. Λ02H2O m is equal to _______________.

(i) Λ0m(HCl) + Λ0m(NaOH) – Λ0m(NaCl)
(ii) Λ0m(HNO3) + Λ0m(NaNO3) – Λ0m(NaOH)
(iii) Λ0m(HNO3) + Λ0m(NaOH) – Λ0m(NaNO3)
(iv) Λ0m(NH4OH) + Λ0m(HCl) – Λ0m(NH4Cl)

23. What will happen during the electrolysis of aqueous solution of CuSO4 using platinum electrodes?

(i) Copper will deposit at cathode.
(ii) Copper will deposit at anode.
(iii) Oxygen will be released at anode.
(iv) Copper will dissolve at anode.

24. What will happen during the electrolysis of aqueous solution of CuSO4 in the presence of Cu electrodes?

(i) Copper will deposit at cathode.
(ii) Copper will dissolve at anode.
(iii) Oxygen will be released at anode.
(iv) Copper will deposit at anode.

25. Conductivity , is equal to ____________.

(i)1/R l/A
(ii)G*/R
(iii) Λm
(iv) l/A

26. Molar conductivity of ionic solution depends on ___________.

(i) temperature.
(ii) distance between electrodes.
(iii) concentration of electrolytes in solution.
(iv) surface area of electrodes.

27. For the given cell, Mg|Mg2+|| Cu2+|Cu

(i) Mg is cathode
(ii) Cu is cathode
(iii) The cell reaction is Mg + Cu2+ → Mg2+ + Cu
(iv) Cu is the oxidising agent

III. Short Answer Type

28. Can absolute electrode potential of an electrode be measured?

29. Can ECellΘ or ΔrGΘ for cell reaction ever be equal to zero?

30. Under what condition is ECellll = 0 or ΔrG = 0?

31. What does the negative sign in the expression EΘZn2+/Zn = − 0.76 V V mean?

32. Aqueous copper sulphate solution and aqueous silver nitrate solution are electrolysed by 1 ampere current for 10 minutes in separate electrolytic cells.
Will the mass of copper and silver deposited on the cathode be same or different? Explain your answer.

33. Depict the galvanic cell in which the cell reaction is Cu + 2Ag+→ 2Ag + Cu2+
34. Value of standard electrode potential for the oxidation of Cl ions is more positive than that of water, even then in the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride, why is Cl oxidised at anode instead of water?
35. What is electrode potential?
36. Consider the following diagram in which an electrochemical cell is coupled to an electrolytic cell. What will be the polarity of electrodes ‘A’ and ‘B’ in the electrolytic cell?

37. Why is alternating current used for measuring resistance of an electrolytic solution?
38. A galvanic cell has electrical potential of 1.1V. If an opposing potential of 1.1V is applied to this cell, what will happen to the cell reaction and current flowing through the cell?
39. How will the pH of brine (aq. NaCl solution) be affected when it is electrolysed?
40. Unlike dry cell, the mercury cell has a constant cell potential throughout its useful life. Why?
41. Solutions of two electrolytes ‘A’ and ‘B’ are diluted. The Λm of ‘B’ increases 1.5 times while that of A increases 25 times. Which of the two is a strong electrolyte? Justify your answer.

42. When acidulated water (dil.H2SO4 solution) is electrolysed, will the pH of the solution be affected? Justify your answer.
43. In an aqueous solution how does specific conductivity of electrolytes change with addition of water?
44. Which reference electrode is used to measure the electrode potential of other electrodes?
45. Consider a cell given below Cu|Cu2+|| Cl|Cl2,Pt Write the reactions that occur at anode and cathode
46. Write the Nernst equation for the cell reaction in the Daniel cell. How will the ECell be affected when concentration of Zn2+ ions is increased?
47. What advantage do the fuel cells have over primary and secondary batteries?
48. Write the cell reaction of a lead storage battery when it is discharged. How does the density of the electrolyte change when the battery is discharged?
49. Why on dilution the m of CH3COOH increases drastically, while that of CH3COONa increases gradually?

IV. Matching Type

Note : Match the items of Column I and Column II in the following questions.

50. Match the terms given in Column I with the units given in Column II.

  Column I   Column II
(i) m (a) S cm–1
(ii) ECell (b) m–1
(iii) k (c) S cm2 mol–1
(iv) G* (d) V

51. Match the terms given in Column I with the items given in Column II.

  Column I   Column II
(i) m (a) intensive property
(ii) EΘCell (b) depends on number of ions/volume
(iii) k (c) extensive property
(iv) ΔrGCell (d) increases with dilution

52. Match the items of Column I and Column II.

  Column I   Column II
(i) Lead storage battery (a) maximum efficiency
(ii) Mercury cell (b) prevented by galvanisation
(iii) Fuel cell (c) gives steady potential
(iv) Rusting (d) Pb is anode, PbO2 is cathode

53. Match the items of Column I and Column II.

  Column I   Column II
(i) k (a) I x t
(ii) m (b) m / ∧m0
(iii) α (c) k/c
(iv) Q (d) G*/R

54. Match the items of Column I and Column II.

  Column I   Column II
(i) Lechlanche cell (a) cell reaction 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O
(ii) Ni–Cd cell (b) does not involve any ion in solution and is used in hearing aids.
(iii) Fuel cell (c) rechargeable
(iv) Mercury cell (d) reaction at anode, Zn2 → Zn2+ + 2e
    (e) converts energy of combustion into electrical energy

55. Match the items of Column I and Column II on the basis of data given below:

EΘF2/F = 2.87V, EΘLi+/Li = -3.5V, EΘAu3+/Au = 1.4V, EΘBr2/Br = 1.09V

  Column I   Column II
(i) F2 (a) metal is the strongest reducing agent
(ii) Li (b) metal ion which is the weakest oxidising agent
(iii) Au3+ (c) non metal which is the best oxidising agent
(iv) Br (d) unreactive metal
(v) Au (e) anion that can be oxidised by Au3+
(vi) Li+ (f) anion which is the weakest reducing agent
(vii) F (g) metal ion which is an oxidising agent

V. Assertion and Reason Type

Note : In the following questions a statement of assertion followed by a statement of reason is given. Choose the correct answer out of the following choices.

(i) Both assertion and reason are true and the reason is the correct explanation of assertion.
(ii) Both assertion and reason are true and the reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.
(iii) Assertion is true but the reason is false.
(iv) Both assertion and reason are false.
(v) Assertion is false but reason is true.

56. Assertion : Cu is less reactive than hydrogen.
Reason : Cu2+/Cu EΘ is negative.

57. Assertion : ECell should have a positive value for the cell to function.
Reason : Ecathode < Eanode

58. Assertion : Conductivity of all electrolytes decreases on dilution.
Reason : On dilution number of ions per unit volume decreases.

59. Assertion : m for weak electrolytes shows a sharp increase when the electrolytic solution is diluted.
Reason : For weak electrolytes degree of dissociation increases with dilution of solution.

60. Assertion : Mercury cell does not give steady potential.
Reason : In the cell reaction, ions are not involved in solution.

61. Assertion : Electrolysis of NaCl solution gives chlorine at anode instead of O2.
Reason : Formation of oxygen at anode requires overvoltage.

62. Assertion : For measuring resistance of an ionic solution an AC source is used.
Reason : Concentration of ionic solution will change if DC source is used.

63. Assertion : Current stops flowing when ECell = 0.
Reason : Equilibrium of the cell reaction is attained.

64. Assertion : EAg+/Ag increases with increase in concentration of Ag+ ions.
Reason : EAg+/Ag has a positive value.

65. Assertion : Copper sulphate can be stored in zinc vessel.
Reason : Zinc is less reactive than copper.

VI. Long Answer Type

66. Consider the Fig. 3.2 and answer the following questions.

(i) Cell ‘A’ has ECell = 2V and Cell ‘B’ has ECell = 1.1V which of the two cells ‘A’ or ‘B’ will act as an electrolytic cell. Which electrode reactions will occur in this cell?

(ii) If cell ‘A’ has ECell = 0.5V and cell ‘B’ has ECell = 1.1V then what will be the reactions at anode and cathode?

67. Consider Fig. 3.2 and answer the questions (i) to (vi) given below.

(i) Redraw the diagram to show the direction of electron flow.
(ii) Is silver plate the anode or cathode?
(iii) What will happen if salt bridge is removed?
(iv) When will the cell stop functioning?
(v) How will concentration of Zn2+ ions and Ag+ ions be affected when the cell functions?
(vi) How will the concentration of Zn2+ ions and Ag+ ions be affected after the cell becomes ‘dead’?

68. What is the relationship between Gibbs free energy of the cell reaction in a galvanic cell and the emf of the cell? When will the maximum work be obtained from a galvanic cell?

ANSWERS

I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)

1. (iii)      2. (ii)      3. (iii)      4. (ii)      5. (iv)      6. (iii)      7. (iii)      8. (ii)       9. (iii)      10. (ii)      11. (iv)      12. (i)      13. (iii)      14. (iv)      15. (i)      16. (ii)      17. (ii)

II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)

18. (ii), (iv)      19. (i), (iii)      20. (ii), (iii)      21. (i), (ii)      22. (i), (iv)       23. (i), (iii)      24. (i), (ii)      25. (i), (ii)      26. (i), (iii)      27. (ii), (iii)

III. Short Answer Type

28. No
29. No
30. When the cell reaction reaches equilibrium.
31. It means that Zn is more reactive than hydrogen. When zinc electrode will be connected to SHE, Zn will get oxidised and H+ will get reduced.
32. Different, see the NCERT textbook, page no. 84.
33. Cu|Cu2+|| Ag+|Ag
34. Under the conditions of electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride, oxidation of water at anode requires overpotential hence Cl– is oxidised instead of
water.
35. See NCERT textbook, page no. 65
36. ‘A’ will have negative polarity ‘B’ will have positive polarity
37. Alternating current is used to prevent electrolysis so that concentration of ions in the solution remains constant.
38. See NCERT textbook, page no. 64
39. The pH of the solution will rise as NaOH is formed in the electrolytic cell.
40. Ions are not involved in the overall cell reaction of mercury cells.
41. Electrolyte ‘B’ is strong as on dilution the number of ions remains the same, only interionic attraction decreases therefore increase in ∧m is small.
42. pH of the solution will not be affected as [H+] remains constant.
At anode : 2H2O → O2 + 4H+ + 4e
At cathode 4H+ + 4e → 2H2

43. Conductivity decreases because number of ions per unit volume decreases.
44. Standard hydrogen electrode is the reference electrode whose electrode potential is taken to be zero. The electrode potential of other electrodes is
measured with respect to it.

45. Anode : Cu → Cu2+ + 2e

Cathode : Cl2 + 2e → 2Cl

Cu is anode as it is getting oxidised.
Cl2 is cathode as it is getting reduced.

46. Zn + Cu2+ → Zn2+ + Cu
ECell = ECellΘ – (0.059/2) log2 [Zn2+]/[Cu2+]

ECell decreases when concentration of Zn2+ ions, [Zn2+] increases.

47. Primary batteries contain a limited amount of reactants and are discharged when the reactants have been consumed. Secondary batteries can be recharged but take a long time to recharge. Fuel cell runs continuously as long as the reactants are supplied to it and products are removed continuously.

48. Pb + PbO2 + 2H2SO4 → 2PbSO4 + 2H2O

Density of electrolyte decreases as water is formed and sulphuric acid is consumed as the product during discharge of the battery.

49. In the case of CH3COOH, which is a weak electrolyte, the number of ions increase on dilution due to an increase in degree of dissociation.

In the case of strong electrolyte the number of ions remains the same but the interionic attraction decreases.

IV. Matching Type

50. (i) → (c) (ii) → (d) (iii) → (a) (iv) → (b)
51. (i) → (d) (ii) → (a) (iii) → (b) (iv) → (c)
52. (i) → (d) (ii) → (c) (iii) → (a) (iv) → (b)
53. (i) → (d) (ii) → (c) (iii) → (b) (iv) → (a)
54. (i) → (d) (ii) → (c) (iii) → (a), (e) (iv) → (b)
55. (i) → (c) (ii) → (a) (iii) → (g) (iv) → (e) (v) → (d) (vi) → (b) (vii) → (g) (f)

V. Assertion and Reason Type

56. (iii) 57. (iii) 58. (i) 59. (i) 60. (v) 61. (i) 62. (i) 63. (i) 64. (ii) 65. (iv)

VI. Long Answer Type

66. (i) Cell ‘B’ will act as electrolytic cell as it has lower emf
∴ The electrode reactions will be:
Zn2+ + 2e → Zn at cathode
Cu → Cu2+ + 2e at anode

(ii) Now cell ‘B’ acts as galvanic cell as it has higher emf and will push electrons into cell ‘A’.
The electrode reaction will be:
At anode : Zn → Zn2+ + 2e
At cathode : Cu2+ + 2e → Cu

67. Hint : (i) Electrons move from Zn to Ag.
(ii) Ag is the cathode.
(iii) Cell will stop functioning.
(iv) When ECell = 0.
(v) Concentration of Zn2+ ions will increase and concentration of Ag+ ions will decrease
(vi) When Ecell = 0 equilibrium is reached and concentration of Zn2+ ions and Ag+ ions will not change.

ELECTROCHEMISTRY

THE potential difference between two electrodes of a galvanic cell is called Cell Potential and is measured in volts. It is the difference between the reduction potentials (or oxidation potentials) of the cathode and anode. When no current is drawn from the cell it is called electromotive force (emf) of the cell.

Ecell = Ecathode – Eanode

The potential of individual half-cells cannot be measured. We can measure only the difference between the two half-cell potentials that gives the emf of the cell. According to convention, standard hydrogen electrode represented by Pt, H2 (g, 1 bar)/H+ (aq, 1M) is assigned zero potential at all temperatures corresponding to the reaction.

H+(aq) + e → 1/2 H2(g)

Half cell potentials are measured with respect to standard hydrogen electrode.

A cell is constructed by taking standard hydrogen electrode as anode (reference half cell) and under standard conditions of which cell potential is to be measured, is made cathode the other half cell. Then the cell potential is equal to the standard electrode potential of the other half cell.

EΘcell = EΘcathode because EΘanode 0

Nernst showed that electrode potential of a cell with respect to standard hydrogen electrode can be measured at any concentration. For the electrode reaction of the type:

Mn+(aq) ne M(s)

The electrode potential at any concentration measured with respect to standard hydrogen electrode can be represented by:

EMn+/M = EΘMn+/M RT/nF ln [M]/[Mn+]

the concentration of solid M is taken as unity and we have

EMn+/M = EΘMn+/M RT/nF ln 1/[Mn+]

Here R is the gas constant (8.314 JK–1mol–1), F is Faraday constant (96487C mol–1), T is the temperature in Kelvin and [Mn+] is the concentration of the species, Mn+ .

In the following experiment the variation in the cell potential of Zn/Zn2+||Cu2+ /Cu cell with concentration of electrolytes will be studied.

EXPERIMENT 4.1
Aim

To study the variation in cell potential of the cell Zn/Zn2+||Cu2+/Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4/ZnSO4) at room temperature.

Theory

The cell under investigation in this experiment is represented as follows:

Zn(s)/Zn2+(aq., 1.0M) || Cu2+ (aq., x M)/Cu(s)

Here x M denotes varying concentrations of Cu2+(aq) ions. In other words, to study the variation in cell potential with concentration, the concentration of Cu2+(aq.) is varied while that of Zn2+ (aq) is kept constant. The measured cell potential enables us to calculate the electrode potential of Cu2+/Cu electrode for each concentration of copper (II) ions. This variation is theoretically depicted according to the equation:

ECu2+/Cu = EΘCu2+/Cu + 0.059/2 log[Cu2+] (1)

The variation in the electrode potential of Cu2+/Cu electrode consequently brings variation in the cell potential according to the relation:

Ecell = ECu2+/Cu – EΘZn2+/Zn (2)

Equation (2) clearly suggests that even if EΘZn2+/Zn is kept constant, the variation in ECu2+/Cu would bring corresponding variation in Ecell (cell potential). Similarly, keeping the concentration of Cu2+ ions constant, one can study the variations in the cell potential with the variation in concentration of Zn2+ ions.

Material Required

Procedure

(i) Set up the cell as given in Fig. 4.1, using 1.0 M ZnSO4 and 0.2 M CuSO4 solution.
(ii) Measure the potential difference of the cell and also keep record of the polarity of the electrodes (this will enable us to give a sign to the cell potential ECell).
(iii) Remove the salt bridge as soon as the cell potential measurement is over.
(iv) Replace the beaker of 0.2 M CuSO4 with 0.1 M CuSO4 solution in the beaker. Place the salt bridge in position and note the cell potential.
(v) Repeat this procedure for other solutions of copper sulphate in decreasing order of concentrations of copper sulphate solution.
(vi) Calculate log [Cu2+(aq)] and then ECu2+/Cu for each variation in the concentration of copper (II) in the solution.
(vii) Record electrode potential values of Cu2+(aq)/Cu(s) electrode for different concentrations of Cu2+ ions as given in Table 4.1.
(viii) Plot a graph for the variation of cell potential with concentration taking ( ECu2+/Cu) on y-axis and log [Cu2+(aq)] on x-axis.

Table 4.1 : Record of the Cell Potential Data

Sl.No. [Cu2+(aq)]/mol L–1 log [Cu2+(aq)]/mol L–1 Ecell/V E(Cu2+/Cu) Experimental value
1. 0.2      
2. 0.1      
3. 0.05      
4. 0.025      
5. 0.0125      

Result

Write conclusion on the basis of data obtained.

Precautions

(a) Clean copper and zinc strips and connecting wires with sand paper before use.
(b) Place the salt bridge immediately in distilled water after its use.
(c) Carry out dilution of the solution to another concentration very carefully.
(d) Choose appropriate scales for plotting the graph.

Discussion Questions

(i) For the reaction given below, apply Le-Chatelier principle to justify the results recorded by you and also bring out mathematical rationalisation of your results.

(ii) Determine the slope of the graph. Match experimental value with the theoretical value. On what factors does the value of slope depend?
(iii) Devise another experiment to study the variation in cell potential with concentration of one of the ions involved in a cell reaction.
(iv) What factor is kept in mind while selecting an electrolytic solution for the construction of a salt bridge?
(v) Is it possible to measure the single electrode potential?

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Ans : – You can use GOM Player, or VLC Player. You have to have good speakers with filters or good earphones with filters. We have checked mostly it is OK with these. ( If you are depending only on your embedded speakers of computer /screen / keyboard then there may be extra distortions. As these speakers are often not of good Quality. Also install latest KL Codecs ) In any case reduce the volume see the board, imagine sitting in the last bench and solving the problems of your own. See if your solution differs anywhere with the scribbles on the board.

3 ) Why are you giving these ( high Quality ) lecture for free ?

Ans : Well there are lot of good things free in this world. Linux, My-SQL, Open-Office ….. Go to sourceforge and get thousands of high quality software free along with source code. Yes all officially free …. Why do you think Richard Stallman, Zimmerman, ….. etc are considered Guru philosophers ? In Punjab and Gurudwaras worldwide there are so many Langars where you get better food than Restaurants. ….. why ? Why do you have Dharmasalas and subsidized rest rooms near hospitals / Famous Temples / various places ? in Iftar party anyone can eat for free …. why ?

I am teaching since 1989 I have observed most students can do much better if they have the self motivation to solve and practice. Cheap books are available in second hand bookstalls, where you get thousands of Numericals to solve ….. but most students will like to blow their time going and coming for tuition, travel time …. TV for hours and hours watching cricket / Tennis games, playing computer games …. My free lectures are not going to make much difference in spending of unnecessary money for coaching ….. I know very well , how much people enjoy …. ! spending unnecessarily !!

Do you know that there are NO poor / needy students in Bangalore.

Sometime back I had tried to teach for IIT JEE FREE. Discussed with a few NGOs and social service guys. Arranged rooms but got only 1 student. We had informed many people in many ways to inform students …. We did not get students who are ready to learn for free. So I am sure these lectures are NOT FREE. If anyone learns from these, s/he changes and that’s the gain / benefit. This change ( due to learning ) is very costly …. Most do not want to learn ………..

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com
You will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

🙂

4 ) How can I get all your lectures ?

Ans : – Apart from my lectures there are approx 700 GB of PCM ( Phy, Chem, Math ) lectures. It takes approx 3 years of continuous download from scattered sources. I have ( 20,000 )Thousands of these. You can take ALL of them from me in an external 1 TB hard disk, instead of spending so much money and time again for downloading. These cover ( by Various Professors ) everything of Chemistry, Physics, Maths… Lot of this is from outside India … as foreigners have much wider heart than Indians ( as most of GNU / open source software have been developed by Non-Indians ). I observed the gaps in these videos, and thus I am solving IIT, APhO, Roorkey, IPhO Numericals. Videos made by me along with these videos gives a complete preparation.

Send me a mail at mokshya@gmail.com to contact me.

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com
You will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

🙂

5 ) How do you get benefited out of this ?

Ans :- If anyone learns we all will have better people in this world. I will have better “ YOU “.
🙂

6 ) Why do you call yourself a Zookeeper ?

Ans :- This is very nicely explained at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/z00keeper-why-do-i-call-myself-a-zoookeeper/

🙂

7 ) Where do you stay ?

Ans :- Presently I am in Bangalore.

🙂

8 ) If I need videos in a few topics can you make them for me ?

Ans :- We actively answers doubts at doubtpoint.
see http://skmclasses.weebly.com/doubtpoint.html
In case you appreciate our time and efforts involved in answering complicated Questions, then get Quality answers at doubtpoint.

🙂

9 ) Why did you write an article saying there are No Poor students ?

Ans :- There are lots of NGOs and others working for rural / poor children education at lower classes. While very less effort is on for std 9 till 12. Also see the answer in question number ( 3 ) above. In more than 2 decades of teaching I never met a Poor child who was seriously interested in ( higher ) studies. As I have a mind / thinking of a ” Physicist “, I go by ” Experimental Observation “.

It is not about what is being said about poor in media / TV etc, or ” what it should be ” ( ? ) …. It is about what I see happening. Also to add ( confuse ? you more )…. You must be knowing that in several states over many years now girl students have better ( by marks as well as by pass percentage ) result in std 10 / Board Exams….. well but NEVER a girl student came FIRST in IIT JEE … why ? [ The best rank by a Girl student is mostly in 2 digits, very rarely in single digit ] ????? So ????

🙂

10 ) How much do I have to study to make it to IIT ?

Ans :- My experience of Teaching for IIT JEE since 1989, tells me, Total 200 hours per subject ( PCM ) is sufficient. If you see my Maths and Physics videos, each subject is more than 200 hours. So if someone sees all the videos diligently, takes notes and remembers, …… Done.

🙂

11 ) What is EAMCET ?

Ans :- Engineering Agriculture and Medicine Common Entrance Test is conducted by JNT University Hyderabad on behalf of APSCHE. This examination is the gateway for entry into various professional courses offered in Government/Private Colleges in Andhra Pradesh.

12 ) In your videos are you covering other Exams apart from IIT ?

Ans : – Yes. See many videos made by solving problems of MPPET, Rajasthan / J&K CET, UPSEAT ( UPES Engineering Aptitude Test ), MHCET, BCECE ( Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination Board ), WB JEE etc

🙂

13 ) What is SCRA ?

Ans : – Special Class Railway Apprentice (SCRA) exam is conducted by Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) board, for about 10 seats.That translates into an astonishing ratio of 1 selection per 10,000 applicants. The SCRA scheme was started in 1927 by the British, to select a handful of most intelligent Indians to assist them in their Railway Operations, after training at their Railway’s largest workshop, i.e. Jamalpur Workshop, and for one year in United Kingdom. The selected candidates were required to appear in the Mechanical Engineering Degree Examination held by Engineering Council (London).

Thanks for your time. To become my friend in google+ ( search me as mokshya@gmail.com and send friend request )

Read http://edge.org/responses/what-scientific-concept-would-improve-everybodys-cognitive-toolkit
🙂
The following video is a must see for full CO2 cycle, plates of Earth, Geological activities, stability of weather
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oIuoNtRBG4w

🙂
Article in Nature says CO2 increase is good for the trees
http://thegwpf.org/science-news/6086-co2-is-greening-the-planet-savannahs-soon-to-be-covered-by-forests.html
🙂
http://climaterealists.com/index.php?id=9752

BBC documentary Crescent and Cross shows the 1000 years of fight between Christians and Muslims. Millions have been killed in the name of Religion. To decided whose GOD is better, and which GOD to follow. The fight continues.

Summary of Women
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yIpmML49hMU
🙂
The Virus of Faith
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scarHc8RA0g

🙂
The God delusion
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LVr9bJ8Sctk

🙂
cassiopeia facts about evolution
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K7tQIB4UdiY

Intermediate Fossil records shown and explained nicely Fossils, Genes, and Embryos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fdpMrE7BdHQ

The Rise Of Narcissism In Women
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wZHKCbHGlS0

🙂
13 type of women whom you should never court
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/relationships/man-woman/13-Women-you-should-never-court/articleshow/14637014.cms

🙂
Media teaching Misandry in India

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-M2txSbOPIo

Summary of problems with women
http://problemwithwomentoday.blogspot.in/2009/12/problem-with-women-today-what-in-hell.html

🙂
Eyeopener men ? women only exists
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ZAuqkqxk9A

🙂
Each of you is an Activist in some way or other. You are trying to propagate those thoughts, ideas that you feel concerned / excited about.

Did you analyze your effectiveness ?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=61qn7S9NCOs
Culturomics can help you

😀
see how biased women are. Experimental proof. Women are happy when they see another woman is beating a man ( see how women misbehave with men )

🙂
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LlFAd4YdQks

see detailed statistics at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5lHmCN3MBMI

An eye opener in Misandry
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YiTaDS_X6CU

My sincere advice would be to be EXTREMELY careful ( and preferably away ) of girls. As girls age; statistically certain behavior in them has been observed. Most Male can NOT manage those behaviors… Domestic violence, divorce etc are rising very fast. Almost in all cases boys / males are HUGE loosers. Be extremely choosy ( and think from several angles ) before even talking to a girl.
🙂
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/save-the-male/

🙂

How women manipulate men
http://www.angryharry.com/esWomenManipulateMen.htm

Gender Biased Laws in India
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/biased-laws/

🙂

Violence against Men
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MLS2E-rRynE

🙂

Only men are victimised
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4JA4EPRbWhQ

Men are BETTER than women
http://www.menarebetterthanwomen.com/
🙂

see http://www.youtube.com/watch?&v=T0xoKiH8JJM#!
🙂

Male Psychology http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uwxgavf2xWE

Women are more violent than men
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/women-are-more-violent-says-study-622388.html

🙂

In the year 2010, 168 men ended their lives everyday ( on average ). More husbands committed suicide than wives.
🙂

http://www.rediff.com/news/report/ncrb-stats-show-more-married-men-committing-suicide/20111028.htm

It is EXTREMELY unfortunate that media projects men as fools, women as superiors, Husbands as servants, and replaceable morons. In ad after ad worldwide from so many companies, similar msg to disintegrate the world is being bombarded. It is highly unacceptable misandry

🙂
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oq14WHkFq30

It is NOT at all funny that media shows violence against MEN. Some advertisers are trying to create a new ” Socially acceptable culture ” of slapping Men ( by modern city women ). We ( all men ) take objection to these advertisements.
We oppose this Misandry bad culture. Please share to increase awareness against Men bashing

🙂
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D8ecN2rh0uU

Think what are you doing … why are you doing ?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qp0HIF3SfI4

Every Man must know this …
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cIFmQHJEG1M

🙂
Manginas, White Knights, & Other Chivalrous Dogs
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oXQDtBT70B8

!
!
: ****__********__***
…….. (””(`-“’´´-´)””)
……….)…..–…….–….(
………/…..(6…_…6)….\
………\……..(..0..)….;../
……__.`.-._..’=’…_.-.`.__
…./……’###.,.–.,.###.’…\
….\__))####’#’###(((__/
……##### u r #####
……..### SWEET. ###
……/….#########…\
..__\…..\..######/…../
(.(.(____)….`.#.´..(____).).)

______________________________________________________________________

barblue
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This is part of the series on Descriptive Adjectives and words for Creative Writing. A word a day will take too long a time.
You have to read the stories much faster for easier remembering.

To learn the ” meaning ” of an adjective or word from the story. Stories are known as fiction because they have fictitious characters.
An acerbic criticism of some imaginary
( gulling, gamey, clamant, exigent, blabbing, gabbling, palavering, crotchety, inveigling, cantankerous, blarneying, wheedling, chousing ) women.

4 Zany mad shouting woman skmclasses Bangalore Subhashish Sir

Strange is this world …. Even the most harridan woman expects her husband to be uxorious.
witch chasing with broom

Reading all the stories will teach you most useful, practical, adjectives for women. The verbs explain what women do in the stories.

Humans enjoy a lot to listen to stories 🙂
It is much easier to remember a word by associating it with stories. That’s what has been done in this site.

Make sure you see

http://skmclasses.weebly.com/

and

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/accolades-and-appreciations-received-from-students-and-parents/

______________________________________________________________________

Gray ad2 - SKMClasses

Must see https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/some-points-which-i-wish-all-my-new-prospective-students-know/

Acerbic unjustified criticism SKMClasses

acerbic – Sour or bitter in taste. Harsh or corrosive in tone. “an acerbic tone piercing otherwise flowery prose”.

acerbic Tone Sour or bitter in taste Harsh or corrosive in tone

Gull person who is gullible easy to take advantage

gulling – Make a fool or dupe of. Gull – Fool or hoax. codding. twitting – Harass with persistent criticism or carping.

when will he able to take criticism wrawling yowling again

Biased world woman harassing man

carping – Persistent petty and unjustified criticism. Raise trivial objections.

Short Story describing the word Carping is given at https://nicewemen.wordpress.com/carping-persistent-petty-and-unjustified-criticism/

Short Story describing the word Caviling is given by https://nicewemen.wordpress.com/caviling-raise-trivial-objections/

caviling. chicaning. chousing – Defeat someone through trickery or deceit. jockeying, shafting

chousing Defeat through trickery deceit

She is always demanding sex SKMClasses

gamey – Suggestive of sexual impropriety. racy.

Gamey woman cheating

2 Gamay prostitutes

clamant – Conspicuously and offensively loud; given to vehement outcry. Demanding attention. “clamant needs”. clamorous.

clamant woman Conspicuously offensively loud given to vehement outcry

Mom shouting not to play

strident – Being sharply insistent on being heard. “strident demands”. Unpleasantly loud and harsh. sibilant. spirant. fricative. continuant.