Simplified Knowledge Management Classes
search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.in
you will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.
search for videos in http://skmclasses.in you will get most videos.
for Ramayan Quiz
The following Videos are available for you ( As of Now ). These explain tricky Physics and Mathematics Numericals.
Eventually I will try to give Videos for full course here for you.
These covers PU ( Pre University courses, school / college ) courses, IIT JEE, AIEEE ( All India Engineering Entrance Examination ) , CET ( Combined Engineering Test ), AIPMT ( All India Pre Medical Test ), ISc ( Intermediate Science / Indian School Certificate Exam ), CBSE ( Central Board Secondary Exam ), Roorkey Joint Entrance Test Questions ( Discontinued since 2002 ), APhO ( Asian Physics Olympiad ), IPhO ( International Physics Olympiad ), IMO ( International Mathematics Olympiad ) , NSEP ( National Standard Exam in Physics ), RMO ( Regional Math Olympiad , India ), INMO ( Indian National Maths Olympiad ), Irodov Solutions, Prof. H C Verma ( Concepts of Physics ) Solutions etc.
( You can see the history of Indian Participation in various Olympiads at
[ In each of these videos there is at-least 1 or more errors. Please tell me about those ]
search for videos in http://skmclasses.in you will get most videos.
Though we have many more study videos.
Thanks and Regards
Zookeeper ;-D Subhashish Chattopadhyay
[ I suggest you see the videos starting with 1- first then starting with 2- ..... in that sequence. ]
[ Tell your friends about this link if you liked the videos ]
In case of doubts or suggestions, Please send me email at firstname.lastname@example.org
search for videos in http://skmclasses.in you will get most videos.
Answers to -> Frequently Asked Questions ( FAQ ) [ commonly asked intelligent Questions :-) ]
1 ) How do I prepare for IIT ?
Ans : – See the videos made by me ( search for videos in http://skmclasses.in you will get most videos. Though we have many more which have not been uploaded ). While watching the videos, take notes and try to solve the problems yourself by pausing the video. Tell me if any calculation is wrong. See the videos with 1- first then 2- and so on. Write to IAPT Kothrud, Pune office to buy ( 150 Rs approx ) the book with previous papers of NSEP ( National Standard Exam in Physics – The 1st level ), INPhO ( Indian National Physics Olympiad – 2nd level ). Prepare with these and see how much you are scoring. You can guess your ALL INDIA rank easily from NSEP, and INPhO rank. Since 1998 the IIT JEE toppers have been mostly representing India in IPhO.
2 ) Some Videos have sound Problem … what do I do ?
Ans : – Only 4 videos have very slight sound echo problem. The same topic got covered again ( many times ) in other videos correctly. The room in which these 4 videos have been recorded had windows only on one side. That gave little bit echo problems. Also external noise of cars, auto, children shouting have randomly come in. You have to have good speakers with filters or good earphones with filters. We have checked mostly it is OK with these. ( If you are depending only on your embedded speakers of computer /screen / keyboard then there may be extra distortions. As these speakers are often not of good Quality. Also install latest KL Codecs ) In any case reduce the volume see the board, imagine sitting in the last bench and solving the problems of your own. See if your solution differs anywhere with the scribbles on the board.
3 ) Why are you giving these ( high Quality ) lecture for free ?
Ans : Well there are lot of good things free in this world. Linux, My-SQL, Open-Office ….. Go to sourceforge and get thousands of high quality software free along with source code. Yes all officially free …. Why do you think Richard Stallman, Zimmerman, ….. etc are considered Guru philosophers ? In Punjab and Gurudwaras worldwide there are so many Langars where you get better food than Restaurants. … why ? Why do you have Dharmasalas and subsidized rest rooms near hospitals / Famous Temples / various places ? in Iftar party anyone can eat for free …
why ? I am teaching for 20 years now and observed most students can do much better if they have the self motivation to solve and practice. Cheap books are available in second hand bookstalls, where you get thousands of Numericals to solve ….. but most students will like to blow their time going and coming for tuition, travel time …. TV for hours and hours watching cricket /
Tennis games, playing computer games …. My free lectures are not going to make much difference in spending of unnecessary money for coaching ….. I know very well , how much people enjoy … , spending unnecessarily !! Do you know that there are NO poor / needy students in Bangalore. Sometime back I had tried to teach for IIT JEE FREE. Discussed with a few NGOs and social service guys. Arranged rooms but got only 1 student. We had informed many people in many ways to inform students …. We did not get students who are ready to learn for free. So I am sure these lectures are NOT FREE. If anyone learns from these, s/he changes and that’s the gain / benefit. This change ( due to learning ) is very costly …. Most do not want to learn ………..
search for videos in http://skmclasses.in you will get most videos.
I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.
4 ) How can I get all your lectures ?
Ans : – Apart from my lectures there are approx 700 GB of PCM ( Phy, Chem, Math ) lectures. It takes approx 3 years of continuous download from scattered sources. I have ( 20,000 )Thousands of these. You can take ALL of them from me in an external 1 TB hard disk, instead of spending so much money and time again for downloading. These cover ( by Various Professors ) everything of Chemistry, Physics, Maths… Lot of this is from outside India … as foreigners have much wider heart than Indians ( as most of GNU / open source software have been developed by Non-Indians ). I observed the gaps in these videos, and thus I am solving IIT, APhO, Roorkey, IPhO Numericals. Videos made by me along with these videos gives a complete preparation.
Send me a mail at email@example.com to contact me.
search for videos in http://www.skmclasses.in
You will get most videos. I say most because I do not upload all videos that I make. I have many more videos which are not in the net.
5 ) How do you get benefited out of this ?
Ans :- If anyone learns we all will have better people in this world. I will have better “ YOU “.
6 ) Why do you call yourself a Zookeeper ?
Ans :- This is very nicely explained at http://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/z00keeper-why-do-i-call-myself-a-zoookeeper/
7 ) Where do you stay ?
Ans :- Presently I am in Bangalore.
8 ) If I need videos in a few topics can you make them for me ?
Ans :- Yes. You have to discuss the urgency with me. If I am convinced I will surely make these quickly for you and give you and ALL. I teach both Maths and Physics. So anything in these 2 subjects are welcome.
9 ) Why did you write an article saying there are No Poor students ?
Ans :- There are lots of NGOs and others working for rural / poor children education at lower classes. While very less effort is on for std 9 till 12. Also see the answer in question number ( 3 ) above. In last 20 years of teaching I never met a Poor child who was seriously interested in ( higher ) studies. As I have a mind / thinking of a ” Physicist “, I go by ” Experimental Observation“.
It is not about what is being said about poor in media / TV etc, or ” what it should be ” ( ? ) …. It is about what I see happening. Also to add ( confuse ? you more )…. You must be knowing that in several states over many years now girl students have better ( by marks as well as by pass percentage ) result in std 10 / Board Exams….. well but NEVER a girl student came FIRST in IIT JEE … why ? [ The best rank by a Girl student is mostly in 2 digits, very rarely in single digit ] ????? So ????
10 ) How much do I have to study to make it to IIT ?
Ans :- My experience of Teaching for IIT JEE since last 20 years, tells me, Total 200 hours per subject ( PCM ) is sufficient. If you see my Maths and Physics videos, each subject is more than 200 hours. So if someone sees all the videos diligently, takes notes and remembers, …… Done.
11 ) What is EAMCET ?
Ans :- Engineering Agriculture and Medicine Common Entrance Test is conducted by JNT University Hyderabad on behalf of APSCHE. This examination is the gateway for entry into various professional courses offered in Government/Private Colleges in Andhra Pradesh.
12 ) In your videos are you covering other Exams apart from IIT ?
Ans : – Yes. See many videos made by solving problems of MPPET, Rajasthan / J&K CET, UPSEAT ( UPES Engineering Aptitude Test ), MHCET, BCECE ( Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination Board ), WB JEE etc
13 ) What is SCRA ?
Ans : – Special Class Railway Apprentice (SCRA) exam is conducted by Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) board, for about 10 seats.That translates into an astonishing ratio of 1 selection per 10,000 applicants. The SCRA scheme was started in 1927 by the British, to select a handful of most intelligent Indians to assist them in their Railway Operations, after training at their Railway’s largest workshop, i.e. Jamalpur Workshop, and for one year in United Kingdom. The selected candidates were required to appear in the Mechanical Engineering Degree Examination held by Engineering Council (London).
Thanks for your time. To become my friend in facebook ( search me as firstname.lastname@example.org and send friend request )
search for videos in http://skmclasses.in you will get most videos.
The following video is a must see for full CO2 cycle, plates of Earth, Geological activities, stability of weather
The Great Global Warming swindle
Article in Nature says CO2 increase is good for the trees http://thegwpf.org/science-news/6086-co2-is-greening-the-planet-savannahs-soon-to-be-covered-by-forests.html
BBC documentary Crescent and Cross shows the 1000 years of fight between Christians and Muslims. Millions have been killed in the name of Religion. To decided whose GOD is better, and which GOD to follow. The fight continues. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zqK-RuntywY
The Virus of Faith
The God delusion
cassiopeia facts about evolution http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K7tQIB4UdiY
Intermediate Fossil records shown and explained nicely Fossils, Genes, and Embryos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fdpMrE7BdHQ
The Rise Of Narcissism In Women http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wZHKCbHGlS0
13 type of women whom you should never court http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/relationships/man-woman/13-Women-you-should-never-court/articleshow/14637014.cms
Media teaching Misandry in India www.youtube.com/watch?v=-M2txSbOPIo
Summary of problems with women http://problemwithwomentoday.blogspot.in/2009/12/problem-with-women-today-what-in-hell.html
Each of you is an Activist in some way or other. You are trying to propagate those thoughts, ideas that you feel concerned / excited about. Did you analyze your effectiveness ?
see how biased women are. Experimental proof. Women are happy when they see another woman is beating a man ( see how women misbehave with men )
see detailed statistics at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5lHmCN3MBMI
An eye opener in Misandry http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YiTaDS_X6CU
My sincere advice would be to be EXTREMELY careful ( and preferably away ) of girls. As girls age; statistically certain behavior in them has been observed. Most Male can NOT manage those behaviors… Domestic violence, divorce etc are rising very fast. Almost in all cases boys / males are HUGE loosers. Be extremely choosy ( and think from several angles ) before even talking to a girl. http://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/save-the-male/
How women manipulate men http://www.angryharry.com/esWomenManipulateMen.htm
Gender Biased Laws in India http://zookeepersblog.wordpress.com/biased-laws/
Violence against Men http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MLS2E-rRynE
Only men are victimised http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4JA4EPRbWhQ
Men are BETTER than women http://www.menarebetterthanwomen.com/
Women are more violent than men http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/women-are-more-violent-says-study-622388.html
Misandry in Media http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j7U0r7vIrgM
In the year 2010, 168 men ended their lives everyday ( on average ). More husbands committed suicide than wives. http://www.rediff.com/news/report/ncrb-stats-show-more-married-men-committing-suicide/20111028.htm
It is EXTREMELY unfortunate that media projects men as fools, women as superiors, Husbands as servants, and replaceable morons. In ad after ad worldwide from so many companies, similar msg to disintegrate the world is being bombarded. It is highly unacceptable misandry http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oq14WHkFq30
It is NOT at all funny that media shows violence against MEN. Some advertisers are trying to create a new ” Socially acceptable culture ” of slapping Men ( by modern city women ). We ( all men ) take objection to these advertisements. We oppose this Misandry bad culture. Please share to increase awareness against Men bashing http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D8ecN2rh0uU
Are you a nice person ? Just shout Wooooooooo , Eyye Eyye and enjoy to see someone in trouble …. Extension of Milgram Experiments – In a Mob also people become cruel step by step -
Think what are you doing … why are you doing ? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qp0HIF3SfI4
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……..### SWEET. ###
The Mahabharata (Sanskrit Mahābhārata महाभारत, ) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Ramayana.
Besides its epic narrative of the Kurukshetra War and the fates of the Kauravas and the Pandava princes, the Mahabharata contains much philosophical and devotional material, such as a discussion of the four “goals of life” or purusharthas. Among the principal works and stories that are a part of the Mahabharata are the Bhagavad Gita, the story of Damayanti, an abbreviated version of the Ramayana, and the Rishyasringa, often considered as works in their own right.
Traditionally, the authorship of the Mahabharata is attributed to Vyasa. There have been many attempts to unravel its historical growth and compositional layers. The oldest preserved parts of the text are not thought to be appreciably older than around 400 BCE, though the origins of the story probably fall between the 8th and 9th centuries BCE. The text probably reached its final form by the early Gupta period (ca. fourth century CE). The title may be translated as “the great tale of the Bhārata dynasty”. According to the Mahabharata itself, the tale is extended from a shorter version of 24,000 verses called simply Bhārata.
The Mahabharata is the longest Sanskrit epic. Its longest version consists of over 100,000 shloka or over 200,000 individual verse lines (each shloka is a couplet), and long prose passages. About 1.8 million words in total, the Mahabharata is roughly ten times the length of the Iliad and Odyssey combined, or about four times the length of the Ramayana.
Son of Arjuna, who died in the war
King Shantanu’s sarathi, who found child Karna in a box flowed by Karna’s mother Kunti. He named the boy Radhey and brought him up.
Daughter of Kashiraj (King of Kashi); sister of Ambika & Ambalika; wife of Shalva
Ambika & Ambalika अंबिका, अंबालिका
Daughter of Kashiraj (King of Kashi); sisters of Amba; wives of Vichitravirya
Grandson of Krishna and Rukmani; Son of Pradyuman and Rukmavati
Fourth son of Kunti, sired by Indra; Inimitable archer
Son of Dronacharya and Krupi; defeated by Arjuna in the great battle of Mahabharata
King of solar dynasty who brought sacred river Ganga on earth
Third son of Kunti, sired by wind God; Known for his food and strength; Father of Ghatotkatcha
Eighth son of Shantanu and Ganga; Counselor of Dhritarastra; celibate by vow; had a boon to choose the time of his death; aka Debvrata
Spiritual head of Deities; Father of Kach
Son of Shantanu & Satyavati; Brother of Vichitravirya
Sukracharya’s daughter, who married to King Yayati
Son of King Drupada; Brother of Draupadi; He was born of a sacrificial fire along with Draupadi
Elder brother of Pandu; Father of hundered Kauravas (Duryodhan, Dushashan ..etc); husband of Gandhari
Teacher who served dynasty of Hastinapur; Taught weaponry to both Pandavas and Kauravas but ended up fighting for Kaurvas; Son of Bhardwaj; He was married to Kripi and had a son named Aswatthama.
Father of Draupadi and Dhristadhyumna; King of Panchal; father of Shikhandi; Childhood friend of Drona
Wife of five pandavas; daughter of Kind Drupad; She was won in swayamvar (groom chosing) by Arjuna
First son of Gandhari and eldest of hundred Kauravas
Brother of Duryodhana and son of Gandhari; He humiliated and dragged Draupadi by hair
Daughter of Gandhari and Dhritarastra; Lone sister of hundred Kauravas
Inimitable archer and student of Drona who learned archery without direct teaching; he gave his thumb as Guru-dakshina
Wife of Dhritarastra, who blindfold herself after the marriage; Mother of hundred Kauravas; Sister of Shakuni; Daughter of the King of Gandhar
Married to Shantanu; Mother of Bhishma; Goddess of the sacred river, Ganga who was brought to earth by Bhagirath
Son of Bhima
Son-in-law of Dritarastra and King of Sindhu kingdom; Married to Dushala, sister of Kauravas
Son of Brihaspati, who went to Sukracharya’s place to learn the art of immortality
Sage whose wrath killed sixty thousand sons of King Sagar
Eldest son of Kunti, sired by sun God (hence surya-putra); Friend of Duryodhana; Raised by charioteer (hence sut-putra)
Teacher of Pandavas and Kauravas but ended up fighting for kauravas
Incarnation of Lord Vishnu, who delivered Bhagavad Gita; cousin of Kunti; Friend and Charioteer of Arjuna; Chief councelor for Pandavas in the war
Wife of Pandu; Mother of Karna, Yudhisthir, Arjuna and Bhima
Second wife of Pandu; Mother of Nakul and Sahdeva; daughter of King Shalya
Son of Madri and Pandu, known for patience
Father of Shantanu & Father-in-law of Ganga
Younger brother of Dhritarastra; husband of Kunti
Son of Madri and Pandu, known for wisdom; He could see future
Teacher of Krishna and Sudama
Daughter of a fisherman (Dasraj); wife of King Shantanu; mother of Chitrangad & Vichitravirya
Younger brother of Gandhari; maternal uncle of Duryodhana; An expert dice player
Raised by Sage Kanva; Wife of King Dushyant; Mother of Sarvadaman
Married to Ganga and father of Bhishma; also married to Satyavati, daughter of a fisherman.
Daughter of King Vrishparva; friend of Devyani
Spiritual head of Demons
Ved Vyas वेद व्यास
Son of Sage Parashar and Matsyagandha; creator of Mahabharat, Bhagavad Gita and many Puranas; Born on a dwip (island) so also known as ‘Dwaipayan’
Son of King Nahush; Father of Puru; when Yayati became old because of a curse of Sukracharya, his son Puru gave him his youth
Second son of Kunti, sired by Dharma
Son of Dhritarastra from vaishya maid, who fought for Pandavas in Mahabharat war; He was installed as a king of Indraprastha by Yudhisthir
Disciple of Ved Vyas, who gave discourse of Mahabharat to Janmejaya.
Son of Shantanu & Satyavati; Brother of Chitrangad; he married to Ambika & Ambalika
Descend of God; Bhagavat narrates twenty-five Avatars: Chatursana, Narada, Varaha, Matsya, Yagna, Nar-Narayan, Kapila, Dattatreya, Hayagriva, Hansa, Prsnigarbha, Rishabha, Prithu, Narsimha, Kurma, Dhanvantari, Mohini, Vamana, Parshurama, Ram, Vyas, Balrama, Krishna, Buddha and Kalki.
Son of King Uttanpada and Suniti; a young prince who left the palace and went into forest at the age of 5 and realized Lord Vishnu through penance and recitation of ‘Om namo bhagavate vasudevay’ (ch4)
Hiranyakashipu and Hiranyaksha हिरण्यकशिपु, हिरण्याक्ष
Jay and Vijay, working as gatekeeper of Vaikunth, abode of Lord Vishnu, got cursed by four Sanat Kumaras; they were born as Hiranyakashipu and Hiranyaksha in first birth, Ravana and Kumbhakarna in second and Shishupal and Dantavakra in third birth.
Son of Parikshit; Reacting to death of his father, Parikshit by Takshak, he offered all snakes in fire
Ancestor of Ram, who willingly gave up his worldly duties; He was mentioned by Lord Krishna as an example of renunciation at the end of one’s life.
Incarnation of Lord Vishnu; son of Devaki and Vasudeva; Brother of Balrama and Subhadra; He killed Kansa, ruler of Mathura; He became charioteer and guided Arjuna in the decisive battle of Mahabharat;
Wife of Pandu; mother of Karna and Pandavas
A great devotee of the Lord, who freely roams in the spiritual and material world to spread the glories of the Lord; he incited Sage Vyas to write Srimad Bhagavat; he symbolically holds vina, a musical instrument, in his hand and chants ‘Narayan’.
son of Abhimanyu (son of Arjuna) and Uttara, who was protected in the womb by Krishna; he was cursed by a brahmin to die in seven days by snake bite; he attained perfection by listening to Srimad Bhagavat by Shukadeva, son of Sage Vyas.
Eternally young Rishi – Sanak, Sanandan, Sanatan and Santkumar, who are considered as descent of God.
A rishi, who was offended by King Parikshit; His son, Shrungi, cursed Parikshit to die of a snakebite
The chief of the sages who were present in Naimisharanya when Shukdeva narrated Bhagavat to Prikshit
Son of Shamika, who cursed King Parikshit to die in seven days of a snakebite to avenged for his misconduct with his father.
Son of Sage Vyas, who explained the Srimad Bhagavat, to King Parikshit in seven days.
Disciple of Shukdeva
Mother of Parikshit; wife of Abhimanyu, the son born from the marriage between Subhadra and Arjun; She requested Krishna to protect her unborn child, Parikshit from Aswatthama’s brahmastra.
Hindu Lord; Power of God which is a sustaining force behind the universe. (Brahma – Generator, Vishnu – Operator and Shiva- Destoryer)
Great Sage and scholar who created scriptural masterpieces like Mahabharat, Vedas, Puranas and Bhagavad Gita. He was incited by Naradaji to write Bhagavatam.
The incarnation of Lord Vishnu and the councellor of Pandavas who was the charioteer of Arjuna during the Kurukshetra war.
He was the elder brother of Shri. Krishna who was expert in mace and was the teacher of Bheem and Duryodhan.
The guide of Krishna and Sudama
The king of Hastinapur who was the father of Devapi,Bahlika and Shantanu.
The eldest son of King Pratip who had a disease of leprocy.
The second eldest son of the king Pratip who was after conquring the old aryan territories.
The youngest son of the king Pratip who got married to the river,Ganga and Satyavati,the daughter of the fisherman Dasraj.
The son of Shantanu and Ganga.He had sacrifice his whole life for the welfare of Hastinapur,without expecting the position of throne.He died only after confirming that the Pandavas won the war and Hastinapur was safe.
The son of Satyavati who is the compille of the Epic and character in it.
The younger son of Shantanu and Satyavati.He was too small to run the kingdom and during the ‘Swayamvar'(bravery condional marriage) Bhishma managed to get the three princesses-Amba,Ambika and Ambalika,who were the daughters of the king Kashiraj..Amba and Ambalika became his wives.He died soon after marriage and had no heir.
The blind son of Ambika, who married to Gandhari and had hundread sons and one daughter,Dushala.The sons were called as ‘Kauravas’.The eldest Kaurava was Duryodhan.
The daughter of king Subala of Gandhar and sister of Shakuni.She was blindfolded for her husband.
The villain of Mahabharat who cheated Pandavas in ‘Drtkreeda'(A Gambling Game).
The son of Dhrutarashtra born from a maid who was in favour of Pandavas.
He was the son of Ved Vyas from his maid.He was intelligent and adviser of all and his phylosophy was well followed by all which was refered to as ‘Vidur Niti’.
He was the guide of Pandavas in archery,mace techniques and battlefield arts.His wife was Kripi and son,Ashwatthama.
The son of Ambalika,the wife of Vichitravirya,from Ved Vyas.He was the Pandavas father.Pandu was husband of Kunti and Madri.Later on Pandu died and Madri burnt herself on his pyre.
The mother of Pandavas and Karna,who was born from Sun.
He had adopted Karna and named him as Radhey.
The eldest son of Kunti which was a secret for all except Dhrutarashtra.He was a great archer and a friend to Duryodhana.
The eldest Pandava who was known for his truth and rituousness.His bad point was his non stop gambling.
The Panduputra, the son of Kunti from Vayu Dev.He was known for his mighty strength and skillful fight with Mace(Gada).
The Kunti son,who was the best archer who had married Subhadra,the sister of Shri.Krishna.
One of the Pandavas who killed Shakuni,the brother of Gandhari.
The Pandava who could talk to animals.He killed Shakuni’s son Uluki,in the war.He was known for his good looks.
The wife of five Pandavas who was achieved by Arjuna in ‘Swayamvar’.
He was the guide of Pandavas in archery,mace techniques and battlefield arts.His wife was Kripi and son,Ashwatthama.
He took revenge on Pandavas for kiliing his father, Dronacharya and finished all the sons of Draupadi.Ashwatthama is believed to be immortal.
He was the teacher of Pandavas and Kauravas,who fought in the war on the side of Kauravas.
The son of Bheema from Hidimba,who had demonic powers.He was killed by Karna in the war.
The son of Arjun and Subhadra who got married to Uttara,the daughter of King Virat.He was killed in the Chakravyuha(A confusing pathway) by Kauravas.
He was a great warrior and was a charioteer to Karna in the war.He was killed by Yudhishthir.
He was the father of Draupadi,Drishtadyumna and Shrikhandi.He killed Dronacharya.
He was the king who gave shelter to Pandavas during their exile.He was killed by Dronacharya.
King Virat’s daughter who got married to Arjun’s son Abhimanyu and gave birth to Parikshit.
He was the son of Rukmavati,Pradyuman and grandson of Krishna,Rukmani.
He was a great acrcher of the potential of Arjuna who practised archery in front of clay statue of Dronacharya as his Guru(Teacher).
He was the husband of Dushala,the only daughter of Dhrutarashtra and sister of Kauravas.
The sons of the river Ganga.
The stories -
Barbarika was the son of Ghatotkacha and Maurvi, daughter of Muru, a Yadava king. That makes him the grandson of Bhima.
Barbarika was originally a yaksha, and was reborn as a man.
He wanted to fight on the Pandava side, but he was forced to stick to his principle of always fighting on behalf of the losing side.
He learnt the art of warfare from his mother. Shiva, pleased with him, gave him the three infallible arrows. Hence, Barbarika came to be known by the appellation Teen Baandhaari, the ‘Bearer of Three Arrows.’ Later, Agni (the God of Fire) gave him the Bow that would make him victorious in the three worlds.
The omnipresent Krishna, disguised as a Brahmin, stopped Barbarika to examine his strength. He baited Barbarika by mocking him for going to the great battle with only three arrows. On this, Barbarika replied that a single arrow was enough to destroy all his opponents in the war, and it would then return to his quiver. If all the three were used, it would create havoc in the three worlds. Krishna challenged him to tie all the leaves of the peepal tree under which he was standing, with one arrow. Barbarika accepted the challenge, removed one arrow from his quiver and released it from his bow. The arrow tied all the leaves together within moments. However, Krishna had held one leaf under his foot, and the arrow started revolving around it. Krishna then asked the boy whom he would favour in the war. Barbarika revealed that he intended to fight for whichever side appeared set to lose. Krishna knew that the defeat of the Kauravas was inevitable. He judged that if this brave boy joins their side, the result would then tilt in their favour.
The Brahmin (Krishna) then sought charity from the warrior. Barbarika promised him anything he wished. Krishna asked him to give his head in charity. Barbarika was shocked. Perceiving that all was not as it appeared, he requested the Brahmin to disclose his real identity. Krishna showed Barbarika a vision of His Divine Form and Barbarika was thus graced. Krishna then explained to him that before a battle, the head of the bravest Kshatriya needs to be sacrificed, in order to worship/sanctify the battlefield. Krishna said that he considered Barbarika to be the bravest among Kshatriyas, and was hence asking for his head in charity. In fulfilment of his promise, and in compliance with the Lord’s command, Barbarika gave his head to Krishna in charity. This happened on the 12th day of the Shukla Paksha (bright half) of the month of Phalguna.
Krishna, pleased with Barbarika’s great sacrifice, granted him the boon that when Kaliyuga descends, he would be worshipped by the name of Shyam in his form. His devotees would be blessed just by pronouncing his name from the bottom of their hearts.
Before decapitating himself, Barbarika told Krishna of his great desire to view the forthcoming battle, and requested him to facilitate it. Krishna agreed, and placed the head atop a hill overlooking the battlefield. From the hill, the head of Barbarika watched the whole battle.
At the end of the battle, the victorious Pandava brothers argued amongst themselves as to who was responsible for the victory. Krishna suggested that Barbarika’s head, which had watched the whole battle, should be allowed to judge. Barbarika’s head suggested that it was Krishna alone who was responsible for the victory: his advice, his presence, his gameplan had been crucial. Barbarika’s head said that he had seen the Sudarshana Chakra revolving around the battlefield, hacking the Kaurava army to pieces; and Draupadi, assuming the fearful form of Mahakali Durga, drinking bowl after bowl of blood without allowing even one drop of blood to fall on the earth.
When Barbarika learnt that battle between the Pandavas and the Kauravas had become inevitable, he wanted to witness what was to be the Mahabharata War. He promised his mother that if he felt the urge to participate in the battle, he would join the side which would be losing. He rode to the field on his Blue Horse (Neela Ghoda) equipped with his three arrows and bow.
Babruvahana is one of the sons of Arjuna, begotten through Chitrangada, the princess of Manipur, during the period of his exile at Manipur.
Babruvahana was adopted as the son of his maternal grandfather, and reigned at Manipur as his successor. He dwelt there in a palace of great splendour, surrounded with wealth and signs of power.
When Arjuna went to Manipur with the horse intended for the Aswamedha, there was a quarrel between Arjuna and King Babhruvahana, and the latter killed his father with an arrow. Repenting of his deed, he determined to kill himself, but he obtained from his stepmother, the Naga princess Uloopi, a gem which restored Arjuna to life. He returned with his father to Hastinapura.This was on account of a curse by the Vasus, on account of Arjuna’s killing Bhishma (who is an incarnation of one of the Vasus) during the Mahabharata war.
Dhristadyumna was the son of Drupada and brother of Draupadi and Shikhandi in the classic epic Mahabharata. He is appointed Commander of the Pandava Army, and is responsible for the killing of Drona.
The king of the Panchalas, Drupada undertakes a putrakami yagna, a sacrifice to please the Gods and obtain offspring by their blessing. Drupada desires a son who can kill Drona, the Kuru martial guru who had humiliated him in battle and taken half his kingdom, even though it was Drupada who had reneged a promise made to his childhood friend Drona, that he would share his kingdom with him.
With the help of two brahmins, Drupada undertakes the sacrifice. After his wife takes the sacrificial offerings, out of the fire a fully grown powerful young and armed man before their very eyes. He is already bestowed with great martial and religious knowledge.
Even though he is the prophesied killer of Drona, he is accepted by Drona to join his school for young princes, where he learns the advanced military arts.
When his sister is bethrothed to a young brahmin of five, who wins the martial contest at her swayamvara, Dhristadyumna secretly follows the five brahmins and his sister, only to discover that they are in fact the five Pandavas: Yudhisthira, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula and Sahadeva.
Taking the advice of Lord Krishna and Arjuna, Dhristadyumna is installed as the Commander in Chief of the Pandava Army.
At a point when Drona, as the Kuru commander is killing vast numbers of Pandava troops, Krishna advises Yudhisthira to adopt a plan to kill the preceptor now. As it is known that as long as Drona has raised his weapons he is invincible to all other warriors, Krishna advises that it be proclaimed that Drona’s son, Ashwathama has just died in the battle. It is known that out of the grief of such an eventuality, Drona will at least temporarily drop his arms.
Krishna justifies this lie to Yudhisthira as necessary to the victory of morality in the war. As Yudhisthira continues to hesitate, his brother Bhima kills a known elephant in the Kuru legions named Ashwathama and celebrates shouting “Ashwathama is dead! Ashwathama is dead!”.
Shocked with disbelief when the news reaches him, Drona seeks out Yudhisthira to ascertain the news, knowing that the son of Dharma would never speak a lie. Yudhisthira tells him that Ashwathama is dead, but mutters “(I wonder) whether the man or the elephant….” ( Aswathama Hatah… naro waa Kunjarovaa)in an inaudible voice to prevent telling a whole lie or as another version tells us that he said it equally loud but Shri Krishna had planned to blow his conch at that exact moment so that Drona is unable to hear that part.
Now convinced, Drona lays down his arms and sits in meditation. It is actually said in the epic that Drona’s soul has already left his body through his mediation, but Dhristadyumna takes this opportunity, swings onto Drona’s chariot, and lops off his head.
Dhristadyumna is verbally abused by Satyaki and Arjuna, who were devoted students of Drona, but is defended by Krishna.
After the war is over, Ashwathama treacherously attacks the Pandava camp during the night, killing Dhristadyumna and the sons of Draupadi in revenge for his father’s death and the defeat of the Kurus.
Duhsala was the sister of Duryodhana in the Indian epic Mahabharata. She was married to Jayadratha the king of Sindhu and Sauvira. Jayadratha was slain by Arjuna in the Kurukshetra War. Dussala had a son named Suratha. Her grandson battled with Arjuna, when he came to the country of Sindhus after the Kurukshetra War, to collect tribute for Yudhisthira’s Aswamedha sacrifice. Arjuna considered Duryodhana’s sister as his own sister. Due to love for his sister Arjuna spared life to Suratha’s son and left the country of Sindhus.
Iravat or Iravan, in the Hindu epic Mahabharata, was the son of Pandava prince Arjuna and Naga princess Ulupi. He fought on the side of the Pandavas in the Kurukshetra war and was killed by the Rakshasa Alumvusha on the eighth day of the war.
Emperor Janamejaya was the son of Maharaja Parikshit and great-grandson of Arjuna the valiant warrior hero of the Mahabharata epic. He took up the Kuru throne following the death of father. His significance comes as the listener of the first narration of the Mahabharata, narrated by Vaishampayana, student of Vyasa.
Emperor Janamejaya was responsible for the retelling of the famous epic Mahabharata a story of Janamejaya’s ancestors from the time of Bharata up to the great Kurukshetra war between his great grandfathers the Pandavas and their paternal cousins the Kauravas. This was recited to him by the sage Vaishampayana after he asked the sage about his ancestors.
Emperor Janamejaya ascended to the throne of Hastinapura upon the death of his father Parikshita. According to legend, Parikshita, the lone descendant of the House of Pandu, had died of snakebite. He had been cursed by a sage to die so, the curse having been consummated by the serpent-chieftain Takshak.
Janamejaya bore a deep grudge against the serpents for this act, and thus decided to wipe them out altogether. He attempted this by performing a great Sarpa satra – a sacrifice that would destroy all living serpents.
Just as he was about to begin the sacrifice, the rishi Vyasa arrived with a host of rishis. The sages told Janamejaya that to avenge himself on all Nagas, for the action of one, who was after all consummating a curse, would be unrighteous, and not worthy of one descended from the Pandavas themselves. Janamejaya desists from completing the sacrifice. Upon Janamejaya’s expressed curiosity as to the lives and actions of his forefathers, Vyasa’s disciple Vaishampayana then narrates the MahÄbhÄrata, at the spot where the homa was to have to have been held.
The mass sacrifice was started on the banks of the river Arind at Bardan, now Known as Parham, a corrupt form of Parikshitgarh, A masonry tank said to have been built by Emperor Janamejaya to mark the site of the sacrificial pit, known as Parikshit kund, still exists in Mainpuri district. Close to this village a very large and high khera containing the ruins of a fort and some stone sculptures has been found . It is said to date back to the time of Emperor Parikshita. A popular local legend is that as a consequence of the virtues of that sacrifice snakes are still harmless in this place and its neighborhood.
The day of the homa is today revered by Hindus as the Nag Panchami ritual.
Jarasandha, the king of Magadha, is a character of the epic Mahabharata. He was the son of Brihadratha, Vedic king.
Brihadratha was the king of Magadha. His wives were the twin princesses of Kashi. While he led a content life and was a famed king, he was unable to sire children. Frustrated over his inability, he retreated to the forest, eventually serving a rishi by the name of Chandakaushika. The rishi took pity upon him and on finding the cause of his sorrow, gave him a fruit that he blessed with fertility, instructing him to give it to his wife (The sage did not know that he had two). Not wishing to displease either wife, Brihadratha cut the fruit in half and gave it to both. Shortly after, each wife brought forth half a child. The two lifeless halves were viewed with horror, and Brihadratha ordered they be cast outside his city. A witch / man-eating demoness (Rakshasi) named Jara picked them up and put them together to carry them off. On their coming in contact a boy was formed, who cried out aloud. Not having the heart to kill a living child, the demoness gave it up to the king, explaining what had happened. The father gave the boy the name Jarasandha after the witch, because he had been put together by Jara.
Chandakaushika arrived at the court, and seeing the child, prophesied to Brihadratha that his son would be specially gifted, and would be renowned as a devotee of Lord Shiva.
Jarasandha became a famed and powerful king, extending his empire far and wide. He prevailed over many kings, and was crowned emperor of Magadha. Even while Jarasandh’s power continued to grow, he had concerns about his future, as he had no heirs. Therefore, upon the advise of his close friend, King Banasur, Jarasandh decided to get his two daughters, Asti and Prapti married to the Crown-Prince of Mathura, Kansa. Jarasandh also lent his army and his personal advise to Kans for creating a coup in Mathura.
Eventually, after Kansa was killed by Lord Krishna, Jarasandh developed intense hatred for him and was determined to defeat and kill him. Seeing the pitiful situations of his widowed daughters, Jarasandh vowed to attack Mathura and take over the Kingdom. However, his efforts failed in response to the recently enthroned King Ugrasena, his supporters Vasudeva, the chief military strategist Akroor and the power of Lord Krishna and Balarama.
Even though his efforts failed repeatedly, Jarasandh attacked Mathura for a total of 18 times; after his last attack, Krishna convinced King Ugrasena and his father, Crown-Prince Vasudeva to rescind the land and establish a new Kingdom at Dwaraka, due to strategic reasons.
Jarasandha had many kings in captivity, and when Krishna returned from Dwaranka, he, with Bhima and Arjuna, went to Jarasandha’s capital for the purpose of slaying their enemy (as Jarasandha was perceived to be a king who would not consent to Yudhisthira becoming the Emperor by performing the Rajasuya yagna) and liberating the kings. They went in disguise of three Brahmins and told Jarasandha to choose one of them to fight with. Jarasandha chose Bheema. Jarasandha refused to release the kings, and accepted the alternative of a combat, in which he was killed by Bhima. The fight lasted long, for 27 days. Finally, on Krishna’s suggestion (which was unlawful considering the laws prevalent in those days pertaining to single combat), Bhima tore apart Jarasandha in two pieces lengthwise and threw away the pieces in opposite directions.
After his death, all the imprisoned Kings were released and Lord Krishna installed his more virtuous son to succeed his throne, making him the ally of Indraprastha.
( Kripacharya), also often called Kripa, was the chief priest at the court of Hastinapura, in the Mahabharata.
He was the son of Sharadvan and Janapadi. His twin sister Kripi married Drona, the weapons master to the court.
He fought in the great battle of Kurukshetra for the Kaurava side. Afterwards, he was appointed to be the teacher and preceptor of Parikshita, the grandson of Arjuna.
Maharishi Gautam had a son called Shardwan. Shardwan was born with arrows and was a born archer. He was from his early childhood, more interested in archery than in the study of the Vedas. He meditated and attained the art of all types of warfare. He was such a great archer that no one could defeat him. This created panic amongst the gods and specially Indra, the king of the gods felt the most threatened. He then sent a beautiful divine nymph from the heaven to distract the celibate saint. The nymph called Janpadi came to the saint and tried to seduce him in various ways. Shardwan was distracted and the sight of such a beautiful woman made him lose control. As he was a great saint he still managed to resist the temptation and controlled his desires. But his concentration was lost and he dropped his bow and arrows. His semen fell on some weeds by the wayside and divided the weeds into two from which a boy and a girl were born. The saint himself left the hermitage and his bow and arrow and went to the forest for penance. Coincidentally, King Shantanu, the great-grandfather of the Pandavas was crossing from there and saw the children by the wayside. One look at them and he realised that they were the children of a great archer Brahmin. He named them Kripa and Kripi and decided to take them back with him to his palace. When Shardwan came to know of this he came to the palace and revealed the identity of the children and performed the various rituals which are performed for the children of Brahmins. He also taught the children archery, Vedas and other shashtras and the secrets of the Universe. The children grew up to become experts in the art of warfare and this boy Kripa came to be known as Kripacharya who was now assigned the task of teaching the young princes all about warfare.
Kritavarma was an important Yadava warrior and chieftain, and a contemporary of Krishna. He finds mention in several ancient Sanskrit texts including the Mahabharata, the Vishnu Purana, the Bhagavata and the Harivamsa.
He was born in the Andhaka clan of the Yadavas, and some sources describe him as a brother of Hrithika, who was the great grandfather of Krishna, but this seems unlikely. Though he is depicted as a devotee of Krishna in the Vishnu Purana, apparently he was not in good terms with Krishna, and was one of the conspirators who plotted to kill Satrajit, Krishna’s father-in-law during the Syamantaka Jewel episode.
During the great battle at Kurukshetra, Kritavarma was an ally of the Kauravas against the Pandavas and lead the Yadava army (also called the Narayani Sena). He was one of the three survivors of the entire Kaurava army and had helped Ashwatthama in carrying out his heinous night time massacre of Panchala warriors, in which the latter had slaughtered among others, Dhrishtadyumna (the Pandava commander-in-chief), Shikhandi and the five sons of Draupadi. The event is described in the Sauptika Parva of the Mahabharata. He returned to his kingdom after the war and was later killed by Satyaki in Dwarka during the final destruction of the Yadavas, as we find in the Mausala Parva of the Mahabharata.
Satyaki, also called Yuyudhana, is a powerful warrior belong to the Yadava-Vrishni dynasty of Lord Krishna, in the MahÄbhÄrata epic.
Satyaki is devoted to Krishna and his best friend Arjuna, with whom he trained under Drona in military arts. He was born in the line of Shini of the Vrishni clan, and was a son of Satyaka. He was strongly and passionately favors the cause of the Pandavas over the Kauravas in the Kurukshetra War. Satyaki accompanies Krishna to the Kuru capital with Krishna as the emissary of peace which is ridiculed and turned down by the sons of Dhritarashtra.
In the Kurukshetra war, Satyaki and Kritavarma were two important Yadava heroes who fought on opposing sides. Satyaki fought on the side of the Pandavas, Kritavarma joined the Kauravas. Satyaki was a valiant warrior and on one particular occasion, stunned Drona by allegedly breaking his bow for a successive 101 times. In the course of the fourteenth day of the conflict, Satyaki fights an intense battle with his archrival Bhurisravas with whom he has a long standing family feud. After a long and bloody battle, Satyaki begins to tire, and Bhurisravas batters him and drags him across the battlefield. Arjuna is warned by Lord Krishna of what is happening. Bhurisravas prepares to kill Satyaki, but he is rescued from death by Arjuna, who shoots an arrow cutting off Bhurisravas’ arm.
Bhurisrava wails out that by striking him without warning, Arjuna had disgraced the honor between warriors. Arjuna rebukes him for attacking a defenseless Satyaki. He reiterates that protecting Satyaki’s life at all costs was his responsibility as a friend and comrade in arms.
Satyaki emerges from his swoon, and swiftly decapitates his enemy. He is condemned for this rash act, but every soldier present realizes that the power of Krishna made Satyaki end Bhurisravas’ life, which was going to happen anyway.
Satyaki and Kritavarma both survived the Kurukshetra conflict . Kritavarma is involved in the slaughter of the Panchalas and the sons of the Pandavas in the undeclared night attack with Kripacharya and Ashwatthama. 36 years after the war, the Yadavas, including Satyaki and Kritavarma are involved in a drunken brawl with Satyaki accusing Kritavarma of killing sleeping soldiers and Kritavarma citicizing Satyaki for his beheading of the unarmed Bhurisravas. In the ensuing melee, Satyaki, Kritavarma and the rest of the Yadavas are exterminated, as it was ordained by Gandhari’s curse. Krishna desired to remove the Yadava clan from earth at the same time as his Avatara is fulfilled, so that the earth may be free of any possibly sinful and aggressive warriors, which was the wider purpose of the Kurukshetra war.
Satyavati is the great-grandmother of the Pandava and Kaurava princes, principal characters of the Mahabharata, one of the principal texts in Hindu mythology. She is nevertheless a commoner, daughter to a ferryman or fisherman. She is also known as Matsyagandha (one who has the smell of fish).
As a young woman, she met the wandering rishi Parashara, by whom she had a son, Vyasa. His birth took place in secret on an island in the river Yamuna. This island in the shallow river Yamuna exists even today, and is enigmatic to say the least. At this point, the east-flowing river actually flows towards the west, giving the locale it’s local name — Pachmani( Paschim being West). This situation has existed for thousands of years, over a vast plain where there is no reason for the Yamuna to flow a tortuous path, rather than straight ahead. No hills or mountains cause the exreme meandering of the flow, and even the times of great floods have failed to alter the path of the river in this area. This strip of land surrounded by water on all sides is ideally located from safety point of view and is known as Manchodri in local parlance. Later, King Santanu of Hastinapura saw her and asked her to marry him. She agreed on condition that their children would inherit the throne. Their children were Chitrangada and Vichitravirya. After Santanu’s death, she with her princely sons ruled the kingdom. Although both these sons died childless, she arranged for her first son Vyasa to father the children of the two wives of Vichitravirya (Ambika and Ambalika).
King Shalya was the brother of Madri, the mother of Nakula and Sahadeva and the ruler of Madra-desa or the kingdom of Madra. Thus, he was the maternal uncle of Nakula and Sahadeva and was loved and revered by the Pandavas. When he was young, he entered a competition among princes and nobilities to marry Kunti, but subsequently lost to Pandu. Madri was married off to Pandu as part of a secret deal between Shalya and Pandu. Shalya was a skilled archer and formidable warrior.
The Pandavas had counted on Shalya joining their side with his huge army. On the way to assist the Pandavas in the Kurukshetra War, Shalya was tricked by Duryodhana, who arranged a huge feast for Shalya and his men. When Shalya was impressed by the hospitality of his host who he mistakenly thought to be Yudhisthira, he offered to be at his host’s service. Unable to turn down Duryodhana’s request to join the Kauravas, Shalya met Yudhisthira and apologized for his error. Yudhishtira knowing that Shalya was a great charioteer and forecasting that Shalya would someday be asked to be the charioteer of Karna, extracted a vow from Shalya to the effect that Shalya will demoralise Karna and dampen his spirits. Yudhishtira, a person of immaculate character, for once, stooped to a low level. It is still unclear as to why Yudhishtira did so. Anyway, Shalya assured the Pandavas that he would do everything possible to demoralise Karna and dampen his spirits.
Shalya reluctantly entered the Kurukshetra war on the Kauravas’ side. Shalya served as Karna’s charioteer during the latter’s battle with Arjuna, while continuously praising the Pandava prince and citing Karna’s shortcomings. Shalya took over the leadership of the Kaurava army on the eighteenth and last day of the great battle after the death of Karna when it was becoming rapidly clear that the war was a lost cause, and close to the end of the battle he was killed by Prince Yudhishtira with a spear. Shalya was the second to last Kaurava commander-in-chief and after his death, the Kauravas were left leaderless and broke ranks fleeing from the slaughter despite Duryodhana’s best efforts.
Uloopi(or Uloochi), in the Hindu epic Mahabharata, was one of Arjuna’s wives. While Arjuna was in Manipur, the Naga princess became infatuated with him. She caused him to be abducted after he had been intoxicated with potent concoctions and had him conveyed to her realm in the netherworld. There, Uloopi induced an unwilling Arjuna to take her for a wife. She was the mother of Iravan. She later restored Arjuna to the lamenting Chitrangadaa, one of Arjuna’s other wives. She played a major part in the upbringing of Arjuna and Chitrangada’s son, Babruvahana. She was also able to restore Arjuna to life after he was slain in battle by Babruvahana. When Arjuna was given a curse by the Vasus, Bheeshma’s brothers, after he killed Bheeshma in the Kurushtra war, she redeemed Arjuna from thier curse.
Vichitravirya in the Hindu epic Mahabharata is the younger son of queen Satyavati and king Santanu. His elder brother, Chitrangada, succeeded king Santanu to the throne of Hastinapura. But when he died childless, Vichitravirya became a king.
Vichitravirya was still a child when he was crowned king, thus Bhishma ruled as his regent. When the young king became at proper age to marry, Bhishma searched for him for a suitable bride. And he heard the king of Kasi was holding a swayamvara for his three daughters. Since Vichitravirya himself was yet too young to stand any chance of being chosen by the young women, Bhishma himself went to the swayamvara.
Bhishma won the swayamvara and brought the Princesses Amba, Ambika and Ambalika to marry Vichitravirya. But Amba had already given her heart to another, therefore Ambika and Ambalika were married to Vichitravirya.
Unfortunately, shortly after his marriage, Vichitravirya died of consumption tuberculosis. As he died heirless, Vyasa was summoned to subsequently father Pandu, Dhritarashtra and Vidura.
Vyasa came to help Ambika and Ambalika have children with his Yogic power. Vyasa told that they should come alone near him. First did Ambika, but because of shyness and fear she closed her eyes. Vyasa told Satyavati that the child will be blind. Later this child was named Dhritarashtra. Thus Satyawati sent Ambalika and warned her that she should remain calm. But Ambalika’s face became pale because of fear. Vyasa told that child will suffer from anaemia, and he will not be fit enough to rule the kingdom. Later this child was known as Pandu. Then Vyasa told Satyavati to send one of them again so that a healthy child can be born. This time Ambika and Ambalika sent her maid in the place of themselves. Maid was quite calm and composed during the Yogic process, and so she got a healthy child later named as Vidura.
Vidura was half-brother to Dhritarashtra and Pandu. He was a son of a maid-servant who served the queens of Hastinapura, Ambika and Ambalika. In some accounts, he was an incarnation of Yama or Dharma Raja, who was cursed by the sage, Mandavya, for imposing punishment on him that exceed the sin.
Both queens were married to King Vichitravirya of Hastinapur, who died childless. Vichitravirya’s mother Satyavati was anxious to ensure that the royal line was carried on. She called upon her other son Vyasa, to go to the beds of the two queens to father children. Vyasa was a hermit, and came to the palace, unkempt as he was. He went to Ambika who closed her eyes when she saw him, and to Ambalika who became pale. Hence the children they bore were blind and weak.
When Satyavati asked Vyasa to go to Ambika’s bed again, to ensure that there would be children, she placed her maid-servant instead in her bed. The maid-servant was not frightened. Hence her son was not born flawed like his half-brothers. Thus, Vidura was born who was raised as brother of Dhritarashtra and Pandu.
With his half-brothers he was raised and educated by Bhishma, whom they called father.
As he had no royal blood, he was never considered for, or had any chance of obtaining the throne of the kingdom. He served his brothers as a minister.
After Krishna, he was the most trusted advisor to the Pandavas and had warned them repeatedly about Duryodhana’s plots. In particular, he warned the Pandavas from Duryodhana’s plan to burn them alive in a house of wax he had made for them. He was known for speaking the truth and for his intelligence.
Vidura is famous also for being a true devotee of Lord Krishna. When the latter visited Hastinapura as a peace missary of the Pandavas, he shunned Duryodhana’s offer to stay in his stately guesthouse, instead choosing the humble dwellings of Vidura.
In protest against the Mahabharata war, Vidura resigned from the post of minister.
After the great battle, he helped Yudhishtira when he became ruler. Later, he accompanied Dhritarashtra, and his sisters-in-law Gandhari, and Kunti, when they left on their last journey to the forest. He died before his companions, on the banks of the Ganga.
Yuyutsu in the Hindu epic Mahabharata, was the son of King Dhritarashtra, and one of the palace maidservants. He was a half-brother to Duryodhana and the other Kauravas. Disgusted by the treatment of the Pandavas by the Kauravas, he joined the side of the Pandavas in the Kurukshetra war and was the only son of Dhritarashtra to survive the war. He was younger to Duryodhana but elder than Dushasana
List of Upanishad
Āchamana Upanishad (આચમન ઉપનિષદ)
Ātmabodha Upanishad (આત્મબોધ ઉપનિષદ)
Adhyatma Upanishad (અધ્યાત્મ ઉપનિષદ) *(Shukla YajurVeda)
Advaita Upanishad (અદ્વૈત ઉપનિષદ)
Advayatāraka Upanishad (અદ્વયતારક ઉપનિષદ) *(Shukla YajurVeda)
Aitareya Upanishad (ઐતેરીય ઉપનિષદ) *(Rig Veda)
Akshamalika Upanishad (અક્ષમાલિકા ઉપનિષદ) *(Rig Veda)
Akshi Upanishad (અક્ષિ ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Amritanada Upanishad (અમૃતનાદ ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Amritabindu Upanishad (અમૃતબિંદુ ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Annapurna Upanishad (અન્નપૂર્ણ ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Aranya Upanishad (આરણ્યક ઉપનિષદ)
Arunika Upanishad (આરુણીક ઉપનિષદ) *(Sam Veda)
Aruneya Upanishad (આરુણેય ઉપનિષદ)
Arsheya Upanishad (અશ્રેય ઉપનિષદ)
Asrama Upanishad (આશ્રમ ઉપનિષદ)
Atharvana Mahanarayana Upanishad (અથર્વ મહાનારાયણ ઉપનિષદ)
Atharva-shikha Upanishad (અથર્વશિખ ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Atharva-shira Upanishad (અથર્વશિર ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Atharva-shirsha Upanishad (અથર્વશિર્ષ ઉપનિષદ)
Atma Upanishad (આત્મા ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Atmabodha Upanishad (આત્મબોધ ઉપનિષદ) * (Rig Veda)
Atmapuja Upanishad (આત્મપૂજા ઉપનિષદ)
Avadhuta Upanishad (અવધૂત ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Avyakta Upanishad (અવ્યક્ત ઉપનિષદ) *(Sam Veda)
Bahvrcha Upanishad (બહવૃચ ઉપનિષદ) * (Rig Veda)
Batuka Upanishad (બટુક ઉપનિષદ)
Bhāvanā Upanishad (ભાવના ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Bhasmajābāla Upanishad (ભસ્મજાબાલ ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Bhikshuka Upanishad (ભિક્ષુક ઉપનિષદ) *(Shukla YajurVeda)
Bilva Upanishad (બિલ્વ ઉપનિષદ)
Brahmabindu Upanishad (બ્રહ્મબિંદુ ઉપનિષદ)
Brahma Upanishad (બ્રહ્મ ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Brahmajijnasa Upanishad (બ્રહ્મજિજ્ઞાસા ઉપનિષદ)
Brahmavidya Upanishad (બ્રહ્મવિદ્યા ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (બૃહદારણ્યક ઉપનિષદ) *(Shukla YajurVeda)
Brihad-jābāla Upanishad (બૃહજ્જબાલ ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Chakra Upanishad (ચક્ર ઉપનિષદ)
Chakshu Upanishad (ચક્ષુ ઉપનિષદ)
Chaturveda Upanishad (ચતુર્વેદ ઉપનિષદ)
Chiti Upanishad (ચિત ઉપનિષદ)
Chhandogya Upanishad (છાંદોગ્ય ઉપનિષદ) *(Sam Veda)
Dakshināmurti Upanishad (દક્ષિણામૂર્તિ ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Darsana Upanishad (દર્શન ઉપનિષદ)
Dasasloki Upanishad (દશશ્લોકી ઉપનિષદ)
Dattātreya Upanishad (દત્તાત્રેય ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Dattatreya Uttaratapaniya Upanishad (દત્તાત્રેય ઉત્તરતપનીય ઉપનિષદ)
Devi Upanishad (દેવી ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Dhyanabindu Upanishad (ધ્યાનબિંદુ ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Dvaya Upanishad (દ્વય ઉપનિષદ)
Ekakshara Upanishad (એકાક્ષર ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Ganapati Upanishad (ગણપતિ ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Garbha Upanishad (ગર્ભ ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Garuda Upanishad (ગરુડ ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Gayatri Upanishad (ગાયત્રી ઉપનિષદ)
Gayatri Rahashya Upanishad (ગાયત્રી રહસ્ય ઉપનિષદ)
Gopala-tapini Upanishad (ગોપાલતપણિ ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Gopichandana Upanishad (ગોપીચંદન ઉપનિષદ)
Goraksha Upanishad (ગૌરક્ષા ઉપનિષદ)
Guhyakali Upanishad (ગુહ્યકાલિ ઉપનિષદ)
Hamsa Upanishad (હંસ ઉપનિષદ) *(Shukla YajurVeda)
Hayagriva Upanishad (હયગ્રીવ ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Heramba Upanishad (હિડંબા ઉપનિષદ)
Isavasya Upanishad (ઈશાવાસ્ય ઉપનિષદ) *(Shukla YajurVeda)
Jābāla-darshana Upanishad (જાબાલદર્શન ઉપનિષદ)
Jābāli Upanishad (જાબાલિ ઉપનિષદ) *(Sam Veda)
Jabala Upanishad (જાબાલ ઉપનિષદ) *(Shukla YajurVeda)
Kālāgni Rudra Upanishad (કાલાગ્નિ ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Kālikā Upanishad (કલિકા ઉપનિષદ)
Kālimedhādikshita Upanishad (કલિમેધાક્ષિતા ઉપનિષદ)
Kāmakala Upanishad (કામકલા ઉપનિષદ)
Kaivalya Upanishad (કૈવલ્ય ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Kalisantarana Upanishad (કલિસંતરણ ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Katharudra Upanishad (કઠરુદ્ર ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Kathasruti Upanishad (કઠશ્રુતિ ઉપનિષદ)
Kanthasruti Upanishad (કંઠશ્રુતિ ઉપનિષદ)
Katha Upanishad (કઠ ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Kathasikha Upanishad (કથાશિખા ઉપનિષદ)
Kathaka Siksha Upanishad (કથક શિક્ષા ઉપનિષદ)
Katyayana Upanishad (કાત્યાયન ઉપનિષદ)
Kaula Upanishad (કુલ ઉપનિષદ)
Kaushitaki Upanishad (કૌષીતાકિ ઉપનિષદ) * (Rig Veda)
Kausitaki Samhita Upanishad (કૌષીતાકિ સંહિતા ઉપનિષદ)
Kena Upanishad (કેન ઉપનિષદ) *(Sam Veda)
Krishna Upanishad (કૃષ્ણ ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Krishna Uttaratapani Upanishad (ક્રિષ્ણા ઉત્તરતપની ઉપનિષદ)
Kshurika Upanishad (ક્ષુરીક ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Kundika Upanishad (કુંડિક ઉપનિષદ) *(Sam Veda)
Laghujābāla Upanishad (લઘુજાબાલ ઉપનિષદ)
Linga Upanishad (લિંગ ઉપનિષદ)
Mandukya Upanishad (માંડુક્ય ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Mahā Upanishad (મહા ઉપનિષદ) *(Sam Veda)
Mahāchakrāvarana Upanishad (મહાચક્રવર્ણ ઉપનિષદ)
Maha-narayana Upanishad (મહાનારાયણ ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Maha-vakya Upanishad (મહાવાક્ય ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Maha-vakya Vivarana Upanishad (મહાવાક્ય વિવરણ ઉપનિષદ)
Maitrayani Upanishad (મૈત્રાયણી ઉપનિષદ) *(Sam Veda)
Maitreyi Upanishad (મૈત્રેયી ઉપનિષદ) *(Sam Veda)
Mandala-brāhmana Upanishad (મંડલબ્રાહ્મણ ઉપનિષદ) *(Shukla YajurVeda)
Mantra Upanishad (મંત્ર ઉપનિષદ)
Mantrika Upanishad (માંત્રિક ઉપનિષદ) *(Shukla YajurVeda)
Mudgala Upanishad (મુદ્ગલ ઉપનિષદ) *(Rig Veda)
Muktikā Upanishad (મૌક્તિક ઉપનિષદ) *(Shukla YajurVeda)
Mundaka Upanishad (મુંડક ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Nāda-bindu Upanishad (નાદબિંદુ ઉપનિષદ) *(Rig Veda)
Nārad-parivrājaka Upanishad (નારદપરિવ્રાજક ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Nārāyana Upanishad (નારાયણ ઉપનિષદ)
Nilarudra Upanishad (નીલરૂદ્ર ઉપનિષદ)
Nirālamba Upanishad (નીરાલંબ ઉપનિષદ) *(Shukla YajurVeda)
Nirukta Upanishad (નીરુક્ત ઉપનિષદ)
Nirvana Upanishad (નિર્વાણ ઉપનિષદ) *(Rig Veda)
Nrisimha-tapaniya Upanishad (નૃસિંહતાપની ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Pārāyana Upanishad (પારાયણ ઉપનિષદ)
Pancha-brahma Upanishad (પંચબ્રહ્મ ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Parabrahma Upanishad (પરબ્રહ્મ ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Parivrajaka Upanishad (પરિવ્રાજક ઉપનિષદ)
Paramahamsa Parivrājaka Upanishad (પરમહંસ પરિવ્રાજક ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Paramahamsa Upanishad (પરમહંસ ઉપનિષદ) *(Shukla YajurVeda)
Parama Upanishad (પરમ ઉપનિષદ)
Pasupata Brahman Upanishad (પાશુપત બ્રહ્મન ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Pingala Upanishad (પિંગલા ઉપનિષદ) *(Shukla YajurVeda)
Pitambara Upanishad (પિતાંબર ઉપનિષદ)
Pinda Upanishad (પિંડ ઉપનિષદ)
Pranagnihotra Upanishad (પ્રાણાગ્નિહોત્ર ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Pranava Upanishad (પ્રણવ ઉપનિષદ)
Prashna Upanishad (પ્રશ્ન ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Rama Upanishad (રામ ઉપનિષદ)
Ramarahasya Upanishad (રામરહસ્ય ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Ramatapini Upanishad (રામતાપણી ઉપનિષદ)
Rudra Upanishad (રુદ્ર ઉપનિષદ)
Rudrāksha Upanishad (રુદ્રાક્ષ ઉપનિષદ)
Rudrākshajabala Upanishad (રુદ્રાક્ષજબાલ ઉપનિષદ)
Rudra-hridaya Upanishad (રુદ્રહૃદય ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Sadānanda Upanishad (સદાનંદ ઉપનિષદ)
Sanyasa Upanishad (સંન્યાસ ઉપનિષદ) *(Sam Veda)
Sarasvati rahashya Upanishad (સરસ્વતીરહસ્ય ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Sarva-sāra Upanishad (સર્વસાર ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Saubhāgya-lakshmi Upanishad (સૌભાગ્યલક્ષ્મી ઉપનિષદ) * (Rig Veda)
Saunaka Upanishad (શૌનક ઉપનિષદ)
Savitri Upanishad (સાવિત્રી ઉપનિષદ) *(Sam Veda)
Shāktāyana Upanishad (શક્તાયન ઉપનિષદ)
Shāriraka Upanishad (શારીરક ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Shandilya Upanishad (શાંડિલ્ય ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Sharabha Upanishad (શરભ ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Shatachakra Upanishad (ષટ્ચક્ર ઉપનિષદ)
Shātyāyani Upanishad (શાત્યાયની ઉપનિષદ) *(Shukla YajurVeda)
Shrikrishna Purushottama Siddhanta Upanishad
Shiva Upanishad (શિવા ઉપનિષદ)
Shodha Upanishad (શોધ ઉપનિષદ)
Shrividyātāraka Upanishad (શ્રીવિદ્યાતારક ઉપનિષદ)
Shukharahasya Upanishad (સુખરહસ્ય ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Shyama Upanishad (શ્યામ ઉપનિષદ)
Siddhanta Upanishad (સિદ્ધાંત ઉપનિષદ)
Siddhanta Sāra Upanishad (સિદ્ધાંતસાર ઉપનિષદ)
Siddhanta Shikha Upanishad (સિદ્ધાંત શિખા ઉપનિષદ)
Sita Upanishad (સીતા ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Skanda Upanishad (સ્કંધ ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Subāla Upanishad (સુબાલ ઉપનિષદ) *(Shukla YajurVeda)
Sumukhi Upanishad (સુમુખી ઉપનિષદ)
Surya Upanishad (સૂર્ય ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Suvarnadharma Upanishad (સુવર્ણધર્મ ઉપનિષદ)
Svasamvedya Upanishad (સ્વસંવેદ ઉપનિષદ)
Svetāmrttika Upanishad (શ્વેતામૃત્તિકા ઉપનિષદ)
Svetasvatara Upanishad (શ્વેતાશ્વતર ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Tārāsāra Upanishad (તારાસાર ઉપનિષદ) *(Shukla YajurVeda)
Taittiriya Upanishad (તૈતેરીય ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Tejobindu Upanishad (તેજોબિંદુ ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Tripad-vibhuti Upanishad (ત્રિપદ્વિભૂતિ ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Trishikhi brāhmana Upanishad (ત્રિશિખીબ્રહ્મન ઉપનિષદ) *(Shukla YajurVeda)
Tripura Upanishad (ત્રિપુર ઉપનિષદ) * (Rig Veda)
Tripurāsundari Upanishad (ત્રિપુરાસુંદરી ઉપનિષદ)
Tripurā-tāpini Upanishad (ત્રિપુરાતાપનિ ઉપનિષદ) *(Atharva Veda)
Tulasi Upanishad (તુલસી ઉપનિષદ)
Turiyā Upanishad (તુરિય ઉપનિષદ)
Turiyātiita Upanishad (તુરિયાતીત ઉપનિષદ) *(Shukla YajurVeda)
Vajra-Suchika Upanishad (વજ્રસુચિકા ઉપનિષદ) *(Sam Veda)
Vanadurga Upanishad (વનદુર્ગા ઉપનિષદ)
Varāha Upanishad (વરાહ ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Vastusutra Upanishad (વાસ્તુસૂત્ર ઉપનિષદ)
Vasudeva Upanishad (વાસુદેવ ઉપનિષદ) *(Sam Veda)
Vishrāma Upanishad (વિશ્રામ ઉપનિષદ)
Vrddhajābāla Upanishad (વૃદ્ધજાબાલ ઉપનિષદ)
Yājnavalkya Upanishad (યાજ્ઞવલ્ક્ય ઉપનિષદ) *(Shukla YajurVeda)
Yajnopavita Upanishad (યજ્ઞોપવિત ઉપનિષદ)
Yoga-chudāmani Upanishad (યોગચૂડામણિ ઉપનિષદ) *(Sam Veda)
Yoga-kundalini Upanishad (યોગકુંડલિની ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Yoga-raja Upanishad (યોગરાજ ઉપનિષદ)
Yoga-sikha Upanishad (યોગશિખા ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)
Yoga-tattva Upanishad (યોગતત્વ ઉપનિષદ) *(Krishna YajurVeda)