NCERT CBSE Standard 12 Organic Chemistry Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids Chapter 12

Chapter 12 :

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Wolff Kishner reduction

3a Wolff Kishner reduction

Ans :

3b Wolff Kishner reduction

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2 Distinction between Aldehydes and ketones 3 Distinction between Aldehydes and ketones

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NCERT CBSE 12.1 Question Aldehydes Ketones Carboxylicacids NCERT CBSE 12.1 Solution 1 Cyanohydrin NCERT CBSE 12.1 Solution 2-1 Acetal NCERT CBSE 12.1 Solution 2-2 Acetal NCERT CBSE 12.1 Solution 3 Semicarbazone NCERT CBSE 12.1 Solution 4 Aldol NCERT CBSE 12.1 Solution 5-1 Hemiacetal NCERT CBSE 12.1 Solution 5-2 Hemiacetal NCERT CBSE 12.1 Solution 6 Oxime NCERT CBSE 12.1 Solution 7-1 Ketal NCERT CBSE 12.1 Solution 7-2 Ketal NCERT CBSE 12.1 Solution 8 Imine

NCERT CBSE 12.1 Solution 9 2,4-DNP-derivative

NCERT CBSE 12.1 Solution 10-1 Schiff's Base NCERT CBSE 12.1 Solution 10-2 Schiff's Base

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Untitled

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1 Periodic trend in Electrode potential-4

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Aldehyde preparation methods

1a methods of preparation of Aldehydes

Gatterman reaction

2a Gatterman reaction

Methods of preparing Ketones

3a Ketone preparation Friedel craft acylation 3b Ketone preparation Friedel craft acylation 3c Physical and Chemical properties 3d Physical and Chemical properties 3e Physical and Chemical properties 3f Physical and Chemical properties 3g Physical and Chemical properties 3h Physical and Chemical properties 3i Physical and Chemical properties 3j Physical and Chemical properties

Mechanism of Beckmann Rearrangement

3k mechanism of Beckmann Rearrangement

Cannizzaro Reaction

3l Cannizzaro reaction 3m Cannizzaro reaction 3n Aldehyde containing no alpha hydrogen 3o Acid catalysed Aldol condensation 3p condensation of carbocation and Enol 3q condensation of carbocation and Enol

Keto Enol Tautomerism

3r Keto Enol Tautomerism

Pinacol Pinacolone Rearrangement

3s Pinacol Pinacolone Rearrangement

Benzoin condensation

3t Benzoin condensation

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NCERT CBSE 12.2 Question and Solutions Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids

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Acid preparation methods

1a Acid preparation methods 1b Acid preparation methods 1c Acid preparation methods 1d Acid preparation methods 1e Conversion into esters 1f Conversion into esters 1g Conversion into esters

Halogenation of acids Hell Volhard Zelinsky reaction

1h Halogenation of acids Hell Volhard Zelinsky reaction 1i Halogenation of acids Hell Volhard Zelinsky reaction 1j Decarboxylation 1k Action of Heat Hydroxycarboxylic Acid 1l Action of Aqueous NaOH on Halocarboxylic acid 1m Functional Derivatives of Carboxylic acids 1n Reactivity of Acyl Derivatives 1o Reactivity of Acyl Derivatives

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1 Typhoon

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1 IUPAC naming rules of aldehydes ketones 2 IUPAC naming rules of aldehydes ketones

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NCERT CBSE 12.3 Question Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids

NCERT CBSE 12.3 1 Solution Structures

NCERT CBSE 12.3 2 Solution Structures

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1 Ozonolysis of double bond

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NCERT CBSE 12.4 Question Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids NCERT CBSE 12.4 Solution IUPAC and common names

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2 Hydrolysis of Alkynes

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47 Beautiful pink lips

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NCERT CBSE 12.5  Question Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids NCERT CBSE 12.5 1 Solution Aldehydes, ketones, Carboxylic Acids

 

NCERT CBSE 12.5 2 Solution Aldehydes, ketones, Carboxylic Acids

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Preparation of Aldehydes from Grignard reagent 3 Preparing Aldehydes from Grignard reagents 4 Preparing Aldehydes from Grignard reagents

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41 Beautiful pink lips

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General Properties of Ketones

5 General properties of ketones

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NCERT CBSE 12.6  Question Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids NCERT CBSE 12.6 1 Solution Aldehydes, ketones, Carboxylic Acids NCERT CBSE 12.6 2 Solution Aldehydes, ketones, Carboxylic Acids NCERT CBSE 12.6 3 Solution Aldehydes, ketones, Carboxylic Acids

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1 Various reactions of Aldehydes 2 Various reactions of Aldehydes

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42 Beautiful pink lips

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NCERT CBSE 12.7 Question Aldol Condensation NCERT CBSE 12.7 1 Solution Aldol Condensation NCERT CBSE 12.7 2 Solution Cannizzaro Reaction NCERT CBSE 12.7 3 Solution Aldol Condensation NCERT CBSE 12.7 4 Solution Aldol Condensation NCERT CBSE 12.7 5 Solution Aldol Condensation NCERT CBSE 12.7 5 Solution Aldol Condensation NCERT CBSE 12.7 6 Solution Aldol Condensation

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1 Wolff Kishner Reduction

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3 sculpture

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3 Reactions Involving alkyl groups 4 Reactions Involving alkyl groups

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3 Bosse adda marche

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Reduction of Carbonyl acetone by Zn+Hg HCl to Propane 5 Reduction of Carbonyl acetone by Zn+Hg HCl to Propane

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3 ei gulo ki boma naki

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1a Nucleophilic addition 1b Nucleophilic addition

Michael Addition

1c Michael Addition

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3 Ereo koi sculpture

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Gyan Question Correct sequence of equilibrium constant 1a Correct sequence of equilibrium constant

Ans :

1b Correct sequence of equilibrium constant

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3 ki hoyeche er

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Gyan Question which of the following expected to have maximum enol content 2a which of the following expected to have maximum enol content

Ans :

2b which of the following expected to have maximum enol content

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3 Ki sob

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Gyan Question which of the following has the most acidic hydrogen 3a which of the following has the most acidic hydrogen

Ans :

3b which of the following has the most acidic hydrogen

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3 Owl er bhai noi

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Gyan Question which one of the following will most readily be dehydrated in acidic condition 4a which one of the following will most readily be dehydrated in acidic condition

Ans :

4b which one of the following will most readily be dehydrated in acidic condition

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3 Pata Naki

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Gyan Question when acetaldehyde is heated in Fehling’s solution

5a when acetaldehyde is heated in Fehling's solution

Ans :

The red precipitates are due to Cu2O :-)

3 sada chuler mundu

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Gyan Question

6a which of the following will react with water

Ans :

6b which of the following will react with water

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NCERT CBSE 12.8 Question How to convert NCERT CBSE 12.8 Solution How to convert xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

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Gyan Question which statement about CO group is not correct 7a which statement about CO group is not correct

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7b which statement about CO group is not correct

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NCERT CBSE 12.9 Question Aldol Condensations NCERT CBSE 12.9 Solutions Aldol Condensations

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Gyan Question Clemmensen Reduction 1a Clemmensen Reduction

Ans :

1b Clemmensen Reduction

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NCERT CBSE 12.10 Question Identify the Compound NCERT CBSE 12.10 Solution Identify the Compound

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1 discussion on Cannizzaro's Reaction 2 Oppenauer reaction 3 Wacker method oxo process rosenmund's reduction 4 Carbonyl group gyan 5 Meerwein Pondorf Verley MPV reduction 6 Metaldehyde DNP 7 formanint, perspex, Gattermann Koch Stephen 8 Clemmensen's reduction Perkin's stephen rosenmund 9 Fehling's solution

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Animals

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Gyan Question Benzaldehyde differs from Acetaldehyde 2a Benzaldehyde differs from acetaldehyde

Ans : Benzaldehyde does not react with Fehling’s solution

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NCERT CBSE 12.11 Question Write Equations NCERT CBSE 12.11 Solution Write Equations xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 2 Cinnamaldehyde and Benzalacetophenone

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NCERT CBSE 12.12 Question Arrange the compounds NCERT CBSE 12.12 1 Solution Increasing reactivity towards HCN NCERT CBSE 12.12 2 Solution

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NCERT CBSE 12.13 Question How to distingiush pair of Compounds NCERT CBSE 12.13 1 Solution How to distingiush pair of Compounds Acetophenone Iodoform Test

Benzophenone

Benzophenone 12.13-3 NCERT CBSE 12.13 2 Solution How to distingiush pair of Compounds

Benzophenone Molecule

Benzophenone 12.13-3 NCERT CBSE 12.13 3 Solution How to distingiush pair of Compounds NCERT CBSE 12.13 4 Solution How to distingiush pair of Compounds

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1 Substitution reactions of Benzene ring

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NCERT CBSE 12.14 Question Compounds of Benzene NCERT CBSE 12.14 1 Solution Compounds of Benzene. Fridelcraft acylation example-3 NCERT CBSE 12.14 2 Solution Compounds of Benzene. NCERT CBSE 12.14 3 Solution Compounds of Benzene.

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1 Various reactions of Carbonyl Group 2 Various reactions of Carbonyl Group 3 Knoevenagel Reformatsky reaction

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Gyan Question

1a smallest dissociation constant 1b smallest dissociation constant

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NCERT CBSE 12.15 Question Conversion in not more than 2 steps NCERT CBSE 12.15 1 Solution Conversion in not more than 2 steps. Fridelcraft acylation example 15.4 NCERT CBSE 12.15 2 Solution Conversion in not more than 2 steps. NCERT CBSE 12.15 3 Solution Conversion in not more than 2 steps.

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Oxydation of Carbonyl Group

4 Oxidation of Carbonyl Group

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Esters 1a Esters 1b Esters 1c Esters

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NCERT CBSE 12.16 Question Describe the following NCERT CBSE 12.16 1 Solution Acetylation, Cannzzaro Reaction NCERT CBSE 12.16 2 Solution Cross Aldol Condensation NCERT CBSE 12.16 3 Solution Decarboxylation

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5 Tollen's Fehling's Benedict's Schiff's Reagent

Note Pink Colour

6 Tollen's Fehling's Benedict's Schiff's Reagent

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Gyan Question

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Boiling point order of acids

2a boiling point order

Ans :

2b boiling point order

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NCERT CBSE 12.17 Question Complete each synthesis NCERT CBSE 12.17 1 Solution Complete each synthesis NCERT CBSE 12.17 2 Solution Complete each synthesis

NCERT CBSE 12.17 3 Solution Complete each synthesis

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Some Named reactions

1 Cannizzaro's Reaction 2 Cannizzaro's Reaction

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4 Tree er modhdhe Budhdha

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Reagents used in reduction

3a reagent used in reduction

Ans :

3b reagent used in reduction

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Tischenko Reaction :

3 Tischenko Reaction

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4 Eta ki kalo moto

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4a a reaction yields

Ans :

4b a reaction yields

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4 Schiff's Test 5 Schiff's Test

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4 eta ki naukar skeleton

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order of reactivity of acid derivatives towards a nucleophile 5a reactivity of acid derivatives towards nucleophile

Ans :

5b reactivity of acid derivatives towards nucleophile

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1 Clemmensen Reduction

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4 Ghodar mundu

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orders of reactivity of acid derivatives towards nucleophile 1a orders of reactivity of acid derivatives towards nucleophile

Ans :

1b orders of reactivity of acid derivatives towards nucleophile

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Gyan Question order of base strength of a leaving group 2a order of base strength of a leaving group

Ans :

2b order of base strength of a leaving group

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4 Kautor skull

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Gyan Question order of base strength of leaving group

3a order of base strength of leaving group

Ans :

3b order of base strength of leaving group

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Gyan Question mechanism of nucleophile acyl substitution

4a mechanism of nucleophile acyl substitution

Ans :

4b mechanism of nucleophile acyl substitution

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Activity of acid derivative

5a activity of acid derivative

Ans :

5b activity of acid derivative

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6a which of the following statement is correct

Ans :

6b which of the following statement is correct

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4 Mundu and Hath

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7a which statement is correct

Ans :

7b which statement is correct

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4 Mundu Ghadho Yello ronger

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8a which amides do not react with HNO2

Ans :

8b which amides do not react with HNO2

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Gyan Question

Rosemund Reduction

4a Rosemund reduction

Ans :

3b Wolff Kishner reduction

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4 Ponde Kathi

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decreasing order of reactivity of hydrolysis 9a decreasing order of reactivity of hydrolysis

Ans :

9b decreasing order of reactivity of hydrolysis

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4 Rotnokhochito shapes

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1a statements not correct

Ans :

1b statements not correct

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4 sada Lok

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2a facts not correct

Ans :

2b facts not correct

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NCERT CBSE 12.18 Question Give Plusible Explanation NCERT CBSE 12.18 1 Solution Explanation NCERT CBSE 12.18 2 Solution Explanation NCERT CBSE 12.18 3 Solution Explanation NCERT CBSE 12.19 Question Identify the compound NCERT CBSE 12.19 Solution Identify the compound

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Order of Leaving group ability

3a order of leaving group ability

Ans :

3b order of leaving group ability

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NCERT CBSE 12.20 Question Phenoxide ion resonating structure NCERT CBSE 12.20 Solution Phenoxide ion resonating structure

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Extra Questions in Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acid NCERT CBSE Standard 12 India.

NCERT CBSE extra Chapter 12 1 Question

NCERT CBSE extra Chapter 12 2 Solution

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Q.2 : Write the structures of products of the following reactions NCERT CBSE Chapter 12 Extra question 2

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NCERT CBSE Chapter 12 extra 3 Organic

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NCERT CBSE Chapter 12 extra 4 1 Organic NCERT CBSE Chapter 12 extra 4 2 Organic

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Q.5 : Predict the products of the following reactions: NCERT CBSE chapter 12 extra 5 Organic Chemistry

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NCERT CBSE chapter 12 extra 6 Organic Chemistry

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NCERT CBSE chapter 12 extra 7 1 Benzoic acid Organic Chemistry NCERT CBSE chapter 12 extra 7 2 Benzoic acid Organic Chemistry

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NCERT CBSE chapter 12 extra 8 1 which is stronger Organic Chemistry NCERT CBSE chapter 12 extra 8 2 which is stronger Organic Chemistry

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Carbonyl compounds are of utmost importance to organic chemistry. They are constituents of fabrics, flavourings, plastics and drugs. In the previous Unit, you have studied organic compounds with functional groups containing carbon- oxygen single bond. In this Unit, we will study about the organic compounds containing carbon-oxygen double bond (>C=O) called carbonyl group, which is one of the most important functional groups in organic chemistry. In aldehydes, the carbonyl group is bonded to a carbon and hydrogen while in the ketones, it is bonded to two carbon atoms. The carbonyl compounds in which carbonyl group is bonded to oxygen are known as carboxylic acids, and their derivatives (e.g. esters, anhydrides) while in compounds where carbon is attached to nitrogen and to halogens are called amides and acyl halides respectively. The general formulas of these classes of compounds are given below: Aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids are widespread in plants and animal kingdom. They play an important role in biochemical processes of life. They add fragrance and flavour to nature, for example, vanillin (from vanilla beans), salicylaldehyde (from meadow sweet) and cinnamaldehyde (from cinnamon) have very pleasant fragrances. They are used in many food products and pharmaceuticals to add flavours. Some of these families are manufactured for use as solvents (i.e., acetone) and for preparing materials like adhesives, paints, resins, perfumes, plastics, fabrics, etc.
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12.1 Nomenclature and struture of carbonyl group 12.1.1 Nomenclature I. Aldehydes and ketones
Aldehydes and ketones are the simplest and most important carbonyl compounds. There are two systems of nomenclature of aldehydes and ketones. (a) Common names Aldehydes and ketones are often called by their common names instead of IUPAC names. The common names of most aldehydes are derived from the common names of the corresponding carboxylic acids [Section 12.6.1] by replacing the ending –ic of acid with aldehyde. At the same time, the names reflect the Latin or Greek term for the original source of the acid or aldehyde. The location of the substituent in the carbon chain is indicated by Greek letters α, β, γ, δ, etc. The α-carbon being the one directly linked to the aldehyde group, β- carbon the next, and so on.
For example
The common names of ketones are derived by naming two alkyl or aryl groups bonded to the carbonyl group. The locations of substituents are indicated by Greek letters, α α′, β β′ and so on beginning with the carbon atoms next to the carbonyl group, indicated as αα′. Some ketones have historical common names, the simplest dimethyl ketone is called acetone. Alkyl phenyl ketones are usually named by adding the acyl group as prefix to phenone. For example
(b) IUPAC names The IUPAC names of open chain aliphatic aldehydes and ketones are derived from the names of the corresponding alkanes by replacing the ending –e with –al and –one respectively. In case of aldehydes the longest carbon chain is numbered starting from the carbon of the aldehyde group while in case of ketones the numbering begins from the end nearer to the carbonyl group. The substituents are prefixed in alphabetical order along with numerals indicating their positions in the carbon chain. The same applies to cyclic ketones, where the carbonyl carbon is numbered one. When the aldehyde group is attached to a ring, the suffix carbaldehyde is added after the full name of the cycloalkane. The numbering of the ring carbon atoms start from the carbon atom attached to the aldehyde group. The name of the simplest aromatic aldehyde carrying the aldehyde group on a benzene ring is benzenecarbaldehyde. However, the common name benzaldehyde is also accepted by IUPAC. Other aromatic aldehydes are hence named as substituted benzaldehydes.
The common and IUPAC names of some aldehydes and ketones are given in Table 12.1.
Table 12.1: Common and IUPAC Names of Some Aldehydes and Ketones
structure Common name IUPAC name
Aldehydes
HCHO Formaldehyde Methanal
CH3CHO Acetaldehyde Ethanal
(CH3)2CHCHO Isobutyraldehyde 2-Methypropanal
Γ-Methylcyclohexane 3-Methylcyclohexanecarbaldehyde
CH3CH(OCH3)CHO α-Methoxypropionaldehyde 2-Methoxypropanal
CH3CH2CH2CH2CHO Veleraldehyde Pentanal
CH2=CHCHO Acrolein Prop-2-enal
Phthaldehyde Benzene-1,2-dicarbaldehyde
m-Bromobenzaldehyde 3-Bromobenzenecarbaldehyde or3-Bromobenzaldehyde
Ketones
CH3COCH2CH2CH3 Methyl n-propyl ketone Pentan-2-one
(CH3)2CHCOCH(CH3)2Diisopropyl ketone2,4-Dimethylpentan-3-one
α-Methlycyclohexanone 2-Methylcyclohexanone
(CH2)2C=CHCOCH3 Mesityl oxide 4-Methylpent-3-en-2-one

12.1.2 Structure of the Carbonyl Group The carbonyl carbon atom is sp -hybridised and forms three sigma (σ) bonds. The fourth valence electron of carbon remains in its p-orbital and forms a π-bond with oxygen by overlap with p-orbital of an oxygen. In addition, the oxygen atom also has two non bonding electron pairs. Thus, the carbonyl carbon and the three atoms attached to it lie in the same plane and the π-electron cloud is above and below this plane. The bond angles are approximately 120° as expected of a trigonal coplanar structure (Figure 12.1).

The carbon-oxygen double bond is polarised due to higher electronegativity of oxygen relative to carbon. Hence, the carbonyl carbon is an electrophilic (Lewis acid), and carbonyl oxygen, a nucleophilic (Lewis base) centre. Carbonyl compounds have substantial dipole moments and are polar than ethers. The high polarity of the carbonyl group is explained on the basis of resonance involving a neutral (A) and a dipolar (B) structures as shown.

Intext Questions 12.1 Write the structures of the following compounds.

(i) α-Methoxypropionaldehyde (ii) 3-Hydroxybutanal (iii) 2-Hydroxycyclopentane carbaldehyde (iv) 4-Oxopentanal (v) Di-sec. butyl ketone (vi) 4-Fluoroacetophenone 12.2 Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones Some important methods for the preparation of aldehydes and ketones are as follows:

12.2.1 Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones 1. By oxidation of alcohols Aldehydes and ketones are generally prepared by oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols, respectively (Unit 11, Class XII).

2. By dehydrogenation of alcohols This method is suitable for volatile alcohols and is of industrial application. In this method alcohol vapours are passed over heavy metal catalysts (Ag or Cu). Primary and secondary alcohols give aldehydes and ketones, respectively (Unit 11, Class XII).

3. From hydrocarbons (i) By ozonolysis of alkenes: As we know, ozonolysis of alkenes followed by reaction with zinc dust and water gives aldehydes, ketones or a mixture of both depending on the substitution pattern of the alkene (Unit 13, Class XI).

(ii) By hydration of alkynes: Addition of water to ethyne in the presence of H2SO4 and HgSO4 gives acetaldehyde. All other alkynes give ketones in this reaction (Unit 13, Class XI).

12.2.2 Preparation of Aldehydes 1. From acyl chloride (acid chloride) Acyl chloride (acid chloride) is hydrogenated over catalyst, palladium on barium sulphate. This reaction is called Rosenmund reduction.

2. From nitriles and esters Nitriles are reduced to corresponding imine with stannous chloride in the presence of hydrochloric acid, which on hydrolysis give corresponding aldehyde.

This reaction is called Stephen reaction. Alternatively, nitriles are selectively reduced by diisobutylaluminium hydride, (DIBAL-H) to imines followed by hydrolysis to aldehydes:

Similarly, esters are also reduced to aldehydes with DIBAL-H.

3. From hydrocarbons Aromatic aldehydes (benzaldehyde and its derivatives) are prepared from aromatic hydrocarbons by the following methods:

(i) By oxidation of methylbenzene Strong oxidising agents oxidise toluene and its derivatives to benzoic acids. However, it is possible to stop the oxidation at the aldehyde stage with suitable reagents that convert the methyl group to an intermediate that is difficult to oxidise further. The following methods are used for this purpose. (a) Use of chromyl chloride (CrO2Cl2): Chromyl chloride oxidises methyl group to a chromium complex, which on hydrolysis gives corresponding benzaldehyde.

This reaction is called Etard reaction.

This reaction is called Etard reaction. (b) Use of chromic oxide (CrO3):

Toluene or substituted toluene is converted to benzylidene diacetate on treating with chromic oxide in acetic anhydride. The benzylidene diacetate can be hydrolysed to corresponding benzaldehyde with aqueous acid. (ii) By side chain chlorination followed by hydrolysis Side chain chlorination of toluene gives benzal chloride, which on hydrolysis gives benzaldehyde. This is a commercial method of manufacture of benzaldehyde.

(iii) By Gatterman – Koch reaction When benzene or its derivative is treated with carbon monoxide and hydrogen chloride in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride or cuprous chloride, it gives benzaldehyde or substituted benzaldehyde.

12.2.3 Preparation of Ketones 1. From acyl chlorides

Treatment of acyl chlorides with dialkylcadmium, prepared by the reaction of cadmium chloride with Grignard reagent, gives ketones.

2. From nitriles Treating a nitrile with Grignard reagent followed by hydrolysis yields a ketone. 3. From benzene or substituted benzenes When benzene or substituted benzene is treated with acid chloride in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride, it affords the corresponding ketone. This reaction is known as Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction.

Example 12.1

Give names of the reagents to bring about the following transformations: (i) Hexan-1-ol to hexanal (ii) Cyclohexanol to cyclohexanone (iii) p-Fluorotoluene to p-fluorobenzaldehyde (iv) Ethanenitrile to ethanal (v) Allyl alcohol to propenal (vi) But-2-ene to ethanal

Solution (i) C5H5NH+CrO3Cl-(PCC) (ii) K2Cr2O7 in acidic medium (iii) CrO3 in the presence of acetic anhydride/ 1. CrO2Cl22. HOH (iv) (Diisobutyl)aluminium hydride (DIBAL-H) (v) PCC (vi) O3/H2O-Zn dust Intext Question 12.2 Write the structures of products of the following reactions;

12.3 Physical properties The physical properties of aldehydes and ketones are described as follows. Methanal is a gas at room temperature. Ethanal is a volatile liquid. Other aldehydes and ketones are liquid or solid at room temperature. The boiling points of aldehydes and ketones are higher than hydrocarbons and ethers of comparable molecular masses. It is due to weak molecular association in aldehydes and ketones arising out of the dipole-dipole interactions. Also, their boiling points are lower than those of alcohols of similar molecular masses due to absence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding. The following compounds of molecular masses 58 and 60 are ranked in order of increasing boiling points.

b.p.(K) Molecular Mass
n-Butane 273 58
Methoxyethane 281 60
Propanal 322 58
Acetone 329 58
Propan-1-ol 370 60

The lower members of aldehydes and ketones such as methanal, ethanal and propanone are miscible with water in all proportions, because they form hydrogen bond with water.

However, the solubility of aldehydes and ketones decreases rapidly on increasing the length of alkyl chain. All aldehydes and ketones are fairly soluble in organic solvents like benzene, ether, methanol, chloroform, etc. The lower aldehydes have sharp pungent odours. As the size of the molecule increases, the odour becomes less pungent and more fragrant. In fact, many naturally occurring aldehydes and ketones are used in the blending of perfumes and flavouring agents.

Example 12.2 Arrange the following compounds in the increasing order of their boiling points: CH3CH2CH2CHO, CH3CH2CH2CH2OH, H5C2-O-C2H5, CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3

Solution The molecular masses of these compounds are in the range of 72 to 74. Since only butan-1-ol molecules are associated due to extensive intermolecular hydrogen bonding, therefore, the boiling point of butan-1-ol would be the highest. Butanal is more polar than ethoxyethane. Therefore, the intermolecular dipole-dipole attraction is stronger in the former. n-Pentane molecules have only weak van der Waals forces. Hence increasing order of boiling points of the given compounds is as follows: CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 < H5C2-O-C2H5 < CH3CH2CH2CHO < CH3CH2CH2CH2OH

Intext Question 12.3 Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their boiling points. CH3CHO, CH3CH2OH, CH3OCH3, CH3CH2CH3

12.4 Chemical Reactions Since aldehydes and ketones both possess the carbonyl functional group, they undergo similar chemical reactions.

1. Nucleophilic addition reactions Contrary to electrophilic addition reactions observed in alkenes (refer Unit 13, Class XI), the aldehydes and ketones undergo nucleophilic addition reactions.

(i) Mechanism of nucleophilic addition reactions A nucleophile attacks the electrophilic carbon atom of the polar carbonyl group from a direction approximately perpendicular to the plane of sp2 hybridised orbitals of carbonyl carbon (Fig. 12.2). The hybridisation of carbon changes from sp2 to sp3 in this process, and a tetrahedral alkoxide intermediate is produced. This intermediate captures a proton from the reaction medium to give the electrically neutral product. The net result is addition of Nu and H+ across the carbon oxygen double bond as shown in Fig. 12.2.

(ii) Reactivity Aldehydes are generally more reactive than ketones in nucleophilic addition reactions due to steric and electronic reasons. Sterically, the presence of two relatively large substituents in ketones hinders the approach of nucleophile to carbonyl carbon than in aldehydes having only one such substituent. Electronically, aldehydes are more reactive than ketones because two alkyl groups reduce the electrophilicity of the carbonyl more effectively than in former.

Example 12.3 Would you expect benzaldehyde to be more reactive or less reactive in nucleophilic addition reactions than propanal? Explain your answer.

Solution The carbon atom of the carbonyl group of benzaldehyde is less electrophilic than carbon atom of the carbonyl group present in propanal. The polarity of the carbonyl group is reduced in benzaldehyde due to resonance as shown below and hence it is less reactive than propanal.

(iii) Some important examples of nucleophilic addition and nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions:

(a) Addition of hydrogen cyanide (HCN): Aldehydes and ketones react with hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to yield cyanohydrins. This reaction occurs very slowly with pure HCN. Therefore, it is catalysed by a base and the generated cyanide ion (CN) being a stronger nucleophile readily adds to carbonyl compounds to yield corresponding cyanohydrin. Cyanohydrins are useful synthetic intermediates.

(b) Addition of sodium hydrogensulphite: Sodium hydrogensulphite adds to aldehydes and ketones to form the addition products. The position of the equilibrium lies largely to the right hand side for most aldehydes and to the left for most ketones due to steric reasons. The hydrogensulphite addition compound is water soluble and can be converted back to the original carbonyl compound by treating it with dilute mineral acid or alkali. Therefore, these are useful for separation and purification of aldehydes.

(c) Addition of Grignard reagents: (refer Unit 11, Class XII).

(d) Addition of alcohols: Aldehydes react with one equivalent of monohydric alcohol in the presence of dry hydrogen chloride to yield alkoxyalcohol intermediate, known as hemiacetals, which further react with one more molecule of alcohol to give a gem-dialkoxy compound known as acetal as shown in the reaction. Ketones react with ethylene glycol under similar conditions to form cyclic products known as ethylene glycol ketals.

Dry hydrogen chloride protonates the oxygen of the carbonyl compounds and therefore, increases the electrophilicity of the carbonyl carbon facilitating the nucleophilic attack of ethylene glycol. Acetals and ketals are hydrolysed with aqueous mineral acids to yield corresponding aldehydes and ketones respectively.

(e) Addition of ammonia and its derivatives: Nucleophiles, such as ammonia and its derivatives H2N-Z add to the carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones. The reaction is reversible and catalysed by acid. The equilibrium favours the product formation due to rapid dehydration of the intermediate to form >C=N-Z. Z = Alkyl, aryl, OH, NH2, C6H5NH, NHCONH2, etc.

Table 12.2: Some N-Substituted Derivatives of Aldehydes and Ketones (>C=N-Z)
Z Reagent name Carbonyl derivative Product name
-H Ammonia Imine
-R Amine Substituted imine(Schiff’s base)
-OH Hydroxylamine Oxime
-NH2 Hydrazine Hydrazone
Phenylhydrazine Phenylhydrazone
2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazone
Semicarbazide semicarbazone

2. Reduction (i) Reduction to alcohols: Aldehydes and ketones are reduced to primary and secondary alcohols respectively by sodium borohydride (NaBH4) or lithium aluminium hydride (LiAlH4) as well as by catalytic hydrogenation (Unit 11, Class XII). (ii) Reduction to hydrocarbons: The carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones is reduced to CH2 group on treatment with zinc- amalgam and concentrated hydrochloric acid [Clemmensen reduction] or with hydrazine followed by heating with sodium or potassium hydroxide in high boiling solvent such as ethylene glycol (Wolff-Kishner reduction).

3. Oxidation Aldehydes differ from ketones in their oxidation reactions. Aldehydes are easily oxidised to carboxylic acids on treatment with common oxidising agents like nitric acid, potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate, etc. Even mild oxidising agents, mainly Tollens’ reagent and Fehlings’ reagent also oxidise aldehydes.

Ketones are generally oxidised under vigorous conditions, i.e., strong oxidising agents and at elevated temperatures. Their oxidation involves carbon-carbon bond cleavage to afford a mixture of carboxylic acids having lesser number of carbon atoms than the parent ketone.

The mild oxidising agents given below are used to distinguish aldehydes from ketones:

(i) Tollens’ test: On warming an aldehyde with freshly prepared ammoniacal silver nitrate solution (Tollens’ reagent), a bright silver mirror is produced due to the formation of silver metal. The aldehydes are oxidised to corresponding carboxylate anion. The reaction occurs in alkaline medium.

(ii) Fehling’s test: Fehling reagent comprises of two solutions, Fehling solution A and Fehling solution B. Fehling solution A is aqueous copper sulphate and Fehling solution B is alkaline sodium potassium tartarate (Rochelle salt). These two solutions are mixed in equal amounts before test. On heating an aldehyde with Fehling’s reagent, a reddish brown precipitate is obtained. Aldehydes are oxidised to corresponding carboxylate anion. Aromatic aldehydes do not respond to this test.

(iii) Oxidation of methyl ketones by haloform reaction: Aldehydes and ketones having at least one methyl group linked to the carbonyl carbon atom (methyl ketones) are oxidised by sodium hypohalite to sodium salts of corresponding carboxylic acids having one carbon atom less than that of carbonyl compound. The methyl group is converted to haloform. This oxidation does not affect a carbon-carbon double bond, if present in the molecule. Iodoform reaction with sodium hypoiodite is also used for detection of CH3CO group or CH3CH(OH) group which produces CH3CO group on oxidation.

Example 12.4 An organic compound (A) with molecular formula C8H8O forms an orange-red precipitate with 2,4-DNP reagent and gives yellow precipitate on heating with iodine in the presence of sodium hydroxide. It neither reduces Tollens’ or Fehlings’ reagent, nor does it decolourise bromine water or Baeyer’s reagent. On drastic oxidation with chromic acid, it gives a carboxylic acid (B) having molecular formula C7H6O2. Identify the compounds (A) and (B) and explain the reactions involved.

Solution (A) forms 2,4-DNP derivative. Therefore, it is an aldehyde or a ketone. Since it does not reduce Tollens’ or Fehling reagent, (A) must be a ketone. (A) responds to iodoform test. Therefore, it should be a methyl ketone. The molecular formula of (A) indicates high degree of unsaturation, yet it does not decolourise bromine water or Baeyer’s reagent. This indicates the presence of unsaturation due to an aromatic ring. Compound (B), being an oxidation product of a ketone should be a carboxylic acid. The molecular formula of (B) indicates that it should be benzoic acid and compound (A) should, therefore, be a monosubstituted aromatic methyl ketone. The molecular formula of (A) indicates that it should be phenyl methyl ketone (acetophenone). Reactions are as follows:

4. Reactions due to a-hydrogen Acidity of α-hydrogens of aldehydes and ketones: The aldehydes and ketones undergo a number of reactions due to the acidic nature of α-hydrogen. The acidity of α-hydrogen atoms of carbonyl compounds is due to the strong electron withdrawing effect of the carbonyl group and resonance stabilisation of the conjugate base.

(i) Aldol condensation: Aldehydes and ketones having at least one α-hydrogen undergo a reaction in the presence of dilute alkali as catalyst to form β-hydroxy aldehydes (aldol) or β-hydroxy ketones (ketol), respectively. This is known as Aldol reaction.

The name aldol is derived from the names of the two functional groups, aldehyde and alcohol, present in the products. The aldol and ketol readily lose water to give α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds which are aldol condensation products and the reaction is called Aldol condensation. Though ketones give ketols (compounds containing a keto and alcohol groups), the general name aldol condensation still applies to the reactions of ketones due to their similarity with aldehydes.

(ii) Cross aldol condensation: When aldol condensation is carried out between two different aldehydes and / or ketones, it is called cross aldol condensation. If both of them contain α-hydrogen atoms, it gives a mixture of four products. This is illustrated below by aldol reaction of a mixture of ethanal and propanal.

5. Other reactions

(i) Cannizzaro reaction: Aldehydes which do not have an α-hydrogen atom, undergo self oxidation and reduction (disproportionation) reaction on treatment with concentrated alkali. In this reaction, one molecule of the aldehyde is reduced to alcohol while another is oxidised to carboxylic acid salt.

(ii) Electrophilic substitution reaction: Aromatic aldehydes and ketones undergo electrophilic substitution at the ring in which the carbonyl group acts as a deactivating and meta-directing group.

Intext Questions 12.4 Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their reactivity in nucleophilic addition reactions. (i) Ethanal, Propanal, Propanone, Butanone. (ii) Benzaldehyde, p-Tolualdehyde, p-Nitrobenzaldehyde, Acetophenone. Hint: Consider steric effect and electronic effect. 12.5 Predict the products of the following reactions:

12.5 Uses of Aldehydes and Ketones

In chemical industry aldehydes and ketones are used as solvents, starting materials and reagents for the synthesis of other products. Formaldehyde is well known as formalin (40%) solution used to preserve biological specimens and to prepare bakelite (a phenol-formaldehyde resin), urea-formaldehyde glues and other polymeric products. Acetaldehyde is used primarily as a starting material in the manufacture of acetic acid, ethyl acetate, vinyl acetate, polymers and drugs. Benzaldehyde is used in perfumery and in dye industries. Acetone and ethyl methyl ketone are common industrial solvents. Many aldehydes and ketones, e.g., butyraldehyde, vanillin, acetophenone, camphor, etc. are well known for their odours and flavours. Carboxylic Acids Carbon compounds containing a carboxyl functional group, –COOH are called carboxylic acids. The carboxyl group, consists of a carbonyl group attached to a hydroxyl group, hence its name carboxyl. Carboxylic acids may be aliphatic (RCOOH) or aromatic (ArCOOH) depending on the group, alkyl or aryl, attached to carboxylic carbon. Large number of carboxylic acids are found in nature. Some higher members of aliphatic carboxylic acids (C12 – C18) known as fatty acids, occur in natural fats as esters of glycerol. Carboxylic acids serve as starting material for several other important organic compounds such as anhydrides, esters, acid chlorides, amides, etc.

12.6 Nomenclature and Struture of Carbonyl Group 12.6.1 Nomenclature Since carboxylic acids are amongst the earliest organic compounds to be isolated from nature, a large number of them are known by their common names. The common names end with the suffix –ic acid and have been derived from Latin or Greek names of their natural sources. For example, formic acid (HCOOH) was first obtained from red ants (Latin: formica means ant), acetic acid (CH3COOH) from vinegar (Latin: acetum, means vinegar), butyric acid (CH3CH2CH2COOH) from rancid butter (Latin: butyrum, means butter). In the IUPAC system, aliphatic carboxylic acids are named by replacing the ending –e in the name of the corresponding alkane with – oic acid. In numbering the carbon chain, the carboxylic carbon is numbered one. For naming compounds containing more than one carboxyl group, the ending –e of the alkane is retained. The number of carboxyl groups are indicated by adding the multiplicative prefix, di, tri, etc. to the term oic. The position of –COOH groups are indicated by the arabic numeral before the multiplicative prefix. Some of the carboxylic acids along with their common and IUPAC names are listed in Table 12.3.

Structure Common name IUPAC name
HCOOH Formic acid Methanoic acid
CH3COOH Acetic acid Ethanoic acid
CH3CH2COOH Propionic acid Propanoic acid
CH3CH2CH2COOH Butyric acid Butanoic acid
(CH3)2CHCOOH Isobutyric acid 2- Methylpropanoic acid
HOOC-COOH Oxalic acid Ethanedioic acid
HOOC-CH2-COOH Malonic acid propanedioic acid
HOOC-(CH2)2-COOH Succinic acid Butanedioic acid
HOOC-(CH2)3COOH Glutamic acid pentanedioic acid
HOOC-(CH2)4-COOH Adipic acid Hexanedioic acid
HOOC-CH2-CHCOOH-CH2-COOH - Propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid
Benzoic acid Benzenecarboxylic acid(Benzoic acid)
Phenylacetic acid 2-Phenylethanoic acid
Phthalic acid Benzene-1,2- dicarboxylic acid

12.6.2 Structure of Carboxyl Group In carboxylic acids, the bonds to the carboxyl carbon lie in one plane and are separated by about 120°. The carboxylic carbon is less electrophilic than carbonyl carbon because of the possible resonance structure shown below:

Intext Question 12.6 Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds:

12.7 Methods of Preparation of Carboxylic Acids

Some important methods of preparation of carboxylic acids are as follows.

1. From primary alcohols and aldehydes Primary alcohols are readily oxidised to carboxylic acids with common oxidising agents such as potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in neutral, acidic or alkaline media or by potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and chromium trioxide (CrO3) in acidic media.

Carboxylic acids are also prepared from aldehydes by the use of mild oxidising agents (Section 12.4).

2. From alkylbenzenes Aromatic carboxylic acids can be prepared by vigorous oxidation of alkyl benzenes with chromic acid or acidic or alkaline potassium permanganate. The entire side chain is oxidised to the carboxyl group irrespective of length of the side chain. Primary and secondary alkyl groups are oxidised in this manner while tertiary group is not affected. Suitably substituted alkenes are also oxidised to carboxylic acids with these oxidising reagents (refer Unit 13, Class XI).

3. From nitriles and amides Nitriles are hydrolysed to amides and then to acids in the presence of H+ or OH as catalyst. Mild reaction conditions are used to stop the reaction at the amide stage.

4. From Grignard reagents Grignard reagents react with carbon dioxide (dry ice) to form salts of carboxylic acids which in turn give corresponding carboxylic acids after acidification with mineral acid.

As we know, the Grignard reagents and nitriles can be prepared from alkyl halides (refer Unit 10, Class XII). The above methods (3 and 4) are useful for converting alkyl halides into corresponding carboxylic acids having one carbon atom more than that present in alkyl halides (ascending the series).

5. From acyl halides and anhydrides Acid chlorides when hydrolysed with water give carboxylic acids or more readily hydrolysed with aqueous base to give carboxylate ions which on acidification provide corresponding carboxylic acids. Anhydrides on the other hand are hydrolysed to corresponding acid(s) with water.

6. From esters Acidic hydrolysis of esters gives directly carboxylic acids while basic hydrolysis gives carboxylates, which on acidification give corresponding carboxylic acids.

Example 12.5 Write chemical reactions to affect the following transformations: (i) Butan-1-ol to butanoic acid (ii) Benzyl alcohol to phenylethanoic acid (iii) 3-Nitrobromobenzene to 3-nitrobenzoic acid (iv) 4-Methylacetophenone to benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid (v) Cyclohexene to hexane-1,6-dioic acid (vi) Butanal to butanoic acid.

Intext Question 12.7

Show how each of the following compounds can be converted to benzoic acid.

(i) Ethylbenzene (ii) Acetophenone (iii) Bromobenzene (iv) Phenylethene (Styrene)

12.8 Physical Properties Aliphatic carboxylic acids upto nine carbon atoms are colourless liquids at room temperature with unpleasant odours. The higher acids are wax like solids and are practically odourless due to their low volatility. Carboxylic acids are higher boiling liquids than aldehydes, ketones and even alcohols of comparable molecular masses. This is due to more extensive association of carboxylic acid molecules through intermolecular hydrogen bonding. The hydrogen bonds are not broken completely even in the vapour phase. In fact, most carboxylic acids exist as dimer in the vapour phase aprotic solvent or in the aprotic solvents. Simple aliphatic carboxylic acids having upto four carbon atoms are miscible in water due to the formation of hydrogen bonds with water. The solubility decreases with increasing number of carbon atoms. Higher carboxylic acids are practically insoluble in water due to the increased hydrophobic interaction of hydrocarbon part. Benzoic acid, the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid is nearly insoluble in cold water. Carboxylic acids are Hydrogen bonding of also soluble in less polar organic solvents like benzene, RCOOH with H2O ether, alcohol, chloroform, etc.

12.9 Chemical Reactions The reaction of carboxylic acids are classified as follows:

12.9.1 Reactions Involving Cleavage of O–H Bond Acidity Reactions with metals and alkalies The carboxylic acids like alcohols evolve hydrogen with electropositive metals and form salts with alkalies similar to phenols. However, unlike phenols they react with weaker bases such as carbonates and hydrogencarbonates to evolve carbon dioxide. This reaction is used to detect the presence of carboxyl group in an organic compound.

Carboxylic acids dissociate in water to give resonance stabilised carboxylate anions and hydronium ion.

For the above reaction:

for the above reaction:

where Keq, is equilibrium constant and Ka is the acid dissociation constant. For convenience, the strength of an acid is generally indicated by its pKa value rather than its Ka value. pKa = – log Ka The pKa of hydrochloric acid is –7.0, where as pKa of trifluoroacetic acid (the strongest organic acid), benzoic acid and acetic acid are 0.23,4.19 and 4.76, respectively. Smaller the pKa, the stronger the acid ( the better it is as a proton donor). Strong acids have pKa values < 1, the acids with pKa values between 1 and 5 are considered to be moderately strong acids, weak acids have pKa values between 5 and 15, and extremely weak acids have pKa values >15. Carboxylic acids are weaker than mineral acids, but they are stronger acids than alcohols and many simple phenols (pKa is ~16 for ethanol and 10 for phenol). In fact, carboxylic acids are amongst the most acidic organic compounds you have studied so far. You already know why phenols are more acidic than alcohols. The higher acidity of carboxylic acids as compared to phenols can be understood similarly. The conjugate base of carboxylic acid, a carboxylate ion, is stabilised by two equivalent resonance structures in which the negative charge is at the more electronegative oxygen atom. The conjugate base of phenol, a phenoxide ion, has non-equivalent resonance structures in which the negative charge is at the less electronegative carbon atom. Therefore, resonance in phenoxide ion is not as important as it is in carboxylate ion. Further, the negative charge is delocalised over two electronegative oxygen atoms in carboxylate ion whereas it is less effectively delocalised over one oxygen atom and less electronegative carbon atoms in phenoxide ion (Unit 11, Class XII). Thus, the carboxylate ion is more stabilised than phenoxide ion, so carboxylic acids are more acidic than phenols. Effect of substituents on the acidity of carboxylic acids: Substituents may affect the stability of the conjugate base and thus, also affect the acidity of the carboxylic acids. Electron withdrawing groups increase the acidity of carboxylic acids by stabilising the conjugate base through delocalisation of the negative charge by inductive and/or resonance effects. Conversely, electron donating groups decrease the acidity by destabilising the conjugate base.

The effect of the following groups in increasing acidity order is Ph < I < Br < Cl < F < CN < NO2 < CF3 Thus, the following acids are arranged in order of increasing acidity (based on pKa values):

Direct attachment of groups such as phenyl or vinyl to the carboxylic acid, increases the acidity of corresponding carboxylic acid, contrary to the decrease expected due to resonance effect shown below: This is because of greater electronegativity of sp hybridised carbon to which carboxyl carbon is attached. The presence of electron withdrawing group on the phenyl of aromatic carboxylic acid increases their acidity while electron donating groups decrease their acidity.

12.9.2 Reactions Involving Cleavage of C–OH Bond 1.

Formation of anhydride Carboxylic acids on heating with mineral acids such as H2SO4 or with P2O5 give corresponding anhydride.

2. Esterification Carboxylic acids are esterified with alcohols or phenols in the presence of a mineral acid such as concentrated H2SO4 or HCl gas as a catalyst.

Mechanism of esterification of carboxylic acids: The esterification of carboxylic acids with alcohols is a kind of nucleophilic acyl substitution. Protonation of the carbonyl oxygen activates the carbonyl group towards nucleophilic addition of the alcohol. Proton transfer in the tetrahedral intermediate converts the hydroxyl group into – +OH2 group, which, being a better leaving group, is eliminated as neutral water molecule. The protonated ester so formed finally loses a proton to give the ester.

3. Reactions with PCl5, PCl3 and SOCl2 The hydroxyl group of carboxylic acids, behaves like that of alcohols and is easily replaced by chlorine atom on treating with PCl5, PCl3 or SOCl2. Thionyl chloride (SOCl2) is preferred because the other two products are gaseous and escape the reaction mixture making the purification of the products easier. RCOOH + PCl5 → RCOCl + POCl3 +HCl 3RCOOH + PCl3 → 3RCOCl + H3PO3 RCOOH + SOCl2 → RCOCl + SO2 +HCl

4. Reaction with ammonia Carboxylic acids react with ammonia to give ammonium salt which on further heating at high temperature give amides. For example:

12.9.3 Reactions Involving –COOH Group 1. Reduction Carboxylic acids are reduced to primary alcohols by lithium aluminium hydride or better with diborane. Diborane does not easily reduce functional groups such as ester, nitro, halo, etc. Sodium borohydride does not reduce the carboxyl group.

2. Decarboxylation Carboxylic acids lose carbon dioxide to form hydrocarbons when their sodium salts are heated with sodalime (NaOH and CaO in the ratio of 3 : 1).

The reaction is known as decarboxylation.

Alkali metal salts of carboxylic acids also undergo decarboxylation on electrolysis of their aqueous solutions and form hydrocarbons having twice the number of carbon atoms present in the alkyl group of the acid. The reaction is known as Kolbe electrolysis (Unit 13, Class XI).

12.9.4 Substitution Reactions in the Hydrocarbon

Part 1. Halogenation Carboxylic acids having an α-hydrogen are halogenated at the α-position on treatment with chlorine or bromine in the presence of small amount of red phosphorus to give α-halocarboxylic acids. The reaction is known as Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction.

2. Ring substitution Aromatic carboxylic acids undergo electrophilic substitution reactions in which the carboxyl group acts as a deactivating and meta-directing group. They however, do not undergo Friedel-Crafts reaction (because the carboxyl group is deactivating and the catalyst aluminium chloride (Lewis acid) gets bonded to the carboxyl group).

Intext Question 12.8 Which acid of each pair shown here would you expect to be stronger?

12.10 Uses of Carbxoylic Acids Methanoic acid is used in rubber, textile, dyeing, leather and electroplating industries. Ethanoic acid is used as solvent and as vinegar in food industry. Hexanedioic acid is used in the manufacture of nylon-6, 6. Esters of benzoic acid are used in perfumery. Sodium benzoate is used as a food preservative. Higher fatty acids are used for the manufacture of soaps and detergents.

Summary Aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids are some of the important classes of organic compounds containing carbonyl group. These are highly polar molecules. Therefore, they boil at higher temperatures than the hydrocarbons and weakly polar compounds such as ethers of comparable molecular masses. The lower members are more soluble in water because they form hydrogen bonds with water. The higher members, because of large size of hydrophobic chain of carbon atoms, are insoluble in water but soluble in common organic solvents. Aldehydes are prepared by dehydrogenation or controlled oxidation of primary alcohols and controlled or selective reduction of acyl halides. Aromatic aldehydes may also be prepared by oxidation of (i) methylbenzene with chromyl chloride or CrO3 in the presence of acetic anhydride,

(ii) formylation of arenes with carbon monoxide and hydrochloric acid in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride, and (iii) cuprous chloride or by hydrolysis of benzal chloride. Ketones are prepared by oxidation of secondary alcohols and hydration of alkynes. Ketones are also prepared by reaction of acyl chloride with dialkylcadmium. A good method for the preparation of aromatic ketones is the Friedel-Crafts acylation of aromatic hydrocarbons with acyl chlorides or anhydrides. Both aldehydes and ketones can be prepared by ozonolysis of alkenes. Aldehydes and ketones undergo nucleophilic addition reactions onto the carbonyl group with a number of nucleophiles such as, HCN, NaHSO3, alcohols (or diols), ammonia derivatives, and Grignard reagents. The α-hydrogens in aldehydes and ketones are acidic.

Therefore, aldehydes and ketones having at least one α-hydrogen, undergo Aldol condensation in the presence of a base to give α-hydroxyaldehydes (aldol) and α-hydroxyketones(ketol), respectively. Aldehydes having no α-hydrogen undergo Cannizzaro reaction in the presence of concentrated alkali. Aldehydes and ketones are reduced to alcohols with NaBH4, LiAlH4, or by catalytic hydrogenation. The carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones can be reduced to a methylene group by Clemmensen reduction or Wolff-Kishner reduction. Aldehydes are easily oxidised to carboxylic acids by mild oxidising reagents such as Tollens’ reagent and Fehling’s reagent. These oxidation reactions are used to distinguish aldehydes from ketones. Carboxylic acids are prepared by the oxidation of primary alcohols, aldehydes and alkenes by hydrolysis of nitriles, and by treatment of Grignard reagents with carbon dioxide. Aromatic carboxylic acids are also prepared by side-chain oxidation of alkylbenzenes. Carboxylic acids are considerably more acidic than alcohols and most of simple phenols. Carboxylic acids are reduced to primary alcohols with LiAlH4, or better with diborane in ether solution and also undergo α-halogenation with Cl2 and Br2 in the presence of red phosphorus (Hell-Volhard Zelinsky reaction). Methanal, ethanal, propanone, benzaldehyde, formic acid, acetic acid and benzoic acid are highly useful compounds in industry.

Exercises 12.1

What is meant by the following terms ? Give an example of the reaction in each case.

(i) Cyanohydrin

(ii) Acetal

(iii) Semicarbazone

(iv) Aldol

(v) Hemiacetal

(vi) Oxime

(vii) Ketal (vii) Imine

(ix) 2,4-DNP-derivative

(x) Schiff’s base 12.2 Name the following compounds according (i)CH3CH(CH3)CH2CH2CHO (ii)CH3CH2COCH(C2H5)CH2CH2Cl

(iii) CH3CH=CHCHO (iv)CH3COCH2COCH3 (v) CH3CH(CH3)CH2C(CH3)2COCH3 (vi)(CH3)3CCH2COOH (vii) OHCC6H4CHO-p 12.3 Draw the structures of the following compounds.

(i) 3-Methylbutanal

(ii) p-Nitropropiophenone

(iii) p-Methylbenzaldehyde

(iv) 4-Methylpent-3-en-2-one

(v) 4-Chloropentan-2-one

(vi) 3-Bromo-4-phenylpentanoic acid

(vii) p,p’-Dihydroxybenzophenone

(viii) Hex-2-en-4-ynoic acid

12.4 Write the IUPAC names of the following ketones and aldehydes.

Wherever possible, give also common names.

12.5 Draw structures of the following derivatives.

(i) The 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone of benzaldehyde (ii) Cyclopropanone oxime

(iii) Acetaldehydedimethylacetal (iv) The semicarbazone of cyclobutanone (v) The ethylene ketal of hexan-3-one (vi) The methyl hemiacetal of formaldehyde 12.6 Predict the products formed when cyclohexanecarbaldehyde reacts with following reagents. (i) PhMgBr and then H3O+ (ii) Tollens’ reagent (iii) Semicarbazide and weak acid

(iv) Excess ethanol and acid (v) Zinc amalgam and dilute hydrochloric acid 12.7 Which of the following compounds would undergo aldol condensation, which the Cannizzaro reaction and which neither? Write the structures of the expected products of aldol condensation and Cannizzaro reaction. (i) Methanal (ii) 2-Methylpentanal

(iii) Benzaldehyde (iv) Benzophenone (v) Cyclohexanone (vi) 1-Phenylpropanone (vii) Phenylacetaldehyde (viii) Butan-1-ol (ix) 2,2-Dimethylbutanal 12.8 How will you convert ethanal into the following compounds? (i) Butane-1,3-diol (ii) But-2-enal

(iii) But-2-enoic acid 12.9 Write structural formulas and names of four possible aldol condensation products from propanal and butanal. In each case, indicate which aldehyde acts as nucleophile and which as electrophile. 12.10 An organic compound with the molecular formula C9H10O forms 2,4-DNP derivative, reduces Tollens’ reagent and undergoes Cannizzaro reaction. On vigorous oxidation, it gives 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid. Identify the compound. 12.11 An organic compound

(A) (molecular formula C8H16O2) was hydrolysed with dilute sulphuric acid to give a carboxylic acid (B) and an alcohol (C). Oxidation of (C) with chromic acid produced (B). (C) on dehydration gives but-1-ene. Write equations for the reactions involved. 12.12 Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their property as indicated: (i) Acetaldehyde, Acetone, Di-tert-butyl ketone, Methyl tert-butyl ketone (reactivity towards HCN) (ii) CH3CH2CH(Br)COOH, CH3CH(Br)CH2COOH, (CH3)2CHCOOH, CH3CH2CH2COOH (acid strength) (iii) Benzoic acid, 4-Nitrobenzoic acid, 3,4-Dinitrobenzoic acid, 4-Methoxybenzoic acid (acid strength) 12.13 Give simple chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds. (i) Propanal and Propanone (ii) Acetophenone and Benzophenone (iii) Phenol and Benzoic acid (iv) Benzoic acid and Ethyl benzoate (v) Pentan-2-one and Pentan-3-one (vi) Benzaldehyde and Acetophenone (vii) Ethanal and Propanal 12.14 How will you prepare the following compounds from benzene? You may use any inorganic reagent and any organic reagent having not more than one carbon atom (i) Methyl benzoate (ii) m-Nitrobenzoic acid (iii) p-Nitrobenzoic acid (iv) Phenylacetic acid (v) p-Nitrobenzaldehyde. 12.15 How will you bring about the following conversions in not more than two steps? (i) Propanone to Propene (ii) Benzoic acid to Benzaldehyde (iii) Ethanol to 3-Hydroxybutanal (iv) Benzene to m-Nitroacetophenone (v) Benzaldehyde to Benzophenone (vi) Bromobenzene to 1-Phenylethanol

(vii) Benzaldehyde to 3-Phenylpropan-1-ol (viii) Benazaldehyde to α-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid (ix) Benzoic acid to m- Nitrobenzyl alcohol 12.16 Describe the following: (i) Acetylation (ii) Cannizzaro reaction (iii) Cross aldol condensation (iv) Decarboxylation 12.17 Complete each synthesis by giving missing starting material, reagent or products

12.18 Give plausible explanation for each of the following:

(i) Cyclohexanone forms cyanohydrin in good yield but 2,2,6-trimethylcyclo- hexanone does not. (ii) There are two –NH2 groups in semicarbazide. However, only one is involved in the formation of semicarbazones. (iii) During the preparation of esters from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst, the water or the ester should be removed as soon as it is formed. 12.19 An organic compound contains 69.77% carbon, 11.63% hydrogen and rest oxygen. The molecular mass of the compound is 86. It does not reduce Tollens’ reagent but forms an addition compound with sodium hydrogensulphite and give positive iodoform test. On vigorous oxidation it gives ethanoic and propanoic acid. Write the possible structure of the compound.

12.20 Although phenoxide ion has more number of resonating structures than carboxylate ion, carboxylic acid is a stronger acid than phenol.

Why?

 

Answers to Some Intext Questions 12.3 CH3CH2CH3 < CH3OCH3 < CH3CHO < CH3CH2OH 12.4 (i) Butanone < Propanone < Propanal < Ethanal (ii) Acetophenone < p-Tolualdehyde , Benzaldehyde < p-Nitrobenzaldehyde. 12.5

12.6 (i) 3-Phenylpropanoic acid (ii)3-Methylbut-2-enoic acid (iii) 2-Methylcyclopentanecarboxylic acid. (iv) 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzoic acid

12.8 (i) CH3COOH (ii) CH2FCOOH (iii) CH3CHFCH2COOH

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I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I) 1. Addition of water to alkynes occurs in acidic medium and in the presence of Hg2+ ions as a catalyst. Which of the following products will be formed on addition of water to but-1-yne under these conditions.

2. Which of the following compounds is most reactive towards nucleophilic addition reactions?

3. The correct order of increasing acidic strength is _____________.

(i) Phenol < Ethanol < Chloroacetic acid < Acetic acid (ii) Ethanol < Phenol < Chloroacetic acid < Acetic acid (iii) Ethanol < Phenol < Acetic acid < Chloroacetic acid

(iv) Chloroacetic acid < Acetic acid < Phenol < Ethanol

4. Compound can be prepared by the reaction of _____________. (i) Phenol and benzoic acid in the presence of NaOH (ii) Phenol and benzoyl chloride in the presence of pyridine (iii) Phenol and benzoyl chloride in the presence of ZnCl2 (iv) Phenol and benzaldehyde in the presence of palladium 5. The reagent which does not react with both, acetone and benzaldehyde. (i) Sodium hydrogensulphite (ii) Phenyl hydrazine iii) Fehling’s solution (iv) Grignard reagent 6. Cannizaro’s reaction is not given by _____________.

 

(iii) HCHO (iv) CH3CHO

7. Which product is formed when the compound is treated with concentrated aqueous KOH solution?

 

8.

Structure of ‘A’ and type of isomerism in the above reaction are respectively.

(i) Prop–1–en–2–ol, metamerism (ii) Prop-1-en-1-ol, tautomerism (iii) Prop-2-en-2-ol, geometrical isomerism (iv) Prop-1-en-2-ol, tautomerism 9. Compounds A and C in the following reaction are __________.

(i) identical (ii) positional isomers (iii) functional isomers (iv) optical isomers 10.

Which is the most suitable reagent for the following conversion?

(i) Tollen’s reagent (ii) Benzoyl peroxide (iii) I2 and NaOH solution (iv) Sn and NaOH solution

11.

Which of the following compounds will give butanone on oxidation with alkaline KMnO4 solution? (i) Butan-1-ol (ii) Butan-2-ol (iii) Both of these (iv) None of these 12. In Clemmensen Reduction carbonyl compound is treated with _____________.

(i) Zinc amalgam + HCl (ii) Sodium amalgam + HCl (iii) Zinc amalgam + nitric acid (iv) Sodium amalgam + HNO3 II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II)

Note : In the following questions two or more options may be correct. 13. Which of the following compounds do not undergo aldol condensation?

(i) CH3—CHO

 

 

14. Treatment of compound with NaOH solution yields (i) Phenol (ii) Sodium phenoxide

(iii) Sodium benzoate (iv) Benzophenone

15. Which of the following conversions can be carried out by Clemmensen Reduction?

(i) Benzaldehyde into benzyl alcohol

(ii) Cyclohexanone into cyclohexane (iii) Benzoyl chloride into benzaldehyde (iv) Benzophenone into diphenyl methane 16. Through which of the following reactions number of carbon atoms can be increased in the chain?

 

(i) Grignard reaction (ii) Cannizaro’s reaction (iii) Aldol condensation (iv) HVZ reaction 17. Benzophenone can be obtained by ____________.

(i) Benzoyl chloride + Benzene + AlCl3 (ii) Benzoyl chloride + Diphenyl cadmium (iii) Benzoyl chloride + Phenyl magnesium chloride (iv) Benzene + Carbon monoxide + ZnCl2 18. Which of the following is the correct representation for intermediate of nucleophilic addition reaction to the given carbonyl compound (A) :

 

III. Short Answer Type 19. Why is there a large difference in the boiling points of butanal and butan-1-ol? 20. Write a test to differentiate between pentan-2-one and pentan-3-one. 21. Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds

22. Give the structure of the following compounds.

(i) 4-Nitropropiophenone (ii) 2-Hydroxycyclopentanecarbaldehyde (iii) Phenyl acetaldehyde 23. Write IUPAC names of the following structures.

24. Benzaldehyde can be obtained from benzal chloride. Write reactions for obtaining benzalchloride and then benzaldehyde from it. 25. Name the electrophile produced in the reaction of benzene with benzoyl chloride in the presence of anhydrous AlCl3. Name the reaction also.

26. Oxidation of ketones involves carbon-carbon bond cleavage. Name the products formed on oxidation of 2, 5-dimethylhexan-3-one. 27. Arrange the following in decreasing order of their acidic strength and give reason for your answer. CH3CH2OH, CH3COOH, ClCH2COOH, FCH2COOH, C6H5CH2COOH 28. What product will be formed on reaction of propanal with 2-methylpropanal in the presence of NaOH? What products will be formed? Write the name of the reaction also. 29. Compound ‘A’ was prepared by oxidation of compound ‘B’ with alkaline KMnO4. Compound ‘A’ on reduction with lithium aluminium hydride gets converted back to compound ‘B’. When compound ‘A’ is heated with compound B in the presence of H2SO4 it produces fruity smell of compound C to which family the compounds ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’ belong to? 30. Arrange the following in decreasing order of their acidic strength. Give explanation for the arrangement. C6H5COOH, FCH2COOH, NO2CH2COOH 31. Alkenes and carbonyl compounds , both contain a π bond but alkenes show electrophilic addition reactions whereas carbonyl compounds show nucleophilic addition reactions. Explain. 32. Carboxylic acids contain carbonyl group but do not show the nucleophilic addition reaction like aldehydes or ketones. Why? 33. Identify the compounds A, B and C in the following reaction.

34. Why are carboxylic acids more acidic than alcohols or phenols although all of them have hydrogen atom attached to a oxygen atom (—O—H)? 35. Complete the following reaction sequence.

36. Ethylbenzene is generally prepared by acetylation of benzene followed by reduction and not by direct alkylation. Think of a possible reason.

37. Can Gatterman-Koch reaction be considered similar to Friedel Craft’s acylation? Discuss. 38. Match the common names given in Column I with the IUPAC names given in Column II.

ColumnI (Common names) Column II (IUPAC names)
(i) Cinnamaldehyde (a) Pentanal
(ii) Acetophenone (b) Prop-2-enal
(iii) Valeraldehyde (c) 4-Methylpe</>nt-3-en-2-one
(iv) Acrolein (d) 3-Phenylprop-2-enal
(v) Mesityl oxide (e) 1-Phenylethanonetd>

39. Match the acids given in Column I with their correct IUPAC names given in Column II.

ColumnI ((Acids)) Column II (IUPAC names)
(i) Phthalic acid (a) Hexane-1,6-dioic acid
(ii) Oxalic acid (b) Benzene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid
(iii) Succinic acid (c) Pentane-1,5-dioic acid
(iv) Adipic acid (d) Butane-1,4-dioic acid
(v) Glutaric acid (e) Ethane-1,2-dioic acid

40. Match the reactions given in Column I with the suitable reagents given in Column II.

ColumnI (Reactions) Column II (Reagents)
(i) Benzophenone → Diphenylmethane (a) LiAlH4
(ii) Benzaldehyde → 1-Phenylethanol (b) DIBAL—H
(iii) Cyclohexanone → Cyclohexanol (c) Zn(Hg)/Conc. HCl
(iv) Phenyl benzoate → Benzaldehyde (d) CH3MgBr

41. Match the example given in Column I with the name of the reaction in Column II.

V. Assertion and Reason Type Note : In the following questions a statement of assertion followed by a statement of reason is given. Choose the correct answer out of the following choices. (i) Assertion and reason both are correct and reason is correct explanation of assertion. (ii) Assertion and reason both are wrong statements. (iii) Assertion is correct statement but reason is wrong statement. (iv) Assertion is wrong statement but reason is correct statement.

(v) Assertion and reason both are correct statements but reasson is not correct explanation of assertion. 42. Assertion : Formaldehyde is a planar molecule. Reason : It contains sp2 hybridised carbon atom. 43. Assertion : Compounds containing —CHO group are easily oxidised to corresponding carboxylic acids. Reason : Carboxylic acids can be reduced to alcohols by treatment with LiAlH4.

 

44. Assertion : The α-hydrogen atom in carbonyl compounds is less acidic. Reason : The anion formed after the loss of α-hydrogen atom is resonance stabilised.

45. Assertion : Aromatic aldehydes and formaldehyde undergo Cannizaro reaction. Reason : Aromatic aldehydes are almost as reactive as formaldehyde.

46. Assertion : Aldehydes and ketones, both react with Tollen’s reagent to form silver mirror. Reason : Both, aldehydes and ketones contain a carbonyl group.

 

VI. Long Answer Type 47. An alkene ‘A’ (Mol. formula C5H10) on ozonolysis gives a mixture of two compounds ‘B’ and ‘C’. Compound ‘B’ gives positive Fehling’s test and also forms iodoform on treatment with I2 and NaOH. Compound ‘C’ does not give Fehling’s test but forms iodoform. Identify the compounds A, B and C. Write the reaction for ozonolysis and formation of iodoform from B and C. 48. An aromatic compound ‘A’ (Molecular formula C8H8O) gives positive 2, 4-DNP test. It gives a yellow precipitate of compound ‘B’ on treatment with iodine and sodium hydroxide solution.

Compound ‘A’ does not give Tollen’s or Fehling’s test. On drastic oxidation with potassium permanganate it forms a carboxylic acid ‘C’ (Molecular formula C7H6O2), which is also formed along with the yellow compound in the above reaction. Identify A, B and C and write all the reactions involved. 49. Write down functional isomers of a carbonyl compound with molecular formula C3H6O. Which isomer will react faster with HCN and why? Explain the mechanism of the reaction also. Will the reaction lead to the completion with the conversion of whole reactant into product at reaction conditions? If a strong acid is added to the reaction mixture what will be the effect on concentration of the product and why?

 

50. When liquid ‘A’ is treated with a freshly prepared ammoniacal silver nitrate solution, it gives bright silver mirror. The liquid forms a white crystalline solid on treatment with sodium hydrogensulphite. Liquid ‘B’ also forms a white crystalline solid with sodium hydrogensulphite but it does not give test with ammoniacal silver nitrate. Which of the two liquids is aldehyde? Write the chemical equations of these reactions also.

ANSWERS I. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-I)

1. (ii)     2. (i)     3. (iii)     4. (ii)     5. (iii)     6. (iv)     7. (ii)     8. (iv)     9. (ii)     10. (iii)     11. (ii)     12. (i)

II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II) 13. (ii), (iv); [Hint : in compounds (ii) and (iv) α-hydrogen is absent.] 14. (ii), (iii)     15. (ii), (iv)     16. (i), (iii)     17. (i), (ii)     18. (i), (ii)

III. Short Answer Type 19. [Hint : Butan-1-ol has higher boiling point due to intermolecular hydrogen bonding.] 20. [Hint : Iodoform test] 21. (i) 3-Phenylprop-2-enal (ii) Cyclohexanecarbaldehyde (iii) 3-oxopentanal (iv) But -2-enal 22.

 

23. (i) Ethane-1, 2 – dial (ii) Benzene-1, 4-dicarbaldehyde (iii) 3-Bromobenzaldehyde 24. See NCERT textbook for Class XII 25.

 

benzoyliumcation or

 

Friedel Craft’s acylation reaction. 26.

 

27. Hint : FCH2COOH > ClCH2COOH > C6H5CH2COOH > CH3COOH > CH3CH2OH 28. It is cross Aldol condensation

29. ‘A’ is a carboxylic acid, ‘B’ is an alcohol and ‘C’ is an ester.

 

30. NO2CH2COOH > FCH2COOH > C6H5COOH [Hint : electron withdrawing effect.]

 

31. [Hint : Carbon atom in carbonyl compounds acquires slight positive charge and is attacked by nucleophile.]

 

32. [Hint : Due to resonance as shown below the partial positive charge on carbonyl carbon atom is reduced.]

33. A = CH3MgBr B = CH3COOH C =

34. Hint : Compare the stability of anion formed after the loss of H+ ion. More stable the anion formed, more easy will be the dissociation of O—H bond, stronger will be the acids. 35.

IV. Matching Type 38. (i) — (d), (ii) — (e), (iii) — (a), (iv) — (b), (v) — (c) 39. (i) — (b), (ii) — (e), (iii) — (d), (iv) — (a), (v) — (c) 40. (i) — (c), (ii) — (d), (iii) — (a), (iv) — (b) 41. (i) — (e), (ii) — (d), (iii) — (a), (iv) — (b), (v) — (f), (vi) — (c)

V. Assertion and Reason Type 42. (i) 43. (v) 44. (iv) 45. (iii) 46. (iv)

VI. Long Answer Type 47. Other isomers of ‘A’ will not give products corresponding to the given test. 48. Hint :

 

49. CH3CH2CHO     CH3COCH3 (I)

(II) • Compound I will react faster with HCN due to less steric hinderance and electronic reasons than

II. • No, It is a reversible reaction. Hence equilibrium is established. • Addition of acid inhibits the reaction because the formation of CN ions is prevented. 50. Hint : Liquid ‘A’

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Simplified Knowledge Management Classes

Must see http://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/some-points-which-i-wish-all-my-new-prospective-students-know/
:-)
Do you want to make money working at home ?
see http://skmclasses.weebly.com/jobs.html
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search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.in

you will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

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The following Videos are available for you ( As of Now ). These explain tricky Physics and Mathematics Numericals.

Eventually I will try to give Videos for full course here for you.

These covers PU ( Pre University courses, school / college ) courses, IIT JEE, AIEEE ( All India Engineering Entrance Examination ) , CET ( Combined Engineering Test ), AIPMT ( All India Pre Medical Test ), ISc ( Intermediate Science / Indian School Certificate Exam ), CBSE ( Central Board Secondary Exam ), Roorkey Joint Entrance Test Questions ( Discontinued since 2002 ), APhO ( Asian Physics Olympiad ), IPhO ( International Physics Olympiad ), IMO ( International Mathematics Olympiad ) , NSEP ( National Standard Exam in Physics ), RMO ( Regional Math Olympiad , India ), INMO ( Indian National Maths Olympiad ), Irodov Solutions, Prof. H C Verma ( Concepts of Physics ) Solutions etc.

( You can see the history of Indian Participation in various Olympiads at ->
http://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/indian-participation-in-ipho-icho-ibo-and-astronomy-olympiad/ )

[ In each of these videos there is at-least 1 or more errors. Please tell me about those ]

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.in
You should get to see all the Uploaded videos. Though we have many more study videos.

Thanks and Regards
Zookeeper ;-D Subhashish Chattopadhyay

[ I suggest you see the videos starting with 1- first then starting with 2- ..... in that sequence. ]

[ Tell your friends about this link if you liked the videos ]

In case of doubts or suggestions, Please send me email at mokshya@gmail.com

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.in

Answers to -> Frequently Asked Questions ( FAQ ) [ commonly asked intelligent Questions :-) ]

1 ) How do I prepare for IIT ?

Ans : – See the videos made by me ( search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.in
Though we have many more which have not been uploaded ). While watching the videos, take notes and try to solve the problems yourself by pausing the video. Tell me if any calculation is wrong. See the videos with 1- first then 2- and so on. Write to IAPT Kothrud, Pune office to buy ( 150 Rs approx ) the book with previous papers of NSEP ( National Standard Exam in Physics – The 1st level ), INPhO ( Indian National Physics Olympiad – 2nd level ). Prepare with these and see how much you are scoring. You can guess your ALL INDIA rank easily from NSEP, and INPhO rank. Since 1998 the IIT JEE toppers have been mostly representing India in IPhO.

2 ) Which codec and Player do I use to see the videos ?

Ans : – You can use GOM Player, or VLC Player. You have to have good speakers with filters or good earphones with filters. We have checked mostly it is OK with these. ( If you are depending only on your embedded speakers of computer /screen / keyboard then there may be extra distortions. As these speakers are often not of good Quality. Also install latest KL Codecs ) In any case reduce the volume see the board, imagine sitting in the last bench and solving the problems of your own. See if your solution differs anywhere with the scribbles on the board.

3 ) Why are you giving these ( high Quality ) lecture for free ?

Ans : Well there are lot of good things free in this world. Linux, My-SQL, Open-Office ….. Go to sourceforge and get thousands of high quality software free along with source code. Yes all officially free …. Why do you think Richard Stallman, Zimmerman, ….. etc are considered Guru philosophers ? In Punjab and Gurudwaras worldwide there are so many Langars where you get better food than Restaurants. ….. why ? Why do you have Dharmasalas and subsidized rest rooms near hospitals / Famous Temples / various places ? in Iftar party anyone can eat for free …. why ?

I am teaching since 1989 I have observed most students can do much better if they have the self motivation to solve and practice. Cheap books are available in second hand bookstalls, where you get thousands of Numericals to solve ….. but most students will like to blow their time going and coming for tuition, travel time …. TV for hours and hours watching cricket / Tennis games, playing computer games …. My free lectures are not going to make much difference in spending of unnecessary money for coaching ….. I know very well , how much people enjoy …. ! spending unnecessarily !!

-

Do you know that there are NO poor / needy students in Bangalore.
-

Sometime back I had tried to teach for IIT JEE FREE. Discussed with a few NGOs and social service guys. Arranged rooms but got only 1 student. We had informed many people in many ways to inform students …. We did not get students who are ready to learn for free. So I am sure these lectures are NOT FREE. If anyone learns from these, s/he changes and that’s the gain / benefit. This change ( due to learning ) is very costly …. Most do not want to learn ………..

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.in
You will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

:-)

4 ) How can I get all your lectures ?

Ans : – Apart from my lectures there are approx 700 GB of PCM ( Phy, Chem, Math ) lectures. It takes approx 3 years of continuous download from scattered sources. I have ( 20,000 )Thousands of these. You can take ALL of them from me in an external 1 TB hard disk, instead of spending so much money and time again for downloading. These cover ( by Various Professors ) everything of Chemistry, Physics, Maths… Lot of this is from outside India … as foreigners have much wider heart than Indians ( as most of GNU / open source software have been developed by Non-Indians ). I observed the gaps in these videos, and thus I am solving IIT, APhO, Roorkey, IPhO Numericals. Videos made by me along with these videos gives a complete preparation.

Send me a mail at mokshya@gmail.com to contact me.

search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.in
You will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.

:-)

5 ) How do you get benefited out of this ?

Ans :- If anyone learns we all will have better people in this world. I will have better “ YOU “.
:-)

6 ) Why do you call yourself a Zookeeper ?

Ans :- This is very nicely explained at http://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/z00keeper-why-do-i-call-myself-a-zoookeeper/

:-)

7 ) Where do you stay ?

Ans :- Presently I am in Bangalore.

:-)

8 ) If I need videos in a few topics can you make them for me ?

Ans :- We actively answers doubts at doubtpoint.
see http://skmclasses.weebly.com/doubtpoint.html
In case you appreciate our time and efforts involved in answering complicated Questions, then get Quality answers at doubtpoint.

:-)

9 ) Why did you write an article saying there are No Poor students ?

Ans :- There are lots of NGOs and others working for rural / poor children education at lower classes. While very less effort is on for std 9 till 12. Also see the answer in question number ( 3 ) above. In more than 2 decades of teaching I never met a Poor child who was seriously interested in ( higher ) studies. As I have a mind / thinking of a ” Physicist “, I go by ” Experimental Observation “.

It is not about what is being said about poor in media / TV etc, or ” what it should be ” ( ? ) …. It is about what I see happening. Also to add ( confuse ? you more )…. You must be knowing that in several states over many years now girl students have better ( by marks as well as by pass percentage ) result in std 10 / Board Exams….. well but NEVER a girl student came FIRST in IIT JEE … why ? [ The best rank by a Girl student is mostly in 2 digits, very rarely in single digit ] ????? So ????

:-)

10 ) How much do I have to study to make it to IIT ?

Ans :- My experience of Teaching for IIT JEE since 1989, tells me, Total 200 hours per subject ( PCM ) is sufficient. If you see my Maths and Physics videos, each subject is more than 200 hours. So if someone sees all the videos diligently, takes notes and remembers, …… Done.

:-)

11 ) What is EAMCET ?

Ans :- Engineering Agriculture and Medicine Common Entrance Test is conducted by JNT University Hyderabad on behalf of APSCHE. This examination is the gateway for entry into various professional courses offered in Government/Private Colleges in Andhra Pradesh.

12 ) In your videos are you covering other Exams apart from IIT ?

Ans : – Yes. See many videos made by solving problems of MPPET, Rajasthan / J&K CET, UPSEAT ( UPES Engineering Aptitude Test ), MHCET, BCECE ( Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination Board ), WB JEE etc

:-)

13 ) What is SCRA ?

Ans : – Special Class Railway Apprentice (SCRA) exam is conducted by Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) board, for about 10 seats.That translates into an astonishing ratio of 1 selection per 10,000 applicants. The SCRA scheme was started in 1927 by the British, to select a handful of most intelligent Indians to assist them in their Railway Operations, after training at their Railway’s largest workshop, i.e. Jamalpur Workshop, and for one year in United Kingdom. The selected candidates were required to appear in the Mechanical Engineering Degree Examination held by Engineering Council (London).

Thanks for your time. To become my friend in google+ ( search me as mokshya@gmail.com and send friend request )

Read http://edge.org/responses/what-scientific-concept-would-improve-everybodys-cognitive-toolkit
:-)
The following video is a must see for full CO2 cycle, plates of Earth, Geological activities, stability of weather

:-)
Article in Nature says CO2 increase is good for the trees

http://thegwpf.org/science-news/6086-co2-is-greening-the-planet-savannahs-soon-to-be-covered-by-forests.html

:-)

http://climaterealists.com/index.php?id=9752

BBC documentary Crescent and Cross shows the 1000 years of fight between Christians and Muslims. Millions have been killed in the name of Religion. To decided whose GOD is better, and which GOD to follow. The fight continues.
-

Summary of Women

:-)
The Virus of Faith

:-)
The God delusion

:-)
cassiopeia facts about evolution

-

Intermediate Fossil records shown and explained nicely Fossils, Genes, and Embryos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fdpMrE7BdHQ

The Rise Of Narcissism In Women

:-)
13 type of women whom you should never court

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/relationships/man-woman/13-Women-you-should-never-court/articleshow/14637014.cms

:-)
Media teaching Misandry in India

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-M2txSbOPIo

Summary of problems with women

http://problemwithwomentoday.blogspot.in/2009/12/problem-with-women-today-what-in-hell.html

:-)
Eyeopener men ? women only exists
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ZAuqkqxk9A

:-)
Each of you is an Activist in some way or other. You are trying to propagate those thoughts, ideas that you feel concerned / excited about.
-

Did you analyze your effectiveness ?

Culturomics can help you

:-D
see how biased women are. Experimental proof. Women are happy when they see another woman is beating a man ( see how women misbehave with men )

:-)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LlFAd4YdQks

-

see detailed statistics at

An eye opener in Misandry

My sincere advice would be to be EXTREMELY careful ( and preferably away ) of girls. As girls age; statistically certain behavior in them has been observed. Most Male can NOT manage those behaviors… Domestic violence, divorce etc are rising very fast. Almost in all cases boys / males are HUGE loosers. Be extremely choosy ( and think from several angles ) before even talking to a girl.
:-)

http://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/save-the-male/

:-)

How women manipulate men

http://www.angryharry.com/esWomenManipulateMen.htm

Gender Biased Laws in India

http://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/biased-laws/

:-)

Violence against Men

:-)

Only men are victimised

Men are BETTER than women

http://www.menarebetterthanwomen.com/

:-)

see

:-)

Male Psychology

Women are more violent than men

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/women-are-more-violent-says-study-622388.html

:-)

In the year 2010, 168 men ended their lives everyday ( on average ). More husbands committed suicide than wives.
:-)

http://www.rediff.com/news/report/ncrb-stats-show-more-married-men-committing-suicide/20111028.htm

It is EXTREMELY unfortunate that media projects men as fools, women as superiors, Husbands as servants, and replaceable morons. In ad after ad worldwide from so many companies, similar msg to disintegrate the world is being bombarded. It is highly unacceptable misandry

:-)

It is NOT at all funny that media shows violence against MEN. Some advertisers are trying to create a new ” Socially acceptable culture ” of slapping Men ( by modern city women ). We ( all men ) take objection to these advertisements.
We oppose this Misandry bad culture. Please share to increase awareness against Men bashing

:-)

Think what are you doing … why are you doing ?

Every Man must know this …

:-)
Manginas, White Knights, & Other Chivalrous Dogs

!
!
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molecular chain formed repeated addition reactions many unsaturated alkene molecules monomers addition polymerisation process unsaturated alkene molecules monomers add growing polymer chain one timeIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com long saturated molecular chain addition polymer addition reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reactant added IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com unsaturated molecule saturated molecule adsorption process IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com occurs gas, liquid solute surface solid rarely liquid alicyclic hydrocarbon hydrocarbon IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atoms joined together ring structure aliphatic hydrocarbon hydrocarbon IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atoms joined together straight branched chains alkali type base IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com dissolves water forming hydroxide ions OH (aq) ions alkanes homologous series IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com general formula C alkyl group alkane IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hydrogen atom removed CH alkyl groups 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distribution distribution energies molecules particular temperature IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com graph bond enthalpy enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com breaking homolytic fission 1 mol bond molecules gaseous species carbanion organic ion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atom hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com negative charge carbocation organic ion IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atom hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com positive charge catalyst substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com increases rate chemical reaction process cation positively charged ion cis trans isomerism special type isomerism IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com non hydrogen group skmclasses.weebly.com hydrogen atom C C=C double bond cis isomer ( Z isomer) IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com H atoms on IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon same side trans isomer E isomer H atoms carbon different bond compound substance formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com chemically bonded elements fixed ratio, usually chemical formula concentration amount solute mol IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com 1 dm 3 1000 cm solution coordinate bond shared pair electrons provided one bonding atoms called dative covalent bond covalent bond bond formed shared pair electrons cracking breaking long chained saturated hydrocarbonsIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com mixture shorter chained alkanesalkenes curly arrow symbol IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reaction mechanisms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com show movement electron Coaching ICWA Coaching CFA Coaching CFP Coaching CMAT Coaching School Tuitions CBSE School Tuitions Home Tuitions 9th STD Tuitions PUC Coaching 10th Std Tuitions College Tuitions Maths Tuitions Engineering Tuitions Accounts & Finance Tuitions MBA & BBA Coaching Microbiology & Biotech Tuitions Study Abroad GRE & SAT Coaching GMAT Coaching IELTS/TOEFL Coaching PTE Coaching proteins protonation pyridines pyrroles quinones quinolines radical reaction radicals rearrangement receptors reduction regioselectivity retro reaction rhodium ring closure ring contraction ring expansion ring opening ruthenium samarium scandium Schiff bases selenium self-assembly silicon sodium solid-phase synthesis solvent effects spectroscopy sphingolipids spiro compounds stereoselective synthesis stereoselectivity steric hindrance steroids Stille reaction substituent effects sulfates sulfonamides sulfones sulfoxides sulfur supported catalysis supramolecular tandem reaction tautomerism terpenoids thioacetals thiols tin titanium total synthesis transesterification transition metals transition states tungsten Umpolung vinylidene complexes vitamins Wacker reaction Wittig reaction ylides zeolites zinc BRST Quantization Effective field theories Field Theories Higher Dimensions Field Theories Lower Dimensions Large Extra Dimensions Lattice Quantum Field Theory Nonperturbative Effects Renormalization Group Renormalization Regularization skmclasses.weebly.com Renormalons Sigma Models Solitons Monopoles skmclasses.weebly.com Instantons Supersymmetric gauge theory Topological Field Theories 1/N Expansion Anyons Chern-Simons Theories Confinement Duality Gauge Field Theories Lattice Gauge Field Theories Scattering Amplitudes Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking Strong Coupling Expansion Topological States Matter Wilson ‘t Hooft skmclasses.weebly.comPolyakov loops Anomalies Field skmclasses.weebly.comString Theories BRST Symmetry Conformal skmclasses.weebly.com W Symmetry Discrete skmclasses.weebly.comFinite Symmetries Gauge Symmetry Global Symmetries Higher Spin Symmetry Space-Time Symmetries AdS-CFT Correspondence Black Holes String Theory Bosonic Strings Brane Dynamics Gauge Theories Conformal Field Models String Theory D-branes dS vacua string theory F-Theory Flux compactifications Gauge-gravity correspondence Holography skmclasses.weebly.comcondensed matter physics (AdS CMT) Holography skmclasses.weebly.comquark-gluon plasmas Intersecting branes models Long strings M(atrix) Theories M-Theory p-branes Penrose limit skmclasses.weebly.compp-wave background String Duality String Field Theory String theory skmclasses.weebly.comcosmic string Superstring Vacua Superstrings skmclasses.weebly.comHeterotic Strings Tachyon Condensation Topological Strings 2D Gravity Black Holes Classical Theories Gravity Higher Spin Gravity Lattice Models Gravity Models Quantum Gravity Spacetime Singularities Extended Supersymmetry Supergravity Models Superspaces Supersymmetric Effective Theories Supersymmetry skmclasses.weebly.com Duality Supersymmetry Breaking Differential skmclasses.weebly.comAlgebraic Geometry Integrable Hierarchies Non-Commutative Geometry Quantum Groups Statistical Methods Stochastic Processes Cosmology Theories beyond SM Solar skmclasses.weebly.comAtmospheric Neutrinos Thermal Field Theory Be Ansatz Boundary Quantum Field Theory Exact S-Matrix Quantum Dissipative Systems Random Systems B-Physics Beyond Standard Model Compactification skmclasses.weebly.com String Models CP violation Electromagnetic Processes skmclasses.weebly.com Properties GUT Heavy Quark Higgs Kaon LEP HERA skmclasses.weebly.com SLC Neutrino Physics Quark Masses skmclasses.weebly.comSM Parameters Rare Decays Standard Model Supersymmetric Standard Model Technicolor skmclasses.weebly.com Composite Models Chiral Lagrangians Deep Inelastic Scattering Higher Twist Effects Lattice QCD Parton Model Phase Diagram QCD Phenomenological Models QCD Quark-Gluon Plasma Resummation Sum Rules Aim Global Education Koramangala Computer Networking Training Cloud Computing Training JBOSS Training Juniper Certification Training L2 & L3 Protocol Training MCTS Training Engineering design Training CAD & CAM Training MATLAB Training PLC Training SCADA Training VLSI Design Multimedia & Design Training 2D Animation Training 3D Animation Training 4D Animation Training CorelDRAW Training VFX Training Web Technologies Training ASP.Net Training JQuery pair breaking formation covalent bond dative covalent shared pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hIITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com been provided one bonding atoms only IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com called coordinate bond dehydration elimination reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com water removed saturated molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com unsaturated molecule delocalised Electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com shared IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two atoms displacement reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reactive element displaces less reactive element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com aqueous solution latter’s ions displayed formula showing relative positioning atoms molecule skmclasses.weebly.com bonds IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com disproportionation oxidation skmclasses.weebly.com reduction element redox reaction dynamic equilibrium equilibrium IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com exists closed system IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com rate forward reaction equal IITJEE 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SKMClasses.weebly.com standard states under standard conditions (standard) enthalpy change reaction enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com accompanies reaction molar quantities expressed chemical equation under standard conditions reactants skmclasses.weebly.com products being IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com standard states enthalpy cycle diagram showing alternative routes IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reactants products IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com allows indirect determination IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com enthalpy change IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com other known enthalpy changes using Hess’ law enthalpy profile diagram skmclasses.weebly.com reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com compare enthalpy reactants IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com enthalpy products esterification reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com alcohol IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carboxylic acid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com produce ester skmclasses.weebly.com water exothermic reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com enthalpy products smaller enthalpy reactants, resulting heat loss IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com surroundings fractional distillation separation components liquid mixture skmclassesfractions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com differ boiling point skmclasses.weebly.com hence chemical composition IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com distillation typically using fractionating column fragmentation process mass spectrometry IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com causes positive ion split skmclasses pieces one positive fragment ion functional group part organic molecule responsible skmclasses.weebly.com chemical reactions general formula simplest algebraic formula member homologous series. skmclasses.weebly.com example general formula alkanes giant covalent lattice dimensional structure atoms, bonded together strong covalent bonds giant ionic lattice three dimensional structure oppositely charged ions, bonded together strong ionic bonds giant metallic lattice three dimensional structure positive ions skmclasses.weebly.com delocalised electrons, bonded together strong metallic bonds greenhouse effect process IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com absorption subsequent emission infrared radiation atmospheric gases warms lower atmosphere planet’s surface group vertical column Periodic Table Elements group IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com similar chemical properties skmclasses.weebly.com atoms skmclasses.weebly.comnumber outer shell electrons Hess law reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one route skmclasses.weebly.com initial final conditions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com total enthalpy change skmclasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com route heterogeneous catalysis reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com catalyst IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com different physical state reactants; frequently, reactants IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com gases whilst catalyst solid heterolytic fission breaking covalent bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com both bonded electrons going IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one atoms, forming cation (+ ion) skmclasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com anion ion homogeneous catalysis reaction catalyst skmclasses.weebly.com reactants physical state, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com frequently aqueous gaseous state homologous series series organic compounds IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com functional group, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com successive member differing homolytic fission breaking covalent bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one bonded electrons going IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom, forming two radicals hydrated Crystalline skmclasses.weebly.com containing water molecules hydrocarbon compound hydrogen skmclasses.weebly.com carbon hydrogen bond strong dipole attraction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron deficient hydrogen atom (O H on different molecule hydrolysis reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com water aqueous hydroxide ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com breaks chemical compound skmclasses two compounds initiation first step radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com free radicals generated ultraviolet radiation intermolecular force attractive force IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com neighbouring molecules Intermolecular forces van der Waals’ forces induced dipole ces permanent dipole forces hydrogen bonds ion positively negatively charge atom covalently bonded group atoms molecular ion ionic bonding electrostatic attraction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oppositely charged ions first) ionisation energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com remove one electron IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole gaseous 2+ ions second) ionisation energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com remove one electron IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole gaseous 2+ ions successive ionisation measure energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com remove IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com electron Chemistry energy second ionisation energy energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one electron IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com ion one mole gaseous 1+ ions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one mole gaseous 2+ ions isotopes Atoms skmclasses.weebly.com element IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different numbers neutrons different masses le Chatelier’s principle system dynamic equilibrium subjected change position equilibrium will shift minimise change limiting reagent substance chemical reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com runs out first lone pair outer shell pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com involved chemical bonding mass nucleon number particles protons aneutrons) nucleus mechanism sequence steps showing path taken electrons reaction metallic bond electrostatic attraction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com positive metal ions adelocalised electrons molar mass substance units molar mass IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molar volume IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com mole gas. units molar volume IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com dm room temperature skmclasses.weebly.com pressure molar volume approximately 24.0 substance containing IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com many particles thereIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com carbon atoms exactly 12 g carbon isotope molecular formula number atoms IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com element molecule molecular ion M positive ion formed mass spectrometry IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecule loses electron molecule small group atoms held together covalent bonds monomer small molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com combines IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com monomers polymer nomenclature system naming compounds nucleophile atom group atoms attracted electron deficient centre atom donates pair electrons covalent bond nucleophilic substitution type substitution reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com nucleophile attracted electron deficient centre atom, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com donates pair electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com new covalent bond oxidation Loss electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com increase oxidation number oxidation number measure number electrons IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom uses bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atoms another element. Oxidation numbers IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com derive d rules oxidising agent reagent IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com oxidises (takes electrons from) another species percentage yield period horizontal row elements Periodic Table Elements show trends properties across period periodicity regular periodic variation properties elements IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atomic number position Periodic Table permanent dipole small charge difference across bond resulting IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com difference electronegativities bonded atoms permanent dipole dipole force attractive force IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com permanent dipoles neighbouring polar molecules pi bond (p bond reactive part double bond formed above skmclasses.weebly.com below plane bonded atoms sideways overlap p orbitalspolar covalent bond bond IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com permanent dipole polar molecule molecule IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com overall dipole skmclasses account dipoles across bonds polymer long molecular chain built monomer units precipitation reaction formation solid solution during chemical reaction Precipitates IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two aqueous solutions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com mixed together principal quantum number n number representing relative overall energy orbital IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com increases distance nucleus sets orbitals IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com value IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com electron shells energy levels propagation two repeated radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com build up products chain reaction radical species unpaired electron rate reaction change concentration reactant product redox reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reduction skmclasses.weebly.com oxidation take IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reducing agent reagent IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reduces (adds electron to) species reduction Gain electrons decrease oxidation number yield actual amount mol product theoretical amount mol product Chemistry reflux continual boiling skmclasses.weebly.com condensing reaction mixture ensure IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com without contents flask boiling dry relative atomic mass weighted mean mass atom element compared one twelfth mass IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom carbon relative formula mass weighted mean mass formula unit compared IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one twelfth mass atom carbon relative isotopic mass mass atom isotope compared IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com one twelfth mass atom carbon relative molecular mass weighted mean mass molecule compared twelfth mass atom carbon 12 repeat unit specific arrangement atom s IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com occurs structure over over again. Repeat units IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com included brackets outside IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com symbol n Salt chemical compound formed IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com acid IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com H+ ion acid IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com been replaced metal ion another positive ion such IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com ammonium ion, NH saturated hydrocarbon IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com single bonds only shell group atomic orbitals IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com principal quantum number known main energy level simple molecular lattice three dimensional structure molecules, bonded together weak intermolecular forces skeletal formula simplified organic formula, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hydrogen atoms removed alkyl chains, leaving carbon skeleton skmclasses.weebly.com associated functional groups species particle IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com part chemical reaction specific heat capacity, c energy IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com raise temperature 1 g substance 1 C spectator ions Ions present part chemical reaction standard conditions pressure 100 kPa 1 atmosphere stated temperature usually 298 K (25 °C), skmclasses.weebly.com concentration 1 mol dm reactions aqueous solutions standard enthalpies enthalpystandard solution solution known concentration Standard solutions normally IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com titrations IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com determine unknown information another substance Chemistry standard state physical state substance under standard conditions 100 kPa 1 atmosphere) skmclasses.weebly.com 298 K 25 C stereoisomers Compounds skmclasses.weebly.com structural formula IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different arrangement atoms space stoichiometry molar relationship IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com relative quantities substances part reaction stratosphere second layer Earth’s atmosphere, containing ‘ozone layer’, about 10 km IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com 50 km above Earth’s surface structural formula formula showing minimal detail skmclasses.weebly.com arrangement atoms molecule structural isomers Molecules IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com skmclasses.weebly.com molecular formula different structural arrangements atoms subshell group skmclasses.weebly.com type atomic orbitals s, p, d f within shell substitution reaction reaction IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com atom group atoms replaced different atom group atoms termination step end radical substitution IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two radicals combine IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com molecule thermal decomposition breaking chemical substance IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com heat skmclasses least two chemical substances troposphere lowest layer Earth’s atmosphere extending Earth’s surface about 7 km (above poles) about 20 km above tropics unsaturated hydrocarbon hydrocarbon containing carbon carbon multiple bonds van der Waals’ forces Very weak attractive forces IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com induced dipoles neighbouring molecules volatility ease IITJEE 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Road/Brigade Road M.G. Road skmclasses.weebly.comBrigade Road main commercial areas Bangalore. Residential areas nearbyIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Brunton Road Rest House Road, St. Mark’s Road skmclasses.weebly.comLavelle Road Airport Road/Indiranagar eastern suburb, Indiranagar is easily accessible IITJEE city centre skmclasses.weebly.com Airport Koramangala Located south Indiranagar, Koramangala quite favourite IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com IT professionals Despite 7 kmsIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com city centre, property values Ulsoor scenic man-made lake Ulsoor seen a spurt building activity last few years.IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com proximityIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com M.G Road jacked up property prices here Jayanagar/J.P. Nagar/Banashankari proximity areas Electronic City main reason skmclasses.weebly.comtheir growth recent past Jayanagar largest colonies Asia skmclasses.weebly.comthese areas popular areas Bangalore. Jayanagara originally namedIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Sri Jayachamarajendra wodeyar last king Mysore. Later Sri Kumaran Children’s Home Survey No 44 – 50, Mallasandra Village Uttarahalli Hobli, Off Kanakapura Main Road, Bangalore skmclasseslocality namedIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com current DD kendra is situated known IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com JC Nagar or Jayachamarajendra Nagar Delhi Public School, North Campus Survey No. 35/A, Sathanur Village Jala Hobli, Bangalore Jayanagar IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com literally Victory City Jayanagar IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com traditionally regarded IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com southern end Bangalore South End Circle “, wherein six roadsIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com different areas meet skmclasses.weebly.com historic Ashoka Pillar mark southern end city bear this fact. newer extensions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com taken away this distinctionIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Jayanagar still remains one IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com southern parts city Malleshwaram Basavanagudi Malleshwaram north Bangalore, Basavanagudi south IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com areas oldest Bangalore skmclasses.weebly.com residents IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com original inhabitants City. Malleswaram PSBB Learning Leadership Academy
# 52, Sahasra Deepika Road, Laxmipura Village, Off Bannerghatta Main Road Bangalore located actually north-west Bangalore derives IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com name IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com famous Kaadu Malleshwara temple 8th Cross in Malleshwaram, skmclasses.weebly.comGandhibazar/ DVG Road in Basavanagudi IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com popular areas in Bangalore skmclasses.weebly.comshopping during festival times. Malleswaram been homeIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com several important personalities skmclasses.weebly.cominstitutions. Bangalore’s own Nobel laureate, C.V. Raman, late Veena Doreswamy Iyengar skmclasses.weebly.com M.Chinnaswamy cricket stadium is named, academician M.P.L. Sastry, poet G.P. Rajaratnam skmclasses.weebly.com Dewan Seshadri Iyer institutions IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Canara Union club Konkani-speaking people in 1930 IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.comIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com this day hosts a variety cultural activities Malleswaram Association, hub area’s sporting activity since 1929 skmclasses.weebly.com Chowdaiah Memorial hosting great names music skmclasses.weebly.comtheatre. AccordingIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com recent figures available IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Bangalore Development Authority BDA Malleswaram’s net population density is 521 personsIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hectare, Bangalore City Corporation standard is 352IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com hectare Sadhashivnagar Sadashivanagar arguably IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com elite skmclasses.weebly.comexpensive neighborhood in Bangalore India fashionable among politicians, movie starsIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com millionaires afford homes “Beverly Hills Bangalore,” having IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com address in Sadashivanagar connotes high level prestige success fame Vijayanagar derivesIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com nameIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Vijayanagara empire IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com flourished in south India during 15th skmclasses.weebly.com16th centuries.Vijayanag ar East is popularly known IITJEE base skmclasses.weebly.com RPC Layout (Railway Parallel Colony Layout), since this layout is along railway track. IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com recently renamed Hampi Nagar Hampi capital Vijayanagar Empire Vijayanagar houses a large Public Library, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com is one largest in Karnataka Halasuru Halasuru formerly known IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com Ulsoor oldest neighbourhoods Indian city Bangalore predominant Tamil speaking population renowned skmclasses.weebly.com numerous temples skmclasses.weebly.comrather narrow streets skmclassesprominant areas CityIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Sanjay Nagar skmclasses.weebly.com RT Nagar, Hebbal, Vyalikaval, Yeshwanthpur, Sriramapura, Rajajinagar, Rajarajeshwarinagar, Chickpet, Chamarajpet, V V Puram, Mavalli, Hanumanthanagar, Padmanabhanagar Hosakerehalli Sarakki, BTM Layout, Domlur, Gandhinagar, Vasanthanagar, Vivek Nagar, Cox Town, Frazer Town Benson Town Bangalore Roads Many roads Bangalore had European names South Parade Road, Albert Victor Road, Hardinge Road, Grant Road several roads Bangalore derived Delhi Public School Sarjapur, Bangalore East Survey No.43/1B & 45, Sulikunte Village, Dommasandra Post, Bangalore IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com military nomenclature Mahatma Gandhi Road MG Raod called IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com South Parade Roadskmclasses.weebly.com nomenclature Independence Edify School Electronic City
105, 34th Main, 23rd Cross, Sector-A, Surya Nagar Phase-2, Anekal-Chandapura Main Road, Electronic City Chamarajpet First Main Road named Albert Victor Road 1889 future King Edward VII Englskmclasses.weebly.com renamed Alur Venkatarao Road,IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com well-known Kannada writer skmclasses.weebly.comprotagonist unification National Public School, Koramangala National Games Village Koramangala, Bangalore Kannada-speaking areas andlater shortened IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com A.V. Road. Avenue road earlier known Doddapete Infantry Road became Bhagavan Mahaveer Road 2004 Chamarajendra Park Jyothi Kendriya Vidyalaya Yelachenahalli, Kanakapura Road Bangalore IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com Cubbon Park IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Sir Mark Cubbon British Commissioner Mysore mid-19th century. Fraser Town, IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com named Sir Stuart Fraser scholar tutor Maharaja Krishnaraja Wadiyar IV Pulakeshinagar. Hardinge Road old name Pampa Mahakavi Road. sometime, Cunningham Road crowded bazaar being called Sampangi Ramaswamy Temple Road Race Course Road became Devraj Urs Road National Public School, Rajajinagar 1036-A, Purandarapura, V Block, Rajajinagar, Bangalore skmclasses.weebly.comGrant Road became Vittal Mallya Road IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com two Vittal Mallya Roads skmclasses bund Sampangi Tank Kanteerava Stadium Gear Innovative International School GEAR Road, Doddakannelli, Off Sarjapur Road & Outer Ring Road, Bangalore IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com built MacIver Town Shantala Nagar Assayee Road Meanee Road those names commemoration wars fought Madras New Horizon Gurukul Ring Road Marathalli, Behind New Horizon College of Engineering, Bangalore , Bangalore IITJEE skmclasses.weebly.com Sappers, BGS National Public School Ramalingeshwara Cave Temple Hulimavu, Bangalore IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Presidency School (Bangalore – East) CA Site 7P1A, 2nd A Main, 3rd A cross, East of NGEF Layout, Kasturinagar, Bangalore British Army against Marathas first decade 19th century Basavanagudi, meaning temple Basava skmclasses.weebly.com big bull situated area reason behind naming area Basavanagudi extension skmclassesformed around 1900. Gandhi Bazar, earlier known merely Angadi Beedhi School Of India Anekal Road, Bannerghatta, Bangalore skmclasses formed Kumarapark came skmclasses existence 1947, year Indian Independence, whereas Jayanagar skmclasses.weebly.comRajajinagarIITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com thought year later 1948 skmclasses.weebly.com orchards Bangalore Palace skmclasses developed housing colony skmclasses.weebly.comnamed Sadashivanagar 1960,IITJEE SKMClasses.weebly.com Orchids The International School Jalahalli, Nagarbavi, Mysore Road, Sarjapur Road, BTM, Bangalore well-known freedom fighter Dakshina Kannada Karnad Sadashiva Rao BVK Iyengar Road Byappana Halli Byatarayanapura Byrasandra C.V Raman Nagar Cambridge Layout Cambridge Road Cantonment Carmelaram Castle Street Central Street Chamarajapet Shanthi Theatre South End Circle INOX Shree Garuda Swagath Mall, 4th Floor, Tilak Nagar Main Road INOX Bangalore Central-2, 5th Floor, 45th Cross Maheshwari Theater Bannerghatta Main Road Gopalan Cinemas Gopalan Innovation Mall, JP Nagar 3rd Phase Chandapura Chandra Layout Global Academy For Learning Sri Chowdeshwari Farm, Near Global Village IT Park, National Public School, HSR Layout P2/32, Sector 4, HSR Layout Bangalore Pattanagere Main Road, Rajarajeshwarinagar, Bangalore Chickpet Chikkabanavara Chikkadugodi Chikkallasandra Chikkamavalli Cholara Palya Chowdeshwari Temple Street Chunchagatta Church Street Clevelskmclasses.weebly.com Town CMH Road Coles Park Commercial Street Commissariat Road Cooke Town Corporation Circle Cottonpet Cox Town Crescent Road Cubbon Park Cubbon Road Cubbonpet Cunningham Road Dairy Circle Dasara Halli Dasarahalli Devaiah Park Devana Halli Devanahalli Devara Chikkana Halli Devara Jeevana Halli Devasandra Dharmaram College Dickenson Road Dispensary Road Dodda Banaswadi Dodda Bommasandra Dodda Kallasandra Dodda Kanna Hally Dodda Mavalli Doddaballapur Road Doddaballapura Doddana Kundi Dollars Colony Domlur Domlur 2nd Stage Domlur Ring Road Dooravani Nagar Dr. Ambedkar Veedhi Dr. DVG Road Delhi Public School, South 11 K.M., kanakapura Road Konanakunte Post, Bangalore Dr. Raj Kumar Road Dr. TCM Royan Road Ejipura Electronic City Field Marshal Cariappa Road Frazer Town Ganapathi Nagar Gandhi Bazaar Gandhi Nagar Ganga Nagar Gangadhar Chetty Road Ganigarpet Garvebhavi Palya Gavipuram Extension Gayathri Nagar Geddala Halli Geddalahalli Giri Nagar Giri Nagar 1st Phase Giri Nagar 2nd Phase GM Palya Gokula Golf Course Road Gorgunte Palya Govindaraj Nagar Green Park Extension, Guddada Halli Gundopanth Street National Public School, Indiranagar 12 A Main HAL II Stage, Bangalore H.Siddaiah Road Haines Road HAL HAL 2nd Stage HAL 3rd Stage HAL Airport Road Hampi Nagar Hanumantha Nagar Hayes Road HBR Layout Hebbal Kempapura Hebbal Ring Road Hegde Nagar Heggana Halli Hennur Hesaraghatta HKP Road HMT Layout Hongasandra Hoody Horamavu Hosakere Halli photochemistry photooxidation piperidines polyanions polycations polycycles polymers Porphyrins prostaglandins protecting groups Entrance Coaching IIT Entrance Coaching CLAT Entrance Coaching AICEE Coaching TANCET Entrance Coaching PMT Entrance Coaching Language Classes Spoken English Classes Spoken Hindi Classes Foreign Languages Coaching Spoken Kannada Classes Spoken Gujarati Classes Competitive Exams Coaching KMAT Coaching Online CAT Coaching GATE Coaching IBPS Coaching RRB Coaching Civil Services Coaching UGC Net Coaching SSB & NDA Coaching UPSC Coaching IAS Coaching TNPSC Coaching Accounts & Finance CA Training PHP & MySQL Training Spring Training Web Designing Training Administration Training VMWare Training ITIL Training SharePoint Training SAN Training Linux Administration Training Database Training Data Warehousing Training Database Testing Training HADOOP Training Oracle DBA Training SQL Server Training Programming Languages Java & J2EE Training C C++ Training Perl Programming Training Python Programming Training Shell Scripting Training Mobile Development Training Android Development Training iPhone Development Training Mobile Application Testing Training Mobile Gaming Training Mobile Application Development Training Oakridge International School Oakridge International School, Sarjapur Road, , Bangalore School of India, Bannerghatta, Bangalore Delhi Public School DPS North Campus, Yelahanka, Bangalore Jain International Residential School (JIRS), Jakkasandra Post, Bangalore Delhi Public School (DPS East), Sarjapur, Bangalore TREAMIS World School, Electronics City, Bangalore South Delhi Public School (South), Kanakapura Road, Bangalore The Deen’s Academy, Whitefield, Bangalore National Public School (NPS), Koramangala, Bangalore Royale Concorde International School, Kalyan Nagar, Bangalore Freedom International School, HSR Layout, Bangalore Air Force School Army Public School Bangalore Military School BGS International School Cambridge Public School Delhi Public School Deva Matha Central School Jain International Residential School Kendriya Vidyalaya A M C School A.S.C Public School Amara Jyothi Public School Anand Shiksha Kendra ICSE Syllabus ACTS Secondary School B Mona High School Baldwin Boys High School Baldwin Girls High School Bishop Cotton Boys School Bishop Cotton Girls School Brigade School Candor International School Cambridge Public School Cathedral High School Chinmaya Vidyalay Christ Academy Ekya School Gnan Srishti School of Excellence Gopalan National School India International School IIS Lawrence School-ICSE New Horizon Public School Notre Dame Academy Paradise Residential School Patel Public School Podar International School Prakriya Green Wisdom School Primus School Ryan International School Sishu Griha St. Francis De Sales (SFS) High School Sherwood High Sri Kumaran Childrens Home St Francis School St Johns High School St Thomas Public School St. Patricks Academy St. Peters School Vibgyor High CBSE Syllabus AECS Magnolia Maaruti Public School Amaatra Academy Amrita Vidyalayam BGS-NPS School Brigade School BRS Global Centre for Excellence Capitol Public School CMR National Public School Delhi Public School East, South, North Edify School EuroSchool Freedom International School Geethanjali Montessori Geethanjali Vidhyalaya Gitanjali International School GISB Greengrove International School Gomathy Global School Harvest International School JSS Public School Kendriya Vidyalaya KV Manipal Tattva School Mirambika School for New Age NITTE International School National Centre for Excellence NCFE National Public School New Horizon Gurukul NHG Oakridge International School Presidency School PSBB LLA Padma Seshadri Bal Bhavan Radcliffe School Ravindra Bharathi Global School Sadhguru Sainath International School SSI Sri Kumaran Childrens Home Sunrise International Residential School Sujaya School The Samhita Academy Vagdevi Vilas School Venkat International Public School VIPS Vyasa International School Zee School IGCSE Syllabus Asia Pacific World School Krupanidhi Cambridge International School Candor International 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Primary Years Programme Colegio Anglo Mexicano MEXICO Milgate Primary School, AUSTRALIA Diploma Programme Australian International School Indonesia Pejaten Campus INDONESIA Instituto Educativa Fiscomisional Celina Vivar Espinosa, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Juan de Salinas, ECUADOR Primary Years Programme Academia Moderna Charter, UNITED STATES Beacon School BRAZIL Dr. Orlando Edreira Academy, School 26, UNITED STATES Westhill Institute Carpatos Elementary Campus, MEXICO Westhill Institute, S.C. 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Carr Middle School, UNITED STATES Prairie Seeds Academy, UNITED STATES Roland Park K-8 Magnet School, UNITED STATES Sterling Middle School UNITED STATES The Aga Khan Academy, Hyderabad, INDIA Diploma Programme Ausangate Bilingual School PERU Author’s School Istochnik RUSSIAN FEDERATION Colegio Fiscal Técnico El Chaco ECUADOR Colegio Juan Bautista Montini ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Ciudad de Cuenca ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Experimental Salcedo, ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Machachi, ECUADOR Colegio Nacional Mixto El Playon, ECUADOR Colegio Técnico Cascales, ECUADOR Dar al Marefa Private School, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Escola Internacional del Camp SPAIN Gymnasium Jovan Jovanovic Zmaj SERBIA ISTEK Private Acibadem Schools TURKEY Instituto Superior Tecnológico Carlos Cisneros ECUADOR Instituto Superior Tecnológico Daniel Alvarez Burneo ECUADOR Instituto Técnico Superior Isabel de Godin ECUADOR King Abdulaziz Saudi School Rome ITALY Riga State Gymnasium Nr. 2 LATVIA Saudi School Vienna AUSTRIA State IS Seeheim Jugenheim/Schuldorf Bergstrasse GERMANY Unidad Educativa Bolívar, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Abelardo Moncayo, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Fiscomisional Verbo Divino, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Mayor ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Nueva Semilla, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Temporal Juan Bautista Vásquez, ECUADOR Primary Years Programme Ajman Academy UNITED ARAB EMIRATES British International School Kiev UKRAINE Cache La Poudre Elementary School, UNITED STATES Dr. Thomas S. O Connell Elementary School UNITED STATES Gems World Academy Abu Dhabi UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Hebron-Harman Elementary School, UNITED STATES International School of Solothurn, SWITZERLAND Lisa-Junior Primary School AUSTRIA Madison Richard Simis Elementary School, UNITED STATES Miina Härma Gümnaasium, ESTONIA Riffenburgh Elementary School UNITED STATES Roscoe Wilson Elementary School, UNITED STATES Singapore International School INDIA William H. 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Atms. Educ. Institution Kogalym Secondary School ?8, RUSSIAN FEDERATION Phorms Bilingual Gymnasium, GERMANY Royal High School, UNITED STATES SIS Swiss International School Stuttgart-Fellbach, GERMANY Seedling Public School INDIA The British School of Beijing CHINA Unidad Educativa Fiscal Experimental del Milenio, ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Juan de Velasco ECUADOR Unidad Educativa Tumbaco, ECUADOR École secondaire Gaétan Gervais, CANADA École secondaire Hanmer CANADA Stonehill International School American School of Bombay Mumbai Day school offering PYP MYP DP Dhirubhai Ambani International School Mumbai Day school offering DP Ecole Mondiale World School, Mumbai Day school offering DP Jamnabai Narsee School Mumbai Day school offering DP Ahmedabad International School Ahmedabad Day School offering PYP Mahatma Gandhi International School Ahmedabad Day school offering MYP Mahindra United World College of India Pune Boarding school offering DP Mercedes-Benz International School Pune American Embassy School Delhi Day school offering DP The British School, Delhi Day school offering DP Pathways World School, Gurgaon Boarding school offering PYP DP SelaQui World School, Dehra Dun Boarding school offering DP Canadian International School, Bangalore Mixed Boarding Day school offering DP International School of Bangalore, Bangalore Mixed Boarding Day school offering DP Oakridge International School Hyderabad Day school offering PYP Chinmaya International Residential School Coimbatore Boarding school offering DP Good Shepherd International School Ooty Boarding school offering DP Kodaikanal International School, Kodaikanal Boarding school offering DP Home Tuition Group teachers available small groupsstudents IB International Baccalaureate Programme, IGCSE, ISc, ICSE, CBSE Schools offering IB ( International Baccalaureate ) Programme Bangalore International School Geddalahalli Hennur Bagalur Road Kothanur Post Bengaluru India 560 077 Stonehill International School, 1st Floor, Embassy Point #150, Infantry Road Bengaluru 560 001 Stonehill International School 259/333/334/335 Tarahunise Post Jala Hobli, Bengaluru North 562157 Candor International School Begur Koppa Road, Hullahalli Off Bannerghatta Road, Near Electronic City Bangalore 560105 Greenwood High International School Bengaluru, No.8-14, Chickkawadayarapura, Near Heggondahalli Gunjur Post, Varthur Sarjapur Road, Bangalore 560087 Sarla Birla Academy, Bannerghatta, Bangalore, Canadian International School, Yelahanka, Bangalore Indus International School Billapura Cross Sarjapur Bangalore

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