NCERT CBSE Standard 12 General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements Chapter 6

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Thermodynamics illustrates why only a certain reducing element and a minimum specific temperature are suitable for reduction of a metal oxide to the metal in an extraction.

A few elements like carbon, sulphur, gold and noble gases, occur in free state while others in combined forms in the earth’s crust. The extraction and isolation of an element from its combined form involves various principles of chemistry. A particular element may occur in a variety of compounds. The process of metallurgy and isolation should be such that it is chemically feasible and commercially viable. Still, some general principles are common to all the extraction processes of metals. For obtaining a particular metal, first we look for minerals which are naturally occurring chemical substances in the earth’s crust obtainable by mining. Out of many minerals in which a metal may be found, only a few are viable to be used as sources of that metal. Such minerals are known as ores. Rarely, an ore contains only a desired substance.It is usually contaminated with earthly or undesired materials known as gangue. The extraction and isolation of metals from ores involve the following major steps:
• Concentration of the ore,
• Isolation of the metal from its concentrated ore, and
• Purification of the metal.
The entire scientific and technological process used for isolation of the metal from its ores is known as metallurgy.

In the present Unit, first we shall describe various steps for effective concentration of ores. After that we shall discuss the principles of some of the common metallurgical processes. Those principles shall include the thermodynamic and electrochemical aspects involved in the effective reduction of the concentrated ore to the metal.

6.1 Occurence of Metals

Elements vary in abundance. Among metals, aluminium is the most abundant. It is the third most abundant element in earth’s crust (8.3% approx. by weight). It is a major component of many igneous minerals including mica and clays. Many gemstones are impure forms of Al2O3 and the impurities range from Cr (in ‘ruby’) to Co (in ‘sapphire’). Iron is the second most abundant metal in the earth’s crust. It forms a variety of compounds and their various uses make it a very important element. It is one of the essential elements in biological systems as well. The principal ores of aluminium, iron, copper and zinc have been given in Table 6.1.

Table Table 6.1: Principal Ores of Some Important Metals
Metal Ores Composition
Aluminium BauxiteKaolinite (a form of clay) AlOx(OH)3-2x [where 0 < x < 1]
Iron Haematite
Magnetite
Siderite
Iron pyrites
Fe2O3
Fe3O4
FeCO3
FeS2
Copper Copper pyrites
malachite
cuprite
copper glance
CuFeS2
CuCO3.Cu(OH)2
Cu2O
Cu2S
Zinc Zinc blende or sphalerite
calamine
Zincite
ZnS
ZnCO3
ZnO

For the purpose of extraction, bauxite is chosen for aluminium. For iron, usually the oxide ores which are abundant and do not produce polluting gases (like SO2 that is produced in case iron pyrites) are taken. For copper and zinc, any of the listed ores (Table 6.1) may be used depending upon availability and other relevant factors. Before proceeding for concentration, ores are graded and crushed to reasonable size.

6.2 Concentration of Ore

Removal of the unwanted materials (e.g., sand, clays, etc.) from the ore is known as concentration, dressing or benefaction. It involves several steps and selection of these steps depends upon the differences in physical properties of the compound of the metal present and that of the gangue. The type of the metal, the available facilities and the environmental factors are also taken into consideration. Some of the important procedures are described below.

6.2.1 Hydraulic Washing

This is based on the differences in gravities of the ore and the gangue particles. It is therefore a type of gravity separation. In one such process, an upward strem of running water is used to wash the powedered ore. The lighter gangue particles are washed away and the heavier ores are left behind.

6.2.2 Magnetic Seperation

This is based on differences in magnetic properties of the ore ot the gangue (one of these two) is capable of being attracted by a magnetic field, then such seperations are carried out (e.g. in case of iron ores). The ground ore is carried on a conveyer belt which passes over a magnetic roller (fig.6.1).

6.2.3 Froth Flotation Method

This method has been in use for removing gangue from sulphide ores. in this process, a suspension of the powdered ore is made with water. To it, collectors and forth stabilizers are added. Collectors (e.g., pine oils, fatty acids, xanthates, etc.) enhance non – wettability of the mineral particles and froth stabilisers (e.g. , cresols, aniline) stabilise the forth.

The mineral particles become wet by oils while the gangue particles by water. A ratating paddle agitates the mixture and draws air in it. As a result, forth is formed which carries the mineral particles . The forth is light and is skimmed off. It is then dried for recovery of the ore particles.

Sometimes, it is possible to seperate two sulphide ores by adjusting proportion of oil to water or by using ‘depressants’. For example in case of an ore containing Zns and PbS, the depressant used is NaCN. it selectively prevents ZnS from coming to the forth but allow PbS to come with the forth.

The Innovative Washerwoman

One can do wonders if he or she has a scientific temperament and is attentive to observations. A washerwoman had an innovative mind too. While washing a miner’s Overalls, she noticed that sand and similar dirt fell to the bottom of the washtub. What was peculiar, the copper bearing compounds that had come to the clothes from the mines, were caught in the soapsuds and so tehy came to the top. One of her clients was a chemist, Mrs. Carrie Everson. The washerwoman told her experience to Mrs. Everson. The latter thought that the idea could be used for seperating copper compounds from rocky and earth materials on alrge scale. This way an invention was born. At taht time only those ore were used for extraction of copper, which contained large amounts of the metal. Invention of the Forth Flotation method made copper minning profitable even from the low – grade ores. World production of copper soared and the metal became cheaper.

6.2.4 Leaching

Leaching is often used if the ore is soluble in some suitable solvent. The following examples illustrate the procedure:
(a) Leaching of alumina from bauxite
The principal ore of aluminium, bauxite, usually contains SiO2, iron oxides and titanium oxide (TiO2) as impurities. Concentration is carried out by digesting the powdered ore with a concentrated solution of NaOH at 473 – 523 K and 35 – 36 bar pressure. This way, Al2O3 is leached out as sodium aluminate (and SiO2 too as sodium silicate) leaving the impurities behind:
Al2O3(s) + 2NaOH(aq) + 3H2O(l) → 2Na[Al(OH)4](aq)………..(6.1)
The aluminate in solution is neutralised by passing CO2 gas and hydrated Al2O3 is precipitated. At this stage, the solution is seeded with freshly prepared samples of hydrated Al2O3. which induces the precipitation:
2Na[Al(OH)4](aq) + CO2(g) → Al2O3.xH2O(s) + 2NaHCO3 (aq)……….(6.2)
The sodium silicate remains in the solution and hydrated alumina is filtered, dried and heated to give back pure Al2O3:
…………….(6.3)

(b) Other examples
In the metallurgy of silver and that of gold, the respective metal is leached with a dilute solution of NaCN or KCN in the presence of air (for O2) from which the metal is obtained later by replacement:
4M(s) + 8CN (aq)+ 2H2O(aq) + O2(g) → 4[M(CN)2](aq) + 4OH(aq) (M= Ag or Au)……… (6.4)

2[M(CN)2](aq) + Zn(s) → [Zn(CN)4]2−…………. (6.5)

Intext Question

6.1 Which of the ores mentioned in Table 6.1 can be concentrated by magnetic separation method?
6.2 What is the significance of leaching in the extraction of aluminium?

6.3 Extraction of Crude Metal From Concentrated Ore

The concentrated ore must be converted into a form which is suitable for reduction. Usually the sulphide ore is converted to oxide before reduction. Oxides are easier to reduce (for the reason see box). Thus isolation of metals from concentrated ore involves two major steps viz.,
(a) conversion to oxide, and
(b) reduction of the oxide to metal.

(a) Conversion to oxide
(i) Calcination: Calcinaton involves heating when the volatile matter escapes leaving behind the metal oxide:

(ii) Roasting: In roasting, the ore is heated in a regular supply of air in a furnace at a temperature below the melting point of the metal. Some of the reactions involving sulphide ores are:
2ZnS + 3O2 → 2ZnO + 2SO2…………(6.9)
2PbS + 3O2 → 2PbO + 2SO2…………(6.10)
2Cu2S + 3O2 → 2Cu2O + 2SO2………..(6.11)

The sulphide ores of copper are heated in reverberatory furnace. If the ore contains iron, it is mixed with silica before heating. Iron oxide ‘slags of ’* as iron silicate and copper is produced in the form of copper matte which contains Cu2S and FeS.
FeO + SiO2 → FeSiO3…………(6.12)
(slag)
The SO2 produced is utilised for manufacturing H2SO4 .

(b) Reduction of oxide to the metal Reduction of the metal oxide usually involves heating it with some other substance acting as a reducing agent (C or CO or even another metal). The reducing agent (e.g., carbon) combines with the oxygen of the metal oxide.

MxOy + yC → xM + y CO…………(6.13)

Some metal oxides get reduced easily while others are very difficult to be reduced (reduction means electron gain or electronation). In any case, heating is required. To understand the variation in the temperature requirement for thermal reductions (pyrometallurgy) and to predict which element will suit as the reducing agent for a given metal oxide (MxOy), Gibbs energy interpretations are made.

6.4 Thermodynamic Principles of Metallurgy

Some basic concepts of thermodynamics help us in understanding the theory of metallurgical transformations. Gibbs energy is the most significant term here.The change in Gibbs energy, ΔG for any process at any specified temperature, is described by the equation:
ΔG = ΔH – TΔS……………(6.14)
where, ΔH is the enthalpy change and ΔS is the entropy change for the process. For any reaction, this change could also be explained through the equation:

ΔGV = – RTlnK…………….(6.15)

where, K is the equilibrium constant of the ‘reactant – product’ system at the temperature,T. A negative ΔG implies a +ve K in equation 6.15. And this can happen only when reaction proceeds towards products. From these facts we can make the following conclusions:

1. When the value of ΔG is negative in equation 6.14, only then the reaction will proceed. If ΔS is positive, on increasing the temperature (T), the value of TΔS would increase (ΔH < TΔS) and then ΔG will become –ve.

2. If reactants and products of two reactions are put together in a system and the net ΔG of the two possible reactions is –ve, the overall reaction will occur. So the process of interpretation involves coupling of the two reactions, getting the sum of their ΔG and looking for its magnitude and sign. Such coupling is easily understood through Gibbs energy (ΔGV ) vs T plots for formation of the oxides (Fig. 6.4).

Ellingham Diagram

The graphical representation of Gibbs energy was first used by H.J.T.Ellingham. This provides a sound basis for considering the choice of reducing agent in the reduction of oxides. This is known as Ellingham Diagram. Such diagrams help us in predicting the feasibility of thermal reduction of an ore. The criterion of feasibility is that at a given temperature, Gibbs energy of the reaction must be negative.

(a) Ellingham diagram normally consists of plots of ΔfGV vs T for formation of oxides of elements i.e., for the reaction,
2xM(s) + O2(g) → 2MxO(s)

In this reaction, the gaseous amount (hence molecular randomness) is decreasing from left to right due to the consumption of gases leading to a –ve value of ΔS which changes the sign of the second term in equation (6.14). Subsequently ΔG shifts towards higher side despite rising T (normally, ΔG decreases i.e., goes to lower side with increasing temperature). The result is +ve slope in the curve for most of the reactions shown above for formation of MxO(s).

(b) Each plot is a straight line except when some change in phase (s→liq or liq→g) takes place. The temperature at which such change occurs, is indicated by an increase in the slope on +ve side (e.g., in the Zn, ZnO plot, the melting is indicated by an abrupt change in the curve).

(c) There is a point in a curve below which ΔG is negative (So MxO is stable). Above this point, MxO will decompose on its own.

(d) In an Ellingham diagram, the plots of ΔGV for oxidation (and therefore reduction of the corresponding species) of common metals and some reducing agents are given. The values of ΔfGV, etc.(for formation of oxides) at different temperatures are depicted which make the interpretation easy.

(e) Similar diagrams are also constructed for sulfides and halides and it becomes clear why reductions of MxS is difficult. There, the ΔfGV of MxS is not compensated.

Limitations of Ellingham Diagram

1. The graph simply indicates whether a reaction is possible or not i.e., the tendency of reduction with a reducing agent is indicated. This is so because it is based only on the thermodynamic concepts. It does not say about the kinetics of the reduction process (Cannot answer questions like how fast it could be ?).

2. The interpretation of ΔGV is based on K (ΔGV = – RT lnK). Thus it is presumed that the reactants and products are in equilibrium:
MxO + Ared l xM + AOox

This is not always true because the reactant/product may be solid. [However it explains how the reactions are sluggish when every species is in solid state and smooth when the ore melts down.It is interestng to note here that ΔH (enthalpy change) and the ΔS (entropy change) values for any chemical reaction remain nearly constant even on varying temperature. So the only dominant variable in equation(6.14) becomes T. However, ΔS depends much on the physical state of the compound. Since entropy depends on disorder or randomness in the system, it will increase if a compound melts (s→l) or vapourises (l→g) since molecular randomness increases on changing the phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas].

The reducing agent forms its oxide when the metal oxide is reduced. The role of reducing agent is to provide ΔG negative and large enough to make the sum of ΔG of the two reactions (oxidation of the reducing agent and reduction of the metal oxide) negative.
As we know, during reduction, the oxide of a metal decomposes:
MxO(s) → xM (solid or liq) + 1/2 O2………….(6.16)

The reducing agent takes away the oxygen. Equation 6.16 can be visualised as reverse of the oxidation of the metal. And then, the ΔfGV value is written in the usual way:

xM(s or l) + 1/2O2(g) → MxO(s) [ΔGV(M,MxO)]………….(6.17)

If reduction is being carried out through equation 6.16, the oxidation of the reducing agent (e.g., C or CO) will be there:

C(s) + 1/2 O2 (g) → CO(g) [ΔG(C, CO)]………….(6.18)

CO(g) + 1/2O2 → CO2(g) [ΔG(CO, CO2)]…………….(6.19)

If carbon is taken, there may also be complete oxidation of the element to CO2:

1/2 C(s) + 1/2 O2(g) → 1/2 CO2(g) [1/2 ΔG(C, CO2)]……….(6.20)

On subtracting equation 6.17 [it means adding its negative or the reverse form as in equation 6.16] from one of the three equations, we get:
MxO(s) + C(s) → xM(s or l) + CO(g)…………..(6.21)
MxO(s) + CO(g) → xM(s or l) + CO2(g)…………….(6.22)
MxO(s) + 1/2 C(s) → xM(s or l) + 1/2 CO2(g)……………..(6.23)

These reactions describe the actual reduction of the metal oxide, MxO that we want to accomplish. The ΔrG values for these reactions in general, can be obtained by similar subtraction of the corresponding ΔfG° values.

As we have seen, heating (i.e., increasing T) favours a negative value of ΔrG° . Therefore, the temperature is chosen such that the sum of ΔrG° in the two combined redox process is negative. In ΔrG° vs T plots, this is indicated by the point of intersection of the two curves (curve for MxO and that for the oxidation of the reducing substance). After that point, the ΔrG value becomes more negative for the combined process including the reduction of MxO. The difference in the two ΔrG° values after that point determines whether reductions of the oxide of the upper line is feasible by the element represented by the lower line. If the difference is large, the reduction is easier.

Example 6.1
Suggest a condition under which magnesium could reduce alumina.
Solution
The two equations are:
(a) 4/3 Al + O2 →2/3 Al2O3
(b) 2Mg +O2 → 2MgO
At the point of intersection of the Al2O3 and MgO curves (marked “A” in diagram 6.4), the ΔG° becomes ZERO for the reaction:
2/3 Al2O3 +2Mg → 2MgO + 4/3Al
Below that point magnesium can reduce alumina.

Example 6.2 Although thermodynamically feasible, in practice, magnesium metal is not used for the reduction of alumina in the metallurgy of aluminium. Why ?
Solution
Temperatures below the point of intersection of Al2O3 and MgO curves, magnesium can reduce alumina. But the process will be uneconomical.

Example 6.3 Why is the reduction of a metal oxide easier if the metal formed is in liquid state at the temperature of reduction?
Solution
The entropy is higher if the metal is in liquid state than when it is in solid state. The value of entropy change (ΔS) of the reduction process is more on +ve side when the metal formed is in liquid state and the metal oxide being reduced is in solid state. Thus the value of ΔG° becomes more on negative side and the reduction becomes easier.

6.4.1 Applications

(a) Extraction of iron from its oxides

Oxide ores of iron, after concentration through calcination/roasting (to remove water, to decompose carbonates and to oxidise sulphides) are mixed with limestone and coke and fed into a Blast furnace from its top. Here, the oxide is reduced to the metal. Thermodynamics helps us to understand how coke reduces the oxide and why this furnace is chosen. One of the main reduction steps in this process is:
FeO(s) + C(s) → Fe(s/l) + CO (g)………………….(6.24)

It can be seen as a couple of two simpler reactions. In one, the reduction of FeO is taking place and in the other, C is being oxidised to CO:
FeO(s) → Fe(s) + 1/2 O (g) [ΔG(FeO, Fe)]…………………….(6.25)
C(s) + 1/2 O (g) → CO (g) [ΔG(C, CO)]………………………(6.26)

When both the reactions take place to yield the equation (6.24), the net Gibbs energy change becomes:
ΔG (C, CO) + ΔG(FeO, Fe) = ΔrG ………………..6.27)

Naturally, the resultant reaction will take place when the right hand side in equation 6.27 is negative. In ΔG° vs T plot representing reaction 6.25, the plot goes upward and that representing the change C→CO
(C,CO) goes downward. At temperatures above 1073K (approx.), the C,CO line comes below the Fe,FeO line [ΔG(C, CO) ΔG(Fe, FeO)]. So in this range, coke will be reducing the FeO and will itself be oxidised to CO. In a similar way the reduction of Fe3O4 and Fe2O3 at relatively lower temperatures by CO can be explained on the basis of lower lying points of intersection of their curves with the CO, CO2 curve in Fig. 6.4.

In the Blast furnace, reduction of iron oxides takes place in different temperature ranges. Hot air is blown from the bottom of the furnace and coke is burnt to give temperature upto about 2200K in the lower portion itself. The burning of coke therefore supplies most of the heat required in the process. The CO and heat moves to upper part of the furnace. In upper part, the temperature is lower and the iron oxides (Fe2O3 and Fe3O4) coming from the top are reduced in steps to FeO. Thus, the reduction reactions taking place in the lower temperature range and in the higher temperature range, depend on the points of
corresponding intersections in the ΔrG° vs T plots. These reactions can be summarised as follows:

At 500 – 800 K (lower temperature range in the blast furnace) –
3 Fe2O3 + CO → 2 Fe3O4 + CO2…………..(6.28)
Fe3O4 + 4 CO → 3Fe + 4 CO2………………..(6.29)
Fe2O3 + CO → 2FeO + CO2…………………..(6.30)
At 900 – 1500 K (higher temperature range in the blast furnace):
C + CO2 → 2CO…………..(6.31)
FeO + CO → Fe + CO2…………..(6.32)
Limestone is also decomposed to CaO which removes silicate impurity of the ore as slag. The slag is in molten state and separates out from iron. The iron obtained from Blast furnace contains about 4% carbon and many impurities in smaller amount (e.g., S, P, Si, Mn). This is known as pig iron and cast into variety of shapes. Cast iron is different from pig iron and is made by melting pig iron with scrap iron and coke using hot air blast. It has slightly lower carbon content (about 3%) and is extremely hard and brittle.

Further Reductions

Wrought iron or malleable iron is the purest form of commercial iron and is prepared from cast iron by oxidising impurities in a reverberatory furnace lined with haematite. This haematite oxidises carbon to carbon monoxide:
Fe2O3 + 3C → 2Fe + 3CO……………..(6.33)

Limestone is added as a flux and sulphur, silicon and phosphorus are oxidised and passed into the slag. The metal is removed and freed from the slag by passing through rollers.

(b) Extraction of copper from cuprous oxide [copper(I) oxide]
In the graph of ΔrG0 vs T for formation of oxides (Fig. 6.4), the Cu2O line is almost at the top. So it is quite easy to reduce oxide ores of copper directly to the metal by heating with coke (both the lines of C, CO and C, CO2 are at much lower positions in the graph particularly after 500 – 600K). However most of the ores are sulphide and some may also contain iron. The sulphide ores are roasted/smelted to give oxides:
2Cu2S + 3O2 → 2Cu2O + 2SO2………………(6.34)
The oxide can then be easily reduced to metallic copper using coke:
Cu2O + C → 2Cu + CO…………….(6.35)

In actual process, the ore is heated in a reverberatory furnace after mixing with silica. In the furnace, iron oxide ‘slags of’ as iron silicate and copper is produced in the form of copper matte. This contains Cu2S and FeS.
FeO + SiO2 → FeSiO3……………..(6.36)
(Slag)
Copper matte is then charged into silica lined convertor. Some silica is also added and hot air blast is blown to convert the remaining FeS, FeO and Cu2S/Cu2O to the metallic copper. Following reactions take place:
2FeS + 3O2 → 2FeO + 2SO2…………(6.37)
FeO + SiO2 → FeSiO3…………..(6.38)
2Cu2S + 3O2 → 2Cu2O + 2SO2……………(6.39)
2Cu2O + Cu2S → 6Cu + SO2……………(6.40)

The solidified copper obtained has blistered appearance due to the evolution of SO2 and so it is called blister copper.

(c) Extraction of zinc from zinc oxide

The reduction of zinc oxide is done using coke. The temperature in this case is higher than that in case of copper. For the purpose of heating, the oxide is made into brickettes with coke and clay.

The metal is distilled off and collected by rapid chilling.

Intext Questions
6.3 The reaction,
Cr2O3 + 2Al → Al2O3 + 2Cr          (ΔG° = – 421 kJ)
is thermodynamically feasible as is apparent from the Gibbs energy value. Why does it not take place at room temperature?
6.4 Is it true that under certain conditions, Mg can reduce Al2O3 and Al can reduce MgO? What are those conditions?

6.5 Electrochemical principles of Metallurgy

We have seen how principles of thermodyamics are applied to pyrometallurgy. Similar principles are effective in the reductions of metal ions in solution or molten state. Here they are reduced by electrolysis or by adding some reducing element.

In the reduction of a molten metal salt, electrolysis is done. Such methods are based on electrochemical principles which could be understood through the equation,
ΔG° = – nE°F…………….(6.42)

here n is the number of electrons and E° is the electrode potential of the redox couple formed in the system. More reactive metals have large negative values of the electrode potential. So their reduction is difficult. If the difference of two E values corresponds to a positive E° and consequently negative ΔG° in equation 6.42, then the less reactive metal will come out of the solution and the more reactive metal will go to the solution, e.g.,

Cu2+(aq) + Fe(s) → Cu(s) + Fe2+(aq)………………(6.43)

In simple electrolysis, the M ions are discharged at negative electrodes (cathodes) and deposited there. Precautions are taken considering the reactivity of the metal produced and suitable materials are used as electrodes. Sometimes a flux is added for making the molten mass more conducting.

Aluminium

In the metallurgy of aluminium, purified Al2O3 is mixed with Na3AlF6 or CaF2 which lowers the melting point of the mix and brings conductivity. The fused matrix is electrolysed. Steel cathode and graphite anode are used. The overall reaction may be taken as:
2Al2O3 + 3C → 4Al + 3CO2……………(6.44)
This process of electrolysis is widely known as Hall-Heroult process.
The electrolysis of the molten mass is carried out in an electrolytic cell using carbon electrodes. The oxygen liberated at anode reacts with the carbon of anode producing CO and CO2. This way for each kg of aluminium produced, about 0.5 kg of carbon anode is burnt away. The electrolytic reactions are:
Cathode: Al3+ (melt) + 3e → Al(l)……………….(6.45)
Anode:C(s) + O (melt) → CO(g) + 2e………………..(6.46)
C(s) + 2O (melt) → CO2 (g) + 4e…………………(6.47)

Copper from Low Grade Ores and Scraps

Copper is extracted by hydrometallurgy from low grade ores. It is leached out using acid or bacteria. The solution containing Cu2+ is treated with scrap iron or H2 (equations 6.42; 6.48).
Cu (aq) + H2(g) → Cu(s) + 2H+ (aq)………………..(6.48)

Example 6.4
At a site, low grade copper ores are available and zinc and iron scraps are also available. Which of the two scraps would be more suitable for reducing the leached copper ore and why?
Solution
Zinc being above iron in the electrochemical series (more reactive metal is zinc), the reduction will be faster in case zinc scraps are used. But zinc is costlier metal than iron so using iron scraps will be advisable and advantageous.

6.6 Oxidation Reduction

Besides reductions, some extractions are based on oxidation particularly for non-metals. A very common example of extraction based on oxidation is the extraction of chlorine from brine (chlorine is abundant in sea water as common salt) .
2Cl (aq) + 2H2O(l) → 2OH (aq) + H2(g) + Cl2(g)…………..(6.49)
The ΔG° for this reaction is + 422 kJ. When it is converted to E (using ΔG° = – nE°F), we get E° = – 2.2 V. Naturally, it will require an external e.m.f. that is greater than 2.2 V. But the electrolysis requires an excess potential to overcome some other hindering reactions. Thus, Cl2 is obtained by electrolysis giving out H2 and aqueous NaOH as by-products. Electrolysis of molten NaCl is also carried out. But in that case, Na metal is produced and not NaOH.

As studied earlier, extraction of gold and silver involves leaching the metal with CN . This is also an oxidation reaction (Ag → Ag+ or Au → Au+). The metal is later recovered by displacement method.
4Au(s) + 8CN (aq) + 2H2O(aq) + O2(g) → 4[Au(CN)2] (aq) + 4OH (aq)…………..(6.50)
2[Au(CN)2] (aq) + Zn(s) → 2Au(s) + [Zn(CN)4]2− (aq)………………….(6.51)
In this reaction zinc acts as a reducing agent.

6.7 Refining

A metal extracted by any method is usually contaminated with some impurity. For obtaining metals of high purity, several techniques are
used depending upon the differences in properties of the metal and the impurity. Some of them are listed below.
(a) Distillation
(b) Liquation
(c) Electrolysis
(d) Zone refining
(e) Vapour phase refining
(f ) Chromatographic methods

These are described in detail here.

(a) Distillation
This is very useful for low boiling metals like zinc and mercury. The impure metal is evaporated to obtain the pure metal as distillate.

(b) Liquation
In this method a low melting metal like tin can be made to flow on a sloping surface. In this way it is separated from higher melting
impurities.

(c) Electrolytic refining
In this method, the impure metal is made to act as anode. A strip of the same metal in pure form is used as cathode. They are put in a suitable electrolytic bath containing soluble salt of the same metal. The more basic metal remains in the solution and the less basic ones go to the anode mud. This process is also explained using the concept of electrode potential, over potential, and Gibbs energy which you have seen in previous sections. The reactions are:
Anode: M → Mn+ + ne
Cathode: Mn+ + ne → M…………….(6.52)

Copper is refined using an electrolytic method. Anodes are of impure copper and pure copper strips are taken as cathode. The electrolyte is acidified solution of copper sulphate and the net result of electrolysis is the transfer of copper in pure form from the anode to the cathode:
Anode: Cu → Cu2+ + 2 e
Cathode: Cu2+ + 2e → Cu………………….(6.53)

Impurities from the blister copper deposit as anode mud which contains antimony, selenium, tellurium, silver, gold and platinum; recovery of these elements may meet the cost of refining. Zinc may also be refined this way.

(d) Zone refining
This method is based on the principle that the impurities are more soluble in the melt than in the solid state of the metal. A circular mobile heater is fixed at one end of a rod of the impure metal (Fig. 6.7). The molten zone moves along with the heater which is moved forward. As the heater moves forward, the pure metal crystallises out of the melt and the impurities pass on into the adjacent molten zone. The process is repeated several times and the heater is moved in the same direction. At one end, impurities get concentrated. This end is cut off. This method is very useful for producing semiconductor and other metals of very high purity, e.g., germanium, silicon, boron, gallium and indium.

(e) Vapour phase refining
In this method, the metal is converted into its volatile compound and collected elsewhere. It is then decomposed to give pure metal. So, the two requirements are:
(i) the metal should form a volatile compound with an available reagent,
(ii) the volatile compound should be easily decomposable, so that the recovery is easy.

Following examples will illustrate this technique.

Mond Process for Refining Nickel: In this process, nickel is heated in a stream of carbon monoxide forming a volatile complex, nickel tetracarbonyl:

The carbonyl is subjected to higher temperature so that it is decomposed giving the pure metal:

van Arkel Method for Refining Zirconium or Titanium:

This method is very useful for removing all the oxygen and nitrogen present in the form of impurity in certain metals like Zr and Ti. The crude metal is heated in an evacuated vessel with iodine. The metal iodide being
more covalent, volatilises:
Zr + 2I2 → ZrI4…………………..(6.56)
The metal iodide is decomposed on a tungsten filament, electrically heated to about 1800K. The pure metal is thus deposited on the
filament.
ZrI4 → Zr + 2I2…………………….(6.57)

(f) Chromatographic methods
This method is based on the principle that different components of a mixture are differently adsorbed on an adsorbent. The mixture is put in a liquid or gaseous medium which is moved through the adsorbent. Different components are adsorbed at different levels on the column. Later the adsorbed components are removed (eluted) by using suitable solvents (eluant). Depending upon the physical state of the moving medium and the adsorbent material and also on the process of passage of the moving medium, the chromatographic method* is given the name. In one such method the column of Al2O3 is prepared in a glass tube and the moving medium containing a solution of the components is in liquid form. This is an example of column chromatography. This is very useful for purification of the elements which are available in minute quantities and the impurities are not very different in chemical properties from the element to be purified. There are several chromatographic techniques such as paper chromatography, column chromatography, gas chromatography, etc. Procedures followed in column chromatography have been depicted in Fig. 6.8.

6.8 Uses of Aluminium , copper, Zinc and Iron

Aluminium foils are used as wrappers for chocolates. The fine dust of the metal is used in paints and lacquers. Aluminium, being highly reactive, is also used in the extraction of chromium and manganese from their oxides. Wires of aluminium are used as electricity conductors. Alloys containing aluminium, being light, are very useful.

Copper is used for making wires used in electrical industry and for water and steam pipes. It is also used in several alloys that are rather tougher than the metal itself, e.g., brass (with zinc), bronze (with tin) and coinage alloy (with nickel).

Zinc is used for galvanising iron. It is also used in large quantities in batteries, as a constituent of many alloys, e.g., brass, (Cu 60%, Zn 40%) and german silver (Cu 25-30%, Zn 25-30%, Ni 40–50%). Zinc dust is used as a reducing agent in the manufacture of dye-stuffs, paints, etc.

Cast iron, which is the most important form of iron, is used for casting stoves, railway sleepers, gutter pipes , toys, etc. It is used in the manufacture of wrought iron and steel. Wrought iron is used in making anchors, wires, bolts, chains and agricultural implements. Steel finds a number of uses. Alloy steel is obtained when other metals are added to it. Nickel steel is used for making cables, automobiles and aeroplane parts, pendulum, measuring tapes, chrome steel for cutting tools and crushing machines, and stainless steel for cycles, automobiles, utensils, pens, etc.

Summary
Metals are required for a variety of purposes. For this, we need their extraction from the minerals in which they are present and from which their extraction is commercially feasible.These minerals are known as ores. Ores of the metal are associated with many impurities. Removal of these impurities to certain extent is achieved in concentration steps. The concentrated ore is then treated chemically for obtaining the metal. Usually the metal compounds (e.g., oxides, sulphides) are reduced to the metal. The reducing agents used are carbon, CO or even some metals. In these reduction processes, the thermodynamic and electrochemical concepts are given due consideration. The metal oxide reacts with a reducing agent; the oxide is reduced to the metal and the reducing agent is oxidised. In the two reactions, the net Gibbs energy change is negative, which becomes more negative on raising the temperature. Conversion of the physical states from solid to liquid or to gas, and formation of gaseous states favours decrease in the Gibbs energy for the entire system. This concept is graphically displayed in plots of ΔG° vs T (Ellingham diagram) for such oxidation/reduction reactions at different temperatures. The concept of electrode potential is useful in the isolation of metals (e.g., Al, Ag, Au) where the sum of the two redox couples is +ve so that the Gibbs energy change is negative. The metals obtained by usual methods still contain minor impurities. Getting pure metals require refining. Refining process depends upon the differences in properties of the metal and the impurities. Extraction of aluminium is usually carried out from its bauxite ore by leaching it with NaOH. Sodium aluminate, thus formed, is separated and then neutralised to give back the hydrated oxide, which is then electrolysed using cryolite as a flux. Extraction of iron is done by reduction of its oxide ore in blast furnace. Copper is extracted by smelting and heating in a reverberatory furnace. Extraction of zinc from zinc oxides is done using coke. Several methods are employed in refining the metal. Metals, in general, are very widely used and have contributed significantly in the development of a variety of industries.

A Summary of the Occurrence and Extraction of some Metals is Presented in the following Table
Metal Occurrence Common method of extraction Remarks
Aluminium 1. Bauxite, Al2O3.xH2O2. Cryolite, Na3AlF6 Electrolysis of Al2O3 dissolved in molten Na3AlF6 For the extraction, a good source of electricity is required.
Iron 1. Haematite, Fe2O3 2. Magnetite, Fe3O4 Reduction of the oxide with CO and coke in Blast furnace Temperature approaching 2170 K is required.
Copper 1. Copper pyrites, CuFeS22. copper glance, Cu2S3. malachite, CuCO3.Cu(OH)24. cuprite, Cu2O Roasting of sulphide partially and reduction It is self reduction in a specially designed converter. The reduction takes place easily. Sulphuric acid leaching is also used in hydrometallurgy from low grade ores.
Zinc Zinc blende or sphalerite, ZnS2. Calamine, ZnCO33. Zincite, ZnO Roasting followed by reduction with coke The metal may be purified by fractional distillation.

Exercises
6.1 Copper can be extracted by hydrometallurgy but not zinc. Explain.
6.2 What is the role of depressant in froth floatation process?
6.3 Why is the extraction of copper from pyrites more difficult than that from its oxide ore through reduction?
6.4 Explain: (i) Zone refining (ii) Column chromatography.
6.5 Out of C and CO, which is a better reducing agent at 673 K ?
6.6 Name the common elements present in the anode mud in electrolytic refining of copper. Why are they so present ?
6.7 Write down the reactions taking place in different zones in the blast furnace during the extraction of iron.
6.8 Write chemical reactions taking place in the extraction of zinc from zinc blende.
6.9 State the role of silica in the metallurgy of copper.
6.10 What is meant by the term “chromatography”?
6.11 What criterion is followed for the selection of the stationary phase in chromatography?
6.12 Describe a method for refining nickel.
6.13 How can you separate alumina from silica in a bauxite ore associated with silica? Give equations, if any.
6.14 Giving examples, differentiate between ‘roasting’ and ‘calcination’.
6.15 How is ‘cast iron’ different from ‘pig iron”?
6.16 Differentiate between “minerals” and “ores”.
6.17 Why copper matte is put in silica lined converter?
6.18 What is the role of cryolite in the metallurgy of aluminium?
6.19 How is leaching carried out in case of low grade copper ores?
6.20 Why is zinc not extracted from zinc oxide through reduction using CO?
6.21 The value of ΔfG0 for formation of Cr2O3 is – 540 kJmol−1 and that of Al2O3 is – 827 kJmol−1. Is the reduction of Cr2O3 possible with Al ?
6.22 Out of C and CO, which is a better reducing agent for ZnO ?
6.23 The choice of a reducing agent in a particular case depends on thermodynamic factor. How far do you agree with this statement? Support your opinion with two examples.
6.24 Name the processes from which chlorine is obtained as a by-product. What will happen if an aqueous solution of NaCl is subjected to electrolysis?
6.25 What is the role of graphite rod in the electrometallurgy of aluminium?
6.26 Outline the principles of refining of metals by the following methods:
(i) Zone refining
(ii) Electrolytic refining
(iii) Vapour phase refining
6.27 Predict conditions under which Al might be expected to reduce MgO.
(Hint: See Intext question 6.4)

Answers to Some Intext Questions

6.1 Ores in which one of the components (either the impurity or the actual ore) is magnetic can be concentrated, e.g., ores containing iron (haematite, magnetite, siderite and iron pyrites).
6.2 Leaching is significant as it helps in removing the impurities like SiO2, Fe2O3, etc. from the bauxite ore.
6.3 Certain amount of activation energy is essential even for such reactions which are thermodynamically feasible, therefore heating is required.
6.4 Yes, below 1350°C Mg can reduce Al2O3 and above 1350°C, Al can reduce MgO. This can be inferred from ΔGV Vs T plots (Fig. 6.4).


I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)

1. In the extraction of chlorine by electrolysis of brine ____________.

(i) oxidation of Cl ion to chlorine gas occurs.
(ii) reduction of Cl ion to chlorine gas occurs.
(iii) For overall reaction ΔGΘ has negative value.
(iv) a displacement reaction takes place.

2. When copper ore is mixed with silica, in a reverberatory furnace copper matte is produced. The copper matte contains ____________.

(i) sulphides of copper (II) and iron (II)
(ii) sulphides of copper (II) and iron (III)
(iii) sulphides of copper (I) and iron (II)
(iv) sulphides of copper (I) and iron (III)

3. Which of the following reactions is an example of autoreduction?

(i) Fe3O4 + 4CO → 3Fe + 4CO2
(ii) Cu2O + C → 2Cu + CO
(iii) Cu2+ (aq) + Fe (s) → Cu (s) + Fe2+ (aq)
(iv) Cu2O +12Cu2S → 3Cu +12SO2

4. A number of elements are available in earth’s crust but most abundant elements are ____________.

(i) Al and Fe
(ii) Al and Cu
(iii) Fe and Cu
(iv) Cu and Ag

5. Zone refining is based on the principle that ___________.

(i) impurities of low boiling metals can be separated by distillation.
(ii) impurities are more soluble in molten metal than in solid metal.
(iii) different components of a mixture are differently adsorbed on an adosrbent.
(iv) vapours of volatile compound can be decomposed in pure metal.

6. In the extraction of copper from its sulphide ore, the metal is formed by the reduction of Cu2+O with

(i) FeS
(ii) CO
(iii) Cu2+S
(iv) SO2+

7. Brine is electrolysed by using inert electrodes. The reaction at anode is ________.

(i) Cl(aq.) → 12Cl2+(g) + e ; Cell EΘ = 1.36V
(ii) 2H2O(l ) → O2(g) + 4H+ + 4e ; Cell EΘ = 1.23V
(iii) Na+(aq.) + e → Na(s) ; Cell EΘ = 2.71V
(iv) H+(aq.) + e → 12H2(g) ; Cell EΘ = 0.00V

8. In the metallurgy of aluminium ________________.

(i) Al3+ is oxidised to Al (s).
(ii) graphide anode is oxidised to carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.
(iii) oxidation state of oxygen changes in the reaction at anode.
(iv) oxidation state of oxygen changes in the overall reaction involved in the process.

9. Electrolytic refining is used to purify which of the following metals?

(i) Cu and Zn
(ii) Ge and Si
(iii) Zr and Ti
(iv) Zn and Hg

10. Extraction of gold and silver involves leaching the metal with CN ion. The metal is recovered by ________________.

(i) displacement of metal by some other metal from the complex ion.
(ii) roasting of metal complex.
(iii) calcination followed by roasting.
(iv) thermal decomposition of metal complex.
Note : Answer the questions 11-13 on the basis of Fig. 6.1.

11. Choose the correct option of temperature at which carbon reduces FeO to iron and produces CO.

(i) Below temperature at point A.
(ii) Approximately at the temperature corresponding to point A.
(iii) Above temperature at point A but below temperature at point D.
(iv) Above temperature at point A.

12. Below point ‘A’ FeO can ______________.

(i) be reduced by carbon monoxide only.
(ii) be reduced by both carbon monoxide and carbon.
(iii) be reduced by carbon only.
(iv) not be reduced by both carbon and carbon monoxide.

13. For the reduction of FeO at the temperature corresponding to point D, which of the following statements is correct?

(i) ΔG value for the overall reduction reaction with carbon monoxide iszero.
(ii) ΔG value for the overall reduction reaction with a mixture of 1 mol carbon and 1 mol oxygen is positive.
(iii) ΔG value for the overall reduction reaction with a mixture of 2 mol carbon and 1 mol oxygen will be positive.
(iv) ΔG value for the overall reduction reaction with carbon monoxide is negative.

II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)

Note : In the following questions two or more options may be correct.

14. At the temperature corresponding to which of the points in Fig.6.1, FeO will be reduced to Fe by coupling the reaction 2FeO ⎯→ 2Fe + O2 with all of the following reactions?

(a) C + O2 → CO2 (b) 2C + O2 → 2CO and (c) 2CO + O2 → 2CO2

(i) Point A
(ii) Point B
(iii) Point D
(iv) Point E

15. Which of the following options are correct?

(i) Cast iron is obtained by remelting pig iron with scrap iron and coke using hot air blast.
(ii) In extraction of silver, silver is extracted as cationic complex.
(iii) Nickel is purified by zone refining.
(iv) Zr and Ti are purified by van Arkel method.

16. In the extraction of aluminium by Hall-Heroult process, purified Al2O3 is mixed with CaF2 to

(i) lower the melting point of Al2O3.
(ii) increase the conductivity of molten mixture.
(iii) reduce Al3+ into Al(s).
(iv) acts as catalyst.

17. Which of the following statements is correct about the role of substances added in the froth floation process?

(i) Collectors enhance the non-wettability of the mineral particles.
(ii) Collectors enhance the wettability of gangue particles.
(iii) By using depressants in the process two sulphide ores can be separated.
(iv) Froth stabilisers decrease wettability of gangue.

18. In the Froth Floatation process, zinc sulphide and lead sulphide can be separated by ______________.

(i) using collectors.
(ii) adjusting the proportion of oil to water.
(iii) using depressant.
(iv) using froth stabilisers.

19. Common impurities present in bauxite are ____________.

(i) CuO
(ii) ZnO
(iii) Fe2O3
(iv) SiO2

20. Which of the following ores are concentrated by froth floation?

(i) Haematite
(ii) Galena
(iii) Copper pyrites
(iv) Magnetite

21. Which of the following reactions occur during calcination?

(i) CaCO3 → CaO + CO2
(ii) 2FeS2 + 11/2O2 → Fe2O3 + 4SO2
(iii) Al2O3.x H2O → Al2O3 + x H2O
(iv) ZnS + 3/2 O2 → ZnO + SO2

22. For the metallurgical process of which of the ores calcined ore can be reduced by carbon?

(i) haematite
(ii) calamine
(iii) iron pyrites
(iv) sphalerite

23. The main reactions occurring in blast furnace during extraction of iron from haematite are ________.

(i) Fe2O3 + 3CO → 2Fe + 3CO2
(ii) FeO + SiO2 → FeSiO3
(iii) Fe2O3 + 3C → 2Fe + 3CO
(iv) CaO + SiO2 → CaSiO3

24. In which of the following method of purification, metal is converted to its volatile compound which is decomposed to give pure metal?

(i) heating with stream of carbon monoxide.
(ii) heating with iodine.
(iii) liquation.
(iv) distillation.

25. Which of the following statements are correct?

(i) A depressant prevents certain type of particle to come to the froth.
(ii) Copper matte contains Cu2S and ZnS.
(iii) The solidified copper obtained from reverberatory furnace has blistered appearance due to evolution of SO2 during the extraction.
(iv) Zinc can be extracted by self-reduction.

26. In the extraction of chlorine from brine _____________.

(i) ΔGΘ for the overall reaction is negative.
(ii) ΔGΘ for the overall reaction is positive.
(iii) EΘ for overall reaction has negative value.
(iv) EΘ for overall reaction has positive value.

III. Short Answer Type

27. Why is an external emf of more than 2.2V required for the extraction of Cl2 from brine?
28. At temperatures above 1073K coke can be used to reduce FeO to Fe. How can you justify this reduction with Ellingham diagram?
29. Wrought iron is the purest form of iron. Write a reaction used for the preparation of wrought iron from cast iron. How can the impurities of sulphur, silicon and phosphorus be removed from cast iron?
30. How is copper extracted from low grade copper ores?
31. Write two basic requirements for refining of a metal by Mond process and by Van Arkel Method.
32. Although carbon and hydrogen are better reducing agents but they are not used to reduce metallic oxides at high temperatures. Why?
33. How do we separate two sulphide ores by Froth Floatation Method? Explain with an example.
34. The purest form of iron is prepared by oxidising impurities from cast iron in a reverberatory furnace. Which iron ore is used to line the furnace? Explain by giving reaction.
35. The mixture of compounds A and B is passed through a column of Al2O3 by using alcohol as eluant. Compound A is eluted in preference to compound B. Which of the compounds A or B, is more readily adsorbed on the column?
36. Why is sulphide ore of copper heated in a furnace after mixing with silica?
37. Why are sulphide ores converted to oxide before reduction?
38. Which method is used for refining Zr and Ti? Explain with equation.
39. What should be the considerations during the extraction of metals by electrochemical method?
40. What is the role of flux in metallurgical processes?
41. How are metals used as semiconductors refined? What is the principle of the method used?
42. Write down the reactions taking place in Blast furnace related to the metallurgy of iron in the temperature range 500-800 K.
43. Give two requirements for vapour phase refining.
44. Write the chemical reactions involved in the extraction of gold by cyanide process. Also give the role of zinc in the extraction.

IV. Matching Type

Note : Match the items given in Column I and Column II in the following questions.

45. Match the items of Column I with items of Column II and assign the correct code:

Column I Column II
(A) Pendulum (1) Chrome steel
(B) Malachite (2) Nickel steel
(C) Calamine (3) Na3AlF6
(D) Cryolite (4) CuCO3.Cu (OH)2
(5) ZnCO3

Code :

(i) A(1) B(2) C(3) D(4)
(ii) A(2) B(4) C(5) D(3)
(iii) A(2) B(3) C(4) D(5)
(iv) A(4) B(5) C(3) D(2)

46. Match the items of Column I with the items of Column II and assign the correct code :

Column I Column II
(A) Coloured bands (1) Zone refining
(B) Impure metal to volatile complex (2) Fractional distillation
(C) Purification of Ge and Si (3) Mond Process
(D) Purification of mercury (4) Chromatography
(5) Liquation

Code :

(i) A(1) B(2) C(4) D(5)
(ii) A(4) B(3) C(1) D(2)
(iii) A(3) B(4) C(2) D(1)
(iv) A(5) B(4) C(3) D(2)

47. Match items of Column I with the items of Column II and assign the correct code :

Column I Column II
(A) Cyanide process (1) Ultrapure Ge
(B) Froth Floatation Process (2) Dressing of ZnS
(C) Electrolytic reduction (3) Extraction of Al
(D) Zone refining (4) Extraction of Au
(5) Purification of Ni

Code :

(i) A(4) B(2) C(3) D(1)
(ii) A(2) B(3) C(1) D(5)
(iii) A(1) B(2) C(3) D(4)
(iv) A(3) B(4) C(5) D(1)

48. Match the items of Column I with the items of Column II and assign the correct code :

Column I Column II
(A) Sapphire (1) Al2O3
(B) Sphalerite (2) NaCN
(C) Depressant (3) Co
(D) Corundum (4) ZnS
(5) Fe2O3

Code :

(i) A(3) B(4) C(2) D(1)
(ii) A(5) B(4) C(3) D(2)
(iii) A(2) B(3) C(4) D(5)
(iv) A(1) B(2) C(3) D(4)

49. Match the items of Column I with items of Column II and assign the correct code :

Column I Column II
(A) Blisterred Cu (1) Aluminium
(B) Blast furnace (2) 2Cu2O + Cu2S → 6Cu + SO2
(C) Reverberatory furnace (3) Iron
(D) Hall-Heroult process (4) FeO + SiO2 → FeSiO3
(5) 2Cu2S + 3O2 → 2Cu2 + 2SO2

Code :

(i) A(2) B(3) C(4) D(1)
(ii) A(1) B(2) C(3) D(5)
(iii) A(5) B(4) C(3) D(2)
(iv) A(4) B(5) C(3) D(2)

V. Assertion and Reason Type

Note : In the following questions a statement of assertion followed by a statement of reason is given. Choose the correct answer out of the following choices.

(i) Both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion.
(ii) Both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.
(iii) Assertion is true but reason is false.
(iv) Assertion is false but reason is true.
(v) Assertion and reason both are wrong.

50. Assertion : Nickel can be purified by Mond process.
Reason : Ni (CO)4 is a volatile compound which decomposes at 460K to give pure Ni.

51. Assertion : Zirconium can be purificed by Van Arkel method.
Reason : ZrI4 is volatile and decomposes at 1800K.

52. Assertion : Sulphide ores are concentrated by Froth Flotation method.
Reason : Cresols stabilise the froth in Froth Flotation method.

53. Assertion : Zone refining method is very useful for producing semiconductors.
Reason : Semiconductors are of high purity.

54. Assertion : Hydrometallurgy involves dissolving the ore in a suitable reagent followed by precipitation by a more electropositive metal.
Reason : Copper is extracted by hydrometallurgy.

VI. Long Answer Type

55. Explain the following :
(a) CO2 is a better reducing agent below 710K whereas CO is a better reducing agent above 710K.
(b) Generally sulphide ores are converted into oxides before reduction.
(c) Silica is added to the sulphide ore of copper in the reverberatory furnace.
(d) Carbon and hydrogen are not used as reducing agents at high temperatures.
(e) Vapour phase refining method is used for the purification of Ti.

ANSWERS

I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)

1. (iii)     2. (iii)     3. (iv)     4. (i)     5. (ii)     6. (iii)     7. (i)     8. (ii)     9. (i)     10. (i)     11. (iv)     12. (i)     13. (i)

II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)

14. (ii), (iv)     15. (i), (iv)     16. (i), (ii)     17. (i), (iii)     18. (ii), (iii)     19. (iii), (iv)     20. (ii), (iii)     21. (i), (iii)     22. (i), (ii)     23. (i), (iv)     24. (i), (ii)     25. (i), (iii)     26. (ii), (iii)

III. Short Answer Type

27. For the reaction
2Cl(aq) + 2H2O (l) → 2OH(aq)+ H(g)+Cl(g)

Value of ΔGΘ is + 422kJ. Using the equation ΔGΘ = – nFEΘ the value of EΘ comes out to be –2.2V. Therefore extraction of Cl2 from brine will require an external emf of greater than 2.2V.

28. As per Ellingham diagram at temperatures greater than 1073 K ΔG(C, CO) < ΔG(Fe, FeO). Hence coke can reduce FeO to Fe.
29. Fe2O3 + 3C → 2Fe + 3CO
Limestone is added as flux and sulphur, silicon and phosphorus change to their oxides and pass into the slag.

30. Copper is extracted by hydrometallurgy from low grade copper ores. It is leached out using acid or bacteria. The solution containing Cu2+ is treated with scrap iron, Zn or H2.

Cu2+(aq) + H2(g) → Cu(s)+ 2H+ (aq)
Cu2+ + Fe(s) →Fe2+(aq)+ Cu(s)

31. Basic requirements for both processes are :
(i) The metal should form a volatile compound with an available reagent.
(ii) The volatile compound should be easily decomposable, so that recovery of metal is easy.

32. It is because at high temperature carbon and hydrogen react with metals to form carbides and hydrides respectively.

33. Two sulphide ores can be separated by adjusting proportion of oil to water or by using depressants. For example, in the case of an ore containing ZnS and PbS, the depressant NaCN is used. It forms complex with ZnS and prevents it from coming with froth but PbS remains with froth.
34. Haematite
Fe2O3 + 3C → 2Fe + 3CO
35. Since compound ‘A’ comes out before compound ‘B’, the compound ‘B’ is more readily adsorbed on column.
36. Iron oxide present as impurity in sulphide ore of copper forms slag which is iron silicate and copper is produced in the form of copper matte.
FeO + SiO2 → FeSiO3

37. Sulphides are not reduced easily but oxides are easily reduced.
38. van Arkel method is used for refining Zr and Ti. In this method crude metal is heated with iodine.
Zr + 2I2 → ZrI4

39. Generally two things are considered so that proper precautions can be taken.
(i) reactivity of metal produced.
(ii) suitability of electrodes.
40. Flux is used for making the molten mass more conducting.
41. Semiconducting metal is produced by zone refining method which is based on the principle that the impurities are more soluble in melt than in the solid state of metals.
42. 3Fe2O3 + CO → 2Fe3O4 + CO2
Fe3O4 + 4CO → 3Fe + 4CO2
Fe2O3 + CO → 2FeO + CO2

43. (i) The metal should form a volatile compound with available reagent.
(ii) The volatile compound should be easily decomposable so that the recovery is easy.

44. 4Au (s) + 8CN(aq) + 2H2O (aq) + O2 (g) → 4 [Au (CN)2 (aq) + 4OH (aq)
2[Au(CN)2](aq) + Zn(s) → 2Au(s) + [Zn(CN)4]2–(aq)
In this reaction zinc acts as a reducing agent.

IV. Matching Type

45. (ii) 46. (ii) 47. (i) 48. (i) 49. (i)

V. Assertion and Reason Type

50. (i) 51. (i) 52. (ii) 53. (ii) 54. (ii)

VI. Long Answer Type

55. (a) Hint : Use Ellingham diagram
(b) Hint : Oxides are easier to reduce. See Ellingham diagram.
(c) Hint : Sulphide ore of copper contains iron as impurity which is removed as iron silicate (slag)
FeO + SiO2 → FeSiO3
(Slag)

(d) Hint : Carbon and hydrogen react with metals at high temperature to form carbides and hydrides respectively.
(e) Hint : Ti reacts with iodine to form volatile TiI4 which decomposes at high temperature to give extra pure titanium.

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Simplified Knowledge Management Classes

Must see https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/some-points-which-i-wish-all-my-new-prospective-students-know/
🙂
Do you want to make money working at home ?
see http://skmclasses.weebly.com/jobs.html

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you will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

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The following Videos are available for you ( As of Now ). These explain tricky Physics and Mathematics Numericals.

Eventually I will try to give Videos for full course here for you.

These covers PU ( Pre University courses, school / college ) courses, IIT JEE, AIEEE ( All India Engineering Entrance Examination ) , CET ( Combined Engineering Test ), AIPMT ( All India Pre Medical Test ), ISc ( Intermediate Science / Indian School Certificate Exam ), CBSE ( Central Board Secondary Exam ), Roorkey Joint Entrance Test Questions ( Discontinued since 2002 ), APhO ( Asian Physics Olympiad ), IPhO ( International Physics Olympiad ), IMO ( International Mathematics Olympiad ) , NSEP ( National Standard Exam in Physics ), RMO ( Regional Math Olympiad , India ), INMO ( Indian National Maths Olympiad ), Irodov Solutions, Prof. H C Verma ( Concepts of Physics ) Solutions etc.

( You can see the history of Indian Participation in various Olympiads at ->
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/indian-participation-in-ipho-icho-ibo-and-astronomy-olympiad/ )

[ In each of these videos there is at-least 1 or more errors. Please tell me about those ]

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com
You should get to see all the Uploaded videos. Though we have many more study videos.

Thanks and Regards
Zookeeper ;-D Subhashish Chattopadhyay

[ I suggest you see the videos starting with 1- first then starting with 2- ….. in that sequence. ]

[ Tell your friends about this link if you liked the videos ]

In case of doubts or suggestions, Please send me email at mokshya@gmail.com

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com

Answers to -> Frequently Asked Questions ( FAQ ) [ commonly asked intelligent Questions 🙂 ]

1 ) How do I prepare for IIT ?

Ans : – See the videos made by me ( search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com
Though we have many more which have not been uploaded ). While watching the videos, take notes and try to solve the problems yourself by pausing the video. Tell me if any calculation is wrong. See the videos with 1- first then 2- and so on. Write to IAPT Kothrud, Pune office to buy ( 150 Rs approx ) the book with previous papers of NSEP ( National Standard Exam in Physics – The 1st level ), INPhO ( Indian National Physics Olympiad – 2nd level ). Prepare with these and see how much you are scoring. You can guess your ALL INDIA rank easily from NSEP, and INPhO rank. Since 1998 the IIT JEE toppers have been mostly representing India in IPhO.

2 ) Which codec and Player do I use to see the videos ?

Ans : – You can use GOM Player, or VLC Player. You have to have good speakers with filters or good earphones with filters. We have checked mostly it is OK with these. ( If you are depending only on your embedded speakers of computer /screen / keyboard then there may be extra distortions. As these speakers are often not of good Quality. Also install latest KL Codecs ) In any case reduce the volume see the board, imagine sitting in the last bench and solving the problems of your own. See if your solution differs anywhere with the scribbles on the board.

3 ) Why are you giving these ( high Quality ) lecture for free ?

Ans : Well there are lot of good things free in this world. Linux, My-SQL, Open-Office ….. Go to sourceforge and get thousands of high quality software free along with source code. Yes all officially free …. Why do you think Richard Stallman, Zimmerman, ….. etc are considered Guru philosophers ? In Punjab and Gurudwaras worldwide there are so many Langars where you get better food than Restaurants. ….. why ? Why do you have Dharmasalas and subsidized rest rooms near hospitals / Famous Temples / various places ? in Iftar party anyone can eat for free …. why ?

I am teaching since 1989 I have observed most students can do much better if they have the self motivation to solve and practice. Cheap books are available in second hand bookstalls, where you get thousands of Numericals to solve ….. but most students will like to blow their time going and coming for tuition, travel time …. TV for hours and hours watching cricket / Tennis games, playing computer games …. My free lectures are not going to make much difference in spending of unnecessary money for coaching ….. I know very well , how much people enjoy …. ! spending unnecessarily !!

Do you know that there are NO poor / needy students in Bangalore.

Sometime back I had tried to teach for IIT JEE FREE. Discussed with a few NGOs and social service guys. Arranged rooms but got only 1 student. We had informed many people in many ways to inform students …. We did not get students who are ready to learn for free. So I am sure these lectures are NOT FREE. If anyone learns from these, s/he changes and that’s the gain / benefit. This change ( due to learning ) is very costly …. Most do not want to learn ………..

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com
You will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

🙂

4 ) How can I get all your lectures ?

Ans : – Apart from my lectures there are approx 700 GB of PCM ( Phy, Chem, Math ) lectures. It takes approx 3 years of continuous download from scattered sources. I have ( 20,000 )Thousands of these. You can take ALL of them from me in an external 1 TB hard disk, instead of spending so much money and time again for downloading. These cover ( by Various Professors ) everything of Chemistry, Physics, Maths… Lot of this is from outside India … as foreigners have much wider heart than Indians ( as most of GNU / open source software have been developed by Non-Indians ). I observed the gaps in these videos, and thus I am solving IIT, APhO, Roorkey, IPhO Numericals. Videos made by me along with these videos gives a complete preparation.

Send me a mail at mokshya@gmail.com to contact me.

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.kinja.com
You will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

🙂

5 ) How do you get benefited out of this ?

Ans :- If anyone learns we all will have better people in this world. I will have better “ YOU “.
🙂

6 ) Why do you call yourself a Zookeeper ?

Ans :- This is very nicely explained at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/z00keeper-why-do-i-call-myself-a-zoookeeper/

🙂

7 ) Where do you stay ?

Ans :- Presently I am in Bangalore.

🙂

8 ) If I need videos in a few topics can you make them for me ?

Ans :- We actively answers doubts at doubtpoint.
see http://skmclasses.weebly.com/doubtpoint.html
In case you appreciate our time and efforts involved in answering complicated Questions, then get Quality answers at doubtpoint.

🙂

9 ) Why did you write an article saying there are No Poor students ?

Ans :- There are lots of NGOs and others working for rural / poor children education at lower classes. While very less effort is on for std 9 till 12. Also see the answer in question number ( 3 ) above. In more than 2 decades of teaching I never met a Poor child who was seriously interested in ( higher ) studies. As I have a mind / thinking of a ” Physicist “, I go by ” Experimental Observation “.

It is not about what is being said about poor in media / TV etc, or ” what it should be ” ( ? ) …. It is about what I see happening. Also to add ( confuse ? you more )…. You must be knowing that in several states over many years now girl students have better ( by marks as well as by pass percentage ) result in std 10 / Board Exams….. well but NEVER a girl student came FIRST in IIT JEE … why ? [ The best rank by a Girl student is mostly in 2 digits, very rarely in single digit ] ????? So ????

🙂

10 ) How much do I have to study to make it to IIT ?

Ans :- My experience of Teaching for IIT JEE since 1989, tells me, Total 200 hours per subject ( PCM ) is sufficient. If you see my Maths and Physics videos, each subject is more than 200 hours. So if someone sees all the videos diligently, takes notes and remembers, …… Done.

🙂

11 ) What is EAMCET ?

Ans :- Engineering Agriculture and Medicine Common Entrance Test is conducted by JNT University Hyderabad on behalf of APSCHE. This examination is the gateway for entry into various professional courses offered in Government/Private Colleges in Andhra Pradesh.

12 ) In your videos are you covering other Exams apart from IIT ?

Ans : – Yes. See many videos made by solving problems of MPPET, Rajasthan / J&K CET, UPSEAT ( UPES Engineering Aptitude Test ), MHCET, BCECE ( Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination Board ), WB JEE etc

🙂

13 ) What is SCRA ?

Ans : – Special Class Railway Apprentice (SCRA) exam is conducted by Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) board, for about 10 seats.That translates into an astonishing ratio of 1 selection per 10,000 applicants. The SCRA scheme was started in 1927 by the British, to select a handful of most intelligent Indians to assist them in their Railway Operations, after training at their Railway’s largest workshop, i.e. Jamalpur Workshop, and for one year in United Kingdom. The selected candidates were required to appear in the Mechanical Engineering Degree Examination held by Engineering Council (London).

Thanks for your time. To become my friend in google+ ( search me as mokshya@gmail.com and send friend request )

Read http://edge.org/responses/what-scientific-concept-would-improve-everybodys-cognitive-toolkit
🙂
The following video is a must see for full CO2 cycle, plates of Earth, Geological activities, stability of weather

🙂
Article in Nature says CO2 increase is good for the trees
http://thegwpf.org/science-news/6086-co2-is-greening-the-planet-savannahs-soon-to-be-covered-by-forests.html
🙂
http://climaterealists.com/index.php?id=9752

BBC documentary Crescent and Cross shows the 1000 years of fight between Christians and Muslims. Millions have been killed in the name of Religion. To decided whose GOD is better, and which GOD to follow. The fight continues.

Summary of Women

🙂
The Virus of Faith

🙂
The God delusion

🙂
cassiopeia facts about evolution

Intermediate Fossil records shown and explained nicely Fossils, Genes, and Embryos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fdpMrE7BdHQ

The Rise Of Narcissism In Women

🙂
13 type of women whom you should never court
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/relationships/man-woman/13-Women-you-should-never-court/articleshow/14637014.cms

🙂
Media teaching Misandry in India

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-M2txSbOPIo

Summary of problems with women
http://problemwithwomentoday.blogspot.in/2009/12/problem-with-women-today-what-in-hell.html

🙂
Eyeopener men ? women only exists
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ZAuqkqxk9A

🙂
Each of you is an Activist in some way or other. You are trying to propagate those thoughts, ideas that you feel concerned / excited about.

Did you analyze your effectiveness ?

Culturomics can help you

😀
see how biased women are. Experimental proof. Women are happy when they see another woman is beating a man ( see how women misbehave with men )

🙂
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LlFAd4YdQks

see detailed statistics at

An eye opener in Misandry

My sincere advice would be to be EXTREMELY careful ( and preferably away ) of girls. As girls age; statistically certain behavior in them has been observed. Most Male can NOT manage those behaviors… Domestic violence, divorce etc are rising very fast. Almost in all cases boys / males are HUGE loosers. Be extremely choosy ( and think from several angles ) before even talking to a girl.
🙂
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/save-the-male/

🙂

How women manipulate men
http://www.angryharry.com/esWomenManipulateMen.htm

Gender Biased Laws in India
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/biased-laws/

🙂

Violence against Men

🙂

Only men are victimised

Men are BETTER than women
http://www.menarebetterthanwomen.com/
🙂

see

🙂

Male Psychology

Women are more violent than men
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/women-are-more-violent-says-study-622388.html

🙂

In the year 2010, 168 men ended their lives everyday ( on average ). More husbands committed suicide than wives.
🙂

http://www.rediff.com/news/report/ncrb-stats-show-more-married-men-committing-suicide/20111028.htm

It is EXTREMELY unfortunate that media projects men as fools, women as superiors, Husbands as servants, and replaceable morons. In ad after ad worldwide from so many companies, similar msg to disintegrate the world is being bombarded. It is highly unacceptable misandry

🙂

It is NOT at all funny that media shows violence against MEN. Some advertisers are trying to create a new ” Socially acceptable culture ” of slapping Men ( by modern city women ). We ( all men ) take objection to these advertisements.
We oppose this Misandry bad culture. Please share to increase awareness against Men bashing

🙂

Think what are you doing … why are you doing ?

Every Man must know this …

🙂
Manginas, White Knights, & Other Chivalrous Dogs

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distribution distribution energies molecules particular temperature IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com graph bond enthalpy enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com breaking homolytic fission 1 mol bond molecules gaseous species carbanion organic ion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atom hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com negative charge carbocation organic ion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atom hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com positive charge catalyst substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com increases rate chemical reaction process cation positively charged ion cis trans isomerism special type isomerism IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com non hydrogen group skmclasses.weebly.com hydrogen atom C C=C double bond cis isomer ( Z isomer) IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com H atoms on IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon same side trans isomer E isomer H atoms carbon different bond compound substance formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com chemically bonded elements fixed ratio, usually chemical formula concentration amount solute mol IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com 1 dm 3 1000 cm solution coordinate bond shared pair electrons provided one bonding atoms called dative covalent bond covalent bond bond formed shared pair electrons cracking breaking long chained saturated hydrocarbonsIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com mixture shorter chained alkanesalkenes curly arrow symbol IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reaction mechanisms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com show movement electron Coaching ICWA Coaching CFA Coaching CFP Coaching CMAT Coaching School Tuitions CBSE School Tuitions Home Tuitions 9th STD Tuitions PUC Coaching 10th Std Tuitions College Tuitions Maths Tuitions Engineering Tuitions Accounts & Finance Tuitions MBA & BBA Coaching Microbiology & Biotech Tuitions Study Abroad GRE & SAT Coaching GMAT Coaching IELTS/TOEFL Coaching PTE Coaching proteins protonation pyridines pyrroles quinones quinolines radical reaction radicals rearrangement receptors reduction regioselectivity retro reaction rhodium ring closure ring contraction ring expansion ring opening ruthenium samarium scandium Schiff bases selenium self-assembly silicon sodium solid-phase synthesis solvent effects spectroscopy sphingolipids spiro compounds stereoselective synthesis stereoselectivity steric hindrance steroids Stille reaction substituent effects sulfates sulfonamides sulfones sulfoxides sulfur supported catalysis supramolecular tandem reaction tautomerism terpenoids thioacetals thiols tin titanium total synthesis transesterification transition metals transition states tungsten Umpolung vinylidene complexes vitamins Wacker reaction Wittig reaction ylides zeolites zinc BRST Quantization Effective field theories Field Theories Higher Dimensions Field Theories Lower Dimensions Large Extra Dimensions Lattice Quantum Field Theory Nonperturbative Effects Renormalization Group Renormalization Regularization skmclasses.weebly.com Renormalons Sigma Models Solitons Monopoles skmclasses.weebly.com Instantons Supersymmetric gauge theory Topological Field Theories 1/N Expansion Anyons Chern-Simons Theories Confinement Duality Gauge Field Theories Lattice Gauge Field Theories Scattering Amplitudes Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking Strong Coupling Expansion Topological States Matter Wilson ‘t Hooft skmclasses.weebly.comPolyakov loops Anomalies Field skmclasses.weebly.comString Theories BRST Symmetry Conformal skmclasses.weebly.com W Symmetry Discrete skmclasses.weebly.comFinite Symmetries Gauge Symmetry Global Symmetries Higher Spin Symmetry Space-Time Symmetries AdS-CFT Correspondence Black Holes String Theory Bosonic Strings Brane Dynamics Gauge Theories Conformal Field Models String Theory D-branes dS vacua string theory F-Theory Flux compactifications Gauge-gravity correspondence Holography skmclasses.weebly.comcondensed matter physics (AdS CMT) Holography skmclasses.weebly.comquark-gluon plasmas Intersecting branes models Long strings M(atrix) Theories M-Theory p-branes Penrose limit skmclasses.weebly.compp-wave background String Duality String Field Theory String theory skmclasses.weebly.comcosmic string Superstring Vacua Superstrings skmclasses.weebly.comHeterotic Strings Tachyon Condensation Topological Strings 2D Gravity Black Holes Classical Theories Gravity Higher Spin Gravity Lattice Models Gravity Models Quantum Gravity Spacetime Singularities Extended Supersymmetry Supergravity Models Superspaces Supersymmetric Effective Theories Supersymmetry skmclasses.weebly.com Duality Supersymmetry Breaking Differential skmclasses.weebly.comAlgebraic Geometry Integrable Hierarchies Non-Commutative Geometry Quantum Groups Statistical Methods Stochastic Processes Cosmology Theories beyond SM Solar skmclasses.weebly.comAtmospheric Neutrinos Thermal Field Theory Be Ansatz Boundary Quantum Field Theory Exact S-Matrix Quantum Dissipative Systems Random Systems B-Physics Beyond Standard Model Compactification skmclasses.weebly.com String Models CP violation Electromagnetic Processes skmclasses.weebly.com Properties GUT Heavy Quark Higgs Kaon LEP HERA skmclasses.weebly.com SLC Neutrino Physics Quark Masses skmclasses.weebly.comSM Parameters Rare Decays Standard Model Supersymmetric Standard Model Technicolor skmclasses.weebly.com Composite Models Chiral Lagrangians Deep Inelastic Scattering Higher Twist Effects Lattice QCD Parton Model Phase Diagram QCD Phenomenological Models QCD Quark-Gluon Plasma Resummation Sum Rules Aim Global Education Koramangala Computer Networking Training Cloud Computing Training JBOSS Training Juniper Certification Training L2 & L3 Protocol Training MCTS Training Engineering design Training CAD & CAM Training MATLAB Training PLC Training SCADA Training VLSI Design Multimedia & Design Training 2D Animation Training 3D Animation Training 4D Animation Training CorelDRAW Training VFX Training Web Technologies Training ASP.Net Training JQuery pair breaking formation covalent bond dative covalent shared pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com been provided one bonding atoms only IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com called coordinate bond dehydration elimination reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com water removed saturated molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com unsaturated molecule delocalised Electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com shared IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two atoms displacement reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reactive element displaces less reactive element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com aqueous solution latter’s ions displayed formula showing relative positioning atoms molecule skmclasses.weebly.com bonds IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com disproportionation oxidation skmclasses.weebly.com reduction element redox reaction dynamic equilibrium equilibrium IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com exists closed system IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com rate forward reaction equal IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com rate reverse reaction E/Z isomerism type stereoisomerism IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different groups attached IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon C=C double bond arranged differently space restricted rotation C=C bond electron configuration arrangement electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom electronegativity measure attraction bonded atom skmclasses.weebly.com pair electrons covalent bond electron shielding repulsion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrons different inner shells Shielding reduces net attractive force IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com positive nucleus outer shell electrons electrophile atom group atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com attracted IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron rich centre atom IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com accepts pair electrons covalent bond electrophilic addition type addition reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrophile attracted electron rich centre atom accepts pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com new covalent bond elimination reaction removal molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com saturated molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com unsaturated molecule empirical formula simplest whole number ratio atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element present compound endothermic reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com enthalpy products greater enthalpy reactants resulting heat being taken surroundings enthalpy heat content IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com stored chemical system standard enthalpy change combustion enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole substance reacts completely IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oxygen under standard conditions reactants skmclasses.weebly.com products being IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com standard states (standard) enthalpy change formation enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole compound formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com constituent elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com standard states under standard conditions (standard) enthalpy change reaction enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com accompanies reaction molar quantities expressed chemical equation under standard conditions reactants skmclasses.weebly.com products being IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com standard states enthalpy cycle diagram showing alternative routes IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reactants products IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com allows indirect determination IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com other known enthalpy changes using Hess’ law enthalpy profile diagram skmclasses.weebly.com reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com compare enthalpy reactants IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com enthalpy products esterification reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com alcohol IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carboxylic acid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com produce ester skmclasses.weebly.com water exothermic reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com enthalpy products smaller enthalpy reactants, resulting heat loss IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com surroundings fractional distillation separation components liquid mixture skmclassesfractions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com differ boiling point skmclasses.weebly.com hence chemical composition IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com distillation typically using fractionating column fragmentation process mass spectrometry IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com causes positive ion split skmclasses pieces one positive fragment ion functional group part organic molecule responsible skmclasses.weebly.com chemical reactions general formula simplest algebraic formula member homologous series. skmclasses.weebly.com example general formula alkanes giant covalent lattice dimensional structure atoms, bonded together strong covalent bonds giant ionic lattice three dimensional structure oppositely charged ions, bonded together strong ionic bonds giant metallic lattice three dimensional structure positive ions skmclasses.weebly.com delocalised electrons, bonded together strong metallic bonds greenhouse effect process IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com absorption subsequent emission infrared radiation atmospheric gases warms lower atmosphere planet’s surface group vertical column Periodic Table Elements group IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com similar chemical properties skmclasses.weebly.com atoms skmclasses.weebly.comnumber outer shell electrons Hess law reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one route skmclasses.weebly.com initial final conditions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com total enthalpy change skmclasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com route heterogeneous catalysis reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com catalyst IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com different physical state reactants; frequently, reactants IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com gases whilst catalyst solid heterolytic fission breaking covalent bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com both bonded electrons going IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one atoms, forming cation (+ ion) skmclasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com anion ion homogeneous catalysis reaction catalyst skmclasses.weebly.com reactants physical state, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com frequently aqueous gaseous state homologous series series organic compounds IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com functional group, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com successive member differing homolytic fission breaking covalent bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one bonded electrons going IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom, forming two radicals hydrated Crystalline skmclasses.weebly.com containing water molecules hydrocarbon compound hydrogen skmclasses.weebly.com carbon hydrogen bond strong dipole attraction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron deficient hydrogen atom (O H on different molecule hydrolysis reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com water aqueous hydroxide ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com breaks chemical compound skmclasses two compounds initiation first step radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com free radicals generated ultraviolet radiation intermolecular force attractive force IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com neighbouring molecules Intermolecular forces van der Waals’ forces induced dipole ces permanent dipole forces hydrogen bonds ion positively negatively charge atom covalently bonded group atoms molecular ion ionic bonding electrostatic attraction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oppositely charged ions first) ionisation energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com remove one electron IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole gaseous 2+ ions second) ionisation energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com remove one electron IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole gaseous 2+ ions successive ionisation measure energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com remove IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron Chemistry energy second ionisation energy energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one electron IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole gaseous 2+ ions isotopes Atoms skmclasses.weebly.com element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different numbers neutrons different masses le Chatelier’s principle system dynamic equilibrium subjected change position equilibrium will shift minimise change limiting reagent substance chemical reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com runs out first lone pair outer shell pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com involved chemical bonding mass nucleon number particles protons aneutrons) nucleus mechanism sequence steps showing path taken electrons reaction metallic bond electrostatic attraction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com positive metal ions adelocalised electrons molar mass substance units molar mass IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molar volume IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com mole gas. units molar volume IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com dm room temperature skmclasses.weebly.com pressure molar volume approximately 24.0 substance containing IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com many particles thereIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atoms exactly 12 g carbon isotope molecular formula number atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element molecule molecular ion M positive ion formed mass spectrometry IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecule loses electron molecule small group atoms held together covalent bonds monomer small molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com combines IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com monomers polymer nomenclature system naming compounds nucleophile atom group atoms attracted electron deficient centre atom donates pair electrons covalent bond nucleophilic substitution type substitution reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com nucleophile attracted electron deficient centre atom, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com donates pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com new covalent bond oxidation Loss electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com increase oxidation number oxidation number measure number electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom uses bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atoms another element. Oxidation numbers IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com derive d rules oxidising agent reagent IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oxidises (takes electrons from) another species percentage yield period horizontal row elements Periodic Table Elements show trends properties across period periodicity regular periodic variation properties elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atomic number position Periodic Table permanent dipole small charge difference across bond resulting IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com difference electronegativities bonded atoms permanent dipole dipole force attractive force IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com permanent dipoles neighbouring polar molecules pi bond (p bond reactive part double bond formed above skmclasses.weebly.com below plane bonded atoms sideways overlap p orbitalspolar covalent bond bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com permanent dipole polar molecule molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com overall dipole skmclasses account dipoles across bonds polymer long molecular chain built monomer units precipitation reaction formation solid solution during chemical reaction Precipitates IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two aqueous solutions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com mixed together principal quantum number n number representing relative overall energy orbital IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com increases distance nucleus sets orbitals IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com value IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com electron shells energy levels propagation two repeated radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com build up products chain reaction radical species unpaired electron rate reaction change concentration reactant product redox reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reduction skmclasses.weebly.com oxidation take IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reducing agent reagent IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reduces (adds electron to) species reduction Gain electrons decrease oxidation number yield actual amount mol product theoretical amount mol product Chemistry reflux continual boiling skmclasses.weebly.com condensing reaction mixture ensure IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com without contents flask boiling dry relative atomic mass weighted mean mass atom element compared one twelfth mass IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom carbon relative formula mass weighted mean mass formula unit compared IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one twelfth mass atom carbon relative isotopic mass mass atom isotope compared IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one twelfth mass atom carbon relative molecular mass weighted mean mass molecule compared twelfth mass atom carbon 12 repeat unit specific arrangement atom s IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com occurs structure over over again. Repeat units IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com included brackets outside IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com symbol n Salt chemical compound formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com acid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com H+ ion acid IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com been replaced metal ion another positive ion such IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com ammonium ion, NH saturated hydrocarbon IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com single bonds only shell group atomic orbitals IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com principal quantum number known main energy level simple molecular lattice three dimensional structure molecules, bonded together weak intermolecular forces skeletal formula simplified organic formula, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hydrogen atoms removed alkyl chains, leaving carbon skeleton skmclasses.weebly.com associated functional groups species particle IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com part chemical reaction specific heat capacity, c energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com raise temperature 1 g substance 1 C spectator ions Ions present part chemical reaction standard conditions pressure 100 kPa 1 atmosphere stated temperature usually 298 K (25 °C), skmclasses.weebly.com concentration 1 mol dm reactions aqueous solutions standard enthalpies enthalpystandard solution solution known concentration Standard solutions normally IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com titrations IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com determine unknown information another substance Chemistry standard state physical state substance under standard conditions 100 kPa 1 atmosphere) skmclasses.weebly.com 298 K 25 C stereoisomers Compounds skmclasses.weebly.com structural formula IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different arrangement atoms space stoichiometry molar relationship IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com relative quantities substances part reaction stratosphere second layer Earth’s atmosphere, containing ‘ozone layer’, about 10 km IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com 50 km above Earth’s surface structural formula formula showing minimal detail skmclasses.weebly.com arrangement atoms molecule structural isomers Molecules IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com molecular formula different structural arrangements atoms subshell group skmclasses.weebly.com type atomic orbitals s, p, d f within shell substitution reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom group atoms replaced different atom group atoms termination step end radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two radicals combine IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecule thermal decomposition breaking chemical substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com heat skmclasses least two chemical substances troposphere lowest layer Earth’s atmosphere extending Earth’s surface about 7 km (above poles) about 20 km above tropics unsaturated hydrocarbon hydrocarbon containing carbon carbon multiple bonds van der Waals’ forces Very weak attractive forces IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com induced dipoles neighbouring molecules volatility ease IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com liquid turns skmclasses gas Volatility increases boiling point decreases water crystallisation Water molecules IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com essential part crystalline structure absolute zero – theoretical condition concerning system at zero Kelvin IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com system does IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com emit absorb energy (all atoms rest accuracy – how close value IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com actual true value IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com see precision acid compound that, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com dissolved water pH less 7.0 compound IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com donates hydrogen ion acid anhydride compound IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two acyl groups boundIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com single oxygen atom acid dissociation constant – IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com equilibrium constant skmclasses.weebly.com dissociation weak acid actinides – fifteen chemical elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com actinium (89) skmclasses.weebly.com lawrencium (103 activated complex – structure IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com forms because collisionIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecules new bondsvIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com formed activation energy – minimum energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com must be inputIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com chemical system activity series actual yield addition reaction – within organic chemistry, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecules combineIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com larger aeration mixing air skmclasses liquid solid alkali metals metals Group 1 on periodic table alkaline earth metals – metals Group 2 on periodic table allomer substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comdifferent composition another skmclasses.weebly.comcrystalline structure allotropy elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different structures skmclasses.weebly.com therefore different forms IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com Carbon diamonds, graphite, skmclasses.weebly.com fullerene anion negatively charge ions anode – positive side dry cell battery cell aromaticity – chemical property conjugated rings IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com results unusual stability. See IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com benzene atom – chemical element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com smallest form, skmclasses.weebly.com made up neutrons skmclasses.weebly.comprotons within nucleus skmclasses.weebly.comelectrons circling nucleus atomic mass unit atomic number number representing IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com corresponds IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com number protons within nucleus atomic orbital region IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron atom may be found atomic radius average atomic mass Avogadro’s law Avogadro’s number number particles mole substance ( 6.02×10^23 ) barometer deviceIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com measure pressure atmosphere base substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com accepts proton skmclasses.weebly.com high pH; common example sodium hydroxide (NaOH biochemistry chemistry organisms boiling phase transition liquid vaporizing boiling point temperature IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com substance startsIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com boil boiling-point elevation process IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com boiling point elevated adding substance bond – attraction skmclasses.weebly.com repulsion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atoms skmclasses.weebly.com molecules IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com cornerstone Boyle’s law Brønsted-Lowrey acid chemical species IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com donates proton Brønsted–Lowry acid–base reaction Brønsted-Lowrey base – chemical species IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com accepts proton buffered solution – IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com aqueous solution consisting weak acid skmclasses.weebly.comits conjugate base weak base skmclasses.weebly.comits conjugate acid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com resists changes pH IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com strong acids basesIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com added burette (IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com buret glasswareIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com dispense specific amounts liquid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com precision necessary titration skmclasses.weebly.com resource dependent reactions example combustion catalyst chemical compoundIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com change rate IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com speed up slow down reaction,IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com regenerated at end reaction cation – positively charged ion centrifuge equipmentIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com separate substances based on density rotating tubes around centred axis cell potential force galvanic cell IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com pulls electron through reducing agentIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oxidizing agent chemical Law certain rules IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com pertain IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com laws nature skmclasses.weebly.comchemistry – examples chemical reaction – change one IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com substances skmclassesanother multiple substances colloid mixture evenly dispersed substances such IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comm milks combustion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com exothermic reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oxidant skmclasses.weebly.comfuel IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com heat skmclasses.weebly.comoften light compound – substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com made up two IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com chemically bonded elements condensation phase changeIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com gasIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com liquid conductor material IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com allows electric flow IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com freely covalent bond – chemical bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com involves sharing electrons crystal solid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com packed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ions, molecules atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com orderly fashion cuvette glasswareIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com spectroscopic experiments. usually made plastic glass quartz skmclasses.weebly.comshould be IITJEE possible deionization removal ions, skmclasses.weebly.com water’s case mineral ions such IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comsodium, iron skmclasses.weebly.comcalcium deliquescence substances IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com absorb water IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atmosphereIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com liquid solutions deposition – settling particles within solution mixture dipole electric magnetic separation charge dipole moment – polarity polar covalent bond dissolution solvation – spread ions monosacharide double bond sharing two pairs electradodes Microcentrifuge Eppendorf tube IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Coomassie Blue solution earth metal – see alkaline earth metal electrolyte solution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com conducts certain amount current skmclasses.weebly.com split categorically IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com weak skmclasses.weebly.comstrong electrolytes electrochemical cell using chemical reaction’s current electromotive force made electromagnetic radiation type wave IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com through vacuums IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comwell IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.commaterial skmclasses.weebly.comclassified IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com self-propagating wave electromagnetism fields IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electric charge skmclasses.weebly.comelectric properties IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com change way IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com particles move skmclasses.weebly.com interact electromotive force device IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com gains energy IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comelectric charges pass through electron – subatomic particle IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com net charge IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com negative electron shells – IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com orbital around atom’s nucleus fixed number electrons usually two eight electric charge measured property (coulombs) IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com determine electromagnetic interaction element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com defined IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atomic number energy – system’s abilityIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com do work enthalpy – measure total energy thermodynamic system (usually symbolized IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comH entropy – amount energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com available skmclasses.weebly.com work closed thermodynamic system usually symbolized IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com S enzyme – protein IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com speeds up catalyses reaction Empirical Formula – IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com called simplest formula gives simplest whole -number ratio atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element present compound eppendorf tube – generalized skmclasses.weebly.comtrademarked term skmclasses.weebly.com type tube; see microcentrifuge freezing – phase transitionIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com liquidIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com solid Faraday constant unit electrical charge widelyIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrochemistry skmclasses.weebly.comequalIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ~ 96,500 coulombs represents 1 mol electrons, Avogadro number electrons: 6.022 × 1023 electrons. 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33, Sector IV HSR Layout, Bangalore hydrolysis hydrosilylation hydrostannation hyperconjugation imides imines indium indoles induction inhibitors insertion iodine ionic liquids iridium iron isomerization The Brigade International School , Brigade Millenium JP Nagar Brigade Millenium, JP Nagar Bangalore ketones kinetic resolution lactams lactones lanthanides Lewis acids ligands lipids lithiation lithium macrocycles magnesium manganese Mannich bases medicinal chemistry metalation metallacycles metallocenes metathesis Michael addition Mitsunobu reaction molecular recognition molybdenum multicomponent reaction nanostructures natural products neighboring-group effects nickel nitriles nitrogen nucleobases nucleophiles nucleophilic addition nucleophilic National Centre For Excellence 154/1, “Victorian Enclave”, 5th Main, Malleshpalya, Bangalore aromatic substitution nucleosides nucleotides olefination oligomerization oligonucleotides oligosaccharides organometallic reagents osmium oxidation oxygen oxygenations ozonolysis palladacycles palladium peptides pericyclic reaction peroxides phase-transfer catalysis phenols pheromones phosphates phosphorus phosphorylation Adugodi Aga Abbas Ali Road Agaram Agrahara Dasara Halli Agrahara Dasarahalli Airport Exit Road Airport Main Road Airport Road Akkipet Ali Askar Road Alur Venkatarao Road Amarjyothi Layout Amruth Nagar Amrutha Halli Ananda Nagar Anandrao Circle Anche Palya Ane Palya Anekal Anjana Nagar Anubhava Nagar APMC Yard Arabic College Arakere Arcot Sreenivasachar Street Ashok Nagar Ashwath Nagar Attibele Attiguppe Austin Town Avala Halli Avenue Road B. Narayanapura Babusahib Palya Bagalagunte Bagalur Balaji Nagar Balepet Banashankari Banashankari 1st Stage Banashankari 2nd Stage Banashankari 3rd Stage Banaswadi Banaswadi Ring Road Bangalore G.P.O Bannerghatta Bannerghatta Road Bapuji Nagar Basappa Circle Basava Nagar Basavanagudi Basaveshwara Nagar Basaveshwara Nagar 2nd Stage Basaveshwara Nagar 3rd Block Basaveshwara Nagar 3rd Stage Basaveshwara Road Bazaar Street Begur BEL Road Bellandur Bellandur Outer Ring Road Bellary Road BEML Layout Benagana Halli Bendre Nagar Benson Town Bharati Nagar Bhattara Halli Bhoopasandra Bhuvaneshwari Nagar Bidadi Bileka Halli Bilekahalli Binny Mill Road Bismillah Nagar Bommana Halli Bommanahalli Kendriya Vidyalaya Malleswaram 18th Cross Malleswaram Bangalore Bommasandra Bommasandra Industrial Area Brigade Road Brindavan Nagar Brookefield Brunton Road BTM 1st Stage BTM 2nd Stage Bull Temple Road Palace Orchards/Sadashivnagar area located north city centre IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com property prices higher brackets possibly IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com up-market residential area in Bangalore M.G. 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Institution Kogalym Secondary School ?8, RUSSIAN FEDERATION Phorms Bilingual Gymnasium, GERMANY Royal High School, UNITED STATES SIS Swiss International School Stuttgart-Fellbach, GERMANY Seedling Public School INDIA The British School of Beijing CHINA Unidad Educativa Fiscal Experimental del Milenio, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Juan de Velasco ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Tumbaco, ECUADOR École secondaire Gaétan Gervais, CANADA École secondaire Hanmer CANADA Stonehill International School American School of Bombay Mumbai Day school offering PYP MYP DP Dhirubhai Ambani International School Mumbai Day school offering DP Ecole Mondiale World School, Mumbai Day school offering DP Jamnabai Narsee School Mumbai Day school offering DP Ahmedabad International School Ahmedabad Day School offering PYP Mahatma Gandhi International School Ahmedabad Day school offering MYP Mahindra United World College of India Pune Boarding school offering DP Mercedes-Benz International School Pune American Embassy School Delhi Day school offering DP The British School, Delhi Day school offering DP Pathways World School, Gurgaon Boarding school offering PYP DP SelaQui World School, Dehra Dun Boarding school offering DP Canadian International School, Bangalore Mixed Boarding Day school offering DP International School of Bangalore, Bangalore Mixed Boarding Day school offering DP Oakridge International School Hyderabad Day school offering PYP Chinmaya International Residential School Coimbatore Boarding school offering DP Good Shepherd International School Ooty Boarding school offering DP Kodaikanal International School, Kodaikanal Boarding school offering DP Home Tuition Group teachers available small groupsstudents IB International Baccalaureate Programme, IGCSE, ISc, ICSE, CBSE Schools offering IB ( International Baccalaureate ) Programme Bangalore International School Geddalahalli Hennur Bagalur Road Kothanur Post Bengaluru India 560 077 Stonehill International School, 1st Floor, Embassy Point #150, Infantry Road Bengaluru 560 001 Stonehill International School 259/333/334/335 Tarahunise Post Jala Hobli, Bengaluru North 562157 Candor International School Begur Koppa Road, Hullahalli Off Bannerghatta Road, Near Electronic City Bangalore 560105 Greenwood High International School Bengaluru, No.8-14, Chickkawadayarapura, Near Heggondahalli Gunjur Post, Varthur Sarjapur Road, Bangalore 560087 Sarla Birla Academy, Bannerghatta, Bangalore, Canadian International School, Yelahanka, Bangalore Indus International School Billapura Cross Sarjapur Bangalore

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