NCERT CBSE Standard 11 Chemistry Chapter 11 The p-Block Elements

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IIT-JEE, NCERT / CBSE, I.Sc., PU, Board exam, EAMCET, BITS Physics Books with lots of Examples ( Free pdf download of Physics Books, Chapter wise / Topic wise Questions and Solutions )

27 ]  CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Thermal Properties of Solids, or Thermal Properties of Material, Thermal Conductivity  etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Thermal Properties of Solids, or Thermal Properties of Material, Thermal Conductivity Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Thermal Properties of Solids, or Thermal Properties of Material, Thermal Conductivity Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Thermal Properties of Solids, or Thermal Properties of Material, Thermal Conductivity Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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26 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Buoyant Force, Buoyancy, Discussions on Layer of Liquid below the Object  etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Buoyant Force, Buoyancy, Discussions on Layer of Liquid below the Object Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Buoyant Force, Buoyancy, Discussions on Layer of Liquid below the Object Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Buoyant Force, Buoyancy, Discussions on Layer of Liquid below the Object Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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25 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Mechanical Properties of Material, Mechanical Properties of Solids, Young ‘s Modulus, Bulk Modulus, Poisson ‘s Ratio, Shear Stress, Strain, Energy Stored in elongated wire  etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Mechanical Properties of Material, Mechanical Properties of Solids, Young ‘s Modulus, Bulk Modulus, Poisson ‘s Ratio, Shear Stress, Strain, Energy Stored in elongated wire Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Mechanical Properties of Material, Mechanical Properties of Solids, Young ‘s Modulus, Bulk Modulus, Poisson ‘s Ratio, Shear Stress, Strain, Energy Stored in elongated wire Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Mechanical Properties of Material, Mechanical Properties of Solids, Young ‘s Modulus, Bulk Modulus, Poisson ‘s Ratio, Shear Stress, Strain, Energy Stored in elongated wire Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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24 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Kinetic Theory of Gases etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Kinetic Theory of Gases Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Kinetic Theory of Gases Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Kinetic Theory of Gases Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-kinetic-theory-of-gasess-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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23 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Vectors & Scalars etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Vectors & Scalars Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Vectors & Scalars Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Vectors & Scalars Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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22 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Units, Dimensions, Measurements & Errors etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide –  Units, Dimensions, Measurements & Errors Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Units, Dimensions, Measurements & Errors Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Units, Dimensions, Measurements & Errors Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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21 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Kinematics, Dynamics or Kinetics, Circular Motion & Projectile Motion etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide –  Kinematics, Dynamics or Kinetics, Circular Motion & Projectile Motion Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Kinematics, Dynamics or Kinetics, Circular Motion & Projectile Motion Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Kinematics, Dynamics or Kinetics, Circular Motion & Projectile Motion, Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-kinematics-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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20 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Measuring Speed of Light, Various Methods etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Measuring Speed of Light, Various Methods by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Measuring Speed of Light, Various Methods etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Measuring Speed of Light, Various Methods etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-speed-of-light-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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19 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Maxwell ‘s Equations, Electromagnetic Waves etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Maxwell ‘s Equations, Electromagnetic Waves by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Maxwell ‘s Equations, Electromagnetic Waves etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Maxwell ‘s Equations & Electromagnetic Waves etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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18 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetism History etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetism History by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetism History etc by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Magnetism History etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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17 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetic Induction, Voltage Produced etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetic Induction, Voltage Produced by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetic Induction, Voltage Produced by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Magnetic Induction, Voltage Produced etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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16 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetic Effects of Current etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetic Effects of Current by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Magnetic Effects of Current by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Magnetic Effects of Current, Various Derivations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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15 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Capacitance Dielectrics & Circuits etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Capacitance Dielectrics & Circuits by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Capacitance Dielectrics & Circuits by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Capacitance, Trick Circuits, Combinations of Dielectrics, Various Derivations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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14 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Electrostatics & Gauss Theorem etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Electrostatics & Gauss Theorem by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Electrostatics & Gauss Theorem by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Electrostatics, Gauss Theorem, Various Derivations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

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13 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Center of Mass etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Center of Mass by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Center of Mass by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Center of Mass, Various Derivations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-center-of-mass-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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12 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Work Power Energy Variable Force Leaking Bucket etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Work Power Energy Variable Force Leaking Bucket by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Work Power Energy Variable Force Leaking Bucket by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Work Power Energy Variable Force Leaking Bucket, Various Derivations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-work-power-energy-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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11 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Moment of Inertia, Solid Bodies Angular Momentum etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Moment of Inertia of Solid Bodies by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Moment of Inertia of Solid Bodies by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Moment of Inertia, Solid Bodies Angular Momentum, Rotational Energy, Derivations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-moment-of-inertia-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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10 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Circular Motion, Conical Pendulum etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Circular Motion, Conical Pendulum etc and many complicated Problems by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Circular Motion by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Circular Motion. Conical Pendulum etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-circular-motion-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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9 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Solutions to Irodov Problems, by Subhashish Sir, and Other Professors.

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8 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Electrical Circuits, Delta to Star Conversion, Current Source, Trick Circuits, Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge, Steps and Techniques of Solving Electrical Circuits etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Electrical Circuits, Delta to Star Conversion, Current Source, Trick Circuits, Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge, Steps and Techniques of Solving Electrical Circuits etc and many complicated Problems by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Gravitation by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Electrical Circuits, including Inductance & Capacitance, internal Resistance etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-electrical-circuits-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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7 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Gravitation, Contrasting Comparisons of Gravitational Potential and Electrostatic Potential, Contrasting Comparisons of Gravitational Field and Electrostatic Field, Escape Velocity, Height attended by a mass thrown at various speeds etc  –  by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Gravitation, Contrasting Comparisons of Gravitational Potential and Electrostatic Potential, Contrasting Comparisons of Gravitational Field and Electrostatic Field, Escape Velocity, Height attended by a mass thrown at various speeds etc and many complicated Problems by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Gravitation by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Gravitation, Field, Potential, escape velocity etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-gravitation-by-prof-subhashish-chattopadhyay

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6 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – SHM Periodic Motion, Harmonic Oscillations with Solid Objects, Approximate Simple Harmonic Motions – by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore.

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – SHM ( Simple Harmonic Motion ) and many complicated Problems by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – SHM by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of SHM Approximate Oscillations etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

cbse-iit-jee-physics-survival-guide-shm-harmonic-oscillations-or-periodic-motion-by-prof-subhashish

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5 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Sound Waves, Doppler Effect, Standing waves in Open Tube, Closed Tube, Rods or Bars by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Sound Waves, Doppler Effect, Standing waves in Open Tube, Closed Tube, Rods or Bars by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Sound Waves, Oscillations in Wires by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Sound Waves, Doppler effect, Standing waves and Propagating Waves, Oscillations in Wires, Bars, Tubes ( both Open Tube and Closed Tube ) etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. Regarding the latest developments I wrote … “ GUT [ General Unified Theory ] is being modified to introduce a 5th fundamental force, because some heavy particles have been observed at CERN and various other experiments and Producing Gravitational waves at will, without mass, Madala Bosons to explain Dark Matter ”

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4 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Radio activity and Modern Physics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Radio activity and Modern Physics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Radio activity and Modern Physics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Radioactivity and Modern Physics. LASERS, Dirac Equation, Particle Physics, Diode, Triode, Transistor, Quantum Mechanics etc are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide-Radio activity and Modern Physics by Prof. Subhashish

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3 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Mirrors Lenses Slabs Prisms Ray Diagram Problems – Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Mirrors Lenses Slabs Prisms Ray Diagram Problems Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Mirrors Lenses Slabs Prisms Ray Diagram Problems  Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Mirror Slab Prism Lenses Ray Diagram Problems & Solutions Optics. Silvered Slab, Silvered Lenses, Silvered prisms are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

In this eBook I wrote about my Personal Choice of, ” List of Best Experiments ” …

Michelson–Morley experiment proving there was no Aether, Moseley ‘s experiment with X-Rays to discover Protons, Jagadish chandra Bose demonstrating controlled emission / transmission and receiving of Radio waves, Casimir experiments to show Casimir forces of virtual particles, Eddington measuring bending of light, Flying atomic clocks in planes and confirming slowing down of time at high speeds, Victor Hess measured Radiation level variation at ground and high up in the atmosphere, Soviet physicist Sergey Vernov was the first to use radiosondes to perform cosmic ray readings with an instrument carried to high altitude by a balloon at heights up to 13.6 km, The proof of time dilation by Muon decay, Measurement of Space-time curvature near Earth and thereby the stress–energy tensor (which is related to the distribution and the motion of matter in space) in and near Earth , Detecting Gravitational Waves.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide-Mirrors Prisms Lens Slabs Optics by Prof. Subhashish

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2 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Wave Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Wave Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide- Wave Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Wave Optics. Slabs, Silvered Slab, Lenses, Silvered Lenses, Prisms, Silvered prisms are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide-Wave Optics by Prof. Subhashish

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1 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Ray or Geometrical Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay, Bangalore

Description – “ Spoon Feeding CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Ray or Geometrical Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide – Ray or Geometrical Optics by Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II COMED-K CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Ray or Geometrical Optics. Slabs, Silvered Slab, Lenses, Silvered Lenses, Prisms, Silvered prisms are also covered. There are many kinds of Problems which are NOT covered in Professor H C Verma ‘s books ( Concepts of Physics ) or Irodov, or ” Resnick & Halliday “. Some examples being split Lenses, Fresnel’s Biprism, Polytropic Processes, Silvered lenses, Slab with a lens like hole or filled with liquids, Cylindrical lenses, isodiaphers, Spallation Reaction, Magic Numbers, Doubly Magic Numbers, Metamaterials with Negative Refractive Index etc. All these kinds of Questions which have been asked in various exams are covered in eBooks of Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay. Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for Course of IIT-JEE, CET, COMED-K etc with CBSE, CEE, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Physics Survival Guide-Ray or Geometrical Optics by Prof. Subhashish

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Nima Arkani-Hamed has written a beautiful paper on ” The Future of Fundamental Physics “
We are too used to see ‘daily news ‘ which changes everyday. Often many of us start thinking or imagining Progress in Science and / or technology will also happen at that speed. Searching the net for future trends, every hour, actually wastes time, rather than teaching us anything. Slow long term prediction is difficult to do. These predictions does not change much. It needs very deep understanding of the present trends, to write about future.

nima AH

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IIT-JEE, NCERT / CBSE, I.Sc., PU, Board exam, EAMCET, BITS Chemistry Books with lots of Examples ( Free pdf download of Chemistry Books, Chapter wise / Topic wise Questions and Solutions )

8 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide – Stoichiometry Titration by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Stoichiometry Titration ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide – Stoichiometry Titration by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE  IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers several examples of Stoichiometry Titrations, Heating effects in several salts, colours or colors of the precipitates, Empirical formulae calculation, Limiting reagents, Titration examples, Equivalent weight, milli-equivalent weight, What mass or moles is reacting with how much ? How much is oxidised ? How much is Reduced ? Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Stoichiometry Titration by Prof. Subhashish

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7 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide – Redox Reactions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Redox Reactions ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide – Redox Reactions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers more than 60 examples of Redox Reactions, Several Complicated examples and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Redox Reactions by Prof. Subhashish

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6 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide – Electrochemistry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Electrochemistry ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chemistry Survival Guide – Electrochemistry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Electrochemistry, Oxidation Potential, Reduction Potential, Electrode Potential, Reactivity Series, Battery, Nernst Equation, Variation of Voltage with concentration, Electrolyte, Electrolysis, Salt Bridge, Daniel Cell, Primary Cell, Secondary Cell, Galvanic Cell, Electrolytic Cell, Conductivity, Kohlrausch ’s Law and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-ElectroChemistry by Prof. Subhashish

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5 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide – Reduction Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Reduction Methods ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide – Reduction Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE  COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Various kinds of Reduction Methods in Organic Chemistry. Covers Gilmann ’s Reagent, Grignard Reagent, Trimethyl Silyl Iodide, Silyl Wittig Reaction, Hydrogen with Ni, Zn, Pd Palladium, Bakers Yeast, Wolf Kishner, Wilkinson ’s Catalyst, Birch Reduction, Lindlar ’s Catalyst, Benkeser Reduction, Reduction with HCO2H, Sodium Boro Hydride NaBH4, Veils Meier Reaction, Luche ’s Reagent, Super Hydride, Sodium Cyno boro hydride, Dibal H, Adams Catalyst, Rosen Mund Reduction, Various Lithium Aluminium Hydrides, NaNH2,  and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chem Survival Guide-Reduction methods by Prof. Subhashish

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4 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide – Oxidation Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Oxidation Methods ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Organic Chemistry Survival Guide – Oxidation Methods by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE  COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Various kinds of Oxidation Methods in Organic Chemistry. Covers Sarett ’s Reagent, PCC, Chromium Oxide, Osmium Oxide, Manganese Oxide, Silver oxides, Ruthenium Oxide, Hydrogen Peroxide, Selenium dioxide, KMnO4, Jones, Julia Colonna, DCC, Corey ’s, Moffats, Ley Oxidation, MPV, Fetizon, Fremy ’s Salt, Elbs Persulphate Oxidation, Sodiumperiodate, Palladium Chloride, Copper Chloride, Sharpless epoxidation, and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Organic Chem Survival Guide-Oxidation methods by Prof. Subhashish

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3 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide – Bonds & Structure by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Bonds & Structures ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide – Bonds & Structures by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Various kinds of Bonds and Structures in Chemistry. Covers Sigma, Pi, Delta, Back Bonding, Coordinate or Dative Bond, Eta Bond, Hydrogen Bond, London forces, and many more, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Bonds & Structure by Prof. Subhashish

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2 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide – Elements & Properties by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Elements & Properties ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide – Elements & Properties by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers Elements & Their Properties in Chemistry. Covers the discoveries by spectral Analysis, Named after smell, places, people etc. Various compounds, tests, properties, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Elements & Properties by Prof. Subhashish

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1 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide – Empirical Formulae by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Empirical Formulae ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide – Empirical Formulae by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Chemistry, CET, VIT, Manipal, SRM and other exams.

This e-Book covers various kinds of Empirical Equations in Chemistry. These equations are formed by experiments, and graph plotting. In some rare cases the Theory was developed later. Covers Slater’s rule, Shielding, Finding Electronegativity values by Allred and Rochow ’s empirical formula, Moseley’s Law, Trouton  ’s law, Einstein-Debey equation (Dulong & Petit), Reynolds number, Raoult’s law, Variation of viscosity with temperature, Arrhenius model, Williams-Landel-Ferry model, Masuko and Magill model, Walther formula, Wright model, Seeton model, Variation of surface tension with temperature, Eotvos equation, Guggenheim-Katayama equation, Debye-Huckel-Onsager theory of conductivity of ions in dilute solutions, Liquid drop model of Nucleus, Nuclear Shell Model, Ionic character percentage of a diatomic molecule, and various incomplete dictionary kinds of collection for  Course of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Chem Survival Guide-Empirical Formulae by Prof. Subhashish

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IIT-JEE, NCERT / CBSE, I.Sc., PU, Board exam, EAMCET, BITS Math Books with lots of Questions and Solutions, Examples ( Free pdf download of Math Books, Chapter wise / Topic wise Solutions )

17 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Trigonometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Trigonometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Trigonometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Trigonometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Trigonometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Trigonometry by Prof. Subhashish

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16 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – 3D Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding 3D Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – 3D Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers 3D Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of 3D Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-3D Geometry by Prof. Subhashish

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15 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola by Prof. Subhashish

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14 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Ellipse Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Ellipse Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Ellipse Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Ellipse Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Ellipse Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Ellipse by Prof. Subhashish

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13 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Parabola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Parabola Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Parabola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Parabola Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Parabola Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal ’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Parabola by Prof. Subhashish

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12 ] CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Pair of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Pair of Straight Lines by Prof. Subhashish

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11 ] CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Circles Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Circles Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Circles Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Circles Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Circles Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Circles by Prof. Subhashish

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10 ] CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Lines Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Lines Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Straight Lines Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Straight Lines by Prof. Subhashish

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9  ] CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Complex Numbers or Imaginary Numbers, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal ’s Solutions.

CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Complex Number by Prof. Subhashish

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8 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Quadratic Equations by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Quadratic Equations” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Quadratic Equation by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Quadratic Equations with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Quadratic Equations, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 11 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Quadratic Equation by Prof. Subhashish

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7 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Continuity and Differentiability by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Continuity & Differentiability” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Continuity and Differentiability by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Continuity and Differentiability with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Continuity and Differentiability, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal ’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Continuity & Differentiability by Prof. Subhashish

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6 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Relations and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Relations & Functions” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Relations and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Relations and Functions with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Relations and Functions, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal ’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Relations & Functions by Prof. Subhashish

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5 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Graphs and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Graphs & Functions” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Graphs and Functions by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Graphs and Functions with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Graphs and Functions, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Functions & Graphs by Prof. Subhashish

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4 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Indefinite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Indefinite Integrals & Calculus” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Indefinite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

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This e-Book covers Indefinite Integrals with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Indefinite Integrals, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Indefinite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish

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3 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Area & Volume by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Area and Volume ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 and IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Area and Volume by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers various kinds of graphs, such as graph of Ln x, ( ln x )/x, x Ln x, floor x [ x ] , Shifting of graphs, roots of Quadratic, cubic, and other higher powers of x ( polynomials ), asymptotes, ( How to find Asymptotes ) etc. Volume by revolution and hundreds of Area problems of IIT-JEE, CET, etc with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal ’s Solutions.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Area & Volume by Prof. Subhashish

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2 ] CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide – Definite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Definite Integrals ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Definite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Definite Integrals by Prof. Subhashish

This e-Book covers Definite Integrals with [ x ] greatest integer functions, { x } fraction function, Max and Min functions. Gamma function, Beta function, Integration after converting to Complex number, Leibnitz forms of Differentiating Integrals, L Hospital’s rule applied to limits with Integrals, Inequalities of Integrals, Rules / Tricks / Properties of Definite Integrals, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions.Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal’s Solutions.

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1 ]  CBSE 12 Math Survival Guide – Differential Equations by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Differential Equations ” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc. , CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide – Differential Equations by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

CBSE 12 & IIT-JEE Math Survival Guide-Differential Equations by Prof. Subhashish

This e-Book covers all kinds of Differential equations, and methods to solve them. There is a priority checklist for the approach to be taken for solving the problems. Covers ISc, CBSE, COMED-K IIT-JEE problems, Linear, Homogeneous, Variable separable by substitution, Exact, Reducible to exact, Bernoulli, Integrating Factors or Multiplying Factors, even Clairaut’s Differential Equations ( IIT-JEE 1999, Bihar CEE 1999 ). Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal ’s Solutions.

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Various States have different names for the Engineering Entrance Exams.

CET – Common Engineering Entrance Test or Common Entrance Test is for Karnataka, Maharastra, Gujrat, Himachal Pradesh, J&K

GUJCET Exam – Gujarat Entrance Common Entrance Test – Engineering

HPCET – Himachal Pradesh Common Entrance Test

CEE – Commissionerate of Entrance Examinations Kerala. Some people say Common Entrance Exam. The exam in Kerala actually is known as KEAM – Kerala

Engineering Agriculture Medical Degree.

ASSAM CEE – Assam Combined Entrance Exam

EAMCET – Engineering and Medical Common Entrance Test

MP PET – Madhya Pradesh Pre Engineering Test. Randomly I liked lots of Physics Questions of MP-PET, as these were of very high quality / interesting.

RPET or R-PET – Rajasthan Pre Engineering Test

WBJEE or WB-JEE – West Bengal Joint Entrance Exam. The questions of these are very good / high quality.

UPSEE – Utter Pradesh State Entrance Exam

BCECEB – Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination Board. The exam name is BCECE. Some call it as Bihar Combined Engineering Entrance Exam BCEEE or

BCECE (Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination)

OJEE – Orissa Joint Entrance Exam

Tamilnadu does not have any state ( common ) entrance test. The admissions in colleges / universities are through standard 12 marks.

TNEA is a State Engineering Entrance Examination, which is conducted by Anna University. Tamil Nadu Engineering Admission.

COMEDK PGET – Consortium of Medical, Engineering and Dental Colleges of Karnataka for PG Post Graduate

NATA – National Aptitude Test in Architecture. National Institute of Advanced Studies in Architecture (NIASA) conducts this.

ISAT by IISAT – Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IISAT) Admission Test (ISAT) is a National Level Entrance Examination.

NAT – National Aptitude Test by Society for Research & Development in Education (SRDE), New Delhi

ENAT – EPSI National Admission Test. by Manipal Institute of Technology. Manipal Online Entrance Test Manipal-OET

VITEEE – VIT Engineering Entrance Exam, Vellore Institute of Technology. Conducted by VIT university

BITSAT – Birla Institute of Technology and Science Admission Test.

Punjab PET – Punjab Engineering Admission, Pre Engineering Test

ASSAM CEE – Assam Combined Entrance Exam

Tripura JEE – Tripura Joint Entrance Exam

NEE – NERIST Entrance Examination. Conducted by the North Eastern Regional Institute of Science & Technology (NERIST), Nirjuli, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh

1 ] CET CEE EAMCET JEE Math Survival Guide – Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay

Description – “Spoon Feeding Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry” for IIT-JEE, I.Sc., CBSE, Karnataka PU, State Boards etc. CBSE Standard 12 Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry by Prof. Subhashish Chattopadhyay SKMClasses Bangalore. Useful for I.Sc. PU-II CET CEE COMED-K IGCSE IB AP-Mathematics and other exams.

This e-Book covers Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry with lots of Video explanations. The classroom teaching videos can be seen by clicking on the given links. The videos can be downloaded also. Hundreds of tricky problems solved.  Rules / Tricks / Properties of Hyperbola Coordinate Geometry, with CBSE, COMED-K, IIT-JEE ( Main and Advanced ) Problems and Solutions. Includes NCERT / CBSE Text Book Solutions, Chapter wise Solutions, AIEEE ( Now known as IIT-JEE main ) Solutions, Roorkey Entrance Exam Solutions, CET, CEE, PET, EAMCET Solutions. R D Sharma Solutions, R S Aggarwal ’s Solutions.

CET CEE PET EAMCET JEE Math Survival Guide-Hyperbola by Prof. Subhashish

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https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/some-points-which-i-wish-all-my-new-prospective-students-know/

SKM Logo 550 X 300

Some books which are must read. I tell all my friends and students to read these

http://bioinformaticsinstitute.ru/sites/default/files/genome_the_autobiography_of_a_species_in_23_chapters_-_matt_ridley.pdf

You should read the books by Daniel Kahneman,
https://vk.com/doc23267904_175119602

 
Dan Arley.
http://www.e-reading.club/bookreader.php/138702/Ariely_-_Predictably_Irrational__The_Hidden_Forces_That_Shape_Our_Decisions.pdf

The Black Swan – by Nassim Taleb
http://shifter-magazine.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Taleb_The-Black-Swan.pdf

also
see http://stavochka.com/files/Nate_Silver_The_Signal_and_the_Noise.pdf

Nudge by Thaler and Sunstein
https://ethicslab.georgetown.edu/studio/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Richard_H._Thaler_Cass_R._Sunstein_Nudge_Impro_BookFi.org_.pdf

book which explains pricing is ” The undercover Economist “

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or

http://ebook.stepor.com/book/the-undercover-economist-76396-pdf.html

Many more free pdf e-Books are available at ( such as H C Verma Concepts of Physics Solutions, Arihant Books, free download eBooks for IIT JEE guides, AIEEE IIT JEE advanced Chapter wise solutions, preparation materials )

https://skmclasses.wordpress.com/books-for-you-physics-maths-chemistry-free-download-from-skm-classes-south-bangalore/

1 ] A Guide Book to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry by Peter Sykes

A_GUIDE_BOOK_TO_MECHANISM_IN_ORGANIC_CHEMISTRY

2 ] Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry – IUPAC Recommendations 2005

Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry – IUPAC Recommendations 2005

3 ] Linear Algebra For Dummies

Linear Algebra For Dummies

4 ] Calculus Workbook For Dummies

Calculus Workbook For Dummies

5 ] Differential Equations For Dummies

Differential_Equations_For_Dummies

6 ] Linear Algebra by Jim Hefferon

Linear Algebra

7 ] Mathematics – Puzzles from around the world

Mathematics—Puzzles-from-around-the-world

8 ] Graph Theory by Reinhard Diestel

Graph Theory

9 ] Electronics for Dummies

Electronics for Dummies

10 ] Electronics Projects for Dummies

Electronics Projects For Dummies

11 ] Physics For Dummies

Physics For Dummies

12 ] Physics Workbook For Dummies

Physics Workbook For Dummies

13 ] Inorganic Chemistry James E. House

Inorganic Chemistry James E. House

14 ] Inorganic Chemistry by Cox

Inorganic Chemistry by Cox

15 ] Inorganic Chemistry 5th Edition Miessler

Inorganic Chemistry 5th Edition Miessler

16 ] Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry Solomon

Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry Solomon

17 ] Illustrated Guide to Home Chemistry Experiments

Illustrated Guide to Home Chemistry Experiments

:-{D

e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book-e-Book–e-Book

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You can advertise for free to sell your House at free4u.info

Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay is providing a Social Service for all in Bangalore, to advertise for Free

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You can advertise for free to sell your Car at free4u.info

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If you are looking for Organ Donation, where do you ask ? Where do you want to put up your requirements ? Do you give costly ads ?

You can advertise or Post Classifieds for free at free4u.info

Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay is providing a Social Service for all in Bangalore, to advertise for Free. Post all kinds of Classified ads and Requirements for FREE.

If you are a Tutor, or a Shopkeeper, or a Teacher, or a Cook, or a Gardener, or a Dog Trainer ….. or something something something….. How can you afford costly ads ? Post your requirements for free at free4u.info     Advertise yourself free at free4u.info     Doing a garage sell …. Tell all for free at free4u.info

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Professor Subhashish Chattopadhyay is providing a Social Service for all in Bangalore, to advertise for Free. Post all kinds of Classified ads and Requirements for FREE. Following Categories and Subcategories will surely help you. This is not an exhaustive list. You can give general requirements as well. Post all your skills. Post all your needs. Looking for a job ? You can post your profile as well.

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Solutions to Chapter 11 :

The p-Block Elements

Must see https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/some-points-which-i-wish-all-my-new-prospective-students-know/

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2 Phophorous acids

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11.1a p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

11.1b p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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Chalcogens-P1-O, S, Se, Te, Po-Group6A-16-ISEET, AIEEE, IIT-JEE-PU, ISc
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=afpmKYwaHmw&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5&index=35

🙂

Must see https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/some-points-which-i-wish-all-my-new-prospective-students-know/

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Untitled

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10 Chaya ta Motorcycle er

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The next chapter Solution is at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/ncert-cbse-standard-11-chemistry-chapter-12-organic-chemistry-some-basic-principles-and-techniques/
!
The previous chapter Solution is at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/ncert-cbse-standard-11-chemistry-chapter-10-the-s-block-elements/
!
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Nitrogen Oxides

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11 Painting

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11.2-3 p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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1 Periodic table showing ionization energies in colour contrast

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11 Romancing beside the river

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Group IIIA-13-P1-B,Al,Ga,In,Tl-Inorganic Chemistry
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PrRnCinyaio&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5&index=30

11.4 p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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Group 13-In, Tl show mixed-valence, Tl has +ve Electrode Potential-ISEET, ISc, CBSE
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O74xgoRE6Uc&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5

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12 distorted face

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11.5-6 p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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Silica SiO2-about and Properties – Part-2-ISEET, IIT-JEE, CET, ISc, CBSE, PreUniversity
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FvgwW8xYPE8&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5

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12 Firse Romance walk

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11.7 p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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Acid Strengths in Nitrogen, Sulphur, Carbon and other Oxides-Part-6-Acids of Carbon
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V9w30g2FiNY&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5&index=2

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2 Electronegativity highlighted with colour contrast

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12 Fossil Biche

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11.8 p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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Group 4A-(14)-Carbon Family-Part-2-Ge, Uuq, Q and A, SKM Classes, ISEET, IIT-JEE-Zookeepersblog
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cPj1KOOlL5U&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5&index=3

11.9 p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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Bromine Story-uses properties
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zj9mSGGwWF8&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5

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10 eta ki rokom spiral er cousin bhai

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11.10a p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

11.10b p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

Borax-Di-Sodium-Tetra Borate-DecaWater
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7o1dTvFU9_k&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5&index=17

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10 Gacher moto naki

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11.11 p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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Chlorine Story-ISEET,PU,ISc, CBSE, AIEEE,AIPMT
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5nUu6HtjHeg&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5&index=18

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10 Lomba lomba lok jon

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11.12 p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

Xenon Compounds various Examples
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1byBJYX_tNA&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5

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10 Lomba Tower futo futo

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11.13 p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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Acid names of 4A and 5A Group oxides-Part-3-Various Phosphorus Acids-ISEET Bangalore
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GvzJVjS13N8&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5&index=5

11.14a p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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Halogens Group 17 ( 7A )-Part-3-Dihalides, Interhalogens-ISEET, IIT-JEE, AIEEE, ISc, CBSE
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9F7_bn-3zrk&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5&index=8

11.15 p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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NI3 Nitrogen triiodide can be detonaded by Alpha Radiation
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NwUoEgsEj2c&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5

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12 Hill full of buildings

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11.16 p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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Aluminium Oxide and Silicon Oxide do not react with water ISEET, CBSE, ISc, IIT-JEE
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rQAdvR5c0VQ&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5

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12 Homo heidelbergensis

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11.17-18 p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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Chemical Reactivity in Group 17 elements-Part-2-ISEET, ISc, CBSE,CET,AIEEE
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LmCkVX276I0&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5&index=11

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13 distorted face

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11.17-19 p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

11.19b p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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Gallium expands on Solidification
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_kfEszRfTpg&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5

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13 face

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11.20a p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

11.21a p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

11.21b p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

11.21c p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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Group IIIA-13-P1-B,Al,Ga,In,Tl-Inorganic Chemistry
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PrRnCinyaio&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5&index=14

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The next chapter Solution is at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/ncert-cbse-standard-11-chemistry-chapter-12-organic-chemistry-some-basic-principles-and-techniques/
!
The previous chapter Solution is at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/ncert-cbse-standard-11-chemistry-chapter-10-the-s-block-elements/
!
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🙂

13 girl with wings

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11.22a p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

11.22b p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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Group IVA-14-P1-C,Si,Ge, Sn,Pb-Zintl Ions
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5TDWdf_leUs&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5&index=15

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13 Ida-missing-link-fossil

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11.23-24 p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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Litharge is a natural mineral of Lead(II) oxide-ISEET,ISc,PU,AIEEE
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PIyCqutZVjA&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5

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13 malapa-fossil-reconstruction

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11.25a p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

11.25b p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

11.25c p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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Acid names of 4A and 5A Group oxides-Part-3-Various Phosphorus Acids-ISEET Bangalore
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GvzJVjS13N8&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5&index=21

🙂

13 Painting

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11.26a p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

11.26b p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

🙂
Group 4A-(14)-Carbon Family-Part-2-Ge, Uuq, Q and A, SKM Classes, ISEET, IIT-JEE-Zookeepersblog
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cPj1KOOlL5U&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5&index=24

11.27 p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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Chemical Reactivity in Group 17 elements-Part-2-ISEET, ISc, CBSE,CET,AIEEE
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LmCkVX276I0&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5&index=26

11.28a p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

11.28b p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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sulphur Trioxide-SO3-ISEET-PU-ISc-CBSE-School-College-Inorganic Chemistry
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tSIqtmhm63E&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5

11.29 p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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Halogens Group 17 ( 7A )-Part-3-Dihalides, Interhalogens-ISEET, IIT-JEE, AIEEE, ISc, CBSE
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9F7_bn-3zrk&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5&index=27

11.30 p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

11.30b p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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Group IVA-14-P1-C,Si,Ge, Sn,Pb-Zintl Ions
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5TDWdf_leUs&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5&index=29

11.31a p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

11.31b p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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Anahydride of Nitrous acid
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UFWyVE9iK-o&list=PLeF13BXlaoDo3k57C7XI4jh2Wvk1ob2x5

11.32 p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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11.33-34a p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

11.34b-35 p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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11.36 p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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11.37 p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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11.38 p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

11.38b p-Block CBSE standard 11 Solutions

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The variation in properties of the p-block elements due to the influence of d and f electrons in the inner core of the heavier elements makes their chemistry interesting

In p-block elements the last electron enters the outermost p orbital. As we know that the number of p orbitals is three and, therefore, the maximum number of electrons that can be accommodated in a set of p orbitals is six. Consequently there are six groups of p-block elements in the periodic table numbering from 13 to 18. Boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine and helium head the groups. Their valence shell electronic configuration is ns2np1-6(except for He). The inner core of the electronic configuration may, however, differ. The difference in inner core of elements greatly influences their physical properties (such as atomic and ionic radii, ionisation enthalpy, etc.) as well as chemical properties. Consequently, a lot of variation in properties of elements in a group of p-block is observed. The maximum oxidation state shown by a p-block element is equal to the total number of valence electrons (i.e., the sum of the sand p-electrons). Clearly, the number of possible oxidation states increases towards the right of the periodic table. In addition to this so called group oxidation state, p-block elements may show other oxidation states which normally, but not necessarily, differ from the total number of valence electrons by unit of two. The important oxidation states exhibited by p-block elements are shown in Table 11.1. In boron, carbon and nitrogen families the group oxidation state is the most stable state for the lighter elements in the group. However, the oxidation state two unit less than the group oxidation state becomes progressively more stable for the heavier elements in each group. The occurrence of oxidation states two unit less than the group oxidation states are sometime attributed to the ‘inert pair effect’.

Table 11.1 General Electronic Configuration and Oxidation States of p-Block Elements
Group 13 14 15 16 17 18
General electronic conifguration ns2np1 ns2np2 ns2np3 ns2np4 ns2np5 ns2np6(1s2 for He)
First member of the group B C N O F He
Group oxidation state +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8
Other oxidation states +1 +2,-4 +3,-3 +4,+2,-2 +5,+3,+1,-1 +6,+4,+2

The relative stabilities of these two oxidation states – group oxidation state and two unit less than the group oxidation state – may vary from group to group and will be discussed at appropriate places.

It is interesting to note that the non-metals and metalloids exist only in the p-block of the periodic table. The non-metallic character of elements decreases down the group. In fact the heaviest element in each p-block group is the most metallic in nature. This change from nonmetallic to metallic character brings diversity in the chemistry of these elements depending on the group to which they belong.

In general, non-metals have higher ionisation enthalpies and higher electronegativities than the metals. Hence, in contrast to metals which readily form cations, non-metals readily form anions. The compounds formed by highly reactive non-metals with highly reactive metals are generally ionic because of large differences in their electronegativities. On the other hand, compounds formed between non-metals themselves are largely covalent in character because of small differences in their electronegativities. The change of non-metallic to metallic character can be best illustrated by the nature of oxides they form. The non-metal oxides are acidic or neutral whereas metal oxides are basic in nature.

The first member of p-block differs from the remaining members of their corresponding group in two major respects. First is the size and all other properties which depend on size. Thus, the lightest p-block elements show the same kind of differences as the lightest s-block elements, lithium and beryllium. The second important difference, which applies only to the p-block elements, arises from the effect of dorbitals in the valence shell of heavier elements (starting from the third period onwards) and their lack in second period elements. The second period elements of p-groups starting from boron are restricted to a maximum covalence of four (using 2s and three 2p orbitals). In contrast, the third period elements of p-groups with the electronic configuration 3s23pn have the vacant 3d orbitals lying between the 3p and the 4s levels of energy. Using these d-orbitals the third period elements can expand their covalence above four. For example, while boron forms only [BF4], aluminium gives [AlF6]3ion. The presence of these d-orbitals influences the chemistry of the heavier elements in a number of other ways. The combined effect of size and availability of d orbitals considerably influences the ability of these elements to form π bonds. The first member of a group differs from the heavier members in its ability to form pπ – pπ multiple bonds to itself ( e.g., C=C, C≡C,N≡N) and to other second row elements (e.g., C=O, C=N, C≡N, N=O). This type of π – bonding is not particularly strong for the heavier p-block elements. The heavier elements do form π bonds but this involves d orbitals (dπ-pπ or dπ-dπ). As the d orbitals are of higher energy than the p orbitals, they contribute less to the overall stability of molecules than does pπ – pπ bonding of the second row elements. However, the coordination number in species of heavier elements may be higher than for the first element in the same oxidation state. For example, in +5 oxidation state both N and P form oxoanions : NO3 (three-coordination with π – bond involving one nitrogen p-orbital) and PO34 4 PO − (four-coordination involving s, p and d orbitals contributing to the π – bond). In this unit we will study the chemistry of group 13 and 14 elements of the periodic table.

11.1 GROUP 13 ELEMENTS: THE BORON FAMILY

This group elements show a wide variation in properties. Boron is a typical non-metal, aluminium is a metal but shows many
chemical similarities to boron, and gallium, indium and thallium are almost exclusively metallic in character.

Boron is a fairly rare element, mainly occurs as orthoboric acid, (H3BO3), borax, Na2B4O7·10H2O, and kernite, Na2B4O7·4H2O. In India borax occurs in Puga Valley (Ladakh) and Sambhar Lake (Rajasthan). The abundance of boron in earth crust is less than 0.0001% by mass. There are two isotopic forms of boron 10B (19%) and 11B (81%). Aluminium is the most abundant metal and the third most abundant element in the earth’s crust (8.3% by mass) after oxygen (45.5%) and Si (27.7%). Bauxite, Al2O3. 2H2O and cryolite, Na3AlF6 are the important minerals of aluminium. In India it is found as mica in Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Orissa and Jammu. Gallium, indium and thallium are less abundant elements in nature.

11.1.1 Electronic Configuration

The outer electronic configuration of these elements is ns2np1. A close look at the electronic configuration suggests that while boron and aluminium have noble gas core, gallium and indium have noble gas plus 10 d-electrons, and thallium has noble gas plus 14 f- electrons plus 10 d-electron cores. Thus, the electronic structures of these elements are more complex than for the first two groups of elements discussed in unit 10. This difference in electronic structures affects the other properties and consequently the chemistry of all the elements of this group.

11.1.2 Atomic Radii

On moving down the group, for each successive member one extra shell of electrons is added and, therefore, atomic radius is expected to increase. However, a deviation can be seen. Atomic radius of Ga is less than that of Al. This can be understood from the variation in the inner core of the electronic configuration. The presence of additional 10 d-electrons offer only poor screening effect (Unit 2) for the outer electrons from the increased nuclear charge in gallium. Consequently, the atomic radius of gallium (135 pm) is less than that of aluminium (143 pm).

11.1.3 Ionization Enthalpy

The ionisation enthalpy values as expected from the general trends do not decrease smoothly down the group. The decrease from B to Al is associated with increase in size. The observed discontinuity in the ionisation enthalpy values between Al and Ga, and between In and Tl are due to inability of d- and f-electrons ,which have low screening effect, to compensate the increase in nuclear charge. The order of ionisation enthalpies, as expected, is ΔiH1iH2iH3. The sum of the first three ionisation enthalpies for each of the elements is very high. Effect of this will be apparent when you study their chemical properties.

11.1.4 Electronegativity

Down the group, electronegativity first decreases from B to Al and then increases The atomic, physical and chemical properties of these elements are discussed below. marginally (Table 11.2). This is because of the discrepancies in atomic size of the elements.

Table 11.2 Atomic and Physical Properties of Group 13 Elements
Property Element
Boron B Aluminium Al Gallium Ga Indium In Thallium Ti
Atomic number 5 13 31 49 81
Atomic mass(g mol-1) 10.81 26.98 69.72 114.82 204.38
Electronic Configuration [He]2s22p1 [Ne]3s23p1 [Ar]3d104s24p1 [Kr]4d105s25p1 [Xe]4f145d106s26p1
Atomic radius / pma (88) 143 135 167 170
Ionic radius M3+/pmb (27) 53.5 62.0 80.0 88.5
Ionic radius M+ /pm 120 140 150
Ionization enthalpy(kJ mol-1) ΔiH1Δ iH2ΔiH3 80124273659 57718162744 57919792962 55818202704 58919712877
Electronegetivityc 2.0 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8
Density / g cm-3 at 298 K 2.35 2.70 5.90 7.31 11.85
Melting point / K 2453 933 303 430 576
Boling point / K 3923 2740 2676 2353 1730
EΘ / V for(M3+ / M) -1.66 -0.56 -0.34 +1.26
EΘ / V for(M+ / M) +0.55 -0.79(acid)
-1.39(alkali)
-0.18 -0.34

11.1.5 Physical Properties

Boron is non-metallic in nature. It is extremely hard and black coloured solid. It exists in many allotropic forms. Due to very strong crystalline lattice, boron has unusually high melting point. Rest of the members are soft metals with low melting point and high electrical conductivity. It is worthwhile to note that gallium with unusually low melting point (303K), could exist in liquid state during summer. Its high boiling point (2676K) makes it a useful material for measuring high temperatures. Density of the elements increases down the group from boron to thallium.

11.1.6 Chemical Properties

Oxidation state and trends in chemical reactivity

Due to small size of boron, the sum of its first three ionization ethalpies is very high. This prevents it to form +3 ions and forces it to form only covalent compounds. But as we move from B to Al, the sum of the first three ionisation enthalpies of Al considerably decreases, and is therefore able to form Al3+ ions. In fact, aluminium is a highly electropositive metal. However, down the group, due to poor shielding effect of intervening d and f orbitals, the increased effective nuclear charge holds ns electrons tightly (responsible for inert pair effect) and thereby, restricting their participation in bonding. As a result of this, only p-orbital electron may be involved in bonding. In fact in Ga, In and Tl, both +1 and +3 oxidation states are observed. The relative stability of +1 oxidation state progressively increases for heavier elements: Al<ga<in

In trivalent state, the number of electrons around the central atom in a molecule of the compounds of these elements
(e.g., boron in BF3) will be only six. Such electron deficient molecules have tendency to accept a pair of electrons to achieve stable electronic configuration and thus, behave as Lewis acids. The tendency to behave as Lewis acid decreases with the increase in the size down the group. BCl3 easily accepts a lone pair of electrons from ammonia to form BCl3.NH3.

In trivalent state most of the compounds being covalent are hydrolysed in water. For example, the trichlorides on hyrolysis in water form tetrahedral [M(OH)4] species; the hybridisation state of element M is sp3. Aluminium chloride in acidified aqueous solution forms octahedral [Al(H2O)6]3+ion. In this complex ion, the 3d orbitals of Al are involved and the hybridisation state of Al is sp3d2.

Problem 11.1

Standard electrode potential values, EΘ for Al3+/Al is -1.66 V and that of Tl3+/Tl is +1.26 V. Predict about the formation of M3+ ion in solution and compare the electropositive character of the two metals.
Solution
Standard electrode potential values for two half cell reactions suggest that aluminium has high tendency to make Al3+(aq) ions, whereas Tl3+ is not only unstable in solution but is a powerful oxidising agent also. Thus Tl+ is more stable in solution than Tl>sup>3+. Aluminium being able to form +3 ions easily, is more electropositive than thallium.

(i) Reactivity towards air

Boron is unreactive in crystalline form. Aluminium forms a very thin oxide layer on the surface which protects the metal from further attack. Amorphous boron and aluminium metal on heating in air form B2O3 and Al2O3 respectively. With dinitrogen at high temperature they form nitrides.

(E = element)

The nature of these oxides varies down the group. Boron trioxide is acidic and reacts with basic (metallic) oxides forming metal borates. Aluminium and gallium oxides are amphoteric and those of indium and thallium are basic in their properties.

(ii) Reactivity towards acids and alkalies

Boron does not react with acids and alkalies even at moderate temperature; but aluminium dissolves in mineral acids and aqueous alkalies and thus shows amphoteric character.
Aluminium dissolves in dilute HCl and liberates dihydrogen.
2Al(s) + 6HCl (aq) → 2Al3+ (aq) + 6Cl(aq) + 3H2 (g)
However, concentrated nitric acid renders aluminium passive by forming a protective oxide layer on the surface.
Aluminium also reacts with aqueous alkali and liberates dihydrogen.

(iii) Reactivity towards halogens
These elements react with halogens to form trihalides (except TlI3).
2E(s) + 3 X2 (g) → 2EX3 (s) (X = F, Cl, Br, I)

Problem 11.2
White fumes appear around the bottle of anhydrous aluminium chloride. Give reason.
Solution
Anhydrous aluminium chloride is partially hydrolysed with atmospheric moisture to liberate HCl gas. Moist HCl appears white in colour.

11.2 IMPORTANT TRENDS AND ANOMALOUS PROPERTIES OF BORON

Certain important trends can be observed in the chemical behaviour of group 13 elements. The tri-chlorides, bromides and iodides of all these elements being covalent in nature are hydrolysed in water. Species like tetrahedral [M(OH)4] and octahedral [M(H2O)6]3+, except in boron, exist in aqueous medium.
The monomeric trihalides, being electron deficient, are strong Lewis acids. Boron trifluoride easily reacts with Lewis bases such as NH3 to complete octet around boron.
F3B + :NH3 → F3B ←NH3
It is due to the absence of d orbitals that the maximum covalence of B is 4. Since the d orbitals are available with Al and other elements, the maximum covalence can be expected beyond 4. Most of the other metal halides (e.g., AlCl3) are dimerised through halogen bridging (e.g., Al2Cl6). The metal species completes its octet by accepting electrons from halogen in these halogen bridged molecules.

Problem 11.3

Boron is unable to form BF63-ion. Explain.
Solution
Due to non-availability of d orbitals, boron is unable to expand its octet. Therefore, the maximum covalence of boron cannot
exceed 4.

11.3 SOME IMPORTANT COMPOUNDS OF BORON

Some useful compounds of boron are borax, orthoboric acid and diborane. We will briefly study their chemistry.

11.3.1 Borax

It is the most important compound of boron. It is a white crystalline solid of formula Na2B4O7.10H2O. In fact it contains the tetranuclear units [B4O5(OH)4]2- and correct formula; therefore, is Na2[B4O5 (OH)4].8H2O. Borax dissolves in water to give an alkaline
solution
Na2B4O7 + 7H2O → 2NaOH + 4H3BO3
Orthoboric acid
On heating, borax first loses water molecules and swells up. On further heating it turns into a transparent liquid, which solidifies into glass like material known as borax bead.

The metaborates of many transition metals have characteristic colours and, therefore, borax bead test can be used to identify them in the laboratory. For example, when borax is heated in a Bunsen burner flame with CoO on a loop of platinum wire, a blue coloured Co(BO2)2 bead is formed.

11.3.2 Orthoboric acid

Orthoboric acid, H3BO3 is a white crystalline solid, with soapy touch. It is sparingly soluble in water but highly soluble in hot water. It can be prepared by acidifying an aqueous solution of borax.
Na2B4O7 + 2HCl + 5H2O → 2NaCl + 4B(OH)3
It is also formed by the hydrolysis (reaction with water or dilute acid) of most boron compounds (halides, hydrides, etc.). It has a layer structure in which planar BO3 units are joined by hydrogen bonds as shown in Fig. 11.1.

Boric acid is a weak monobasic acid. It is not a protonic acid but acts as a Lewis acid by accepting electrons from a hydroxyl ion:
B(OH)3 + 2HOH → [B(OH)4] + H3O+

On heating, orthoboric acid above 370K forms metaboric acid, HBO2 which on further heating yields boric oxide, B2O3.

Problem 11.4
Why is boric acid considered as a weak acid?
Solution
Because it is not able to release H+ ions on its own. It receives OH ions from water molecule to complete its octet and in turn releases H+ ions.

11.3.3 Diborane, B2H6
The simplest boron hydride known, is diborane. It is prepared by treating boron trifluoride with LiAlH4 in diethyl ether.
4BF3 + 3 LiAlH4 → 2B2H6 + 3LiF + 3AlF3
A convenient laboratory method for the preparation of diborane involves the oxidation of sodium borohydride with iodine.
2NaBH4 + I2 → B2H6 + 2NaI + H2
Diborane is produced on an industrial scale by the reaction of BF3 with sodium hydride.

Diborane is a colourless, highly toxic gas with a b.p. of 180 K. Diborane catches fire spontaneously upon exposure to air. It burns in oxygen releasing an enormous amount of energy.
B2H6 +3O2→B2O3+3H2O; ΔcH&theata; =−1976 kJ mol-1

Most of the higher boranes are also spontaneously flammable in air. Boranes are readily hydrolysed by water to give boric acid.
B2H6(g) + 6H2O(l) → 2B(OH)3(aq) + 6H2(g)
Diborane undergoes cleavage reactions with Lewis bases(L) to give borane adducts, BH3.L
B2H+ 2 NMe3 → 2BH3.NMe3
B2H6 + 2 CO → 2BH3.CO
Reaction of ammonia with diborane gives initially B2H6.2NH3 which is formulated as [BH2(NH3)2]+ [BH4]; further heating gives borazine, B3N3H6 known as “inorganic benzene” in view of its ring structure with alternate BH and NH groups.

The structure of diborane is shown in Fig.11.2(a). The four terminal hydrogen atoms and the two boron atoms lie in one plane. Above and below this plane, there are two bridging hydrogen atoms. The four terminal B-H bonds are regular two centre-two electron bonds while the two bridge (B-H-B) bonds are different and can be described in terms of three centre-two electron bonds shown in Fig.11.2 (b).

Boron also forms a series of hydridoborates; the most important one is the tetrahedral [BH4]<sup?-< sup=””>
ion. Tetrahydridoborates of several metals are known. Lithium and sodium tetrahydridoborates, also known as borohydrides,
are prepared by the reaction of metal hydrides with B2H6 in diethyl ether.
2MH + B2H6 → 2M+[BH4] (M = Li or Na)

Both LiBH4 and NaBH4 are used as reducing agents in organic synthesis. They are useful starting materials for preparing other metal borohydrides.

11.4 USES OF BORON AND ALUMINIUM AND THEIR COMPOUNDS

Boron being extremely hard refractory solid of high melting point, low density and very low electrical conductivity, finds many applications. Boron fibres are used in making bullet-proof vest and light composite material for aircraft. The boron-10 (10B) isotope has high ability to absorb neutrons and, therefore, metal borides are used in nuclear industry as protective shields and control rods. The main industrial application of borax and boric acid is in the manufacture of heat resistant glasses (e.g., Pyrex), glass-wool and fibreglass. Borax is also used as a flux for soldering metals, for heat, scratch and stain resistant glazed coating to earthenwares and as constituent of medicinal soaps. An aqueous solution of orthoboric acid is generally used as a mild antiseptic.

Aluminium is a bright silvery-white metal, with high tensile strength. It has a high electrical and thermal conductivity. On a weight-to-weight basis, the electrical conductivity of aluminium is twice that of copper. Aluminium is used extensively in industry and every day life. It forms alloys with Cu, Mn, Mg, Si and Zn. Aluminium and its alloys can be given shapes of pipe, tubes, rods, wires, plates or foils and, therefore, find uses in packing, utensil making, construction, aeroplane and transportation industry. The use of aluminium and its compounds for domestic purposes is now reduced considerably because of their toxic nature.

11.5 GROUP 14 ELEMENTS: THE CARBON FAMILY

Carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn) and lead (Pb) are the members of group 14. Carbon is the seventeenth most abundant element by mass in the earth’s crust. It is widely distributed in nature in free as well as in the combined state. In elemental state it is available as coal, graphite and diamond; however, in combined state it is present as metal carbonates, hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide gas (0.03%) in air. One can emphatically say that carbon is the most versatile element in the world. Its combination with other elements such as dihydrogen, dioxygen, chlorine and sulphur provides an astonishing array of materials ranging from living tissues to drugs and plastics. Organic chemistry is devoted to carbon containing compounds. It is an essential constituent of all living organisms. Naturally occurring carbon contains two stable isotopes:12C and 13C. In addition to these, third isotope, 14C is also present. It is a radioactive isotope with halflife 5770 years and used for radiocarbon dating. Silicon is the second (27.7 % by mass) most abundant element on the earth’s crust and is present in nature in the form of silica and silicates. Silicon is a very important component of ceramics, glass and cement.Germanium exists only in traces. Tin occurs mainly as cassiterite, SnO2 and lead as galena, PbS.

Ultrapure form of germanium and silicon are used to make transistors and semiconductor devices.

The important atomic and physical properties of the group 14 elements along with their electronic configuration are given in Table 11.3 Some of the atomic, physical and chemical properties are discussed below:

Table 11.3 Atomic and Physical Properties of Group 14 Elements
Property Element
Carbon B Silicon Si Germanium Ge Tin Sn Lead Pb
Atomic number 6 14 32 50 82
Atomic mass(g mol 12.01 28.09 72.60 118.71 207.2
Electronic Configuration [He]2s22p2 [Ne]3s23p2 [Ar]3d104s24p2 [Kr]4d105s25p2 [Xe]4f145d106s26p2
Covalent radius / pm* 77 118 122 140 146
Ionic radius M3+/pmb 40 53 69 78
Ionic radius M+ /pm 73 118 119
Ionization enthalpy(kJ mol-1) ΔiH1ΔiH2ΔiH3ΔiH4 1086235246206220 786157732284354 761153733004409 708141129423929 715145030814082
Electronegetivityc 2.5 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9
Density / g cm-3 3.51* 2.34 5.32 7.26f 11.34
Melting point / K 4373 1693 1218 505 600
Boling point / K 3923 2740 2676 2353 1730
EΘ / V for(M3+ / M) 3550 3123 2896 2024
EΘ / V for(M+ / M) 1014-1016 50 50 10-5 2   10-5

11.5.1 Electronic Configuration

The valence shell electronic configuration of these elements is ns2np2. The inner core of the electronic configuration of elements in this group also differs. 11.5.2 Covalent Radius There is a considerable increase in covalent radius from C to Si, thereafter from Si to Pb a small increase in radius is observed. This is due to the presence of completely filled d and f orbitals in heavier members.

11.5.2 Covalent Radius

There is a considerable increase in covalent radius from C to Si, thereafter from Si to Pb a small increase in radius is observed. This is due to the presence of completely filled d and f orbitals in heavier members.

11.5.3 Ionization Enthalpy

The first ionization enthalpy of group 14 members is higher than the corresponding members of group 13. The influence of inner core electrons is visible here also. In general the ionisation enthalpy decreases down the group. Small decrease in ΔiH from Si to Ge to Sn and slight increase in ΔiH from Sn to Pb is the consequence of poor shielding effect of intervening d and f orbitals and increase in size of the atom.

11.5.4 Electronegativity

Due to small size, the elements of this group are slightly more electronegative than group 13 elements. The electronegativity values for elements from Si to Pb are almost the same.

11.5.5 Physical Properties

All group 14 members are solids. Carbon and silicon are non-metals, germanium is a metalloid, whereas tin and lead are soft metals with low melting points. Melting points and boiling points of group 14 elements are much higher than those of corresponding elements of group 13.

11.5.6 Chemical Properties

Oxidation states and trends in chemical reactivity The group 14 elements have four electrons in outermost shell. The common oxidation states exhibited by these elements are +4 and +2. Carbon also exhibits negative oxidation states. Since the sum of the first four ionization enthalpies is very high, compounds in +4 oxidation state are generally covalent in nature. In heavier members the tendency to show +2 oxidation state increases in the sequence Ge<sn4) is eight. Being electron precise molecules, they are normally not expected to act as electron acceptor or electron donor species. Although carbon cannot exceed its covalence more than 4, other elements of the group can do so. It is because of the presence of d orbital in them. Due to this, their halides undergo hydrolysis and have tendency to form complexes by accepting electron pairs from donor species. For example, the species like, SiF62-, [GeCl6]2-, [Sn(OH)6]2- exist where the hybridisation of the central atom is sp3d2.

(i) Reactivity towards oxygen

All members when heated in oxygen form oxides. There are mainly two types of oxides, i.e., monoxide and dioxide of formula MO and MO2 respectively. SiO only exists at high temperature. Oxides in higher oxidation states of elements are generally more acidic than those in lower oxidation states. The dioxides -CO2, SiO2 and GeO2 are acidic, whereas SnO2 and PbO2 are amphoteric in nature. Among monoxides, CO is neutral, GeO is distinctly acidic whereas SnO and PbO are amphoteric.

Problem 11.5

Select the member(s) of group 14 that (i) forms the most acidic dioxide, (ii) is commonly found in +2 oxidation state, (iii) used as semiconductor.

Solution
(i) carbon (ii) lead
(iii) silicon and germanium

(ii) Reactivity towards water
Carbon, silicon and germanium are not affected by water. Tin decomposes steam to form dioxide and dihydrogen gas.

Lead is unaffected by water, probably because of a protective oxide film formation.

(iii) Reactivity towards halogen

These elements can form halides of formula MX2 and MX4 (where X = F, Cl, Br, I). Except carbon, all other members react directly with halogen under suitable condition to make halides. Most of the MX4 are covalent in nature. The central metal atom in these halides undergoes sp3 hybridisation and the molecule is tetrahedral in shape. Exceptions are SnF4 and PbF4, which are ionic in nature. PbI4 does not exist because Pb-I bond initially formed during the reaction does not release enough energy to unpair 6s2 electrons and excite one of them to higher orbital to have four unpaired electrons around lead atom. Heavier members Ge to Pb are able to make halides of formula MX2. Stability of dihalides increases down the group. Considering the thermal and chemical stability, GeX4 is more stable than GeX2, whereas PbX2 is more than PbX4. Except CCl4, other tetrachlorides are easily hydrolysed by water because the central atom can accommodate the lone pair of electrons from oxygen atom of water molecule in d orbital. Hydrolysis can be understood by taking the example of SiCl4. It undergoes hydrolysis by initially accepting lone pair of electrons from water molecule in d orbitals of Si, finally leading to the formation of Si(OH)4 as shown below :

Problem 11. 6

[SiF6]2- is known whereas [SiCl6]2- not. Give possible reasons.

Solution
The main reasons are :
(i) six large chloride ions cannot be accommodated around Si4+ due to limitation of its size.
(ii) interaction between lone pair of
chloride ion and Si4+ is not very strong.

11.6 IMPORTANT TRENDS AND ANOMALOUS BEHAVIOUR OF CARBON

Like first member of other groups, carbon also differs from rest of the members of its group. It is due to its smaller size, higher electronegativity, higher ionisation enthalpy and unavailability of d orbitals. In carbon, only s and p orbitals are available for bonding and, therefore, it can accommodate only four pairs of electrons around it. This would limit the maximum covalence to four whereas other members can expand their covalence due to the presence of d orbitals.

In carbon, only s and p orbitals are available for bonding and, therefore, it can accommodate only four pairs of electrons
around it. This would limit the maximum covalence to four whereas other members can expand their covalence due to the presence of d orbitals.

Carbon also has unique ability to form pπ pπ multiple bonds with itself and with other atoms of small size and high electronegativity. Few examples of multiple bonding are: C=C, C ≡ C, C = O, C = S, and C ≡ N. Heavier elements do not form pπ- pπ bonds because their atomic orbitals are too large and diffuse to have effective overlapping.

Carbon atoms have the tendency to link with one another through covalent bonds to form chains and rings. This property is called catenation. This is because C-C bonds are very strong. Down the group the size increases and electronegativity decreases, and, thereby, tendency to show catenation decreases. This can be clearly seen from bond enthalpies values. The order of catenation is C > > Si > Ge ≈ Sn. Lead does not show catenation. Due to property of catenation and pπ- pπ bond formation, carbon is able to show allotropic forms.

Bond Bond enthalpy/kJ mol-3
C-C 348
Si-Si 297
Ge-Ge 260
Sn-Sn 240

11.7 ALLOTROPES OF CARBON

Carbon exhibits many allotropic forms; both crystalline as well as amorphous. Diamond and graphite are two well-known crystalline forms of carbon. In 1985, third form of carbon known as fullerenes was discovered by H.W.Kroto, E.Smalley and R.F.Curl. For this discovery they were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1996.

11.7.1 Diamond

It has a crystalline lattice. In diamond each carbon atom undergoes sp3 hybridisation and linked to four other carbon atoms by using hybridised orbitals in tetrahedral fashion. The C-C bond length is 154 pm. The structure extends in space and produces a rigid three dimensional network of carbon atoms. In this structure (Fig. 11.3) directional covalent bonds are present throughout the lattice.
It is very difficult to break extended covalent bonding and, therefore, diamond is a hardest substance on the earth. It is used as an abrasive for sharpening hard tools, in making dyes and in the manufacture of tungsten filaments for electric light bulbs.

Problem 11.7
Diamond is covalent, yet it has high melting point. Why ?
Solution
Diamond has a three-dimensional network involving strong C-C bonds, which are very difficult to break and, in turn has high melting point.

11.7.2 Graphite

Graphite has layered structure (Fig.11.4). Layers are held by van der Waals forces and distance between two layers is 340 pm. Each layer is composed of planar hexagonal rings of carbon atoms. C-C bond length within the layer is 141.5 pm. Each carbon atom in hexagonal ring undergoes sp2 hybridisation and makes three sigma bonds with three neighbouring carbon atoms. Fourth electron forms a π bond. The electrons are delocalised over the whole sheet. Electrons are mobile and, therefore, graphite conducts electricity along the sheet. Graphite cleaves easily between the layers and, therefore, it is very soft and slippery. For this reason graphite is used as a dry lubricant in machines running at high temperature, where oil cannot be used as a
lubricant.

11.7.3 Fullerenes

Fullerenes are made by the heating of graphite in an electric arc in the presence of inert gases such as helium or argon. The sooty material formed by condensation of vapourised Cn small molecules consists of mainly C60 with smaller quantity of C70 and traces of fullerenes consisting of even number of carbon atoms up to 350 or above. Fullerenes are the only pure form of carbon because they have smooth structure without having ‘dangling’ bonds. Fullerenes are cage like molecules. C60 molecule has a shape like soccer ball and called Buckminsterfullerene (Fig. 11.5).

It contains twenty six- membered rings and twelve five membered rings. A six membered ring is fused with six or five membered rings but a five membered ring can only fuse with six membered rings. All the carbon atoms are equal and they undergo sp2 hybridisation. Each carbon atom forms three sigma bonds with other three carbon atoms. The remaining electron at each carbon is delocalised in molecular orbitals, which in turn give aromatic character to molecule. This ball shaped molecule has 60 vertices and each one is occupied by one carbon atom and it also contains both single and double bonds with C-C distances of 143.5 pm and 138.3 pm respectively. Spherical fullerenes are also called bucky balls in short. It is very important to know that graphite is thermodynamically most stable allotrope of carbon and, therefore, Δf H&Theta of graphite is taken as zero. Δf H&Theta values of diamond and fullerene, C60 are 1.90 and 38.1 kJ mol-1, respectively. Other forms of elemental carbon like carbon black, coke, and charcoal are all impure forms of graphite or fullerenes. Carbon black is obtained by burning hydrocarbons in a limited supply of air. Charcoal and coke are obtained by heating wood or coal respectively at high temperatures in the absence of air.

11.7.4 Uses of Carbon

Graphite fibres embedded in plastic material form high strength, lightweight composites. The composites are used in products such as tennis rackets, fishing rods, aircrafts and canoes. Being good conductor, graphite is used for electrodes in batteries and industrial electrolysis. Crucibles made from graphite are inert to dilute acids and alkalies. Being highly porous, activated charcoal is used in adsorbing poisonous gases; also used in water filters to remove organic contaminators and in airconditioning system to control odour. Carbon black is used as black pigment in black ink and as filler in utomobile tyres. Coke is used as a fuel and largely as a reducing agent in metallurgy. Diamond is a precious stone and used in jewellery. It is measured in carats (1 carat = 200 mg).

11.8 SOME IMPORTANT COMPOUNDS OF CARBON AND SILICON
Oxides of Carbon
Two important oxides of carbon are carbon monoxide, CO and carbon dioxide, CO2.

11.8.1 Carbon Monoxide
Direct oxidation of C in limited supply of oxygen or air yields carbon monoxide.

On small scale pure CO is prepared by dehydration of formic acid with concentrated H2SO4 at 373 K

On commercial scale it is prepared by the passage of steam over hot coke. The mixture of CO and H2 thus produced is known as water gas or synthesis gas.

When air is used instead of steam, a mixture of CO and N2 is produced, which is called producer gas.

Water gas and producer gas are very important industrial fuels. Carbon monoxide in water gas or producer gas can undergo
further combustion forming carbon dioxide with the liberation of heat.

Carbon monoxide is a colourless, odourless and almost water insoluble gas. It is a powerful reducing agent and reduces almost all metal oxides other than those of the alkali and alkaline earth metals, aluminium and a few transition metals. This property of CO is used in the extraction of many metals from their oxides ores.

In CO molecule, there are one sigma and two π bonds between carbon and oxygen, :C ≡ O: . Because of the presence of a lone pair on carbon, CO molecule acts as a donor and reacts with certain metals when heated to form metal carbonyls. The highly poisonous nature of CO arises because of its ability to form a complex with haemoglobin, which is about 300 times more stable than the oxygen-haemoglobin complex. This prevents haemoglobin in the red blood corpuscles from carrying oxygen round the body and ultimately resulting in death.

11.8.2 Carbon Dioxide
It is prepared by complete combustion of carbon and carbon containing fuels in excess of air.

In the laboratory it is conveniently prepared by the action of dilute HCl on calcium carbonate.
CaCo3(s) + 2HCl(aq) → CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

On commercial scale it is obtained by heating limestone.
It is a colourless and odourless gas. Its low solubility in water makes it of immense biochemical and geo-chemical importance. With water, it forms carbonic acid, H2CO3 which is a weak dibasic acid and dissociates in two steps:

H2CO3/HCO3 buffer system helps to maintain pH of blood between 7.26 to 7.42.
Being acidic in nature, it combines with alkalies to form metal carbonates.
Carbon dioxide, which is normally present to the extent of ~ 0.03 % by volume in the atmosphere, is removed from it by the process known as photosynthesis. It is the process by which green plants convert atmospheric CO2 into carbohydrates such as glucose. The overall chemical change can be expressed as:

By this process plants make food for themselves as well as for animals and human beings. Unlike CO, it is not poisonous. But the increase in combustion of fossil fuels and decomposition of limestone for cement manufacture in recent years seem to increase the CO2 content of the atmosphere. This may lead to increase in green house effect and thus, raise the temperature of the atmosphere which might have serious consequences.

Carbon dioxide can be obtained as a solid in the form of dry ice by allowing the liquified CO2 to expand rapidly. Dry ice is used as a refrigerant for ice-cream and frozen food. Gaseous CO2 is extensively used to carbonate soft drinks. Being heavy and non-supporter of combustion it is used as fire extinguisher. A substantial amount of CO2 is used to manufacture urea.
In CO2 molecule carbon atom undergoes sp hybridisation. Two sp hybridised orbitals of carbon atom overlap with two p orbitals of oxygen atoms to make two sigma bonds while other two electrons of carbon atom are involved in pπ- pπ bonding with oxygen atom. This results in its linear shape [with both C-O bonds of equal length (115 pm)] with no dipole moment. The resonance structures are shown below:

Resonance structure of carbon dioxide

11.8.3 Silicon Dioxide, SiO2

95% of the earth’s crust is made up of silica and silicates. Silicon dioxide, commonly known as silica, occurs in several crystallographic forms. Quartz, cristobalite and tridymite are some of the crystalline forms of silica, and they are interconvertable at suitable temperature. Silicon dioxide is a covalent, three-dimensional network solid in which each silicon atom is covalently bonded in a tetrahedral manner to four oxygen atoms. Each oxygen atom in turn covalently bonded to another silicon atoms as shown in diagram (Fig 11.6 ). Each corner is shared with another tetrahedron. The entire crystal may be considered as giant molecule in which eight membered rings are formed with alternate silicon and oxygen atoms.

Silica in its normal form is almost nonreactive because of very high Si-O bond enthalpy. It resists the attack by halogens, dihydrogen and most of the acids and metals even at elevated temperatures. However, it is attacked by HF and NaOH.
SiO2 + 2NaOH → Na2SiO3 + H2O
SiO2 + 4HF → SiF4 + 2H2O
Quartz is extensively used as a piezoelectric material; it has made possible to develop extremely accurate clocks, modern radio and television broadcasting and mobile radio communications. Silica gel is used as a drying agent and as a support for chromatographic materials and catalysts. Kieselghur, an amorphous form of silica is used in filtration plants.

11.8.4 Silicones
They are a group of organosilicon polymers, which have (R2SiO) as a repeating unit. The starting materials for the manufacture of silicones are alkyl or aryl substituted silicon chlorides, RnSiCl(4-n), where R is alkyl or aryl group. When methyl chloride reacts with silicon in the presence of copper as a catalyst at a temperature 573K various types of methyl substituted chlorosilane of formula MeSiCl3, Me2SiCl2, Me3SiCl with small amount of Me4Si are formed. Hydrolysis of dimethyldichlorosilane, (CH3)2SiCl2 followed by condensation polymerisation yields straight chain polymers.

The chain length of the polymer can be controlled by adding (CH3)3SiCl which blocks the ends as shown below :

Silicones being surrounded by non-polar alkyl groups are water repelling in nature. They have in general high thermal stability, high dielectric strength and resistance to oxidation and chemicals. They have wide applications. They are used as sealant, greases, electrical insulators and for water proofing of fabrics. Being biocompatible they are also used in surgical and cosmetic plants.

Problem: 11.8
What are silicones ?
Solution
Simple silicones consist of chains in which alkyl or phenyl groups occupy the remaining bonding positions on each silicon. They are hydrophobic (water repellant) in nature.

11.8.5 Silicates

A large number of silicates minerals exist in nature. Some of the examples are feldspar, zeolites, mica and asbestos. The basic structural unit of silicates is SiO4 4- (Fig.11.7) in which silicon atom is bonded to four oxygen atoms in tetrahedron fashion. In silicates either the discrete unit is present or a number of such units are joined together via corners by sharing 1,2,3 or 4 oxygen atoms per silicate units. When silicate units are linked together, they form chain, ring, sheet or three-dimensional structures. Negative charge on silicate structure is neutralised by positively charged metal ions. If all the four corners are shared with other tetrahedral units, three-dimensional network is formed.

Two important man-made silicates are glass and cement.

11.8.6 Zeolites

If aluminium atoms replace few silicon atoms in three-dimensional network of silicon dioxide, overall structure known as aluminosilicate, acquires a negative charge. Cations such as Na+, K+ or Ca2+ balance the negative charge. Examples are feldspar and zeolites. Zeolites are widely used as a catalyst in petrochemical industries for cracking of hydrocarbons and isomerisation, e.g., ZSM-5 (A type of zeolite) used to convert alcohols directly into gasoline. Hydrated zeolites are used as ion exchangers in softening of “hard” water.

SUMMARY
p-Block of the periodic table is unique in terms of having all types of elements – metals, non-metals and metalloids. There are six groups of p-block elements in the periodic table numbering from 13 to 18. Their valence shell electronic configuration is ns2np1-–6 (except for He). Differences in the inner core of their electronic configuration greatly influence their physical and chemical properties. As a consequence of this, a lot of variation in properties among these elements is observed. In addition to the group oxidation state, these elements show other oxidation states differing from the total number of valence electrons by unit of two. While the group oxidation state is the most stable for the lighter elements of the group, lower oxidation states become progressively more stable for the heavier elements. The combined effect of size and availability of d orbitals considerably influences the ability of these elements to form π-bonds. While the lighter elements form pπ-pπ bonds, the heavier ones form dπ-pπ or dπ -dπ bonds. Absence of d orbital in second period elements limits their maximum covalence to 4 while heavier ones can exceed this limit.
Boron is a typical non-metal and the other members are metals. The availability of 3 valence electrons (2s22p1) for covalent bond formation using four orbitals (2s, 2px, 2py and 2pz) leads to the so called electron deficiency in boron compounds. This deficiency makes them good electron acceptor and thus boron compounds behave as Lewis acids. Boron forms covalent molecular compounds with dihydrogen as boranes, the simplest of which is diborane, B2H6. Diborane contains two bridging hydrogen atoms between two boron atoms; these bridge bonds are considered to be three-centre two-electron bonds. The important compounds of boron with dioxygen are boric acid and borax. Boric acid, B(OH)3is a weak monobasic acid; it acts as a Lewis acid by accepting electrons from hydroxyl ion. Borax is a white crystalline solid of formula Na2[B4O5 (OH)4]·8H2O. The borax bead test gives characteristic colours of transition metals.
Aluminium exhibits +3 oxidation state. With heavier elements +1 oxidation state gets progressively stabilised on going down the group. This is a consequence of the so called inert pair effect. Carbon is a typical non-metal forming covalent bonds employing all its four valence electrons (2s22p2). It shows the property of catenation, the ability to form chains or rings, not only with C-C single bonds but also with multiple bonds (C=C or C≡C). The tendency to catenation decreases as C>>Si>Ge ~ Sn > Pb. Carbon provides one of the best examples of allotropy. Three important allotropes of carbon are diamond, graphite and fullerenes. The members of the carbon family mainly exhibit +4 and +2 oxidation states; compouds in +4 oxidation states are generally covalent in nature. The tendency to show +2 oxidation state increases among heavier elements. Lead in +2 state is stable whereas in +4 oxidation state it is a strong oxidising agent. Carbon also exhibits negative oxidation states. It forms two important oxides: CO and CO2. Carbon monoxide is neutral whereas CO2 is acidic in nature. Carbon monoxide having lone pair of electrons on C forms metal carbonyls. It is deadly poisonous due to higher stability of its haemoglobin complex as compared to that of oxyhaemoglobin complex. Carbon dioxide as such is not toxic. However, increased content of CO2 in atmosphere due to combustion of fossil fuels and decomposition of limestone is feared to cause increase in ‘green house effect’. This, in turn, raises the temperature of the atmosphere and causes serious complications. Silica, silicates and silicones are important class of compounds and find applications in industry and technology.

EXERCISES
11.1 Discuss the pattern of variation in the oxidation states of
(i) B to Tl and (ii) C to Pb.
11.2 How can you explain higher stability of BCl3 as compared to TlCl3 ?
11.3 Why does boron triflouride behave as a Lewis acid ?
11.4 Consider the compounds, BCl3 and CCl4. How will they behave with water ? Justify.
11.5 Is boric acid a protic acid ? Explain.
11.6 Explain what happens when boric acid is heated .
11.7 Describe the shapes of BF3and BH4. Assign the hybridisation of boron in these species.
11.8 Write reactions to justify amphoteric nature of aluminium.
11.9 What are electron deficient compounds ? Are BCl3 and SiCl4 electron deficient species ? Explain.
11.10 Write the resonance structures of CO32-and HCO3.
11.11 What is the state of hybridisation of carbon in (a) CO3 2- (b) diamond (c) graphite?
11.12 Explain the difference in properties of diamond and graphite on the basis of their structures.
11.13 Rationalise the given statements and give chemical reactions :
• Lead(II) chloride reacts with Cl2 to give PbCl4.
• Lead(IV) chloride is highly unstable towards heat.
• Lead is known not to form an iodide, PbI4.
11.14 Suggest reasons why the B-F bond lengths in BF3 (130 pm) and BF4 (143 pm) differ.
11.15 If B-Cl bond has a dipole moment, explain why BCl3 molecule has zero dipole moment.
11.16 Aluminium trifluoride is insoluble in anhydrous HF but dissolves on addition of NaF. Aluminium trifluoride precipitates out of the resulting solution when gaseous BF3 is bubbled through. Give reasons.
11.17 Suggest a reason as to why CO is poisonous.
11.18 How is excessive content of CO2 responsible for global warming ?
11.19 Explain structures of diborane and boric acid.
11.20 What happens when
(a) Borax is heated strongly,
(b) Boric acid is added to water,
(c) Aluminium is treated with dilute NaOH,
(d) BF3 is reacted with ammonia ?
11.21 Explain the following reactions
(a) Silicon is heated with methyl chloride at high temperature in the
presence of copper;
(b) Silicon dioxide is treated with hydrogen fluoride;
(c) CO is heated with ZnO;
(d) Hydrated alumina is treated with aqueous NaOH solution.
11.22 Give reasons :
(i) Conc. HNO3 can be transported in aluminium container.
(ii) A mixture of dilute NaOH and aluminium pieces is used to open drain.
(iii) Graphite is used as lubricant.
(iv) Diamond is used as an abrasive.
(v) Aluminium alloys are used to make aircraft body.
(vi) Aluminium utensils should not be kept in water overnight.
(vii) Aluminium wire is used to make transmission cables.
11.23 Explain why is there a phenomenal decrease in ionization enthalpy from carbon to silicon ?
11.24 How would you explain the lower atomic radius of Ga as compared to Al ?
11.25 What are allotropes? Sketch the structure of two allotropes of carbon namely diamond and graphite. What is the impact of structure on physical properties of two allotropes?
11.26 (a) Classify following oxides as neutral, acidic, basic or amphoteric:
CO, B2O3, SiO2, CO2, Al2O3, PbO2, Tl2O3
(b) Write suitable chemical equations to show their nature.
11.27 In some of the reactions thallium resembles aluminium, whereas in others it resembles with group I metals. Support this statement by giving some evidences.
11.28 When metal X is treated with sodium hydroxide, a white precipitate (A) is obtained, which is soluble in excess of NaOH to give soluble complex (B). Compound (A) is soluble in dilute HCl to form compound (C). The compound (A) when heated strongly gives (D), which is used to extract metal. Identify (X), (A), (B), (C) and (D). Write suitable equations to support their identities.
11.29 What do you understand by (a) inert pair effect (b) allotropy and (c) catenation?
11.30 A certain salt X, gives the following results.
(i) Its aqueous solution is alkaline to litmus.
(ii) It swells up to a glassy material Y on strong heating.
(iii) When conc. H2SO4 is added to a hot solution of X,white crystal of an acid Z separates out.
Write equations for all the above reactions and identify X, Y and Z.
11.31 Write balanced equations for:
(i) BF3 + LiH →
(ii) B2H6 + H2O →
(iii) NaH + B2H6

(v) Al + NaOH →
(vi) B2H6 + NH3
11.32. Give one method for industrial preparation and one for laboratory preparation of CO and CO2 each.
11.33 An aqueous solution of borax is
(a) neutral (b) amphoteric
(c) basic (d) acidic
11.34 Boric acid is polymeric due to
(a) its acidic nature (b) the presence of hydrogen bonds
(c) its monobasic nature (d) its geometry
11.35 The type of hybridisation of boron in diborane is
(a) sp (b) sp2 (c) sp3 (d) dsp2
11.36 Thermodynamically the most stable form of carbon is
(a) diamond (b) graphite
(c) fullerenes (d) coal
11.37 Elements of group 14
(a) exhibit oxidation state of +4 only
(b) exhibit oxidation state of +2 and +4
(c) form M2- and M4+ ions
(d) form M2+ and M4+ ions
11.38 If the starting material for the manufacture of silicones is RSiCl3, write the structure of the product formed.

I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)

1. The element which exists in liquid state for a wide range of temperature and can be used for measuring high temperature is

(i) B
(ii) Al
(iii) Ga
(iv) In

2. Which of the following is a Lewis acid ?

(i) AlCl3
(ii) MgCl2
(iii) CaCl2
(iv) BaCl2

3. The geometry of a complex species can be understood from the knowledge of type of hybridisation of orbitals of central atom. The hybridisation of orbitals of central atom in [Be(OH)4] and the geometry of the complex are respectively

(i) sp3 , tetrahedral
(ii) sp3 , square planar
(iii) sp3d2 , octahedral
(iv) dsp2 , square planar

4. Which of the following oxides is acidic in nature?

(i) B2O3
(ii) Al2O3
(iii) Ga2O3
(iv) In2O3

5. The exhibition of highest co-ordination number depends on the availability of vacant orbitals in the central atom. Which of the following elements is not likely to act as central atom in MF63– ?

(i) B
(ii) Al
(iii) Ga
(iv) In

6. Boric acid is an acid because its molecule

(i) contains replaceable H+ ion
(ii) gives up a proton
(iii) accepts OH from water releasing proton
(iv) combines with proton from water molecule

7. Catenation i.e., linking of similar atoms depends on size and electronic configuration of atoms. The tendency of catenation in Group 14 elements follows the order:

(i) C > Si > Ge > Sn
(ii) C >> Si > Ge ≈ Sn
(iii) Si > C > Sn > Ge
(iv) Ge > Sn > Si > C

8. Silicon has a strong tendency to form polymers like silicones. The chain length of silicone polymer can be controlled by adding

(i) MeSiCl3
(ii) Me2SiCl2
(iii) Me3SiCl
(iv) Me4Si

9. Ionisation enthalpy (Δi H1 kJ mol–1) for the elements of Group 13 follows the order.

(i) B > Al > Ga > In > Tl
(ii) B < Al < Ga < In < Tl
(iii) B < Al > Ga < In > Tl
(iv) B > Al < Ga > In < Tl

10. In the structure of diborane

(i) All hydrogen atoms lie in one plane and boron atoms lie in a plane perpendicular to this plane.
(ii) 2 boron atoms and 4 terminal hydrogen atoms lie in the same plane and 2 bridging hydrogen atoms lie in the perpendicular plane.
(iii) 4 bridging hydrogen atoms and boron atoms lie in one plane and two terminal hydrogen atoms lie in a plane perpendicular to this plane.
(iv) All the atoms are in the same plane.

11. A compound X, of boron reacts with NH3 on heating to give another compound Y which is called inorganic benzene. The compound X can be prepared by treating BF3 with Lithium aluminium hydride. The compounds X and Y are represented by the formulas.

(i) B2H6 , B3N3H6
(ii) B2O3, B3N3H6
(iii) BF3, B3N3H6
(iv) B3N3H6 , B2H6

12. Quartz is extensively used as a piezoelectric material, it contains ___________.

(i) Pb
(ii) Si
(iii) Ti
(iv) Sn

13. The most commonly used reducing agent is
(i) AlCl3
(ii) PbCl2
(iii) SnCl4
(iv) SnCl2

14. Dry ice is

(i) Solid NH3
(ii) Solid SO2
(iii) Solid CO2
(iv) Solid N2

15. Cement, the important building material is a mixture of oxides of several elements. Besides calcium, iron and sulphur, oxides of elements of which of the group (s) are present in the mixture?

(i) group 2
(ii) groups 2, 13 and 14
(iii) groups 2 and 13
(iv) groups 2 and 14

II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)

In the following questions two or more options may be correct.

16. The reason for small radius of Ga compared to Al is _______.

(i) poor screening effect of d and f orbitals
(ii) increase in nuclear charge
(iii) presence of higher orbitals
(iv) higher atomic number

17. The linear shape of CO2 is due to _________.

(i) sp3 hybridisation of carbon
(ii) sp hybridisation of carbon
(iii) pπ – pπ bonding between carbon and oxygen
(iv) sp2 hybridisation of carbon

18. Me3SiCl is used during polymerisation of organo silicones because

(i) the chain length of organo silicone polymers can be controlled by adding Me3SiCl
(ii) Me3SiCl blocks the end terminal of silicone polymer
(iii) Me3SiCl improves the quality and yield of the polymer
(iv) Me3SiCl acts as a catalyst during polymerisation

19. Which of the following statements are correct?

(i) Fullerenes have dangling bonds
(ii) Fullerenes are cage-like molecules
(iii) Graphite is thermodynamically most stable allotrope of carbon
(iv) Graphite is slippery and hard and therefore used as a dry lubricant in machines

20. Which of the following statements are correct. Answer on the basis of Fig.11.1.

(i) The two birdged hydrogen atoms and the two boron atoms lie in one plane;
(ii) Out of six B–H bonds two bonds can be described in terms of 3 centre 2-electron bonds.
(iii) Out of six B-H bonds four B-H bonds can be described in terms of 3 centre 2 electron bonds;
(iv) The four terminal B-H bonds are two centre-two electron regular bonds.

21. Identify the correct resonance structures of carbon dioxide from the ones given below :

(i) O – C≡ O
(ii) O = C = O
(iii) O ≡ C – O+
(iv) O – C ≡ O+

III. Short Answer Type

22. Draw the structures of BCl3.NH3 and AlCl3 (dimer).

23. Explain the nature of boric acid as a Lewis acid in water.

24. Draw the structure of boric acid showing hydrogen bonding. Which species is present in water? What is the hybridisation of boron in this species?

25. Explain why the following compounds behave as Lewis acids?
(i) BCl3 (ii) AlCl3

26. Give reasons for the following:

(i) CCl4 is immiscible in water, whereas SiCl4 is easily hydrolysed.
(ii) Carbon has a strong tendency for catenation compared to silicon.

27. Explain the following :
(i) CO2 is a gas whereas SiO2 is a solid.
(ii) Silicon forms SiF62– ion whereas corresponding fluoro compound of carbon is not known.

28. The +1 oxidation state in group 13 and +2 oxidation state in group 14 becomes more and more stable with increasing atomic number. Explain.

29. Carbon and silicon both belong to the group 14, but inspite of the stoichiometric similarity, the dioxides, (i.e., carbon dioxide and silicon dioxide), differ in their structures. Comment.

30. If a trivalent atom replaces a few silicon atoms in three dimensional network of silicon dioxide, what would be the type of charge on overall structure?

31. When BCl3 is treated with water, it hydrolyses and forms [B[OH]4] only whereas AlCl3 in acidified aqueous solution forms [Al (H2O)6]3+ ion. Explain what is the hybridisation of boron and aluminium in these species?

32. Aluminium dissolves in mineral acids and aqueous alkalies and thus shows amphoteric character. A piece of aluminium foil is treated with dilute hydrochloric acid or dilute sodium hydroxide solution in a test tube and on bringing a burning matchstick near the mouth of the test tube, a pop sound indicates the evolution of hydrogen gas. The same activity when performed with concentrated nitric acid, reaction doesn’t proceed. Explain the reason.

33. Explain the following :

(i) Gallium has higher ionisation enthalpy than aluminium.
(ii) Boron does not exist as B3+ ion.
(iii) Aluminium forms [AlF6]3– ion but boron does not form [BF6]3– ion.
(iv) PbX2 is more stable than PbX4.
(v) Pb4+ acts as an oxidising agent but Sn2+ acts as a reducing agent.
(vi) Electron gain enthalpy of chlorine is more negative as compared to fluorine.
(vii) Tl (NO3)3 acts as an oxidising agent.
(viii) Carbon shows catenation property but lead does not.
(ix) BF3 does not hydrolyse.
(x) Why does the element silicon, not form a graphite like structure whereas carbon does.

34. Identify the compounds A, X and Z in the following reactions :

35. Complete the following chemical equations :

Z + 3 LiAlH4 → X + 3 LiF + 3AlF3
X + 6H2O → Y + 6H2

IV. Matching Type

In the following questions more than one correlation is possible between options of Column I and Column II. Make as many correlations as you can.

36. Match the species given in Column I with the properties mentioned in Column II.

  Column I   Column II
(i) BF4– (a) Oxidation state of central atom is +4
(ii) AlCl3 (b) Strong oxidising agent
(iii) SnO (c) Lewis acid
(iv) PbO2 (d) Can be further oxidised
    (e) Tetrahedral shape

37. Match the species given in Column I with properties given in Column II.

  Column I   Column II
(i) Diborane (a) Used as a flux for soldering metals
(ii) Galluim (b) Crystalline form of silica
(iii) Borax (c) Banana bonds
(iv) Aluminosilicate (d) Low melting, high boiling, useful for measuring high temperatures
(v) Quartz (e) Used as catalyst in petrochemical industries

38. Match the species given in Column I with the hybridisation given in Column II.

  Column I   Column II
(i) Boron in [B(OH)4] (a) sp2
(ii) Aluminium in [Al(H2O)6]3+ (b) sp3
(iii) Boron in B2H6 (c) sp3d2
(iv) Carbon in Buckminsterfullerene    
(v) Silicon in SiO44–    
(vi) Germanium in [GeCl6]2–    

V. Assertion and Reason Type

In the following questions a statement of Assertion (A) followed by a statement of Reason (R) is given. Choose the correct option out of the choices given below each question.

39. Assertion (A): If aluminium atoms replace a few silicon atoms in three dimensional network of silicon dioxide, the overall structure
acquires a negative charge.
Reason (R) : Aluminium is trivalent while silicon is tetravalent.

(i) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(ii) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(iii) Both A and R are not correct
(iv) A is not correct but R is correct.

40. Assertion (A): Silicons are water repelling in nature.
Reason (R) : Silicons are organosilicon polymers, which have (–R2SiO–) as repeating unit.

(i) A and R both are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(ii) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(iii) A and R both are not true.
(iv) A is not true but R is true.

VI. Long Answer Type

41. Describe the general trends in the following properties of the elements in Groups 13 and 14.

(i) Atomic size (ii) Ionisation enthalpy
(iii) Metallic character (iv) Oxidation states
(v) Nature of halides

42. Account for the following observations:

(i) AlCl3 is a Lewis acid
(ii) Though fluorine is more electronegative than chlorine yet BF3 is a weaker Lewis acid than BCl3
(iii) PbO2 is a stronger oxidising agent than SnO2
(iv) The +1 oxidation state of thallium is more stable than its +3 state.

43. When aqueous solution of borax is acidified with hydrochloric acid, a white crystalline solid is formed which is soapy to touch. Is this solid acidic or basic in nature? Explain.

44. Three pairs of compounds are given below. Identify that compound in each of the pairs which has group 13 element in more stable oxidation state. Give reason for your choice. State the nature of bonding also.

(i) TlCl3, TlCl
(ii) AlCl3 , AlCl
(iii) InCl3, InCl

45. BCl3 exists as monomer whereas AlCl3 is dimerised through halogen bridging. Give reason. Explain the structure of the dimer of AlCl3 also.

46. Boron fluoride exists as BF3 but boron hydride doesn’t exist as BH3. Give reason. In which form does it exist? Explain its structure.

47. (i) What are silicones? State the uses of silicones.
(ii) What are boranes? Give chemical equation for the preparation of diborane.

48. A compound (A) of boron reacts with NMe3 to give an adduct (B) which on hydrolysis gives a compound (C) and hydrogen gas. Compound (C) is an acid. Identify the compounds A, B and C. Give the reactions involved.

49. A nonmetallic element of group 13, used in making bullet proof vests is extremely hard solid of black colour. It can exist in many allotropic forms and has unusually high melting point. Its trifluoride acts as Lewis acid towards ammonia. The element exihibits maximum covalency of four. Identify the element and write the reaction of its trifluoride with ammonia. Explain why does the trifluoride act as a Lewis acid.

50. A tetravalent element forms monoxide and dioxide with oxygen. When air is passed over heated element (1273 K), producer gas is obtained. Monoxide of the element is a powerful reducing agent and reduces ferric oxide to iron. Identify the element and write formulas of its monoxide and dioxide. Write chemical equations for the formation of producer gas and reduction of ferric oxide with the monoxide.

ANSWERS

I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)

1. (iii)      2. (i)      3. (i)      4. (i)      5. (i)      6. (iii)      7. (ii)      8. (iii)      9. (iv)      10. (ii)      11. (i)      12. (ii)      13. (iv)      14. (iii)      15. (ii)

II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)

16. (i), (ii)      17. (ii), (iii)      18. (i), (ii)      19. (ii), (iii)      20. (i), (ii), (iv)      21. (ii), (iv)

III. Short Answer Type

23. Boric acid acts as Lewis acid in water by accepting a pair of electrons from a hydroxylion :
B (OH)3 + 2HOH → [B(OH)4] + H3O+

24. Species present in water is [B(OH)4] . Boron is sp3 hybridised.

25. BCl3 and AlCl3 being electron deficient due to incomplete octet of central metal atom behave as Lewis acids.
26. CCl4 is a covalent compound. Hence, insoluble in water whereas SiCl4 is soluble because Si atom in SiCl4 can accomodate the lone pair of electrons obtained from oxygen atom of water molecule in d-orbitals.

27. (i) Very high Si-O bond enthalpy and ionic character of Si-O bond.
(ii) Vacant 3d orbitals are available on Si atom to accomodate electrons and expand coordination number upto 6.

29. [Hint : In CO2 , carbon is sp hybridised and it is a linear molecule. In SiO2, Si is tetrahedrally bonded to four oxygen atoms.]
30. Negative
32. [Hint : Conc. HNO3 renders aluminium passive by forming a protective oxide layer on the surface.]
34.
A : Na2B4O7 (Borax)
X : H3BO3
Z : B2O3

35.
A : BF3
X : B2H6
Y ; H3BO3

IV. Matching Type

36. (i) → (e) (ii) → (c) (iii) → (d) (iv) → (a), (b)
37. (i)→ (c) (ii)→ (d) (iii)→(a) (iv)→(e) (v)→(b)
38. (i)→ (b), (ii) → (c), (iii) → (b), (iv) → (a) (v)→(b) (vi)→(c)

V. Assertion and Reason Type

39. (i) 40. (ii)

VI. Long Answer Type

45. [Hint : Absence of d-orbitals in boron.]
48. A = B2H6, B = BH3.NMe3, C = B(OH)3 i.e. H3BO3.

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The following Videos are available for you ( As of Now ). These explain tricky Physics and Mathematics Numericals.

Eventually I will try to give Videos for full course here for you.

These covers PU ( Pre University courses, school / college ) courses, IIT JEE, AIEEE ( All India Engineering Entrance Examination ) , CET ( Combined Engineering Test ), AIPMT ( All India Pre Medical Test ), ISc ( Intermediate Science / Indian School Certificate Exam ), CBSE ( Central Board Secondary Exam ), Roorkey Joint Entrance Test Questions ( Discontinued since 2002 ), APhO ( Asian Physics Olympiad ), IPhO ( International Physics Olympiad ), IMO ( International Mathematics Olympiad ) , NSEP ( National Standard Exam in Physics ), RMO ( Regional Math Olympiad , India ), INMO ( Indian National Maths Olympiad ), Irodov Solutions, Prof. H C Verma ( Concepts of Physics ) Solutions etc.

( You can see the history of Indian Participation in various Olympiads at ->
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/indian-participation-in-ipho-icho-ibo-and-astronomy-olympiad/ )

[ In each of these videos there is at-least 1 or more errors. Please tell me about those ]

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.weebly.com
You should get to see all the Uploaded videos. Though we have many more study videos.

Thanks and Regards
Zookeeper ;-D Subhashish Chattopadhyay

[ I suggest you see the videos starting with 1- first then starting with 2- ….. in that sequence. ]

[ Tell your friends about this link if you liked the videos ]

In case of doubts or suggestions, Please send me email at mokshya@gmail.com

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.weebly.com

Answers to -> Frequently Asked Questions ( FAQ ) [ commonly asked intelligent Questions 🙂 ]

1 ) How do I prepare for IIT ?

Ans : – See the videos made by me ( search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.weebly.com
Though we have many more which have not been uploaded ). While watching the videos, take notes and try to solve the problems yourself by pausing the video. Tell me if any calculation is wrong. See the videos with 1- first then 2- and so on. Write to IAPT Kothrud, Pune office to buy ( 150 Rs approx ) the book with previous papers of NSEP ( National Standard Exam in Physics – The 1st level ), INPhO ( Indian National Physics Olympiad – 2nd level ). Prepare with these and see how much you are scoring. You can guess your ALL INDIA rank easily from NSEP, and INPhO rank. Since 1998 the IIT JEE toppers have been mostly representing India in IPhO.

2 ) Which codec and Player do I use to see the videos ?

Ans : – You can use GOM Player, or VLC Player. You have to have good speakers with filters or good earphones with filters. We have checked mostly it is OK with these. ( If you are depending only on your embedded speakers of computer /screen / keyboard then there may be extra distortions. As these speakers are often not of good Quality. Also install latest KL Codecs ) In any case reduce the volume see the board, imagine sitting in the last bench and solving the problems of your own. See if your solution differs anywhere with the scribbles on the board.

3 ) Why are you giving these ( high Quality ) lecture for free ?

Ans : Well there are lot of good things free in this world. Linux, My-SQL, Open-Office ….. Go to sourceforge and get thousands of high quality software free along with source code. Yes all officially free …. Why do you think Richard Stallman, Zimmerman, ….. etc are considered Guru philosophers ? In Punjab and Gurudwaras worldwide there are so many Langars where you get better food than Restaurants. ….. why ? Why do you have Dharmasalas and subsidized rest rooms near hospitals / Famous Temples / various places ? in Iftar party anyone can eat for free …. why ?

I am teaching since 1989 I have observed most students can do much better if they have the self motivation to solve and practice. Cheap books are available in second hand bookstalls, where you get thousands of Numericals to solve ….. but most students will like to blow their time going and coming for tuition, travel time …. TV for hours and hours watching cricket / Tennis games, playing computer games …. My free lectures are not going to make much difference in spending of unnecessary money for coaching ….. I know very well , how much people enjoy …. ! spending unnecessarily !!

Do you know that there are NO poor / needy students in Bangalore.

Sometime back I had tried to teach for IIT JEE FREE. Discussed with a few NGOs and social service guys. Arranged rooms but got only 1 student. We had informed many people in many ways to inform students …. We did not get students who are ready to learn for free. So I am sure these lectures are NOT FREE. If anyone learns from these, s/he changes and that’s the gain / benefit. This change ( due to learning ) is very costly …. Most do not want to learn ………..

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.weebly.com
You will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

🙂

4 ) How can I get all your lectures ?

Ans : – Apart from my lectures there are approx 700 GB of PCM ( Phy, Chem, Math ) lectures. It takes approx 3 years of continuous download from scattered sources. I have ( 20,000 )Thousands of these. You can take ALL of them from me in an external 1 TB hard disk, instead of spending so much money and time again for downloading. These cover ( by Various Professors ) everything of Chemistry, Physics, Maths… Lot of this is from outside India … as foreigners have much wider heart than Indians ( as most of GNU / open source software have been developed by Non-Indians ). I observed the gaps in these videos, and thus I am solving IIT, APhO, Roorkey, IPhO Numericals. Videos made by me along with these videos gives a complete preparation.

Send me a mail at mokshya@gmail.com to contact me.

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.weebly.com
You will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

🙂

5 ) How do you get benefited out of this ?

Ans :- If anyone learns we all will have better people in this world. I will have better “ YOU “.
🙂

6 ) Why do you call yourself a Zookeeper ?

Ans :- This is very nicely explained at https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/z00keeper-why-do-i-call-myself-a-zoookeeper/

🙂

7 ) Where do you stay ?

Ans :- Presently I am in Bangalore.

🙂

8 ) If I need videos in a few topics can you make them for me ?

Ans :- We actively answers doubts at doubtpoint.
see http://skmclasses.weebly.com/doubtpoint.html
In case you appreciate our time and efforts involved in answering complicated Questions, then get Quality answers at doubtpoint.

🙂

9 ) Why did you write an article saying there are No Poor students ?

Ans :- There are lots of NGOs and others working for rural / poor children education at lower classes. While very less effort is on for std 9 till 12. Also see the answer in question number ( 3 ) above. In more than 2 decades of teaching I never met a Poor child who was seriously interested in ( higher ) studies. As I have a mind / thinking of a ” Physicist “, I go by ” Experimental Observation “.

It is not about what is being said about poor in media / TV etc, or ” what it should be ” ( ? ) …. It is about what I see happening. Also to add ( confuse ? you more )…. You must be knowing that in several states over many years now girl students have better ( by marks as well as by pass percentage ) result in std 10 / Board Exams….. well but NEVER a girl student came FIRST in IIT JEE … why ? [ The best rank by a Girl student is mostly in 2 digits, very rarely in single digit ] ????? So ????

🙂

10 ) How much do I have to study to make it to IIT ?

Ans :- My experience of Teaching for IIT JEE since 1989, tells me, Total 200 hours per subject ( PCM ) is sufficient. If you see my Maths and Physics videos, each subject is more than 200 hours. So if someone sees all the videos diligently, takes notes and remembers, …… Done.

🙂

11 ) What is EAMCET ?

Ans :- Engineering Agriculture and Medicine Common Entrance Test is conducted by JNT University Hyderabad on behalf of APSCHE. This examination is the gateway for entry into various professional courses offered in Government/Private Colleges in Andhra Pradesh.

12 ) In your videos are you covering other Exams apart from IIT ?

Ans : – Yes. See many videos made by solving problems of MPPET, Rajasthan / J&K CET, UPSEAT ( UPES Engineering Aptitude Test ), MHCET, BCECE ( Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination Board ), WB JEE etc

🙂

13 ) What is SCRA ?

Ans : – Special Class Railway Apprentice (SCRA) exam is conducted by Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) board, for about 10 seats.That translates into an astonishing ratio of 1 selection per 10,000 applicants. The SCRA scheme was started in 1927 by the British, to select a handful of most intelligent Indians to assist them in their Railway Operations, after training at their Railway’s largest workshop, i.e. Jamalpur Workshop, and for one year in United Kingdom. The selected candidates were required to appear in the Mechanical Engineering Degree Examination held by Engineering Council (London).

Thanks for your time. To become my friend in google+ ( search me as mokshya@gmail.com and send friend request )

Read http://edge.org/responses/what-scientific-concept-would-improve-everybodys-cognitive-toolkit
🙂
The following video is a must see for full CO2 cycle, plates of Earth, Geological activities, stability of weather
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oIuoNtRBG4w

🙂
Article in Nature says CO2 increase is good for the trees
http://thegwpf.org/science-news/6086-co2-is-greening-the-planet-savannahs-soon-to-be-covered-by-forests.html
🙂
http://climaterealists.com/index.php?id=9752

BBC documentary Crescent and Cross shows the 1000 years of fight between Christians and Muslims. Millions have been killed in the name of Religion. To decided whose GOD is better, and which GOD to follow. The fight continues.

Summary of Women
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yIpmML49hMU
🙂
The Virus of Faith
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scarHc8RA0g

🙂
The God delusion
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LVr9bJ8Sctk

🙂
cassiopeia facts about evolution
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K7tQIB4UdiY

Intermediate Fossil records shown and explained nicely Fossils, Genes, and Embryos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fdpMrE7BdHQ

The Rise Of Narcissism In Women
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wZHKCbHGlS0

🙂
13 type of women whom you should never court
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/relationships/man-woman/13-Women-you-should-never-court/articleshow/14637014.cms

🙂
Media teaching Misandry in India

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-M2txSbOPIo

Summary of problems with women
http://problemwithwomentoday.blogspot.in/2009/12/problem-with-women-today-what-in-hell.html

🙂
Eyeopener men ? women only exists
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ZAuqkqxk9A

🙂
Each of you is an Activist in some way or other. You are trying to propagate those thoughts, ideas that you feel concerned / excited about.

Did you analyze your effectiveness ?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=61qn7S9NCOs
Culturomics can help you

😀
see how biased women are. Experimental proof. Women are happy when they see another woman is beating a man ( see how women misbehave with men )

🙂
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LlFAd4YdQks

see detailed statistics at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5lHmCN3MBMI

An eye opener in Misandry
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YiTaDS_X6CU

My sincere advice would be to be EXTREMELY careful ( and preferably away ) of girls. As girls age; statistically certain behavior in them has been observed. Most Male can NOT manage those behaviors… Domestic violence, divorce etc are rising very fast. Almost in all cases boys / males are HUGE loosers. Be extremely choosy ( and think from several angles ) before even talking to a girl.
🙂
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/save-the-male/

🙂

How women manipulate men
http://www.angryharry.com/esWomenManipulateMen.htm

Gender Biased Laws in India
https://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/biased-laws/

🙂

Violence against Men
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MLS2E-rRynE

🙂

Only men are victimised
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4JA4EPRbWhQ

Men are BETTER than women
http://www.menarebetterthanwomen.com/
🙂

see
http://www.youtube.com/watch?&v=T0xoKiH8JJM#!
🙂

Male Psychology

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uwxgavf2xWE

Women are more violent than men
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/women-are-more-violent-says-study-622388.html

🙂

In the year 2010, 168 men ended their lives everyday ( on average ). More husbands committed suicide than wives.
🙂

http://www.rediff.com/news/report/ncrb-stats-show-more-married-men-committing-suicide/20111028.htm

It is EXTREMELY unfortunate that media projects men as fools, women as superiors, Husbands as servants, and replaceable morons. In ad after ad worldwide from so many companies, similar msg to disintegrate the world is being bombarded. It is highly unacceptable misandry

🙂
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oq14WHkFq30
It is NOT at all funny that media shows violence against MEN. Some advertisers are trying to create a new ” Socially acceptable culture ” of slapping Men ( by modern city women ). We ( all men ) take objection to these advertisements.
We oppose this Misandry bad culture. Please share to increase awareness against Men bashing

🙂
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D8ecN2rh0uU

Think what are you doing … why are you doing ?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qp0HIF3SfI4

Every Man must know this …
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cIFmQHJEG1M

🙂
Manginas, White Knights, & Other Chivalrous Dogs
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oXQDtBT70B8

!
!
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……..### SWEET. ###
……/….#########…\
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(.(.(____)….`.#.´..(____).).)

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

key words

_________________________________________________________________________
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Yard, Bangalore Mallya Aditi International School, Yelahanka Bangalore India International school 26/1,Chikkabellandur, Carmel Ram Post, Bangalore Ryan International School, Yelahanka, Vederapura Village, Gentiganahalli Road, Training Centre, Yelahanka Bangalore Indus International School, Billapura Cross Sarjapur, Bangalore The International School Bangalore (TISB), NAFL Valley Whitefield – Sarjapur Road, Bangalore Treamis World School, Hulimangala Post Bangalore Ryan International School, Bannerghatta road, Opp. Confident Cascade Bannergatta Main Road Bangalore International School, Geddalahalli Hennur Bagalur Road, Kothanur Post Bangalore Sarla Birla Academy Bannerghatta Jigni Road Bangalore Inventure Academy Whitefield – Sarjapur Road Bangalore Prakriya, # 70, Chikkanayakanahalli Road off Doddakannelli Sarjapur Road, Bangalore Buddhi School, 57, 3rd Main, 4th Cross RMV 2nd Stage, H.I.G Colony, Bangalore B.G.S. International Residential School Nithyananda Nagar, Kumbalagudu, Gollahalli Kengeri, Bangalore Solutions, India, IPhO, APhO, IMO, RMO, INMO, through, lectures, problems numericals Zookeeper, Subhashish, Chattopadhyay, Projectile, Latent, Heat Thermodynamics std 11 12 ISc Calculus BE BTech Differentiation Integration Mechanics Surface Tension Viscosity Accelerating Frame velocity wedge mass pulley Moment Inertia Roorkey Joint Entrance Exam CET AIEEE Irodov HCV Verma South Bangalore Intermediate Algebra Trigonometry Sexy Free Coaching study material preparation Olympiad Friction sin Modelling cos Potential tan cot Gravitation Electrostatics sec Field cosec Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola inverse string Tuition Kinetic Theory Gases Isothermal Adiabatic Isochoric Isobaric Processes Root Mean Square Differential Equation Soomrit Specific Cp Cv PV Diagram Bending Stress Strain Geostationary Satellite Entropy Coefficient Linear Expansion Alpha Beta Gamma Pendulum Conductivity Latent ice water 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Resistance Battery Trick Questions Infinite Ladder Quadratic Cubic Quartic Quintic Orissa NSEP ckt eqn mesh Folding Lenzs J&K Karnataka RMS instantaneous BCECE Maharastra MHCET RPET stepup stepdown transformer Bilekahalli UPSEAT shunt galvanometer susceptibility oscillating magnetometer pole strength Bihar Rajasthan Uttarpradesh Punjab Hariana TN Tamilnadu Andhra WB west Bengal Vacuum Diode Triode Rectifier Truth Table Thermionic emission, Radioactivity Half Life Langmiur, Child Law FCC BCC Cube Optics Lens Mirror Focus Focal Concave Convex Lux Phot Lumen Double slit Complex Integral coordinate Geometry compounds, Biochemistry, Plastic, Organic Chemistry Physical Analytical Inorganic Metallurgy, Biotechnology, Polymer Science, Rubber Technology Geology, Pharma, Veterinary Science,Food Technology, Cryogenics, Ceramics acid species IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com proton donor activation energy minimum energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reaction breaking bonds addition polymer very long 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IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com ‘R’ amount substance quantity whose unit mole Chemists amount substance IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com IITJEE counting atoms anhydrous substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com contains water molecules anion negatively charged ion atom economy atomic orbital region within atom hold two electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com opposite spins atomic proton number number protons nucleus atom 100 products masses molecular sum product desired mass molecular economy atom Chemistry average bond enthalpy average enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com place IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com breaking homolytic fission 1 molIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com type bond molecules gaseous species Avogadro constant,isotope number atoms mole carbon base species IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com proton acceptor biodegradable material substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com broken IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com naturally environment living organisms Boltzmann 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bonded elements fixed ratio, usually chemical formula concentration amount solute mol IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com 1 dm 3 1000 cm solution coordinate bond shared pair electrons provided one bonding atoms called dative covalent bond covalent bond bond formed shared pair electrons cracking breaking long chained saturated hydrocarbonsIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com mixture shorter chained alkanesalkenes curly arrow symbol IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reaction mechanisms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com show movement electron Coaching ICWA Coaching CFA Coaching CFP Coaching CMAT Coaching School Tuitions CBSE School Tuitions Home Tuitions 9th STD Tuitions PUC Coaching 10th Std Tuitions College Tuitions Maths Tuitions Engineering Tuitions Accounts & Finance Tuitions MBA & BBA Coaching Microbiology & Biotech Tuitions Study Abroad GRE & SAT Coaching GMAT Coaching IELTS/TOEFL Coaching PTE Coaching proteins protonation pyridines pyrroles quinones quinolines radical reaction radicals rearrangement receptors reduction regioselectivity retro reaction rhodium ring closure ring contraction ring expansion ring opening ruthenium samarium scandium Schiff bases selenium self-assembly silicon sodium solid-phase synthesis solvent effects spectroscopy sphingolipids spiro compounds stereoselective synthesis stereoselectivity steric hindrance steroids Stille reaction substituent effects sulfates sulfonamides sulfones sulfoxides sulfur supported catalysis supramolecular tandem reaction tautomerism terpenoids thioacetals thiols tin titanium total synthesis transesterification transition metals transition states tungsten Umpolung vinylidene complexes vitamins Wacker reaction Wittig reaction ylides zeolites zinc BRST Quantization Effective field theories Field Theories Higher Dimensions Field Theories Lower Dimensions Large Extra Dimensions Lattice Quantum Field Theory Nonperturbative Effects Renormalization Group Renormalization Regularization skmclasses.weebly.com Renormalons Sigma Models 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skmclasses.weebly.com String Models CP violation Electromagnetic Processes skmclasses.weebly.com Properties GUT Heavy Quark Higgs Kaon LEP HERA skmclasses.weebly.com SLC Neutrino Physics Quark Masses skmclasses.weebly.comSM Parameters Rare Decays Standard Model Supersymmetric Standard Model Technicolor skmclasses.weebly.com Composite Models Chiral Lagrangians Deep Inelastic Scattering Higher Twist Effects Lattice QCD Parton Model Phase Diagram QCD Phenomenological Models QCD Quark-Gluon Plasma Resummation Sum Rules Aim Global Education Koramangala Computer Networking Training Cloud Computing Training JBOSS Training Juniper Certification Training L2 & L3 Protocol Training MCTS Training Engineering design Training CAD & CAM Training MATLAB Training PLC Training SCADA Training VLSI Design Multimedia & Design Training 2D Animation Training 3D Animation Training 4D Animation Training CorelDRAW Training VFX Training Web Technologies Training ASP.Net Training JQuery pair breaking formation covalent bond dative covalent shared pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com been provided one bonding atoms only IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com called coordinate bond dehydration elimination reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com water removed saturated molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com unsaturated molecule delocalised Electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com shared IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two atoms displacement reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reactive element displaces less reactive element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com aqueous solution latter’s ions displayed formula showing relative positioning atoms molecule skmclasses.weebly.com bonds IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com disproportionation oxidation skmclasses.weebly.com reduction element redox reaction dynamic equilibrium equilibrium IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com exists closed system IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com rate forward reaction equal IITJEE 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SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com new covalent bond elimination reaction removal molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com saturated molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com unsaturated molecule empirical formula simplest whole number ratio atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element present compound endothermic reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com enthalpy products greater enthalpy reactants resulting heat being taken surroundings enthalpy heat content IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com stored chemical system standard enthalpy change combustion enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole substance reacts completely IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oxygen under standard conditions reactants skmclasses.weebly.com products being IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com standard states (standard) enthalpy change formation enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole compound formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com constituent elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com standard states under standard conditions (standard) enthalpy change reaction enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com accompanies reaction molar quantities expressed chemical equation under standard conditions reactants skmclasses.weebly.com products being IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com standard states enthalpy cycle diagram showing alternative routes IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reactants products IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com allows indirect determination IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com other known enthalpy changes using Hess’ law enthalpy profile diagram skmclasses.weebly.com reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com compare enthalpy reactants IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com enthalpy products esterification reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com alcohol IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carboxylic acid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com produce ester skmclasses.weebly.com water exothermic reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com enthalpy products smaller enthalpy reactants, resulting heat loss IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com surroundings fractional distillation separation components liquid mixture skmclassesfractions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com differ boiling point skmclasses.weebly.com hence chemical composition IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com distillation typically using fractionating column fragmentation process mass spectrometry IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com causes positive ion split skmclasses pieces one positive fragment ion functional group part organic molecule responsible skmclasses.weebly.com chemical reactions general formula simplest algebraic formula member homologous series. skmclasses.weebly.com example general formula alkanes giant covalent lattice dimensional structure atoms, bonded together strong covalent bonds giant ionic lattice three dimensional structure oppositely charged ions, bonded together strong ionic bonds giant metallic lattice three dimensional structure positive ions skmclasses.weebly.com delocalised electrons, bonded together strong metallic bonds greenhouse effect process IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com absorption subsequent emission infrared radiation atmospheric gases warms lower atmosphere planet’s surface group vertical column Periodic Table Elements group IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com similar chemical properties skmclasses.weebly.com atoms skmclasses.weebly.comnumber outer shell electrons Hess law reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one route skmclasses.weebly.com initial final conditions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com total enthalpy change skmclasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com route heterogeneous catalysis reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com catalyst IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com different physical state reactants; frequently, reactants IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com gases whilst catalyst solid heterolytic fission breaking covalent bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com both bonded electrons going IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one atoms, forming cation (+ ion) skmclasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com anion ion homogeneous catalysis reaction catalyst skmclasses.weebly.com reactants physical state, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com frequently aqueous gaseous state homologous series series organic compounds IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com functional group, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com successive member differing homolytic fission breaking covalent bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one bonded electrons going IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom, forming two radicals hydrated Crystalline skmclasses.weebly.com containing water molecules hydrocarbon compound hydrogen skmclasses.weebly.com carbon hydrogen bond strong dipole attraction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron deficient hydrogen atom (O H on different molecule hydrolysis reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com water aqueous hydroxide ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com breaks chemical compound skmclasses two compounds initiation first step radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com free radicals generated ultraviolet radiation intermolecular force attractive force IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com neighbouring molecules Intermolecular forces van der Waals’ forces induced dipole ces permanent dipole forces hydrogen bonds ion positively negatively charge atom covalently bonded group atoms molecular ion ionic bonding electrostatic attraction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oppositely charged ions first) ionisation energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com remove one electron IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole gaseous 2+ ions second) ionisation energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com remove one electron IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole gaseous 2+ ions successive ionisation measure energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com remove IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron Chemistry energy second ionisation energy energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one electron IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole gaseous 2+ ions isotopes Atoms skmclasses.weebly.com element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different numbers neutrons different masses le Chatelier’s principle system dynamic equilibrium subjected change position equilibrium will shift minimise change limiting reagent substance chemical reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com runs out first lone pair outer shell pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com involved chemical bonding mass nucleon number particles protons aneutrons) nucleus mechanism sequence steps showing path taken electrons reaction metallic bond electrostatic attraction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com positive metal ions adelocalised electrons molar mass substance units molar mass IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molar volume IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com mole gas. units molar volume IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com dm room temperature skmclasses.weebly.com pressure molar volume approximately 24.0 substance containing IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com many particles thereIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atoms exactly 12 g carbon isotope molecular formula number atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element molecule molecular ion M positive ion formed mass spectrometry IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecule loses electron molecule small group atoms held together covalent bonds monomer small molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com combines IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com monomers polymer nomenclature system naming compounds nucleophile atom group atoms attracted electron deficient centre atom donates pair electrons covalent bond nucleophilic substitution type substitution reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com nucleophile attracted electron deficient centre atom, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com donates pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com new covalent bond oxidation Loss electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com increase oxidation number oxidation number measure number electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom uses bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atoms another element. Oxidation numbers IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com derive d rules oxidising agent reagent IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oxidises (takes electrons from) another species percentage yield period horizontal row elements Periodic Table Elements show trends properties across period periodicity regular periodic variation properties elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atomic number position Periodic Table permanent dipole small charge difference across bond resulting IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com difference electronegativities bonded atoms permanent dipole dipole force attractive force IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com permanent dipoles neighbouring polar molecules pi bond (p bond reactive part double bond formed above skmclasses.weebly.com below plane bonded atoms sideways overlap p orbitalspolar covalent bond bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com permanent dipole polar molecule molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com overall dipole skmclasses account dipoles across bonds polymer long molecular chain built monomer units precipitation reaction formation solid solution during chemical reaction Precipitates IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two aqueous solutions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com mixed together principal quantum number n number representing relative overall energy orbital IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com increases distance nucleus sets orbitals IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com value IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com electron shells energy levels propagation two repeated radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com build up products chain reaction radical species unpaired electron rate reaction change concentration reactant product redox reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reduction skmclasses.weebly.com oxidation take IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reducing agent reagent IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reduces (adds electron to) species reduction Gain electrons decrease oxidation number yield actual amount mol product theoretical amount mol product Chemistry reflux continual boiling skmclasses.weebly.com condensing reaction mixture ensure IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com without contents flask boiling dry relative atomic mass weighted mean mass atom element compared one twelfth mass IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom carbon relative formula mass weighted mean mass formula unit compared IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one twelfth mass atom carbon relative isotopic mass mass atom isotope compared IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one twelfth mass atom carbon relative molecular mass weighted mean mass molecule compared twelfth mass atom carbon 12 repeat unit specific arrangement atom s IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com occurs structure over over again. Repeat units IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com included brackets outside IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com symbol n Salt chemical compound formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com acid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com H+ ion acid IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com been replaced metal ion another positive ion such IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com ammonium ion, NH saturated hydrocarbon IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com single bonds only shell group atomic orbitals IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com principal quantum number known main energy level simple molecular lattice three dimensional structure molecules, bonded together weak intermolecular forces skeletal formula simplified organic formula, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hydrogen atoms removed alkyl chains, leaving carbon skeleton skmclasses.weebly.com associated functional groups species particle IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com part chemical reaction specific heat capacity, c energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com raise temperature 1 g substance 1 C spectator ions Ions present part chemical reaction standard conditions pressure 100 kPa 1 atmosphere stated temperature usually 298 K (25 °C), skmclasses.weebly.com concentration 1 mol dm reactions aqueous solutions standard enthalpies enthalpystandard solution solution known concentration Standard solutions normally IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com titrations IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com determine unknown information another substance Chemistry standard state physical state substance under standard conditions 100 kPa 1 atmosphere) skmclasses.weebly.com 298 K 25 C stereoisomers Compounds skmclasses.weebly.com structural formula IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different arrangement atoms space stoichiometry molar relationship IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com relative quantities substances part reaction stratosphere second layer Earth’s atmosphere, containing ‘ozone layer’, about 10 km IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com 50 km above Earth’s surface structural formula formula showing minimal detail skmclasses.weebly.com arrangement atoms molecule structural isomers Molecules IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com molecular formula different structural arrangements atoms subshell group skmclasses.weebly.com type atomic orbitals s, p, d f within shell substitution reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom group atoms replaced different atom group atoms termination step end radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two radicals combine IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecule thermal decomposition breaking chemical substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com heat skmclasses least two chemical substances troposphere lowest layer Earth’s atmosphere extending Earth’s surface about 7 km (above poles) about 20 km above tropics unsaturated hydrocarbon hydrocarbon containing carbon carbon multiple bonds van der Waals’ forces Very weak attractive forces IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com induced dipoles neighbouring molecules volatility ease IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com liquid turns skmclasses gas Volatility increases boiling point decreases water crystallisation Water molecules IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com essential part crystalline structure absolute zero – theoretical condition concerning system at zero Kelvin IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com system does IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com emit absorb energy (all atoms rest accuracy – how close value IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com actual true value IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com see precision acid compound that, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com dissolved water pH less 7.0 compound IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com donates hydrogen ion acid anhydride compound IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two acyl groups boundIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com single oxygen atom acid dissociation constant – IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com equilibrium constant skmclasses.weebly.com dissociation weak acid actinides – fifteen chemical elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com actinium (89) skmclasses.weebly.com lawrencium (103 activated complex – structure IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com forms because collisionIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecules new bondsvIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com formed activation energy – minimum energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com must be inputIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com chemical system activity series actual yield addition reaction – within organic chemistry, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecules combineIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com larger aeration mixing air skmclasses liquid solid alkali metals metals Group 1 on periodic table alkaline earth metals – metals Group 2 on periodic table allomer substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comdifferent composition another skmclasses.weebly.comcrystalline structure allotropy elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different structures skmclasses.weebly.com therefore different forms IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com Carbon diamonds, graphite, skmclasses.weebly.com fullerene anion negatively charge ions anode – positive side dry cell battery cell aromaticity – chemical property conjugated rings IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com results unusual stability. See IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com benzene atom – chemical element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com smallest form, skmclasses.weebly.com made up neutrons skmclasses.weebly.comprotons within nucleus skmclasses.weebly.comelectrons circling nucleus atomic mass unit atomic number number representing IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com corresponds IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com number protons within nucleus atomic orbital region IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron atom may be found atomic radius average atomic mass Avogadro’s law Avogadro’s number number particles mole substance ( 6.02×10^23 ) barometer deviceIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com measure pressure atmosphere base substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com accepts proton skmclasses.weebly.com high pH; common example sodium hydroxide (NaOH biochemistry chemistry organisms boiling phase transition liquid vaporizing boiling point temperature IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com substance startsIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com boil boiling-point elevation process IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com boiling point elevated adding substance bond – attraction skmclasses.weebly.com repulsion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atoms skmclasses.weebly.com molecules IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com cornerstone Boyle’s law Brønsted-Lowrey acid chemical species IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com donates proton Brønsted–Lowry acid–base reaction Brønsted-Lowrey base – chemical species IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com accepts proton buffered solution – IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com aqueous solution consisting weak acid skmclasses.weebly.comits conjugate base weak base skmclasses.weebly.comits conjugate acid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com resists changes pH IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com strong acids basesIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com added burette (IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com buret glasswareIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com dispense specific amounts liquid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com precision necessary titration skmclasses.weebly.com resource dependent reactions example combustion catalyst chemical compoundIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com change rate IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com speed up slow down reaction,IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com regenerated at end reaction cation – positively charged ion centrifuge equipmentIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com separate substances based on density rotating tubes around centred axis cell potential force galvanic cell IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com pulls electron through reducing agentIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oxidizing agent chemical Law certain rules IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com pertain IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com laws nature skmclasses.weebly.comchemistry – examples chemical reaction – change one IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com substances skmclassesanother multiple substances colloid mixture evenly dispersed substances such IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comm milks combustion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com exothermic reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oxidant skmclasses.weebly.comfuel IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com heat skmclasses.weebly.comoften light compound – substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com made up two IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com chemically bonded elements condensation phase changeIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com gasIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com liquid conductor material IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com allows electric flow IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com freely covalent bond – chemical bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com involves sharing electrons crystal solid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com packed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ions, molecules atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com orderly fashion cuvette glasswareIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com spectroscopic experiments. usually made plastic glass quartz skmclasses.weebly.comshould be IITJEE possible deionization removal ions, skmclasses.weebly.com water’s case mineral ions such IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comsodium, iron skmclasses.weebly.comcalcium deliquescence substances IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com absorb water IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atmosphereIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com liquid solutions deposition – settling particles within solution mixture dipole electric magnetic separation charge dipole moment – polarity polar covalent bond dissolution solvation – spread ions monosacharide double bond sharing two pairs electradodes Microcentrifuge Eppendorf tube IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Coomassie Blue solution earth metal – see alkaline earth metal electrolyte solution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com conducts certain amount current skmclasses.weebly.com split categorically IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com weak skmclasses.weebly.comstrong electrolytes electrochemical cell using chemical reaction’s current electromotive force made electromagnetic radiation type wave IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com through vacuums IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comwell IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.commaterial skmclasses.weebly.comclassified IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com self-propagating wave electromagnetism fields IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electric charge skmclasses.weebly.comelectric properties IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com change way IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com particles move skmclasses.weebly.com interact electromotive force device IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com gains energy IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comelectric charges pass through electron – subatomic particle IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com net charge IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com negative electron shells – IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com orbital around atom’s nucleus fixed number electrons usually two eight electric charge measured property (coulombs) IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com determine electromagnetic interaction element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com defined IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atomic number energy – system’s abilityIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com do work enthalpy – measure total energy thermodynamic system (usually symbolized IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.comH entropy – amount energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com available skmclasses.weebly.com work closed thermodynamic system usually symbolized IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com S enzyme – protein IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com speeds up catalyses reaction Empirical Formula – IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com called simplest formula gives simplest whole -number ratio atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element present compound eppendorf tube – generalized skmclasses.weebly.comtrademarked term skmclasses.weebly.com type tube; see microcentrifuge freezing – phase transitionIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com liquidIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com solid Faraday constant unit electrical charge widelyIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrochemistry skmclasses.weebly.comequalIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ~ 96,500 coulombs represents 1 mol electrons, Avogadro number electrons: 6.022 × 1023 electrons. F = 96 485.339 9(24) C/mol Faraday’s law electrolysis two part law IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Michael Faraday published about electrolysis mass substance altered at IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrode during electrolysis directly proportionalIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com quantity electricity transferred at IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrode mass IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com elemental material altered at IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electrode directly proportionalIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element’s equivalent weight frequency number cyclesIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com unit time. Unit: 1 hertz = 1 cycleIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com 1 second galvanic cell battery made up electrochemical IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two different metals connected salt bridge gas particles container IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com no definite shape volume geochemistry – chemistry skmclasses.weebly.comchemical composition Earth Gibbs energy – value IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com indicates spontaneity reaction usually symbolized G Cavalier India, Kalyan Nagar halogens Group 7 Periodic Table skmclasses.weebly.comare non-metals heat energy transferredIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one systemIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com another thermal interaction jodium – Latin name halogen element iodine Joule SI I.M.S. Learning Resources Pvt. Ltd., Jaya Nagar 4th Block unit energy, defined IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com newton-meter indicator special compound addedIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com solution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com changes color depending on acidity solution; different indicators Giraffe Coaching, Cunningham Road different colors effective pH ranges inorganic compound – compounds IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com contain carbon IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com exceptions main article inorganic chemistry part chemistry concerned IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com inorganic compounds International Union Pure skmclasses.weebly.comApplied Chemistry IUPAC insulator material IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com resists flow electric current ion molecule gained lost one IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron ionic bond electrostatic attractionIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oppositely charged ions ionization breaking up compound skmclassesseparate ions Kinetics sub-field chemistry specializing reaction rates Kinetic energy energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com object IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com motion lanthanides Elements 57 through 71 lattice Unique arrangement atoms molecules crystalline liquid solid Laws thermodynamics liquid state matter IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com shape container light Portion electromagnetic spectrum IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com visibleIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com naked eye. 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Ambedkar Veedhi Dr. DVG Road Delhi Public School, South 11 K.M., kanakapura Road Konanakunte Post, Bangalore Dr. Raj Kumar Road Dr. TCM Royan Road Ejipura Electronic City Field Marshal Cariappa Road Frazer Town Ganapathi Nagar Gandhi Bazaar Gandhi Nagar Ganga Nagar Gangadhar Chetty Road Ganigarpet Garvebhavi Palya Gavipuram Extension Gayathri Nagar Geddala Halli Geddalahalli Giri Nagar Giri Nagar 1st Phase Giri Nagar 2nd Phase GM Palya Gokula Golf Course Road Gorgunte Palya Govindaraj Nagar Green Park Extension, Guddada Halli Gundopanth Street National Public School, Indiranagar 12 A Main HAL II Stage, Bangalore H.Siddaiah Road Haines Road HAL HAL 2nd Stage HAL 3rd Stage HAL Airport Road Hampi Nagar Hanumantha Nagar Hayes Road HBR Layout Hebbal Kempapura Hebbal Ring Road Hegde Nagar Heggana Halli Hennur Hesaraghatta HKP Road HMT Layout Hongasandra Hoody Horamavu Hosakere Halli photochemistry photooxidation piperidines polyanions polycations polycycles polymers Porphyrins prostaglandins 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Training iPhone Development Training Mobile Application Testing Training Mobile Gaming Training Mobile Application Development Training Oakridge International School Oakridge International School, Sarjapur Road, , Bangalore School of India, Bannerghatta, Bangalore Delhi Public School DPS North Campus, Yelahanka, Bangalore Jain International Residential School (JIRS), Jakkasandra Post, Bangalore Delhi Public School (DPS East), Sarjapur, Bangalore TREAMIS World School, Electronics City, Bangalore South Delhi Public School (South), Kanakapura Road, Bangalore The Deen’s Academy, Whitefield, Bangalore National Public School (NPS), Koramangala, Bangalore Royale Concorde International School, Kalyan Nagar, Bangalore Freedom International School, HSR Layout, Bangalore Air Force School Army Public School Bangalore Military School BGS International School Cambridge Public School Delhi Public School Deva Matha Central School Jain International Residential School Kendriya Vidyalaya A M C School A.S.C Public School Amara Jyothi Public School Anand Shiksha Kendra ICSE Syllabus ACTS Secondary School B Mona High School Baldwin Boys High School Baldwin Girls High School Bishop Cotton Boys School Bishop Cotton Girls School Brigade School Candor International School Cambridge Public School Cathedral High School Chinmaya Vidyalay Christ Academy Ekya School Gnan Srishti School of Excellence Gopalan National School India International School IIS Lawrence School-ICSE New Horizon Public School Notre Dame Academy Paradise Residential School Patel Public School Podar International School Prakriya Green Wisdom School Primus School Ryan International School Sishu Griha St. Francis De Sales (SFS) High School Sherwood High Sri Kumaran Childrens Home St Francis School St Johns High School St Thomas Public School St. Patricks Academy St. Peters School Vibgyor High CBSE Syllabus AECS Magnolia Maaruti Public School Amaatra Academy Amrita Vidyalayam BGS-NPS School Brigade School BRS Global Centre for Excellence Capitol Public School CMR National Public School Delhi Public School East, South, North Edify School EuroSchool Freedom International School Geethanjali Montessori Geethanjali Vidhyalaya Gitanjali International School GISB Greengrove International School Gomathy Global School Harvest International School JSS Public School Kendriya Vidyalaya KV Manipal Tattva School Mirambika School for New Age NITTE International School National Centre for Excellence NCFE National Public School New Horizon Gurukul NHG Oakridge International School Presidency School PSBB LLA Padma Seshadri Bal Bhavan Radcliffe School Ravindra Bharathi Global School Sadhguru Sainath International School SSI Sri Kumaran Childrens Home Sunrise International Residential School Sujaya School The Samhita Academy Vagdevi Vilas School Venkat International Public School VIPS Vyasa International School Zee School IGCSE Syllabus Asia Pacific World School Krupanidhi Cambridge International School Candor International 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Krishnamurthi Aurinko Academy Chetana Kini Institute Samarthanam Residential School XSeed Schools Mirambika School New Age Sri Aurobindo Mother Teresa Public School curriculum Chrysalis High List of Schools Achievers International Academy ACTS Secondary School Amaatra Academy Amar Jyothi School Amrita Vidyalayam Army Public School Asia Pacific World School Aurinko Academy B Mona High School Baldwin Boys High School Baldwin Girls High School Bangalore International School Bangalore School Bethany High Bethany Junior School BGS-NPS School Bishop Cotton Boys School Bishop Cotton Girls School Brigade School British International School BRS Global Centre for Excellence BVM Global Cambridge Public School Candor International School Capitol Public School Cathedral High School Chinmaya Vidyalaya Christ Academy Chrysalis High CMR National Public School Delhi Public School Deva Matha Central School Edify School Ekya School EuroSchool Freedom International School Gear School Geethanjali Montessori Geethanjali Vidhyalaya Gitanjali International (GISB) Global Indian International School Gnan Srishti School Gomathy Global School Gopalan School Green County Public School Greengrove International School Greenwood High Harvest International School India International School Innisfree House School JSS Public School Kendriya Vidyalaya (KV) Lawrence School ICSE Lawrence School-State Magnolia Maaruti Public School Manipal Tattva School Mirambika School for New Age Mother Teresa Public School National Centre for Excellence National Hill View Public School National Public School New Horizon Gurukul New Horizon Public School Nitte International School Notre Dame Academy Oakridge International School Oxford Public School Parachute Regiment School Paradise Residential School Patel Public School Podar International School Prakriya Green Wisdom School Presidency School Primus School PSBB LLA Radcliffe School Ravindra Bharathi Global School Ryan International School Sadhguru Sainath International School Samarthanam Residential School SFS High School Sherwood High Shibumi Silver Oaks Sishu Griha Sri Chaitanya Techno School Sri Kumaran Childrens Home Sri Rakum School for the blind St Francis School St Johns High School St Mira School St Thomas Public School St. Patrick’s Academy St. Peters School Sujaya School Sunrise International Residential School The Samhita Academy Trio World School Vagdevi Vilas School Venkat International Public School Vibgyor High Vidyaniketan School Vyasa International School Whitefield Global School Xseed Pre-School Zee School
Primary Years Programme Colegio Anglo Mexicano MEXICO Milgate Primary School, AUSTRALIA Diploma Programme Australian International School Indonesia Pejaten Campus INDONESIA Instituto Educativa Fiscomisional Celina Vivar Espinosa, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Juan de Salinas, ECUADOR Primary Years Programme Academia Moderna Charter, UNITED STATES Beacon School BRAZIL Dr. Orlando Edreira Academy, School 26, UNITED STATES Westhill Institute Carpatos Elementary Campus, MEXICO Westhill Institute, S.C. 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Atms. Educ. Institution Kogalym Secondary School ?8, RUSSIAN FEDERATION Phorms Bilingual Gymnasium, GERMANY Royal High School, UNITED STATES SIS Swiss International School Stuttgart-Fellbach, GERMANY Seedling Public School INDIA The British School of Beijing CHINA Unidad Educativa Fiscal Experimental del Milenio, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Juan de Velasco ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Tumbaco, ECUADOR École secondaire Gaétan Gervais, CANADA École secondaire Hanmer CANADA Stonehill International School American School of Bombay Mumbai Day school offering PYP MYP DP Dhirubhai Ambani International School Mumbai Day school offering DP Ecole Mondiale World School, Mumbai Day school offering DP Jamnabai Narsee School Mumbai Day school offering DP Ahmedabad International School Ahmedabad Day School offering PYP Mahatma Gandhi International School Ahmedabad Day school offering MYP Mahindra United World College of India Pune Boarding school offering DP Mercedes-Benz International School Pune American Embassy School Delhi Day school offering DP The British School, Delhi Day school offering DP Pathways World School, Gurgaon Boarding school offering PYP DP SelaQui World School, Dehra Dun Boarding school offering DP Canadian International School, Bangalore Mixed Boarding Day school offering DP International School of Bangalore, Bangalore Mixed Boarding Day school offering DP Oakridge International School Hyderabad Day school offering PYP Chinmaya International Residential School Coimbatore Boarding school offering DP Good Shepherd International School Ooty Boarding school offering DP Kodaikanal International School, Kodaikanal Boarding school offering DP Home Tuition Group teachers available small groupsstudents IB International Baccalaureate Programme, IGCSE, ISc, ICSE, CBSE Schools offering IB ( International Baccalaureate ) Programme Bangalore International School Geddalahalli Hennur Bagalur Road Kothanur Post Bengaluru India 560 077 Stonehill International School, 1st Floor, Embassy Point #150, Infantry Road Bengaluru 560 001 Stonehill International School 259/333/334/335 Tarahunise Post Jala Hobli, Bengaluru North 562157 Candor International School Begur Koppa Road, Hullahalli Off Bannerghatta Road, Near Electronic City Bangalore 560105 Greenwood High International School Bengaluru, No.8-14, Chickkawadayarapura, Near Heggondahalli Gunjur Post, Varthur Sarjapur Road, Bangalore 560087 Sarla Birla Academy, Bannerghatta, Bangalore, Canadian International School, Yelahanka, Bangalore Indus International School Billapura Cross Sarjapur Bangalore

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